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Persian Wars (490 BCE to 479 BCE) between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire were predicated by various circumstances, ranging from cultural ideologies to political connivances. For the Greeks, particularly the Ionians and the Athenians, Persian rule was unwanted and unacceptable. The Persian leaders Darius and his son Xerxes, however, following in the example of Cyrus the Great, saw the Greek city-states as puny colonies that were to be taught submission. And while the Greeks often fought among themselves, the threat of a Persian invasion spelled the virtual annihilation of each of them if they did not choose to set aside their squabbles for the common good of all (Siegel, 2005).
Were the Greeks Victorious Because They Were More Motivated than the Persians?
Motivation for Victory
Although the Greek city-states formed an alliance to repel the Persian armies, the Persian Wars did not put an end to the enmity…… [Read More]
The Greeks initiated the process of retaking their cities previously conquered by Persians and set tributes. Under the lead of Alexander the Great, Greece enlarged its spatial boundaries "from southern Egypt to the gates of China." (Robert Morkot, Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece)
Ending the war
Twenty years after the commence of Persian attacks, Greek military general Themistocles managed to obviate the Persian threat over Greece. "The Greek victory was aided by the strategy of Themistocles. Xerxes returned to Persia. [...] the defeat of this army in 479 at Plataea near Thebes by a Greek army under the Spartan Pausanias and a Greek naval victory at Mycale on the coast of Asia Minor ended all danger from Persian invasions of Europe." (the History Channel, Persian Wars)
Consequences of the wars
After vanquishing the Persian power, the Greeks earned a reputation for possessing the most powerful fleet. Still not trusting…… [Read More]
Thus, the Spartans were now free, along with the disgruntled Persians, who had a significant ax to grind with Athens, to seize the opportunity and attack Athens (thereby ending the 50 years truce). After a few years of resistance, Athens fell completely, and was immediately subjected to the oligarchical government under Sparta, known as "the Thirty."
Although it certainly seems ironic that the very democratic system that the Athenians were so proud of would precipitate its eventual downfall, one might argue that it was not the democratic system, itself, that was to blame, but the tremendous hubris of the Athenians -- both as a result of their tremendous victory over the Persians, as well as their own belief in their natural idealistic superiority.
Under the control of the Thirty, Ancient Greek as a bastion of "freedom" and democracy would fall, and the greatness of the Greek empire would steadily fade…… [Read More]
There was still plenty of bickering (Herodotus 506), but in general, the Greeks had now finally learned the first of the two "lessons" that some read in the Ionian Revolt and its defeat: In any effort against superior numbers, unity is essential to success.
The second lesson, about the importance of naval power, was shortly to be demonstrated. Having not been wasted at Artemisium, the Greek fleet overcame the Persians at Salamis, cutting Xerxes' line of supply and communication and forcing the emperor himself to withdraw. The next year, the remaining Persian invaders were routed at Plataea; after this, faced by a variety of Greek alliances, the Persians would remain on the defensive and, by the peace of 449 BCE, eventually relinquished all control over the Ionian and other cities of Asia Minor in perpetuity. The "revolt" finally succeeded.
De Souza, Philip. The Greek and Persian ars 499-386…… [Read More]
Persians had such an extensive influence on the development of world history that most Westerners encounter stories of the Persian Empire as Greek historians told them, or alternatively, from Biblical sources. Persian rule enabled the dissemination of ideas related to Zoroastrian worldviews and political philosophy. The Persian Empire is during its peak is known as the Achaemenid Empire, because of the name of the family dynasty beginning with King Cyrus.
Cyrus would now be called a visionary and a transformational leader, because of his clear intent of expanding Persia's locus of influence throughout the Fertile Crescent and Middle East. Moreover, Cyrus understood the importance of actually empowering the peoples he conquered. ather than rule with an iron fist or exert undue control over disparate regions of the empire, Cyrus implemented a policy that involved liberal politics and a social policy of tolerance. When Cyrus invaded Babylon, he liberated the Jews…… [Read More]
Family and respect for social order are among the most essential values in the Islamic religion, but these have been taken to various extremes by certain Muslim factions, and unfortunately these often receive much higher attention and notice than the true values of Islam (Akgunduz 2009). More essential in Islam than the subservience to authority are the pursuit of life and knowledge, and this latter especially has had a large influence on my own life (Akgunduz 2009). My family and especially my parents have heavily stressed the importance of academic achievement in order to succeed in life and to full personal potential, both of which are very important values ot me personally and in my culture.
It is also important to not that Persians are not Arabs, and the specific pattern of the development of Persian cultural values does not follow the same trajectory as many Arab Muslim cultures (PANA…… [Read More]
Battle of Marathon Smehra
Diary from the Battle of Marathon
Day 1, 490 BC
The Persians are persistent, but Greece shall overcome! We have heard the rumors that Darius' first attack was thwarted by the powers of Poseidon, but we have heard nothing further from our spies. Many of us have stopped walking around with our arms, it was after all upsetting to the women and children that we were ready for battle and death, by Zeus! Rather, we are watchful and more alert than ever.
We can not trust Darius and the Persians, for they have already taken over the Ionian Greeks, and he has sworn to take over our Athens too. We helped our Greek brothers against the Persian invaders, and how that warped his wrath! Now he is determined we shall fall into his grip - and then where will he shed blood?
