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Gender and Smell Recognition
Words: 1851 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54073248
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Gender and Smell ecognition

There has been a significant amount of speculation about innate gender differences in thought, cognitive ability, and the relative strength of certain senses. One of area that has received some attention is the ability to smell. Anecdotal evidence suggests that women have a stronger ability to smell than men, as does significant prior research. This research study will examine the relative strength of the sense of smell of a group of men compared to a group of women. Each test group will consist of 20 subjects. The expectation is that the women, as a group, will have a statistically significant better sense of smell than the men. However, at the outset of this study, it must be noted that many factors other than gender are known to influence the sense of smell including overall health and age. This study did not control for those additional factors,…


Dalton, P., Doolittle, N., & Breslin, P. (2002). Gender-specific induction of enhanced sensitivity to odors. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 199-200.

Lehrner, J. (1993). Gender differences in long-term odor recognition memory: verbal vs. sensory influences and the consistency of label use. Chem. Senses, 18(1), 17-26.

Lenochova, P., & Havlicek, J. (2008). Human body odour individuality. Chemical Signals in Vertebrates, 11(3), 189-198. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-73945-8_18

McGivern, R., Mutter, K., Anderson, J., Wideman, G., Bodnar, M., & Huston, P. (1998).

Old Smoke the Case of Old Smoke
Words: 1152 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98848754
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Old Smoke

The case of "Old Smoke" presents workplace issues involving cigarette smoke, perfume and body odor. The employer is responsible for upholding law and company policy, as well as using common sense and tact to deal with possibly competing employee interests while continuing to effectively meet business requirements. Though laws and company policy sometimes assist in formulating solutions, employers are also charged with creative thinking to deal with some workplace issues uncovered by law and/or policy.

Explain how you would handle this situation if you were Charles Renfold

Charles Renfold has competing problems. Darlene Lambert is an employee entitled to a safe workplace, including freedom from second-hand smoke and the scent of old smoke. Simultaneously, Renfold has a pressing deadline for a report requiring Darlene's assistance with files located in a room that strongly smells of old smoke (Shaw, 2010, p. 339). Darlene rightfully refuses to work in that…

Works Cited

Shaw, W.H. (2010). Business ethics: A textbook with cases, 7th ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Winterbauer & Diamond P.L.L.C. (1998). Multiple chemical sensitivity and the ADA: Taking a clear picture of a blurry object. Retrieved on February 23, 2012 from Web site:

Hungary A as We Will
Words: 2714 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35412907
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On the other hand, as I have mentioned in the previous paragraphs, bribery is one of the many compromises you are faced with in life. As in other cases, one can refuse to comprise and remain an ethical person, but with the risk of facing other losses. eing able to compromise, in any aspect, will help you to solve some problems easier, but you will probably remain ethically troubled. As an evaluation, small compromises should be acceptable and, in my opinion, bribery is a comparatively small compromise that one agrees to make.

According to one of the many definitions, intellectual property is "any intangible asset that consists of human knowledge and ideas" or "any product of the human intellect that is unique, novel, and unobvious (and has some value in the marketplace)." This generally refers to anything our mind creates that is unique, ranging from inventions to ideas, from perfumes…


2. New Strategies for Property Rights: Gray Markets and the Net. On the Internet at 

3. Investorwords. On the Internet at 

4. Intellectual Properties. On the Internet at

Gender and Smell Recognition
Words: 2005 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 32789944
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Gender and Smell Recognition


It is common belief that women have a sharper sense of smell than men. However, there are separate studies suggesting that the sense is as strong in men as in women. Can women really identify smells better than men? Is women's sense of smell stronger in detecting certain types of scents, like cologne and perfume?

Feminine Smelling Ability Superior

Standard tests establish the superiority of women's smelling ability to that of men in terms of odor detection, discrimination and identification (SIRC, 2012). Women convincingly scored higher than men in these tests. A research said that this capability in females was shown in studied female newborns. ut other studies can refute this established finding. A separate study hinted that this feminine capability may be stronger to certain scents but not to others. Female sensitiveness to smell has been demonstrated to be 10,000 stronger to…


Bjorn, G. (2011). Olfaction differences between the sexes. Science and Technology:

The Daily Smell. Retrieved on April 26, 2012 from

Bhuta, M.F. (2007). Sex and the nose: human pheromonal responses. 100 (6) The

Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine: The Royal Society of Medicine. Retrieved on April 26, 2012 from

Internet and E-Technology and Its
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 90460948
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com. You are aske to briefly aress each of the following issues. Be sure to substantiate your answers with reliable sources. See Moule Six -- " Ethical Business Practices on the Web to assist in you with your answers.

a. Describe any customer concerns that may affect the use of a website to purchase customize cosmetics.

The greatest concern customers have is if they can trust the quality an valiity of the personalize care proucts they buy online. Trust is the overriing an most critical issue there is when purchasing personal care prouct online (Lalisan, Rubio, In conjunction with trust, many consumers want expert-level guiance when it comes to efining which ingreients to use on a cosmetic prouct (Groves, A customize cosmetics website must also convince customers that the unique prouction processes use to prouce their proucts is safe, secure an reliable. The aspect of prouct personalization an…

d. What are the main lessons entrepreneurs can learn from the Internet venture?

First, it is critically important to design the entire value chain of a business to meet and exceed customer requirements (Porter, Second, just concentrating on one aspect of the business that the consumers see, especially on a mass customization-based website, ignores the more important functional areas of managing one-off production and shipping in addition to customer data management (Gaffney, 1). Third, the demographics and psychographics of the customer base need to align with the purchasing process. In the case of, the ideal customer may be too busy with their job and life responsibilities to create designer make-up for himself or herself.

Question 3 in the summer of 2010 a company was formed to sell customized perfume online. The business targets primarily male gift givers and is designed to enable them to create a customized perfume based on the recipient's personality traits. They feel the business will be a huge success. The founder, Wendy Zhang has said, "This a one-of-a-kind gift. It will make the recipient feel special every time she puts it on. Because she will know that, it is perfectly formulated to accent her personality." In the future

Marketing Plan Marketing Management Beautiful -- Scented
Words: 897 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80372293
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Marketing Plan

Marketing management

"Beautiful!" -- Scented makeup by Estee Lauder

Scented makeup is not a new concept. Many little girls love wearing scented lipstick and gloss in the flavors of bubblegum and peanut butter and jelly. However, enjoying scented lipstick is often a delight female consumers forgo when they become adults, other than a guilty sniff of their daughter's Tinkerbell or Bonne Bell makeup drawer. This new product would enable adult consumers to have that same pleasure, only with high-quality Estee Lauder makeup. This product will also address an increased desire consumers have for 'customized' beauty products filled with a sense of youth and vigor (5 spring makeup color trends, 2011, efinery 29). As well as makeup that suits the user's skin tone, the selected scent of the makeup will also speak volumes about the wearer.

Although the economy still remains on shaky ground, demand for luxury products like…


5 spring makeup color trends. (2011).Refinery 29. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at 

Clifford, Stephanie. (2011). Even marked up, sales of luxury goods fly off the shelves.

The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at 

Estee Lauder. (2011). Official Website. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at /cms/looks_tips/index.tmpl-cm_mmc=MSN-_-TM-BRAND-EXACT-_-Category-LiveChat-_-Estee%20Lauder%20How%20To

Old Smoke Case Study Darlene
Words: 1536 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 22198313
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cannot control the urge, then the employee might consider seeking outside professional help with the addiction. Since a person's car is private property, however, it is unlikely that any non-smoking ban would extend to that area. However, the smoker would need to take steps to ensure that their clothing and work supplies did no retain the odor of smoke. In essence, other than in the privacy of one's own car and home, thus any place that one could potentially harm someone else with smoke, is legally favoring the non-smoker (Grensing-Pophal, 1999).


