Physician Assistant Essays (Examples)

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Motivation to Become a Physician

Words: 307 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4338214

Currently, I am working as a surgical technologist in two hospitals in Arkansas - Arkansas Children Hospital and the VA Hospital. I do surgical scrub on various cases of all surgical services, general, orthopedics, vascular, ENT, neurology, urology, and burns. To update and enhance my skills, I attended different medical training courses.

Since my youth, I had been in the scene of medicine. At the age of seventeen I was diagnosed with diabetes. Hence, in y sophomore years in college, I did a presentation on diabetes where I provided information on the symptoms, complications, and how to cope with diabetes. During my Junior year, I had family members that were diagnosed with breast cancer, glaucoma, heart attacks and thyroid problems.

Such experiences are my motivations in becoming a Physician Assistant. The feeling that I get from providing medical services is unfathomable and cannot be measured by anything.… [Read More]

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Jerry Mccall Dr Williams Office Assistant Licensed

Words: 1180 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90709200

Jerry McCall Dr. Williams Office Assistant

Licensed Practical Nurses and Medical Assistants: Legal and Ethical Implications

According to recent reports from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, medical assistants and licensed practical nurses (LPN) are two of the fastest growing jobs in the country (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010). In an effort to save costs, the demand for these professionals is increasing in both in-hospital and outpatient settings. The licenses and registrations, however, remain unstandardized; while LPNs are required to receive a license, some medical assistants receive a one or two-year degree and still others are only trained on the job. The responsibilities and restrictions of the profession are likewise only loosely regulated and vary between states. This has both ethical and legal implications for patient care. The following case scenario illustrates these ramifications and discusses the appropriate course of action for medical assistants working in a clinical setting.

The Case:

Jerry McCall is an office assistant in an outpatient physician's office. He has received professional training as both a medical assistant and LPN. He is the only person in the office when a patient calls and says he must have a prescription refill for Valium called in immediately to…… [Read More]


Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition, Medical Assistants, on the Internet at (visited October 17, 2011).

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition, Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses, on the Internet at (visited October 17, 2011).

Couch, C., Minchella, K., Walker, R., Watson N. Occupational Analysis of the CMA (AAMA). (2008). American Association of Medical Assistants, 2007-2008. Available from

Ferrell, C.W., Aspy, C.B., Mold, J.W. (2006). Management of Prescription Refills in Primary Care: An Oklahoma Physicians Resource/Research Network (OKPRN) Study. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 19, 1, 31-38.
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Medical Assistant and Intravenous Therapy

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83037995

Intravenous Therapy or IV

Fluids are introduced intravenously into the body in order to replace supply and electrolytes (Pearson 2010). These are large amounts of fluid, electrolytes or nutrients administered to a patient who needs them and cannot take them orally. Medication is also administered intravenously by a physician or by a nurse. The physician informs the nurse on the type, amount, and the rate of the solution to be injected. The nurse is responsible for carrying out the physician's exact instruction to start the therapy and other responsibilities attached to the instruction. State laws specify which health care professionals can start an IV and administer it. Some States allow medical assistants with advanced training and physician supervision to start an IV. Medical assistants, however, should be aware of the risks as they are not trained to push IV medications. Although they become acquainted with IV therapy, it is not a competency (Pearson).

Medical Assistants

They are in charge of the upkeep of the office of the physician or another health practitioner (BLS 2009). In small practices, they perform multi-tasks, administrative and clinical. In large practices, they tend to specialize in a given field but under the supervision of department…… [Read More]


BLS. Medical Assistants. Bureau of Labor Statistics: U.S. Department of Labor, 2009.

Retrieved on February 23, 2012 from

Keir, Lucile et al. Medical Assisting 5th edition, Thomson Delmar Learning: Thomson

Corporation, 2006. Retrieved on February 22, 2012 from
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My Motivation Towards Becoming a PA Personal Statement

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42255672

Physician Assistant Program Narrative

Personal Statement: My Motivation towards Becoming a PA

We all have dreams and aspirations. As a young child, my dream was to become a chef. When asked why I wanted to become a chef, my answer was always consistent; "I wanted to delight people by preparing them delicious dishes." As I grew up, I became more informed and my view of the world became clearer -- and it was then that I realized that deep inside, I wanted to end up in a profession that impacted positively on the lives of others. A profession that brought delight to those I interacted with. Then, something happened that completely convinced me that I would most comfortably serve in any of the helping professions. A couple of months after my 10th birthday, my younger brother got bitten by a dog in his face -- right below his left eye. I vividly remember seeing a lot of blood oozing from his face. I also clearly remember, like it was just the other day, racing him to the ER (in the company of my parents) and watching as health professionals attended to him. To cut the long story short, I was…… [Read More]