A look around at…… [Read More]
Persian Gulf War
Effects of war in the Persian Gulf on the U.S. Economy
Okruhlik notes that "state strategies chosen to manage crises- like price booms and busts, worldwide recession, and war- have very real, though unintended, social and political consequences" (p. 297). This essay analyzes the relationship between Persian Gulf War and its impact on U.S. economy. The writer tries to explore impacts of conflict in Middle East and how it results as an increase in oil prices as well fluctuation in stock markets.
The previous research show that, oil price shocks have an asymmetric effect on economic activity and the stock market such that increases in oil prices have a larger impact than oil price decreases.
As the Gulf Coast was hit and many of the oil production and distribution facilities were damaged, world oil prices experienced a dramatic increase in the aftermath of the hurricanes. A few…… [Read More]
Persian Letters by Montesquieu. Specifically, it will answer the following question. Montesquieu sets up his Persian observers as "innocents abroad" to point out the absurdities of French politics and society. How does Usbek's seraglio serve as a metaphor for and criticism of the French court? Usbek's seraglio or type of "harem" clearly represents the French court, as it is usually in disarray, confusion, and controversy, and is a group of people surrounding a central figure, just as the court is.
The seraglio is an amusing comment on the French court of the time, and reflects the writer's distress at events in the court. He writes, "Appalling disorder and confusion prevail in the seraglio: war reigns among your wives; your eunuchs are divided; nothing is heard bur murmurs, complaints, reproaches; my remonstrances are despised: everything seems to be permitted in this time of license, and I am nothing but a name…… [Read More]
Also, from Herodotus's books we see that some of them, obeying the famous oracle of Delphi, or using its predictions as an excuse, decided to surrender, and give "earth and water." This is particularly relevant on the influence of religion in that period. It was not uncommonly for wars to be delayed or even abandoned because of the predictions of oracles and the one in Delphi, which had a primary role in the Greeks' religious life, had a long history of interference in the Greek politics.
There must also be mentioned that the feelings of sympathy towards the Persians were also determined for most of the Greek cities by the approach of the Persian Army. An example is the people of Thessaly, which submitted only after the Greeks evacuated the valley of Tempe.
Overall, it was the combination of these factors that led to the fact that in the year…… [Read More]
Those who belonged to the faith believed that they would be resurrected after death and judged on their lifelong deeds.
Zoroastrianism existed in Iran by the time Medes and Persians were established. They both treated it and received it as a long-established faith, with its doctrines and observances already defined and a canon of works in the Avestan tongue. There is no evidence that the literature was written down at this time and it was orally transferred from one generation to the next. The claim by the later Iranians that Alexander the Great destroyed the massive texts has not been substantiated."
When the Arabian invasion of the Persian empire was complete there were traditions developed designed toward the psychological attitudes that Muslim was the better or more correct faith. The taxes were paid with ritual and decorum. For instance the person doing the paying had to stand while the…… [Read More]
Persian Wars were wars fought between the Persian Empire and Greek city states in the 5th century BCE. The Persian Empire under Darius was expanding westward into Europe, and had targeted the powerful Greek states, particularly Athens, in order to capture what was the major power in the region at the time. The Greeks were able to hold their territory, and as a result they were able to preserve their civilization.
The Persian Empire was probably the largest and most powerful at the time. The empire has spread across Asia Minor, Thrace and Macedonia, and was targeting peninsular Greece. The Persians led a cosmopolitan force, emblematic of their empire, which had religious freedom, tolerance, and incorporated many cultures. The Greeks, however, were a strong culture in their own right, and resisted the idea of subjugation by the Persians. Darius had requested that the Greeks submit to his rule, but Athens…… [Read More]
Persian Between 1000 and 1700
Persian as a region was known to be of significant influence to the rest of the world in many aspects ranging from science, to geography, religion and other disciplines. The region gained significant expansion in terms of the influence within the region and interaction with the rest of the world especially in the 1000 and 1700 period due to the various reasons discussed here.
The expansion of the Persian was perpetuated by the turning of the Persianate world to be more than just a region but a concept or a system that transverse the Persian gulf alone, it presented a shared system, knowledge, statecraft, religiosity, trade, diplomacy and even sociability which were conveyed through the use of a common Persian language. This made it easy to expand the Persian empire beyond the physical borders that existed (Sharma S., 2014:Pp1-2).
The Persian empire, currently referred to…… [Read More]
The presentation is as important and must be pleasing to the eye as the pallet.
With Persian recipes, common ingredients will be readily available in grocery stores -- rice, yogurt, and fresh herbs. Some of the unusual spices that give Persian food its special flair, including angelica, pomegranate paste, sumac and whey are sometimes harder to find.
In preparing Cold Yogurt Soup wash two large cucumbers and peel. Then finely chop them along with one small onion. Stir cucumbers and onion into two cups of plain yogurt. Add one tablespoon fresh chopped mint, tarragon, and scallions. One quarter cup raisins and toasted chopped walnuts, two teaspoons salt and one quarter teaspoon pepper. Mix well then stir in two cups cold water. Just before serving add ice cubes (About Persian Food).
"About Persian Food." n.d. estIranTravel.com. 7 Apr 2009 .