Co-Workers Can Sue Over Excessive Perfume in the Workplace. (28 August 2009). Godlike

Productions. etrieved from:

Indoor Air Quality in Hospitality Venues Before and After Implementation of a Clean Indoor Air

Law. (12 November 2004). Center for Disease Control -- MMW. etrieved from:

Negative Ions: More Scientific esearch. (2010). Comtech esearch. etrieved from:

Tobacco Facts,"…


Co-Workers Can Sue Over Excessive Perfume in the Workplace. (28 August 2009). Godlike

Productions. Retrieved from:

Indoor Air Quality in Hospitality Venues Before and After Implementation of a Clean Indoor Air

Law. (12 November 2004). Center for Disease Control -- MMWR. Retrieved from:

Close Reading of Look at Your Fish
Words: 1258 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12165702
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Close eading of "Look at Your Fish"

Samuel H. Scudder composed "Look at Your Fish" in 1874. The piece is a narrative and anecdote of Scudder's first encounter with Jean Louis odolphe Agassiz. Agassiz, at the time of their meeting, was an accomplished zoologist working at the Harvard University Lawrence Scientific School. Scudder was an entomologist who studied under and was mentored by Agassiz during his time at Harvard. "Look at Your Fish" is Scudder's recollection of his first day in Professor Agassiz's course and the first class exercise in which Professor Agassiz assigned to the class. "Look at Your Fish" is told in a chronological, linear fashion. There are a few groups for whom this piece is the intended audience. One audience could be college students; another group could be professors at the undergraduate and graduate levels. This piece would also be relevant to any teacher or anyone serving…


Scudder, Samuel. "Look at Your Fish." Available from: . 2012 July 14.

William Shakespeare Uses Irony Imagery
Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29658235
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This suspicion becomes even more ironically clear as we read further. As we progress with the analysis of the protagonist's description of his love we find even more apparently negative comparisons. For example, he states that that in comparison to perfumes his "mistress reeks" and that music has a much more "pleasing sound" than her voice. He also states that she is no goddess in the lines,

I grant I never saw a goddess go;

My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground

However in the final couplet of the sonnet there is a dramatic change of tone and a radical change in our perception of the loved one. The final two lines read as follows.

And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare

As any she belied with false compare.

These two lines should be carefully considered as they ironically overturn the meaning and intention of…

Market Driven Management
Words: 25695 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32150042
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Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.

It is the intention of this…


Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.

Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: 

Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.

Estee Lauder Inc New Promotional Campaign
Words: 2978 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7595446
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Estee Lauder Inc.- New Promotion Campaign

The Estee Lauder Companies Inc. is considered as one of the leading manufacturers in the world of products including hair care, quality skin care, fragrance and make-up. The company is also considered as one of the world's leading marketers of these products. In this paper we have looked at their products with a totally new perspective and decided how their products would achieve higher brand shares if promoted today. The paper deals with a set of recommendations on proposed advertising for the leaders in Cosmetics -- Estee Lauder Inc. We have first reviewed the company and its products. Then we have looked at the different market segments it appeals to. Then we have chosen a few segments where we feel a change in strategy may help the products to achieve greater market shares.

The company was fist founded…


Gerson, Roselyn; Gerson, Alvin. "The Estee Lauder Solid Perfume Compact Collection 1967-2001" Collector Books; (January 2002)  http://www.time/time/time100/builder/profile/lauder.html


Elizabeth Arden the Founder Florence
Words: 2532 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74300486
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Flo retaliated by acquiring Harry Johnson and 11 other employees who then worked for Helena. When Helena opened a salon in New York, Arden opened a counterpart elsewhere. Parallelisms appeared to occur between them in that they both entered the men's skin care industry at roughly the same time. They also both married exiled princes after their first marriages ended in divorce.

Flo or Arden also lost half a million dollars in sales in the first two years since her divorce with Tommy, but being inherently innovative, she managed the crisis, recovered and proceeded to lead the industry. Records bear these out. While many businesses flopped during the Great Depression, Elizabeth Arden not only stayed and spent. It also bought an office building and a penthouse in New York during the stock market crash of 1929 and opened several other salons in the 30s.

Elizabeth Arden demonstrated an unwavering commitment…


Colbert, C. (2004). Elizabeth Arden, Inc. Hoover's Online: Hoover's, Inc.

Consumer Relations. (2000).Elizabeth Arden, Inc.

DPA Fragrance Wholesale. (2004). Some History and Background on Elizabeth Arden. CFL Inc. 

Kent, J. (2004). Entrepreneur for the Young and Beautiful. Business Builder in Cosmetics: Oliver Press, Inc.

Comparing Two Advertisements
Words: 1633 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70094127
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Advertisements for the Same Product

Advertisement is basically a one-way communication means that is geared towards informing probable customers regarding a product and/or service and how and where to find the product and/or service. Advertisements usually contain a persuasive message through an identified sponsor. The purpose of the identified sponsor is non-personal promotion of a company's products and/or services to probable customers. In most cases, medium and large companies use advertisements to promote their products and/or services while focusing on creating assumption among customers that will lead to purchase. While companies use advertisements to market their product and/or services, advertisements of the same product may vary depending on various factors. This difference is characterized by varying language, images, and sounds that focus on making the product desirable and appealing.

Considerations When Designing Advertisements

Generally, big companies or businesses utilize advertisements in attempts to reach markets and target audience through product…

Emperor of Scent A Story
Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 16658538
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If I were organizing a conference on the theory of smell, I would certainly include Luca Turin as one of the invited lecturers! He is charming, irreverent, and an expert and his lecture would certainly entertain and enlighten the audience. He unearthed a new theory of smell; not to include him would be a disservice to anyone attending the conference. Of course, he would cause a reaction, because he is strong and opinionated. He says, "When I wrote the perfume guide, most of my readers were gay men, and most of my acquaintances assumed I was gay, which I'm not, not that I give a damn. eal men don't smell things. It's a female thing" (Burr 12). That would make him an even more compelling choice for the conference. He would generate interest, some controversy, and entertain at the same time.

I think I would recommend this book to anyone…


Burr, Chandler. The Emperor of Scent: A Story of Perfume, Obsession, and the Last Mystery of the Senses. New York: Random House, 2002.

Flare Marketing Challenges and Solutions for Flare
Words: 1798 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 85603191
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Flare Marketing

Marketing Challenges and Solutions for Flare Fragrance

Marketing Challenge

Flare Fragrance faces a multitude of challenges at the time of the case study, with the uncertainty of the economic situation not only leading to a real and already-present drop in growth rates and new sales but also making it difficult to select and promote a strategy for future growth, and with intense competition and proliferation in the industry creating further complications and challenges. Selecting appropriate demographics for future sales growth, determining how to most effectively select and implement a channel strategy, and a variety of other specific operational and strategic concerns exist for Flare and its executives and managers, and how these challenges are met will determine how successful the company will be in the coming years. Though many of these challenges are not marketing challenges in and of themselves in any direct sense, they all affect the…


Armstrong, G. & Kotler, P. (2010). Marketing: An Introduction. Accessed 29 July 2012. New York: Prentice Hall.

Bombourg, N. (2012). Global fragrances and perfume industry. Accessed 29 July 2012. 

Burr, C. (2009). Perfumers breathe in sales data, and strategize. Accessed 29 July 2012. 

GIA. (2011). Global Fragrances and Perfumes Market to Cross U.S.$33 Billion by 2015, According to New Report by Global Industry Analysts, Inc. Accessed 29 July 2012.

Products What Were the Hypotheses
Words: 567 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92275047
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What were the dependent variables in this experiment?

The dependent variable was the subject's choice of product, based upon package appearance.

How were the dependent variables operationalized?