Singer, Zoe. "Pomegranates, Dried Limes, Rose Water." n.d. Chow. 7…… [Read More]
Persian Contraction From 1700 to 2000
Persia represented an important link between East and West. It held the Middle position and in geopolitical terms, this position meant a lot as the Industrial Age began to get underway in the modern era. Persian territory was viewed with envious eyes by other nations that saw the strategic location Persia occupied. The decadence of the Ottoman Empire, a series of wars, power plays, globalization, cultural changes and influences, and diaspora have all impacted Persia and accounted for its contraction between 1700 and 2000. This paper will analyze these factors and show how in these three hundred years, changes in the way of the world, such as the influence of technology and industry, had a direct effect on the shape of Persia and its geographical location.
Persia in the 18th Century
The Suffavean dynasty was founded in the 16th century and it lasted for…… [Read More]
Accuracies in the Snyder's Film
Herodotus and Zac Snyder have at least one thing in common: they both portray the ancient Persians in very unflattering terms. The grim, ghastly, almost monstrously barbaric (yet weirdly effeminate) features of the Persian leader Xerxes is one of the most visually arresting elements of Snyder's film 300 (based on a graphic novel by Frank Miller). How historically accurate is the film? Considering the fact that Snyder shot almost the entirety of the film on a soundstage because the film's "landscapes are different than in real life. They don't exist in the real world, only in Frank Miller's imagination," one might be tempted to say not very. Yet, there are elements of the film that do correspond to the historical attle of Thermopylae -- in a way. This paper will compare and contrast Snyder's film 300 with the real history of the battle between Spartans…… [Read More]
To the north of Tajikistan lies Kyrgyzstan, to the west lies Uzbekistan, to the east lies China and to the south lies Afghanistan. This state was formed due to the split of Central Asia in 1920 under Soviet rule. It covers an area of 143,100 sq. km. 
Soghdiana, the northern part of today's Tajikistan, was settled by Iranian tribes between 1,000 and 500 C. Important cities of Tajikistan today Khujand and Panjkakent belonged to Soghdiana in ancient times. During their tarvelling to China and to the west, Soghdians adopted other religions such as Zoroastrianism, Christianity, huddism and they also shared their knowledge with people whom they met on their way. During sixth to fourth centuries .C, Tajikistan belonged to ancient Persia's Achaemenid Empire that was ruled by Darius I. In 333 .C., Alexander the Great conquered it. 
In early Eighteenth Century, Islamic Arabs…… [Read More]
However, once they were expelled from Kuwait is when the original boundaries were restored once again. (rown 302 -- 310)
These different events are significant, because they are illustrating how any kind of attempts to change the borders in the Middle East has been a sign that U.S. is working to aggressively to maintain the status quo. Where, they do not want one particular country to be able to dominate all of the others. Instead, the United States wants to make certain that the current balance of power is maintained at all times. As, this kind of strategy will ensure the continuous free flow of oil out of the region.
Once we are able to test our hypothesis against this theory, it will offer specific insights as to the accuracy of hypothesis. The reason why, is because this kind of doctrine will help us to understand how oil is one…… [Read More]
asses two cases related to public relations. First our focus will be on a case regarding a Persian restaurant, we will assess the factors regarding the demise of business activities of this restaurant and consult ways on how to improve this since it is very crucial for the survival of this business. Secondly, we will emphasize on how to give an image boost to the American Bull Terriers who is commonly known to be a very violent animal species.
Case I (Tehran estaurant)
In this case, it is very important to realize the background factors which are responsible for the demise of business activities of this restaurant. The main root cause of the problem is the negative public perception the general public has regarding Iran or any other thing associated with it. This is created due to the extreme negative perception the media portrays about Iran and its government's ambitions.…… [Read More]
Persian Gulf War of 1991 aimed to stop the invasion and occupation of Kuwait by Iraqi forces. Ordered by Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein, the military action aimed to take control of the small country's immense oil reserves. y the time U.S. President George ush declared a cease-fire on February 28, 1991, Iraqi forces had already fallen. As part of the Gulf War treaties, the trade embargo on Iraq, sanctioned by the United Nations when Iraq first invaded Kuwait, was not lifted and a UN special commission was assigned to oversee the destruction of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction (WMD), including medium-range missiles and chemical and biological weapons as well as the facilities in which they were developed. Nevertheless, UN military forces were withdrawn from Iraq and Hussein was not pushed out of power. While the current war on Iraq has been called the "War for Iraqi Freedom," the events leading…… [Read More]
The Greco-Persian Wars were still in their early stages at this point, but it would be Xerxes, not Darius, that continued and stepped up efforts to invade and conquer the Attic Greeks.
If the Battle of Marathon had turned the other way, as many at the time expected it to and as many historians and tacticians believe it easily could and by all rights should have, the entire course of Western and even world history would have been drastically altered. Europe was built on the ideas and culture of the Greeks, particularly the Athenians. The eventual conquering of the Greek and the establishment of the oman Empire led to the spread of Greek philosophy, art, and science throughout the then known world; if the Persians had been successful in their attempt to conquer the Greeks, this culture would most likely not have existed by the time the omans came around.…… [Read More]
Instead, while under false arrest and retreating from the Macedonians, Darius was killed by one of his subjects.
ecause the battle at Gaugamela marked the turning point in the battle between the Macedonians and the Achaemenids, it is clear that if Darius was to have been able to defeat Alexander and his troops, he would have needed to do so before the battle at Gaugamela. Therefore, it is important to look at the opportunities that Darius had to attack Alexander and his troops prior to that battle. Looking at those opportunities, it becomes clear that Darius' best chance to defeat Alexander's army would have been to attack Alexander before he had the chance to gain the support of the Greek city-states. To do that in the most successful manner, Darius would have needed to attack the armies of Parmenion and Attalus. This would have permitted Darius to defeat Alexander before…… [Read More]
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…… [Read More]
Except for Miletus, which was sacked as an initiator of the revolt, the other cities were treated rather reasonably, going as far as recommendations for the settled Persians to respect local religious traditions (Herodotus VI 42-45).
This does not necessarily need to be seen only as a reasonable conquering policy, but also as a diplomatic and political approach: once Darius asked for the submissions of mainland Greek cities, many of them accepted, based on the previous behavior of the conquerors in Ionic cities. Athens and Sparta obviously remained aside, but this was also because they were also assuming a regional power status and would not find it calculable to surrender without a fight.
Reasonably enough, though, the Persian invasion could also be seen as a direct consequence in the involvement of the Athenians in the revolt of the Ionic cities and in their attempt to preserve a democracy here and…… [Read More]
The folkloric tradition was so popular because people were able to relate to it. Although Ferdowsi wrote his text with the intention that people of all backgrounds would be able to celebrate the history of the land, the folkloric tradition derived its appeal from the fact that everyone could relate with the characters in a very real, first-hand way. Most of the stories simply had stock characters, similar to the Commedia Del Arte theatrical tradition in Italy. These characters were archetypes rather than actual historical figures. Although the everyday events depicted in these stories were fictional and made up by the person who happened to be telling the story, the stories were used as a form of entertainment that would offer some form of momentary escape from the cares of their everyday lives. This context represents a major difference from the Shehmaneh, which generally attempts to represent history and actual…… [Read More]
War Without Victory
Nominally, the United States achieved victory in the first Gulf War. However, the decades of fighting in the Middle East, punctuated by the second Gulf War demonstrate that the United States was not victorious in that war. However, equally clear is the fact that Iraq was not victorious. This paper examines the politics behind the Gulf War including deterrence, diplomacy, power struggles, and military and political implications to come to the conclusion that there was no victor in the Gulf War.
In August of 1990, Saddam Hussein, the leader of Iraq, ordered an invasion of Kuwait (A&E, 2013). This action alarmed other countries in the area, and these countries asked for intervention from other countries and from the United Nations. The United Nations Security Council responded by ordering Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait. The United States, working with and through the United Nations, attempted to use deterrence…… [Read More]
Athens and Sparta -- as ar Inevitable?
Between 500 and 350 BC the area now known as Greece was but a collection of separate and unallied city-states. Today, we often view cultures and political conflict in terms of nations, and take the view that since city-states were geographically close, culture was the same. This, however, was untrue, particularly in the case of the two most powerful and well-known city states of Athens and Sparta.
That is not to say that these two entities were completely divergent. Both had some cultural similarities in context with their history, and they cooperated -- if distantly, in the years leading up to the Battle of Thermopylae and subsequent defeat of the Persian invaders at Salamis and Plataea, ending Persian aggression for a time.
However, understanding Ancient Cultures is often difficult. e have limited resources from which to build a portrait of the culture, and…… [Read More]
Not celebrating Christmas, and not having time off from school for Persian religious holidays, has always made me take great notice of the fact that I am "different." As I have matured, however, I have come to appreciate this difference, and to realize that everyone truly is "different" in many ways. It took me quite awhile to come to this realization and to fully accept my culturally diverse identity as a Persian-American, but now that I have I realize that the diversity I struggled with in my youth has actually given me a great advantage in modern society. I am already prepared and well equipped not only to "deal with" cultural diversity, but to actively engage and navigate a world where it is commonplace.
Learning to not only tolerate but to utilize cultural diversity in the workplace can be very difficult. Even something considered as standard by many people such…… [Read More]
Primarily, both Bushes wanted to show the world that America is a powerful force with which to be reckoned -- even if not a single or sole superpower, a force that can at least militarily have its way in the world, especially with regard to rogue, weaker states.
Also, both Bushes believed in cut-and-dried reactions. Communism and Saddam Hussein are simply "bad" without complicating factors such as reasons or motivations for their actions. Going hand in hand with that assessment, communism and Saddam Hussein must be defeated thoroughly, recognizing that even small victories on the part of Iraq, for instance, could draw support to Hussein's ranks and erode America foreign policy world opinion.
However, that is where the similarities ended. For George Bush, the homeland in the United States was never under a serious threat. The most perilous years of the Cold War were behind America when Bush took the…… [Read More]
Leadership - Gates of Fire by Steven Pressfield
Gates of Fire written by Steven Pressfield is a famous historical novel published in 1998. It tells the story of 480 B.C when Persian King decided to attack Greece. Persia was the biggest power of the world in those times and it used all its supremacy to focus on this singe goal.
Persian King brought with him a huge army of around two million soldiers with a simple message of "surrender or death" for the Greeks. On the other side, Greece put forward their 300 finest Spartan warriors under the commandment of King Leonydas and ordered them to take immediate action.
Spartans knew very well that they will be killed in this battle with Persian invaders but they did not quit and moved forward towards their mission. They bravely resisted against the Persian forces for six days and created an unbalanced fight…… [Read More]
First of all, the U.S. should "actively deter nations from "aspiring to a larger regional or global role." Second of all, preemptive force should be used to prevent countries from developing weapons of mass destruction and, third of all, the United States should "act alone if necessary." Clearly, all of these correlated ideas have been implementing in Iraq. Further more, all of ideas would be laid out in the founding statement of principles for the Project of the New American Century.