The identical product was packaged in differently-appearing containers.

Did the results support the stated hypothesis?

The results did find that higher self-monitors were more influenced by package appearance while low self-monitors cared more about quality.


What were the independent variables in this experiment?

The container styles of two different perfumes in a type of container, and the quality of the perfume.

What were the quasi-independent variables in this experiment?

The perfume bottles' relative 'attractiveness' and scent although quantified, is still somewhat subjective and dependent upon another experiment outside of the controlled environment of the study.

What were the dependent variables in this experiment?

The choice of the subjects for either the better-smelling perfume in the less attractive bottle vs. The less attractively…

Coco Channel
Words: 2803 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8834011
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CO Chanel

Today, the term "designer" is too often associated with people who churn out clothing lines every season. In this sense, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel stands as a breed apart. Fashion analysts today attribute the birth of modern fashion to Coco Chanel. She is viewed as a woman and an artist ahead of her time. Her clothing influenced not only the way women dress, but the way women define femininity. In this sense, Chanel is very much a part of the modern artistic movement, along with the likes of Pablo Picasso and Jean Cocteau.

This paper examines the many facets of Coco Chanel's artistry. The first part of the paper looks at Chanel as a product of her social environment, discussing the factors that have contributed to the evolution of Chanel's style and clothing designs. The next part then looks at Chanel's designs and choice of fabrics. Chanel never defined…


Dunn, Jennifer. "Coco Chanel and Fashion." Transcription Topics. 20 December 1999. University of California at Santa Barbara. 13 March 2004

This website offers a complete and insightful account of Coco Chanel's designs. The first section provides a good resource not only regarding the "look" of Chanel's designs. In addition, this website is useful for identifying how Chanel's "look" evolved in relation to prevailing social norms. The sections on the role both World Wars played in changing the social roles of women were especially illuminating. While many Internet sites on Coco Chanel focus on the designs, Dunn's scholarly approach teases out how designs such as the "working uniform" and the "Chanel suit" both reflect social trends and open new opportunities for working women.

Madsen, Axel. Chanel: A Woman of Her Own. New York: Henry Hold and Company, Inc.

It is well-known that many of the stories regarding Coco Chanel's past are just fabrications. Many were in fact spread by Chanel herself. Considering this, Madsen does a remarkable job of presenting a thorough biography of one of the 20th century's most innovative women. Madsen's work, however, shows some weaknesses. He often underestimates, for example, the importance of the class system and social cachet in early 20th century Europe. This leads him to wonder why associations with royalty and powerful men were important to a modern woman like Coco Chanel. Despite this, his work is an interesting account of how Chanel managed to rise to the top of the fashion industry. The illustrations and Madsen's novelistic style of writing make this book both entertaining and informative.

Regional Star to Global Leader Global and
Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 18246296
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Regional Star to Global Leader

Global and Intercultural Competencies of Yang Jianguo

Using the information case study from regional star to global analyze the global competencies and intercultural competencies of Yung Jianguo. What are his strength and weakness?

Yang Jianguo possesses some of the most important and competent skills having been promoted from a regional to a global leader. Getting an appointment to this position demands great qualities that only a few educated and well-experienced persons can possess. This man had certain cultural and global competencies that enabled him to be among the best people. For instance, he is very innovative and can form ideas and opinions that can take a business so many milestones. His critical analysis of situations and business environment makes him capable of tackling global issues that may seem a bit complex. His ability to apply these skills competently made him one of the best global…


Adler, N.J., & Gundersen, A. 2008. International dimensions of organizational behavior. Mason, Ohio, Thomson/South-Western.

Doh, J., & Stumpf, S. 2009. Handbook on Responsible Leadership and Governance in Global Business. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Pub.

McCall, M.W., & Hollenbeck, G.P. 2010. Developing global executives the lessons of international experience. Boston, Harvard Business School Press.

Mobley, W.H., Wang, Y. & Li, W. 2008, Advances in Global Leadership. London: Emerald Group Publishing

Analysis of Six Themes in Entrepreneurship
Words: 5055 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19336524
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The company selected is Dar Almanthour for Fragrance. The company was established in the year 2000 by the owner, Mr. Therar AlTararwa. The key products retailed by the company comprise of Bakhour, perfumes, scents, perfume oil and designed boxes for formal events. It started off with his friend at work wanting to sell his own made up fragrance and offered Mr. Therar AlTararwa to sell these fragrances to his family and when he did Mr. Al Tararwa saw an opportunity that selling these fragrances made money and so he wanted to get in the game he bought dozens of fragrances from his friend and made a guy sell them and he had his percentage of the sales. So then and there, Mr. Al Tararwa saw an opportunity and offered his friend money to sell him the mixture ingredients of the fragrance so he can open up a fragrance…

Marketing and Media Strategy the
Words: 1024 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17190366
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as, many of these ads will often have the picture of: the fragrance with a celebrity or model. While at the same time, they will have a sample that can be opened and smelled. This is important, because these two different tactics can create positive perceptions about the product in the minds of consumers.

You can then use newspapers and television advertising, to continue exposing the individual to the product itself. Where, the different forms of mediums will give them constant positive images of the merchandise and what it is about. This would be augmented with: an effective internet and radio campaign. Once this occurs, it will help to expose the core target audience to: the benefits of the product and how good it will make them feel. This is the point that you can create some kind change in the way consumers are: perceiving the product and the emotions…


"Advertising Media Planning: A Primer." Ad Media, 2007. Web. 05 May 2011. < / >.

"Does a Perfume Ad Work."Beauty and the Bath, 2011. Web. 05 May 2011.

"Media Planning." Valued Articles, 2009. Web. 05 May 2011. .

Aromatherapy in Addiction Treatment for
Words: 5849 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23652968
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S ome aromas even affect us physiologically" (p. 38). esearchers exploring human olfaction have determined that:

faint trace of lemon significantly increases people's perception of their own health.

Lavender incense contributes to a pleasant mood -- but it lowers volunteers' mathematical abilities.

A whiff of lavender and eucalyptus increases people's respiratory rate and alertness.

The scent of phenethyl alcohol (a constituent of rose oil) reduces blood pressure.

These findings have contributed to the explosive growth in the aromatherapy industry; according to Furlow (1996), "Aromatherapists point to scientific findings that smell can dramatically affect our moods as evidence that therapy with aromatic oils can help buyers manage their emotional lives" (p. 38). According to Ornstein and Sobel, one recent experiment to determine the effect, if any, of fragrances on mind/body involved subjects being wired to physiological monitoring equipment, and then being interrogated with stress-provoking questions, such as "What kind of person…


Anderson, B.J., Manheimer, E. & Stein, M.D. (2003). Use and Assessment of Complementary and Alternative Therapies by Intravenous Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(2), 401.

Aromatherapy Therapy Chart of Essential Oils by Therapeutic Effect. (2004). MoonDragon's Aromatherapy Chart. Available: .

Ba, T.R.D.N. (Ed). (2003). An Introduction to Complementary Medicine. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin.

Battista, J.R., Chinen, A.B. & Scotton, B.W. (1996). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology.

Product Mix
Words: 1624 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 60376336
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Product Mix: Old Spice

Old Spice is a line of products that meet personal needs of people, providing varied services. Initial Old Spice products were for women, and they had the brand name of Early Old Spice. The product came into the market in the year 1937, with an extension occurring in 1938 that introduced Old Spice for men. The products of Old Spice initially were after shave lotions, shaving soaps, deodorants and perfumes, which later incorporated other products such as soaps, detergents among others. This product creates a presentable opportunity to understand the development of products, growing from simple one line production of product to a mixed product line of production. The products in the Old Spice mix are for fragrances, skin care and antiperspirant and deodorant products.