Evaluating what exactly the neoconservatives that have are now in the highest positions of the U.S. administration is a difficult and dangers job. Consternating the need for an objective evaluation, it is best to present all points-of-view. The least radical of these seems to be the one referring to its goal to promote the United States towards global leadership.
On the other hand, less moderate approaches see the Project…… [Read More]
It is only human for cultures to borrow from successful societies. It has been a common practice throughout human history, especially within the context of the Classical periods, where many major nations were developing themselves as world powers. Many of these traditions still live on today either in their own right, or through the perpetuation by other cultures. In fact, Western society owes much of its foundations and philosophies to Classical cultures, such as Greco-oman and Middle Eastern influences. Then, the question remains, how will our current society lend to the future formation of new societies yet to be conceived?
Boeree, C. George. (2000). "An Introuction to Buddhism." Shippensburg University. etrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/buddhaintro.html.
Butler, Chris. (2007). "Bronze Age Greeks: the Minoans and Myceneans." The Flow of History. etrieved 24 Mar 2009 at http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/birth/3/FC17.
Hooker, ichard. (1996). "The Persians." World Civilizations. etrieved 24 mar 2009 at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/PESIANS.HTM.…… [Read More]
Moniru Ravanipur's "Satan's Stones" is a short story in a collection of short stories of the same name. The story is set in the remote regions of Iran where it explore facets of relationships in contemporary Iranian life, particularly ever-shifting relations that can be found in the rural villages. This story represents a literary experimentation and a new style in Persian fiction in the vein of "magical realism." The fundamentalist Iranian government has banned "Satan's Stones." Its openly frank explorations of these relationships in Iranian society offends the majority of Islamic leaders in the modern Islamic Republic of Iran.
hile the literary style in "Satan's Stones" is an issue, a much deeper one is the evocation of the Iranian past, particularly a non-Islamic Zoroastrian Persian past that antedates the Islamic period and with an eclectic folk magical tradition that flourished during times in Iranian history when the Shiite…… [Read More]
5TH FLEET IN BAHAIN AND THE U.S. AND EU OIL EMBAGO IN IAN
OLE OF THE U.S. 5TH FLEET IN BAHAIN AND THE U.S. AND EU OIL EMBAGO IN IAN
ole of the U.S. 5th fleet" in Bahrain
ole of the U.S. 5th fleet" in Bahrain
foreign aid to Bahrain, where the U.S. Fifth Fleet is centered, constitutes directly to the U.S. Government's aims to maintain safety in the Persian Gulf. Bahrain is the only Arab state that has led one of the Coalition Task Forces that move around the Gulf, and has issued to move its flagship in support of the formation counter-piracy mission. As suggested by Edward & Marolda (1998) U.S. aids assists Bahrain, which have no oil wealth of its neighbors, get the training and equipment it requirement to operate alongside U.S. air and naval forces. U.S. military access to Bahrain also uplifts the operations in Iraq,…… [Read More]
Molnar feels that the president of the United States is using his son's life, and the lives of many other soldiers, as a tool to further his own political career. He feels that the United States had a shoddy foreign policy for more than a decade and, just as the pressure cooker began to explode, began to try to remedy the situation with a bandage. Molnar contends that the United States is not behaving in the best interest of the people, but is only acting to secure cheap oil and continue using 25 to 30% of this natural resource. The alternative view is that the president had the welfare of the people in mind when he sent soldiers off to the Persian Gulf, and that it was necessary to send troops to the Gulf in order to avoid the possibility of an oil shortage in the United States. In his…… [Read More]
The faith allows for stoning of people, torture of women and the suicide bombings that the world has grown accustomed to suffering (Hoagland, 2001).
Islamic fundamentalist believe that their faith instructs them to seek out and destroy Americans. They also believe that if they are suicide bombers they will be rewarded in heaven ten fold. As America continues to fight against the human rights violations that Persian Gulf nations continue to support, the fundamentalists believe it is their calling and duty to act against American interests. They want American interests out of their area and they will do what it takes to get it done including acts of terrorism.
As the world watched in wonder the Soviet Union collapsed. It dismantled its government, it started over and it began to rebuild as a democracy after many years of being in a cold war with the United States.
For some the…… [Read More]
It was fairly interesting meeting and exploring the personality, values and mores of my immersion activity patient partner. In many ways, it can be acknowledged that she and I had a fair amount in common, ate least in terms of culture. Her parents were Persian Jewish and Israeli, respectively, while my parents are both Persian. In that respect, there was definitely a similarity in values that can be attributed to a cultural influence that has a number of points of comparison between both of our lineages. The immersion experience activity conversation took place at an Israeli restaurant where my partner and I enjoyed excellent meals and were able to talk and get to know one another's backgrounds for upwards of two hours. I think it was fairly revealing that we each brought along companions -- she was accompanied by her boyfriend, while I was attended by my wife.…… [Read More]
military place Zhou dynasty China? What social impact ? eference Book: A History World Societies,
Essentially, Alexander the Great incurred the displeasure of his Macedon army during the battle of Gaugamela. This battle took place in the part of Iraq that is today known as Irbil. The reason that Alexander's soldiers were displeased with their leader is because after traversing through various parts of Asia and conquering it, Alexander's contingent eventually came upon Darius' forces in the midst of the night. Alexander's army was able to tell that it was the army of the mighty Persian king, whom Alexander had a profound respect for, due to the campfires that they were able to see faintly glowing in the distance within the darkness.