The Old Spice brand is a company of its own, from the time of establishment. Initially, the product production belonged to…

Works cited

Hoffmann, Stefanie. Are the 4 P's of International Marketing of Equal Importance to All Firms?

What Factors Might Cause Some to More or Less Important Than Others?: A Short

Article. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH, 2008. Internet resource.

Tocquigny, Rick, and Andy Butcher. When Core Values Are Strategic: How the Basic Values of Procter & Gamble Transformed Leadership at Fortune 500 Companies. Upper Saddle

U S Versus EU Trademarks in
Words: 4278 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 11561885
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e., the ability to read music) or color marks (access to and familiarity with the Pantone chart)." (Matheson, 2003)

There is a question regarding 'scent depletion' as noted in the work of Matheson who states: "The overall number of scents of a favorable character which are intelligible to the majority of the public through a straightforward written description and suitable for product identification are, presumably, rather limited. According to this theory, the registration and/or protection of specific scents should be prohibited to avoid depletion of the supply of scents available for use by others." (2003) This same argument is one that has been reviewed and recently dismissed by the Supreme Court "...relative to color marks as relying upon an occasional problem to justify a blanket prohibition." (Matheson, 2003)

Matheson believes that this concerns will hold more sway in the context of olfactory marks because "...Pending the adoption of a widely…


Benson, Smell registrable as trade mark?, note 5 above, p. 65; Essl, Reg. v. Geruchsmarken, note 1 above, p. 52; Sessinghaus, Graphische Darstellbarkeit von Geruchsmarken, note 10 above, p. 651; Turner-Kerr, Peter M., Trade Marks: Application to the OHIM for registration of an olfactory mark - Case Comment," E.I.P.R. 2001 (hereinafter "Turner-Kerr, OHIM-registration of olfactory mark"), p. N19. In Schaal (2003)

Bhagwan, a*****ha, Kulkarni, Namita and Ramanujam, Padmanabha, Economic Rationale for Extending Protection to Smell Marks (October 2007). Available at SSRN: , Catherine Seville, "Trademark Law: The Community's thinking widens and deepens," 53 ICLQ 1013

Bruce Clarke and Steve Kapnoullas, "The New Forms of Registrable Marks: Market Uptake in the first five years," Deakin L. Rev 2001 (6) 70

Matheson, Julia Anne (2003) the Sweet Smell of a Successful Registration. Intellectual Property Counselor May 2003. Finnegan. Online available at

Country of Origin Effect on
Words: 6167 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 86751866
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With this in mind communications strategy has to be developed and implemented. The central debate remains that of degree of uniformity. The pros and cons are obvious, i.e. economies of scale, consistent message across markets, centralized control, different market characteristics, media availability and costs and government regulations (alabanis & Diamantopoulos, 2011). The stronger argument appears to be that different strategy appears to work in different situations, rather than a totally standardized campaign. Once these geographical issues are decided upon then the scope of the campaign, objectives and elements of strategy can be worked on. If the organization develops a message for one market and then transposes this intact into others or if it develops a message with a number of markets in mind from the start, it may be centrally conceived in both cases (Han, 2009; Wills & Ryans, 1977).

This is popular because of co-ordination and control providing the…


Ahmed, S.A., a. d'Atrous and M.E. Adraoui. 1994. 'Country-of-Origin Effects on Purchasing Managers Product Perceptions.' Industrial Marketing Management 23 (July): 323-332.

Keller, Kevin Lane. 1993. Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57, No. 1. pp. 1-22

Shirin, Khosrozadeh; Kambiz, Heidarzadeh Hanzaee. 2011. The Effect of the Country-of-Origin Image, Product Knowledge and Product Involvement on Consumer Purchase Decisions. Chinese Business Review, August Vol. 10, No. 8, 601-615

Bailey, W. And S.A. Gutierrez de Pineres. 2007. 'Country of Origin Attitudes in Mexico: The Malinchismo Effect.' Journal of International Consumer Marketing 9 (3): 25-41.

Marketing Industry Introduces People to the Belief
Words: 1369 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38034725
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marketing industry introduces people to the belief that they need to acquire a specific product because of this or that benefit. As a result of the marketing campaign, people may start developing a feeling of want, allowing themselves to be convinced that the product in question is imperious for their well being. It is through these strategic techniques that people's perceptions are influenced. And it is because of such strategies that, more than in one occasion, people end up purchasing products they don't really need. However, in certain circumstances, it just so happens that an advertisement meets people's needs and, as a result, the circumstances have created relevant opportunities. In this essay, the key words are need, want, and opportunities which we will be addressing in terms of concepts and strategies. We will provide specific examples to substantiate our research.

Consumer behavior is dependent of a multitude of factors that,…

Puma Sneakers Inc Puma Markets Sneakers Targeting
Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43545143
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Puma Sneakers Inc.

Puma markets sneakers targeting a market segment aged 15-30. I have chosen this target segment because it is the age where an individual is active and sporty. This applies to both male and female as the company offers a wide range of male and female sports clothing, a perfume line and shoe-wear. With differentiation, the company's focal point has taken numerous forms. Evidently, the needs of the target market have been addressed through alert attention. Puma's global Sneakers and lifestyle aims to capture approximately thirty percent of the organized retail sportswear market. This will be achieved through additional stores across the country (Pride & Ferrell, 2013).

The main customer base for Puma's sneakers are the company's primary target market predominantly females. The products are best standing based on their brand categories and premium pricing. This market is customer oriented and not demand oriented. Instead of fulfilling needs,…


Lamb, C.W. (2012). Marketing. Toronto: Nelson Education.

Pride, W.M., & Ferrell, O.C. (2013). Foundations of marketing. Australia: Southwestern, Cengage Learning.

Weele, A.J. (2006). Purchasing & supply chain management: Analysis, strategy, planning and practice. London: Thomson Learning.

Accusition of LVMH
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Acquisition of LVMH

LVMH (Moet-Hennesy Lousi Vuitto

A business plan is vital when planning on acquiring a company. The business has to prove that it can withstand the competition in the market and whether it can attract clients, key employees and other relations. The company background must be well scrutinized showing all the balance sheets to confirm how it has been performing. The company's projection must all be noted before acquiring this company. LVMH has a unique method of supplying its own products.

This is a company that has been in the market long enough and has survived the economic crisis. Since its merger in 1987, this company has only shown growth while adding new products to its markets all the time. The profit margins are great with an excellent working team. The SWOT analysis shows an increase in sales by the year. The supplies have met the demand which…

Maison LANVIN Company Analysis
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Maison LANVIN 2016 Company Analysis

Company Description

Lanvin is A French multinational company specializing in high fashion. Established in 1889, the company is presently more than 125 years old. At present, Lanvin is a reference to French fashion, Luxury, accessories and perfumes. Since its establishment, the company registered office remains the same at Faubourg in Paris. Jeanne Lanvin is renowned for her talents, and through her innovative talents, the company has become known for refinement, elegance and luxury globally. Start as a milliner, and later sell to Paris's upper class, the company has built its name as a top company that designs ultra-feminine clothing marked with elaborate trimming that includes beading, embroidery, beading, and fragrances. Despite the success of Lanvin House, the company experienced a decline in sales towards the end of 20th century.

In 2001, Lanvin found a critical and financial success with the help of designer Alber Elbaz…

Ethical Appeal Pathetic Appeal Logical
Words: 805 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86479618
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But it showcases different voices and images of real people who are 'racing for the cure,' or racing to raise money to fund breast cancer research. The primary appeal of the advertisement is an ethical one, namely the need to devote more funding to breast cancer research, and to encourage the viewer to honor the survivors who run in the Komen race. The implication is that if real people suffer breast cancer, and real people are fighting for a cure, the viewer has an ethical responsibility to either donate to the Komen foundation, or even run him or herself in the race.

The Dubarry advertisement, the alph Lauren advertisement, and the public service commercial promoting the Susan J. Komen ace for the Cure, all use emotional appeals to some extent: in fact, someone might protest that all of these advertisements might be classified as using 'pathos' in their persuasive strategy.…


Dubarry. (2010, January 10). Equus. p.14. Retrieved January 31, 2010 

Ralph Lauren Classic Beauty advertisement. Reprinted January 31, 2010 at

Susan J. Komen Race for the Cure Commercial. (2009, October 25). You Tube.

Product Decisions Pricing Strategies and
Words: 1532 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 64310674
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The ability to create a makeup palate that is suited to the consumer's specific beauty needs, to create a unique image of beauty that is healthy and an enhancement of one's natural beauty should be the focus of a redesigned Avon site.


Avon is a classic product in the United States -- someone in 'your' family may have sold Avon, long ago. Although door-to-door sales is no longer lucrative, and unlikely to be accepted in China for higher-end goods, selling the midpriced Avon in Chinese department stores is an ideal way to create a humanized brand image for Avon and to capitalize upon the mania for customization and goods tailored to 'your needs.' This is one way to use American individualism yet give it a Chinese spin by stressing the need for make up to suit one's skin tone and enhance but not alter one's appearance. The company website…

Works Cited

Avon brands. (2009). Avon. Website. Retrieved August 15, 2009 at 

Avon China. (2009). Avon Website. Retrieved August 15, 2009 at 

Avon product history. (2009). essortment. Retrieved August 15, 2009 at

Changing Chinese buying habits. (2008, February 20). Export News. Retrieved August 15, 2009

Business Fashion Knockoffs Perils and
Words: 2829 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70879855
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In this manner, a chain of custody could be established. if, say, Aldo's product had suddenly jumped from one step of the process to another, it might indicate that Aldo had not gone through the usual channels; had possibly stolen the idea, or copied it to a significant degree from Alexander McQueen. In either case, the designer could protect himself or herself by following the customary procedures of their marketplace.

Can Knockoffs Be Stopped?

ith so many ways to counterfeit designer fashion items like clothing, shoes, and handbags, and so few laws to prevent the actual production of pirated merchandise, stopping knockoffs would seem to be an almost impossible task. Nevertheless, knockoffs can be controlled if designers, retailers, and government authorities remain vigilant. As noted by American designers, merchandising is the key to the American design process. It is also the key to controlling the flow of counterfeit goods. hile…

Works Cited

Brenner, Susan W., and Anthony C. Crescenzi. "State-Sponsored Crime: The Futility of the Economic Espionage Act." Houston Journal of International Law 28, no. 2 (2006): 389+.

Congress Considers Fashion's Copyrights." The Washington Times, 28 July 2006, C10.

Delener, Nejdet. "International Counterfeit Marketing: Success without Risk." Review of Business 21, no. 1 (2000): 16.

Regional Narrative Ideas &Bull a
Words: 2119 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47164461
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After she got cleaned up and put down her bag, they went out to eat at a diner. Lexi wanted to order the beef that tasted of home, but Grandma and Pop-Pop said that would be too much for a little girl and ordered her chicken fingers instead. "Every kid likes chicken fingers," they said. Lexi hated chicken, and she also hated the Jell-O that came with her kid's meal. Her grandparents ordered from a menu called 'Early Bird Special.'

Lexi found riding around in the car after the long plane ride from Texas really boring, but she didn't say anything. That was Lexi's usual technique, to say nothing. Her dad called her the strong and silent type.

"What do you do all day in the middle of nowhere?" said her grandmother. Lexi imagined herself on a map labeled 'nowhere.' She knew what her grandmother meant, and kind of felt…

Mondragon Cooperative Corporation's Basic Principles Four Main
Words: 3089 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30189219
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Mondragon Cooperative Corporation's Basic Principles. Four main factors stand out: 1) the Mondragon Cooperative Corporation's rapidly advancing concept of Work Environment, in accordance with Finance, 2) reasons people change and the nemesis which causes the ever-growing sense of improvement (perceived as advancement) in Retail, 3) Benefits of Autonomy and elf-Reliance in Industry, and 4) the self-determination from which all knowledge is based.

By all means, knowledge poses as the central theme by which these other elements find nourishment; without knowledge, a vital sense of comprehensive awareness, that on-top-of-it characteristic paramount to Mondragon would not exist as it stands.

Work Environment

The move from a mechanized and industrialized culture to a digital society has fundamentally modified what we consider these key-phrases: occupation, employment, profession, career, assignment, and vocation. What's nice, of course, is that advancement and promotional encouragement is much more easily attainable, and will continue to increase as the world's…

Sturr, Chris. Steelworkers Form Collaboration with MONDRAGON, the World's Largest Worker-Owned Cooperative (27 October 2009). Dollars and sense real world economics. Web. 8 April 2011.

Finez, Javier. "Virtual Teams and Creativity in the Mondragon Cooperative Corporation" (2007). Higher Creativity for Virtual Teams: Developing Platforms for Co-Creation. IGI Global. Web. 2011.

Kasmir, Sharryn. The Myth of Mondragon: Cooperatives, Politics, and Working-Class Life in a Basque Town (1996). State University of New York. New York Press.

Iman Adibazad Strategic Planning & Implementation Str 581
Words: 1476 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28145561
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Iman Adibazad

Strategic Planning & Implementation


Mahesh Singh, MBA, PMP

Week 5-Implementation, Strategic Controls, and Contingency Plans

Cosmetics, toiletries and perfumes are an important of everyone's daily life, from use of deodorant and shampoo to make-up, skin care products and fine fragrances. Personal hygiene and beauty products are considered essentials today as are the use of products such as sunscreens and decay-fighting toothpaste.

One strategy for Oprah company, to which the management of the company looking for is internalization or extending its market. Following this decision company can export raw materials and beauty products outside of the U.S.

Strategic Management

Cosmetics and cosmetic raw materials produced for export outside the U.S. must meet the requirements imposed by each country in which they will be sold. When a product is to be sold in several countries, the most stringent requirements must be met. Therefore, products sold in foreign countries in…


Bell, D. (1973). The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A venture in Social Forecasting. New York. Basic Books. 173-174. Retrieved August 15, 2005 from .

Bennis, W., Peters, T., & Addison, W. (1993). An Invented Life: Reflections on Leadership and Change. Reading: Perseus Publishing. 88.

Lawrence, P.R., & Lorsch, J.W. (1967). Organizations and Environment. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. 157.

M. Lorenzen. (2006). Strategic Planning for Academic Library. Illinois Pugh, D.S. (1968). The Dimensions of Organizational Structure. Administrative Science Quarterly, No. 18, 65-105.

Life and Works of Edward Taylor
Words: 2811 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71508686
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Edward Taylor


Private Life


Purpose of orks

Intended audience

Central goal of writings

riting Style

Early works

Comparison between writings in England and America

Comparison to other authors

Personal Style

Use of Imagery

Major Themes

Major orks

Preparatory Meditations

God's Determinations

Other works

Taylor's orks Compared

The Life and orks of Edward Taylor

No study of Puritan literature would be complete without the works of the man often called the best Puritan writer of them all, Edward Taylor. Except for a brief few, the works of this great Puritan author remained unpublished during his lifetime. In 1939, they were discovered by Thomas H. Johnson at Yale, and have since become a valued and praised addition to the other works from the Puritan era. So important are these works that the Norton editors refer to them as "one of the major literary discoveries of the twentieth century" (Rowe). These…

Works Cited

Doepke, Dale. "Suggestion for Reading Edward Taylor's "The Preface." Early American Literature V.3 (1970): 80-82.

Grabo, Norman S. Edward Taylor. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1962.