A minor dispute arose between Alexander and his troops because the former were inclined to attack the Persian king in the depths of the night, hoping that…… [Read More]
Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.
As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…… [Read More]
normal I offer. hy? Because I potential a false flag attack London Olympics worth researching. Okay,'s deal. You write a paper length normal extra credit assignment explained Extra Credit Unit.
Conspiracy theory or terrorism? -- The 2012 London Olympics
There has been a lot of controversy in the recent years regarding conspiracies and how some of the world's most influential individuals are actively engaged in a plot to exploit mankind. False flag attacks are believed to be attempts performed by these individuals with the purpose of justifying their intervention in particular areas that they are interested in. This year's London Olympics represents one of the most intriguing opportunities for certain actors to put their strategies into work, considering that the world's attention is focused on the event and that the number of people present there would surely draw significant responsiveness from an international public concerned in penalizing individuals and groups…… [Read More]
Tweeet Pie: the 'twecipe' book of 140-character recipes
Social Media Marketing has now become one essential ingredient of every business on fire, planning to serve community in most delicious way possible. Seemingly every big or small business can multiply its repute and sales drastically by employing social media techniques. Like the one brilliant step taken by UK cooker brand Belling, eager to reposition its name by grabbing attention of folks socializing on Twitter who love to cook and share their fun and interest with others worldwide.
The campaign was not just all about bringing in recipes of mouth watering treats in a short recipe book bearing the name of 'tweet pie', but its outstanding aspect was to limit the length of every recipe to 140 characters. This was the most engaging feature for twitter fans and audiences (Cooking up the twecipe book, 2011)
People were requested to tweet…… [Read More]
great warrior civilizations of antiquity the name "Spartan" invariably arises. Stephen Pressfield in the impressive novel "Gates of Fire" stirringly resurrects these ancient warriors and their society.
Describe the General Storyline of this book.
As the book begins, a captured Spartan squire named Xeones (the sole survivor of the last stand at Thermopylae) is recounting the compelling story of the 300 Spartans who fought to their death at Thermopylae to the Persian King. Xeones's narrative does not restrict itself to just an accounting of the battle but also reflects the trials experienced in his own life, the day-to-day life of Spartan society, and the humanity, compassion, and grief of his fallen brothers in arms.
How does Pressfield present the Spartans and their Society? hat attributes
Characteristics) does he claim that the Spartans exhibited. How did the other Greeks perceive the Spartans?
Pressfield, obvious from the outset of the accounting, justly…… [Read More]
This situation, combined with the fact that countries from the former Soviet Union produced less oil, made the Western countries to consider Saudi Arabia their main oil supplier.
Saudi Arabia responded to the increased interest showed by the West by expanding its capacity plan for the oil industry. As a consequence, the largest Saudi Arabian companies in the industry increased their domestic crude oil capacity. These companies also invested in quality, not just in quantity. Although the country's economic relationships with the West significantly intensified, Saudi Arabia improved its regional trade sector by addressing markets like Iran, Central Asia, South Asia, and Kuwait.
However, the country was significantly affected by the Persian Gulf War. As a result of the war, the country's government finances were reduced. Not even the substantial revenues from oil could sustain the cost of the war. The country was forced to borrow money from international organizations…… [Read More]
Athens and Sparta were the two opponents of ancient Greece that clattered most and bestowed us with the majority of customs and traditions. Despite the fact that the two poleis were close together geographically, both differed greatly in their values and ways of living1.
Athens and Sparta: History
The enriching, intellectual and artistic heritage of ancient Athens to the world is immense and immeasurable. The indications to the Greek legacy that flourish in the civilization of Western Europe are attributed to Athenian civilization. Athens was made the strongest Greek city-state after the Persian Wars. Though it was a good deal smaller and less dominant than Sparta at the beginning of the wars, Athens was more energetic, efficient and effectual in the warfare against Persian Empire. Miltiades, Themistocles, and Cimon were the Athenian heroes who were mainly responsible for making the city strong. Athens reached the pinnacle of its cultural and…… [Read More]
Looking at art and historical artifacts can tell us immense amounts of information regarding the society and culture from which these objects came from. Art can be revealing and informative in the same manner that books can tell readers about history and cultural conventions, many times providing specific details about its origin. These details can then provide viewers with an informed and comprehensive view of cultures and societies. Art is a reflection of not only the artist which creates the piece, but also a reflection of the atmosphere in which the artist lived. These reflections through art can point to specific themes and subjects that were important during the times that these artists lived. Power and Status are themes that can be considered universal in virtually all cultures regardless of their respective geographical location or historical era.
The intention of this essay is to provide the historical background…… [Read More]
Alexander -- the Great
Alexander, who was the son of Phillip II, sat on the throne of Macedon when he was 22 years of age. Between his twenty third and thirty third birthday, in a period of ten years, he conquered most of the known civilizations of the world, from Indus to the Adriatic Sea. (Southern Utah University, 2005)
The history indicates that these conquests of Alexander became possible because of his remarkable personality and military genius. He is regarded as mystery to the world as he has not left behind any diary, formal discourse on the art of war or theory of monarchy. All the world has are some parts of his speech, fragments of his conversations and a number of stories that depicted his various abilities and hi intelligence. (Southern Utah University, 2005)
Alexander's biography tells the world very little about this man. His biography indicates that he…… [Read More]
Desire, Emotion, and Knowledge: Greek Society and Culture in the Classical Period (480-338 .C.)