Schuldiner, Michael. "Edward Taylor's "Problematic" Imagery." Early American Literature 13.1 (1978): 92-101.

Rowe, Karen. Edward Taylor (1642? -- 1729). Online. Georgetown University. Internet. 11 February 2002. Available .

Culture and Media Works Sexual
Words: 4795 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89521290
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Similarly, women today feel the need to appear beautiful and perfect all the time in order to be a part of a class in society. According to what Kilbourne suggests, women use their bodies as masks or objects that need to be taken care of all the time and kept in perfect shape and condition. The media and the advertisements program their minds to think that their appearance is not perfect and they need to change themselves in a particular manner (Kilbourne, 2002).

One of the main roles that media has played in this subject is to make an individual perceive themselves from the eyes of others and to take it as a responsibility to be appealing to the eyes of the audience instead of what they themselves want to do. Advertisements today sell the bodies of women, not in the literal sense but metaphorically speaking, all advertisements have women…


Dahlberg, J. (2008). Sexual Objectification of Women in Advertising. Journal of Advertising Research .

Galician, M. (2004). Sex, Love and Romance in the Media: Analysis and criticism of the unrealistic portrayal of women in mass media. Lawrence Elbaum Associates.

Gammel, I. (1999). Confessional politics: Women's self representations in life writing and popular media. Southern Illinios University Press.

Hall, a.C. (1998). Delights, Desires and Dilemmas: Essays on Women and the Media. Praeger Publications.

Fragrance Industry
Words: 1591 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30237257
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Fragrance Industry

Business Environment of Fragrance Industry

Fragrance industry is suffering from the ruinous competition of foreign rivals who apparently are flooding the domestic market at an incredibly low price. The French industry, which once was considered at the pinnacle of the fragrance market, is loosing market from Asian competitors. Moreover, there has been a slow growth in revenue of large fragrance companies due to the mass marketing of fragrance sales from small competitors. The sluggish growth rates in the home fragrance market are due to a combination of factors. First, the fragrance industry is facing several major industry shifts that are causing changes on the bottom line. Faced with the challenges of low revenue and intense competition, innovative companies are looking to enterprise sourcing to both speed up time-to-market on new products and drive down ongoing supply costs (Chemical and engineering news, 2003).

Consumers today are making value-based decisions…


1. Flavor And Fragrance Industry Faces Wide-Ranging Challenges. Chemical and engineering news, 2003 vol: 81 iss: 28-page: 56

2. Guner, Osman F.. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, History and Evolution of the Pharmacophore Concept in Computer-Aided Drug Design, Dec2002, Vol. 2 Issue 12, p1321-1333.

3. Baron, Robert A. A whiff of realit. Environment & Behavior, Nov 1994, Vol. 26 Issue 6, p766-775.

Coy Mistress by Andrew Marvell
Words: 1086 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62590508
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This darkness is the poem is the suggestion of death, which Eliot's character contemplates throughout the poem. In fact, the last lines of the poem refer to death. Eliot writes, "We have lingered in the chambers of the sea / By sea-girls wreathed with seaweed red and brown / Till human voices wake us, and we drown" (Eliot). Eliot's character knows his life is ending, and love and courtship are far behind him. Marvell's character also contemplates death. Marvell writes, "Time's winged chariot hurrying near; / And yonder all before us lie / Deserts of vast eternity. / Thy beauty shall no more be found, / Nor, in thy marble vault, shall sound / My echoing song: then worms shall try / That long preserved virginity, / And your quaint honour turn to dust, / And into ashes all my lust: / The grave's a fine and private place, /…


Eliot, T.S. "The Love Song of Alfred J. Prufrock." 2005. 8 Aug. 2003. 

Marvell, Andrew. "To His Coy Mistress." 2005. 8 Aug. 2003

Adapted Lessons
Words: 745 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95485741
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Lesson Steps

Adapted from

Materials needed: an interesting photograph, a musical instrument, a piece of sandpaper, a soft piece of material, perfume, a piece of candy for each child, enough copies of the five senses handout for each child (, Brave Little Monster Book by Ken Baker.

This lesson plan helps children to explore each of the five senses and to label them correctly.

The teacher will pick up each object and explain how it helps with each of the five senses. The teacher will explain how each of the senses works to tell us something about our world. For instance, the sense of sight tells us about everything that they see, give examples. The sense of hearing helps us to distinguish sounds such as music such as whispering, singing and laughing. Touch helps us to determine how things feel, including when something is wrong like pain, heat…


Ken Baker Books (2012). Five Senses Lesson Plan. Retrieved August 4, 2012 from 

Healthedpartners. (2012). S.M.A.R.T. Behavior Change Outcome Objectives. Retrieved August


Paso Partners. (2012) The Five Senses -- Lesson 1: The Five Senses. Retrieved August 4, 2012 from

LVMH Apart Recessions Come and Recessions Go
Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50261491
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LVMH Apart

Recessions come and recessions go, but luxury never goes completely out of style, even if sales were subdued in the early 2000's. Some individuals with deep pockets and high ambitions are always willing to spend prodigiously on common items like handbags and watches, provided they get what they want in return: quality, fashion and the envy of their friends. While the past couple of years have been difficult for the luxury category as a whole, LVMH has managed to distinguish itself from its competitors. It posted a 30% jump in profits in 2003 while the company's stock has risen 50% in the past 12 months. This tremendous rate of growth can be explained through brand protection and limiting underperforming stores.

LVMH is all about the power of brand, and its stable is jammed with famous names: Upscale leather goods retailer Louis Vuitton, its largest unit; wine and spirit…

Hatshepsut King and Queen Hatshepsut Located on
Words: 1691 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28570147
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King and Queen Hatshepsut

Located on the wall of a cave in Deir el-Bahari is a bit of graffiti showing "a man having 'doggie-style' intercourse with a woman wearing a royal headdress." (Tyldesley 2006, 99) Historians have interpreted this vulgar piece of art as ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty's Queen Hatshepsut and a governmental official named Senenmut. At a time when men ruled and women were subservient, it was unusual for a woman to gain power, let alone become a Pharaoh. But this is exactly what Hatshepsut did, she assumed the role of Pharaoh; but in doing so she sentenced herself to virtual non-existence. hile the reign of Hatshepsut is generally though to have lasted about 22 years, from 1479 BC to 1458 BC, the man she usurped from the throne eventually got his revenge. After her death, the next Pharaoh, Thutmose III, all but erased her reign from history…

Works Cited

Kean, Sam. "The scent of a woman pharaoh." American Scholar 80.2 (2011): 17. Academic OneFile. Web. 9 May. 2011.

Lorenzi, Rossella. "Pharaoh Hatshepsut Died in Pain." Discovery News. Web. 8 May 2011.  chaeology&guid=20070702133030

Ray, John. "Hatshepsut: the female pharaoh." History Today 44.5 (1994): 23+. Academic OneFile. Web. 9 May. 2011.

Roehrig, Catherine, Renee Dreyfus, and Cathleen Keller. Hatshepsut, from Queen to Pharaoh. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005. Print.

Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds as Indoor Air Pollutants
Words: 4019 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24251196
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Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.

Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…


1. Alpha nutrition Programs. Indoor Air-More Contaminated Than Outdoor Air?

Medical Information

2. Ammann, Harriet M. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health?

Office of Environmental Health Assessments, Washington State Department of Health

Migraines Myth vs Reality
Words: 2025 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 669829
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Migraine Headaches

Those who suffer from migraines describe their symptoms in different ways. Some describe a sense of numbness that spreads throughout their extremities. Others describe loss of appetite or severe nausea. Still others feel confused and disoriented until the migraine passes.

Common to all migraine sufferers, however, is the sense of pain. Sometimes, the pain is big and heavy, "like a 25 pound pumpkin on my head" (Moe 20). Other times, the pain is sharp and concentrated, "like a knife in my eye" (Moe 6).

Medical Definition of a Migraine

Medical professionals characterize migraines as a "chronic paroxysmal disorder" which is typically free from symptoms in between attacks. This disorder is often followed by "transient focal neurological symptoms," such as photophobia and blurred vision. In many cases, the pain is severe enough to incapacitate the sufferer, necessitating bed rest (Spierings, 9).

B. Differences between a migraine and a headache…

Works Cited

Ash, Richard. "Migraine Headaches." Main Conditions. January 2002. Migraine Awareness Group. 24 March 2003 .

Coleman, Michael John and Terri Miller Burchfield. "Migraines: Myth Vs. Reality." Migraines: Myth Vs. Reality. January 2002. Migraine Awareness Group. 24 March 2003 .

MacGregor, Anne and Martin Dunitz. Migraine in Women. Malden: Blackwell Science, 1999.

Mauskop, Alexander and Barry Fox. What Your Doctors May Not Tell You About Migraines: The Breakthrough Program that Can Help End Your Pain. New York: Warner Books, 2001.

Entropy in Our Lives
Words: 1123 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33185338
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Indeed, entropy governs life. One can view entropy from two different perspectives. One, that it is essentially dispersive in nature. The second is that it is constructive in nature. Entropy is the measure of the spontaneous dispersal of energy within a system or between systems. Chemically, entropy is represented by the symbol, S.

The term entropy has often been misused. It has been misidentified solely as the measure of disorder or chaos. For example, a disorganized room or a pack of cards randomly arranged in a disordered manner is said to have higher entropy. ut since there is no change in energy in those systems (through dispersal) it cannot be considered as entropy. (Lambert, 2003)

Entropy can be more explained using the basic laws of thermodynamics from physical chemistry and physics. Indeed, it is these laws that govern nature. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that the energy of…


Atkins, P.W., and Julio De Paula. Physical Chemistry. 7th ed. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2002.

Clymer, Jeffrey. Arrhenius Calculation. 2002. Available: July 1, 2004.

EntropyLaw. The Law of Maximum Entropy Production or Why the World Is in the Order Production Business. 2004. 2004. Available:

Consumer Habits Men Versus Women
Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43172870
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omen and Men as Consumers

Consumer habits: Men vs. women

"Men buy, women shop" (ilder 2007). This statement succinctly sums up the differences between the sexes and their approach to consumerism. omen shop as a social experience for pleasure, men view entering a store as a goal-directed activity. This is immediately seen in how retailers lay out stores, depending on whether the store is primarily directed at women's shopping habits or men's shopping habits. For example, "women are happy to meander through sprawling clothing and accessory collections or detour through the shoe department. They like to glide up glass escalators past a grand piano, or spray a perfume sample on themselves on their way to, maybe, making a purchase. For men, shopping is a mission. They are out to buy a targeted item and flee the store as quickly as possible" (ilder 2007).

Setting up a store so that premium…

Works Cited

"Fast Facts." M2W. 2007. April 19, 2009. 

Loechner, Jack. "Women Do Most Shopping Online; Men Outspend Them." Research brief:

Media Post. December 23, 2004. April 19, 2009. 

Poggi, Jeanne. "Men's shopping shrines." Forbes. September 20, 2008. April 19, 2009.

American Jewess the Jewish-American Woman
Words: 2848 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74502117
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1896 saw the expansion of the American Jewess with the opening of a New York office, though the content of the magazine appeared largely unchanged at the beginning of 1897. The January issue of the publication contains many articles that were themed similarly to the previous issues of the magazine, though there is a decidedly more practical nature to many of the articles included in the issue. "Household hints" and similar sections had been regular appearances in the magazine since its inception, but this issue contains articles on creating happiness in the home and on the history of the shoe -- with a definite feminist-Jewish perspective. hile still engaging in abstract, intellectual and scholarly pursuits, the content of the magazine is also shifting towards direct daily usefulness.

The issues began to shorten noticeably as 1897 progressed, and as the number of articles depleted the ratio of directly targeted articles…

Works Cited

Jewish Women's Archive. "This Week in History - "The American Jewess" begins publication." Accessed 6 March 2010. 

Rothstein, Jane H.. "Rosa Sonneschein." Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. 20 March 2009. Jewish Women's Archive. Accessed 6 March 2010. .

Sarna, Jonathan and Golden, Jonathan. "The American Jewish Experience in the Twentieth Century: Anti-Semitism and Assimilation." National Humanities Center. Accessed 6 March 2010. 

The American Jewess, 1895-1899. Accessed 6 March 2010.

Team Export Project Abercrombie and
Words: 482 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73927819
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In China with the target demographic group of young adults and teens because they account for a large portion of consumer spending. Last year in America teens spent roughly $100 billion and parents spent another $50 billion on their teens. .

Abercrombie and Fitch will be a hit in Beijing, China, because a & F. clothing is geared for thinner petite individuals. As we know with the Chinese culture, the average height for a women is 5'0., average height for a man is 5'6 inches. The average Chinese woman weighs 125 pounds, and a Chinese man weighs 145 pounds. Abercrombie and Fitch tailors to the more petite stator, this is a perfect population to market and export this brand to clothing.


Abercrombie and Fitch will market their trendy slim fitting jeans for the female, and boot cut denim jeans for the male . Abercrombie and Fitch will market their…

Starbucks -- Standards as Marketing
Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28386778
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Starbucks offers a 401K program, stock options, tuition reimbursement, adoption assistance and a very liberal free Employee Assistance Program. After 6 months, partners receive paid vacations, discounts on serviced Starbucks has contracted with, and discounts on products to take home.

Of course, the discounts help also to bring more friends and relatives into Starbucks -- certainly, if one serves the coffee at home then that is a great recommendation for the brand. Branding and flexibility with product at Starbucks is impressive, too. Since the 3rd Space concept engenders people coming to Starbucks and spending time, the company has invested in several different types of foodstuffs, not simply the traditional pastries, but breakfast and lunch sandwiches, soups in some locations, and so many different permutations of coffee drinks that everyone can surely find something to drink -- even if they do not care for coffee See: Mann, 2007; Gold, 2008).


Human Resource Strategy - Starbucks also believes in utilizing its own human resources to fill openings within its corporate structure. That may be promotion to managers of local shops, to filling marketing and corporate positions at its Seattle or international offices. This idea of on-the-job training and loyalty is very appealing in that it engenders a two-part loyalty system: Starbucks is loyal to their employees, the employees, in turn, will be more loyal to the company. This is especially important in modern American business culture, since most new employees feel that the next promotion is simply that next job Snyder, 2006).

Starbucks is clearly both pro-customer and pro-employee. The company has an active culture and a vision to make the experience delightful for all involved. Salaries are highly competitive within the retail world, benefits are outstanding, and the desire to change a simple cup of coffee into an "experience" is both appealing and desirous -- if somewhat artificial (Davis, 2008). Despite these tactics, it is also clear that the core value of the customer is in evidence; all the new products and services, and even the new pricing and marketing programs, are specifically designed to also increase customer convenience and satisfaction.

Recent Changes -- Due to the economic downturn, Starbucks has slowed down its aggressive new store openings a bit and, in July 2008, closed 600 under performing company owned stores. It also cut 1,000 non-retail jobs as part of an overall plan to reenergize the company and profit. This effectively ended the company's continual growth cycle that began in the early 1990s (Adamy, 2009). Starbucks has also taken a critical look at its global stores, closing 61 of its 84

Personal Can Ethics Get Valerie
Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27821517
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aters appears to have fairly limited ethics. His moral imperative appears to be guided by whatever will benefit him the most personally. Under his watch, the organization has become less effective and has seen its size reduced by 60%. aters does not feel the need to work hard, so he provides a poor example for his team as well. He is an ineffective leader, and is not respected by his charges. Beyond that, he is failing in his responsibility to the shareholders. As a manager, he has a duty to act as an agent of the shareholders (Donaldson & Davis, 1991). This means that he should be pursuing tactics that will earn the company the most profit. aters instead is pursuing self-interest to the detriment of earning the most profit.