Following the aftermath of Greeks' victory over Persians during 480-479 .C., Greek society has undergone rapid changes and revival in its political, economic, and cultural structures, called the Classical period of Greek society and culture. This period, 480-338 .C., is characterized by the emergence of new reforms in the society, such as the establishment of a new Athenian democratic government, the gradual assertion of women equal treatment in a patriarchal Greek society, and the flourishing of the arts through philosophy, literature, mathematics, and science.
Indeed, the Classical period is more appropriately described as a time wherein human potential and intelligence is at its highest. As Plato had stated, "Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, knowledge." This statement from the Greek philosopher brings into lucidity the important works of literature that had…… [Read More]
In Iran, the need for more robust information technologies in the classroom is apparent. he outmoded methods of education still practiced, ie. ones that do not ascribe to the Global Village concept, are reflective of the philosophy of Michel Foucault. Foucault argued that the modern education system had become too prison-like. We need to "understand the subtle, complex and harmful effects of power relations that shape and control educational institutions," (McDonough, 1993). A revolution in education is called for, one that maintains some of the essential social and political structures that define modern Iran while also incorporating liberalizing elements that bring Persian students into the era of globalization.
Foucault's analysis of the importance of power in the educational system is especially apt when applied to educational institutions in Iran. "Foucault was concerned mostly with power," as Cheshier (n.d.) points out. Yet the analysis is far deeper than that. It is…… [Read More]
Islam / Arab Success
hy did Islam and the Arabs succeed in spreading throughout the Greater Middle-East / Gulf against the Byzantines and Persians?
Religion has been a major influence on the course of human history. In the Middle East, religion has been the impetus for discord since before recorded times. This area of the world has had central religious attention because of the location of the Holy Land in both Jewish and Christian theologies. At one point, the Byzantines and Persians controlled the landscape of this part of the world, but lost leadership in the face of Islam and Arab cultures. In the present moment, one of the primary religions in the Middle-East and Gulf regions is Islam. People who are a part of the Islam religion or people who are Arab have been able to spread their culture throughout the area until this has become the majority way…… [Read More]
Muhammad appointed no successors and had no sons, only his son-in-law Ali. In fact, under Islam there could never be another prophet after Muhammad since his revelation was considered to be the true and final word of God. Instead, the Arab tribal leaders elected Abu-Bakr as kalifa (caliph) on the grounds that he was one of the first converts to Islam outside of the Prophet's family. His policy was to unite the Arabs in a jihad against the Byzantine omans and Persian Sasanids, and in a very short time, "the mightiest empires in the Middle East…were humbled by the Arab warriors for Islam" (Glouldschmidt and Davidson, 2009, p. 53).
Within 100 years, the Arab-Islamic Empire had conquered a truly vast territory, from Spain to the borders of China, and come close to taking over all of Europe. For the Arabs, this was the Golden Age of science,…… [Read More]
Many lessons can be learned from Khafji. First, the situation demonstrates effective coalition fighting; the Qatari and Saudi troops effectively squelched the Iraqi incursion not only in Khafji but also to the West, near the Kuwaiti border. Stratifying coalition forces into primary and secondary sectors ensures organized and effective responses to surprise attack like this one. The Saudi and Qatari forces not only drove back the Iraqis but prevented further problems. This allowed Marine forces to organize their reconnaissance mission and establish ground presence along the strategic Saudi-Kuwaiti border.
Second, Khafji proved a strategic stronghold, allowing American and coalition forces to amass troops only six miles from the Kuwaiti border: "occupying forward positions in anticipation of a future ground offensive." In contrast, Iraqi troops lay "entrenched behind layers of minefields, barbed wire and fortifications in occupied Kuwait."
Murphy, C. & Gugliotta, G. (1991). "Saudi Town eclaimed." Washington Post. Feb…… [Read More]
This was true for example in the northern countries of Europe where Protestantism had firmly embedded itself an thrown off Church teaching. ars were the result as the Holy Roman Empire attempted to put down the Protestant Rebellions -- but the Peace of estphalia in 1648 finally and politically gave the Protestant countries in the north of Europe the right to exercise their new religions. Humanism, indeed, was spreading as a result of the Renaissance and many societies were willing to adopt it.
Bennett, Judith. Queens, hores and Maidens: omen in Chaucer's England.
University of London. 5 March 2002. Royal Halloway, Hayes Robinson Lecture Series No. 6. eb. 23 March 2011.
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Greece. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003.
Jusserand, J.J. English ayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. Chatham, UK: &J Mackay & Co. Ltd., 1950.…… [Read More]
personal statement emba additional details hesitate mail.thx SARFARAZ IQBAL PATEL Dubai, U.A.E Mob # 00971506505573 E-mail: -- KEY PROFICIENCIES INCLUDE: • • Business Development • Recruitment selection • Motivation Reward • Key networking skills • Strategic Accounts • Employee Development • Relationship Development • Market Identification ? PROFILE Highly qualified professional strong background Sales, Sales Management, Business Development Account Management collaborative environments.
Personal statement: MBA
I have over twelve years of experience in sales and marketing leadership positions with my current employer Orchid Gulf FZ, an independent trading company specializing in luxury paper. As part of my work for Orchid, I have cultivated relationships with a variety of international companies, spanning from Fedrigoni (Italian), Mohawk (U.S.A), Schefeulen (Germany), to Terraskin (U.S.A). My position has enabled me to become fluent in a variety of business customs, cultures, and attitudes. I seek to broaden and develop this fluency over the course of…… [Read More]
role sumed pipeline EGYPT international trade kind special services customers petroleum sector. notice: references internet .