The corporate culture appears to be contributing to the dilemma. Nobody in senior management appears to be especially concerned with…

Works Cited:

Donaldson, L., Davis, J. (1991). Stewardship theory or agency theory: CEO governance and shareholder returns. Australian Journal of Management. Vol. 16 (1).

Vitell, S., Davis, D. (1990). The relationship between ethics and job satisfaction: An empirical investigation. Journal of Business Ethics. Vol. 9 (6) 489-494.

Business Portfolio Assessment - Coach
Words: 856 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 95880276
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S. market for counterfeit goods and if Coach and other companies are taking advantage of law. It is foolish according to the attorney of Kim for Coach to threaten its customers with $2 million lawsuits and before antagonizing customers the company must do a minimal investigation and it is not known how many customers got scared and paid off Coach. Kim, had worked for the Coach in 2004, filed suit saying among other major charges that the company wanted to suppress online sale of used items to pay high prices to the company for a Coach handbag. There is a problem for all companies which grapple with counterfeiting and it is often seen on Craigslist and eBay. Along with Kim one more eBay seller, James Caffarella of Littleton, Mass was also sued when he tried to sell legitimate silver golf-ball Tiffany key chain using a stock photograph. He too received…

References (2011a) "Company Profile" Retrieved 21 February 2011 from (2011b) "Global Business Integrity Program" Retrieved 21 February 2011 from 

Menkes, Suzy. (2010) "Coach Gallops Into Europe" New York Times,

Retrieved 21 February 2011 from

Poetry Often Use Imagery as
Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62354456
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The message of the poem is the longing for life and youth. In this case as well the images have a strong symbolical dimension, the light must be understood as life and youth, whereas the night as death and decay. Just as the title suggests it, there are people who will not easily accept their fate. "Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight, / And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way, / Do not go gentle into that good night" (Thomas, 10-12). Wild is a state of mind and the sun in flight is a symbol of freedom and creation. The imagery creates spiritual landscapes which unite the poet and the reader.

Shakespeare in his sonnet "My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun" makes a clear opposition between elements of nature and parts of the body of the woman he loves. On the…


Heaney, Seamus. "Bogland"

Shakespeare, W. "My Mistress' Eyes are Nothing like the Sun"

Thomas, D. "Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night"

Yeats, W.B. "The Lake Island of Innisfree"

Buddhism Religion and Philosophy Founded in India
Words: 1368 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18990769
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Buddhism, religion and philosophy founded in India c.525 B.C. By Siddhartha Gautama, called the Buddha. There are over 300 million Buddhists worldwide. One of the great world religions, it is divided into two main schools: the Theravada or Hinayana in Sri Lanka and SE Asia, and the Mahayana in China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan. A third school, the Vajrayana, has a long tradition in Tibet and Japan. Buddhism has largely disappeared from its country of origin, India, except for the presence there of many refugees from the Tibet region of China and a small number of converts from the lower castes of Hinduism ("Buddhism").

Buddhism is a blend of philosophy, religious belief and educational principles that focuses on personal spiritual development. Although the distinction may be somewhat blurred, strictly speaking, Buddhists do not worship gods or deities, and the Golden Buddha's people pray to are supposed to be merely aids…

Works Cited

"Buddhism." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition (2009): 1. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 18 Sept. 2010.

"BUDDHISM." The Essentials of Philosophy and Ethics. Abingdon: Hodder Education, 2006. Credo Reference. Web. 17 Sept. 2010.

Jacobson, Doranne. "Buddhism and meditation." Calliope 5.4 (1995): 40. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 18 Sept. 2010.

Van Biema, David, Jeanne McDowell, and Richard N. Ostling. "Buddhism in America. (cover story)." Time International (South Pacific Edition) 49 (1997): 50. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Web. 17 Sept. 2010.

Men Power & Women
Words: 1438 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 92450379
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The role of sex in advertising is even more blatant in a food advertisement of an ejaculating Tabsco sauce bottle over a split bake potato -- hot and spice as a metaphor for intercourse.

Sex sells: a woman wants to be desired by a man which requires the perfect figure, in the perfect low-cut dress with the perfectly matching nail polish, and a man can only be desired by a woman if he drives a BMW, wears a olex watch and has on a alph Lauren suit (which is not a Polo suit but the higher end and much more expensive Purple Label suit). Media's objectification of women and the fact that sex does sell has lead to the "sexification" of young girls and teens. Kilboure makes her point with magazine covers and television spots, including JonBenet in full makeup for a toddler beauty pageant, a teenage Brittney Spears displayed…


Keith, Thomas. 2008. Tough Guise: Violence, Media & the Crisis in Masculinity. Available at , parts 1-9.

Keith, Thomas. 2008. GENERATION M: Misogyny in Media & Culture. Available at 

Kilbourne, Jean. Date unknown. Killing Us Softly 3: Advertising's Image of Women. Available at 

Moore, Alecia Beth (AKA Pink). 2006. Stupid Girls. Lyrics available at Music available at

Light Breeze and a Few
Words: 2299 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64507367
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Up here in this parking lot cell coverage was never very good. I wonder if she knows about the improvement (no one who knows this neighborhood would have even attempted to make a call up until September of this year) or just happened to be making a call and it went through.

A senior citizens community bus pulls in and parks right in front of the store, in a place reserved for handicapped drivers. No one gets out for a minute or two. I get out of my car and walk closer so I can see who will get out. I leave my clipboard in my car and go to the newspaper racks as though I'm deciding which one to buy. A white-haired man who is thin and wears a Hawaiian shirt drives the bus. He looks back at the two passengers as if to say, "We're here." The first…

Price Remains One of the
Words: 13276 Length: 51 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 94238809
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From this perspective, luxury brands may be desired be many consumers, but the more affluent are clearly more readily capable of such acquisitions, making them a natural target for luxury brands marketers.

Although there is a growing body of contemporary knowledge concerning the influence of self-perception and self-image on luxury brand purchases, the study of these issues is certainly not new. In fact, as early as 1899, Thorstein Veblen developed a theory according to which consumers use product prices as a means of ostentatiously displaying their wealth (Veblen 1899). Based on the inextricable relationship between the level of consumers' income and the type of goods and services they may desire, it would be reasonable to posit that highly affluent consumers would be a natural market for luxury brand marketers; however, the choice of luxury brands over other brands is a highly complex decision that take into account a wide range…


Abrams Research (2009, May) 'Luxury brands survey & report.' [online] available:

%E2%80%93-Abrams-Research-%E2%80%93-May-2009 Viewed on 10

February 2010

Airs as Icy as a
Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2693028
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I looked straight ahead, matching her aloofness. Her scent drove me mad, and I struggled to concentrate on the dinner meeting.

Angelina took out her Blackberry and diligently took notes when the boss spoke, her eyes furiously darting from speaker to gadget. Her fingernails were so long that she gripped her stylus strangely, with her thumb sticking out. Perfect primping covered up any flaws she might have, and none were apparent. Angelina was too skillful to appear human. As she listened and typed, Angelina crossed and uncrossed her legs. Her stockings are mostly black, edged with rich brocade. Her knees are bony, her feet encased in Jimmy Choo. She wears no watch and no jewelry but for a gold chain so thin a spider could have spun it.

Two years ago Angelina graduated cum laude from Harvard Business School and found work easily at our firm as one of the…