Sumed Pipeline in Egypt
Traditionally, oil would be transported from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean region via the Suez Canal, which has also earned a remarkable historic resonance to its name. After a decade of construction, the Suez Canal was first used in 1869 and its aim is that of allowing transportation by water from Asia to Europe, without having to travel around Africa.
The Suez Canal is the traditional choice for transporting goods from one region to the other, and it is open to the access of all vessels, in times of war and peace, regardless of the flags carried by the vessels. Still, a shortage in using the Suez Canal is represented by the delays which can be encountered and the queues that can be created.
As a result of these…… [Read More]
Iraq War - on Iraq and the U.S.
The drums of war once again echo in my ears. I am disgusted seeing Donald umsfeld on television defending the U.S. invasion of Iraq. CNN shows old footage of umsfeld shaking Saddam Hussein's hand, made in the late eighties when the U.S. was providing know-how for Saddam to build chemical weapons. I was five years old when we left the country, but I have one clear memory of the Iran-Iraq war in the 1987. I was at my grandmother's house in Esfahan, Iran.
My grandfather was listening to the radio report on our volunteer army, fighting the evil Saddam Hussein in the name of Islam. Grandfather turns the radio up; its' a bombing raid. "Let's go," Grandfather says; we go to the basement and I hear engines roaring. My mother presses me to her bosom. The roaring gets louder; they…… [Read More]
They also counted with cavalry and carts.
However on thin passages or gorges, the Persian cavalry could not display its full power and their number superiority was blocked, since their spears were shorter than the Greek weapons. The narrow battlefield of the gorge forced them to fight almost in equal number with the Greek army, forcing them to retreat after two days of battle.
The Persian army achieved important victories: the Greek fleet was rejected on the Artemisium cape and, after the victory over Leonidas of Sparta and his 300 men on the gorge of Thermopylae, the news of the first Persian victories spread over the country and discouraged the Greek army that retreated from battle, bringing new victories for Xerxes's army. The Persians devastated Boeotia and the Attica, reaching Athens.
After the Thermopylae defeat, on August of 480 B.C., in Athens there was consternation. However, instead of surrendering, the…… [Read More]
In the end, the Spartan/Greek army's superior armor and weapons and clever use of topography to counterbalance the Persian's greater numbers helps to explain their victories on a military level. Unfortunately, Leonidas and his fellow Spartans were massacred after a local Greek revealed to Xerxes a secret route around the narrow pass, allowing the Persians to attack the Spartans from the front and the rear at the same time. At the conclusion of the battle, Leonidas and his 300 brave Spartans were all dead, along with most of the other Greek fighters. Amazingly, Leonidas and his men had managed to kill more than 20,000 Persians which demonstrated the superior fighting skills of the hoplites and their devotion to the ideal of political freedom more than one hundred years before the city of Athens reached its zenith as the foundation of Greek democratic ideals and individualism.
Greco-Persian Wars: attle of…… [Read More]
Alexander saw himself as that philosopher-king who would install a new kind of cooperation and brotherhood with one or unified Greek culture, Hellenism, and speaking a common language, Greek (Smitha 1998). He intended that his subjects in the East would be reared and trained to become like the Greeks and Macedonians.
In consolidating his huge territory, Alexander founded cities, mostly named Alexandria, in suitable and well-paved locations with sufficient supply of water. His army veterans, young men, merchants, traders and scholars settled there, infused Greek culture and, through them, the Greek language widely flourished. Through his mighty victories and territorial control, Alexander thus spread Greek civilization and paved the way for the incoming Hellenistic kingdoms and the conquest of the Roman Empire (Microsoft 2004).
He also felt that trade would unite his empire more strongly and so he forced new commercial possibilities and made abylon the center of brisk world…… [Read More]
Persia became Iran
Iran, which is the name nowadays for its country, was formerly known as Persia. The two identities of present day Iran is associated both to the peak of power of pre-Islamic, Achaemenid Persia, as also to its Islamic origin situated both in the 7th century start of Islam in Iran via Arab invasion, and to its 16th century when Shiite Islam formally turned out the state religion of Iran. The country has always been acknowledged among its own people as Iran (land of the Aryans); even though for centuries it was pinpointed to as Persia (Pars or Fars, a provincial state in southern Iran) by the Europeans, mainly because of the writings of Greek historians. In 1935 the government mentioned that it should be called Iran, although in 1949 allowances were made for both names to be implemented. Persia turned out a powerful empire under the Cyrus…… [Read More]
What all of the above makes clear is that, while Navy pilots may have played a smaller role in one-on-one combat than pilots from other service branches, naval support was critical to the victory in Gulf War I.
While it is easier to view war as a collection of nameless, faceless soldiers, the reality is that a war is really a collection of personal stories. On January 22, 1991, a downed American Navy pilot was rescued by an Air Force team. It was "the first successful such mission over hostile territory in the war with Iraq."
The pilot "had ejected after being hit by Iraqi ground fire, and had parachuted into a bleak, empty stretch of the Iraqi desert."
The operation to rescue him took eight hours, four of them in Iraqi territory. To rescue the downed pilot, members of the rescue crew had to destroy an Iraqi…… [Read More]