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Certified Nursing Assistants Are an Important Part

Words: 413 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76586250

Certified nursing assistants are an important part of health care settings today. Certified nursing assistants and professional health care settings experience challenges and barriers in their day-to-day experiences. They are challenges that certified nursing assistants must go through during their training or during their career, so that they may learn and experience different situations and how to deal with those situations.

I experienced a barrier at one point when I saw blood and could not handle the situation. One day, I was placed responsible for a certain patient, along with another certified nursing assistant. We would take care of her at certain times of the day. During an evening shift, the patient was going to have some blood work done and the registered nurse on duty came in to take her blood. The other certified nursing assistant and I were asked to observe the situation that was about to occur. As we were watching the registered nurse take out the blood, the nurse did something wrong where the blood began to spatter out. The patient got nervous and so did I. I saw the blood spattered on her arm and began to feel dizzy. I then felt as if I…… [Read More]

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Personal Digital Assistants in Healthcare

Words: 3529 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14745011

Personal Digital Assistants in Healthcare

Current Applications and Future Trends in the Use of Personal Digital Assistants in Healthcare

Today, healthcare practitioners enjoy a wide range of digital equipment that can help them provide more efficient healthcare services, including laptop computers, cellular telephones and personal digital assistants, or PDAs. These devices have been used in various ways by clinicians to improve their ability to deliver more timely and accurate diagnoses and treatments, and it is clear that the use of these devices will continue to increase in the future. The purpose of this study is to provide a current snapshot of how personal digital assistants are being used in various healthcare settings, including military and government tertiary facilities and the use of PDAs on the battlefield in times of war, but with a specific focus on how PDAs are being used in nongovernmental healthcare facilities today. To this end, a critical review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature is provided below to describe the general history and evolvement of PDAs, a recapitulation of current literature and research studies, a discussion of how these devices are currently being used in the healthcare arena, and an estimation of future trends based…… [Read More]


Blow, F.C., Barry, K.L., Walton, M.A. et al. (2006). The efficacy of two brief intervention strategies among injured, at-risk drinkers in the emergency department: Impact of tailored messaging and brief advice. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67(4), 568.

Cieslak, D.M., & Van Winkle, M. (2004). Carry your office in the palm of your hand; a pocket-size device is your computer when you're on the road. Journal of Accountancy, 198(2), 52.

Corbett, M.L. (1996, January). Choosing the perfect PDA: Personal digital assistants help busy professionals. Black Enterprise, 26(6), 34.

Greisler, D.S., & Jackson, J.R. (2000). The changing nature of physician power: Understanding physician power and its future. Journal of Power and Ethics, 1(4), 260.
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Surpass Website Development Creation Maintenance and More

Words: 1556 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86512347

AAPA, NJPAS, and NJSSPA are professional bodies representing the Physician Assistants. AAPA is a nation wide body which claims to be the sole national level organization, which is representing the Physician Assistants in the United States and is working for the benefit of PAs in all specialty areas. This organization mainly provides support to the Physician Assistants in employment matters and other professional issues. AAPA stands for "American Academy of Physicians Assistants. On the other hand, NJPAS and NJSSPA are New Jersey-based organizations representing the PAs in the New Jersey region. NJPAS is basically a student organization, which provides educational and professional support to PA students while NJSSPA is a professional body of Physician Assistant practitioners operating at the state level.

The development of the website "" will be beneficial for both the Physician Assistant students and the working students. This website will serve as a platform for sharing the experiences and information of the members which will help the members to broaden their spectrum. This will also facilitate in meeting the long-term objectives of these organizations i.e. To promote quality medical care to the general public by educating them about the medical care issues and by developing a more…… [Read More]


The American Academy of Physician Assistants: from the World Wide Web:

New Jersey Physician Assistant Students: from the World Wide Web:
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Concerns on Healthcare Delivery

Words: 1485 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8778723

Medical Care Services

The current delivery of health care services represents one of the most important subjects for discussion both in the Obama Administration as well as the Republican one and the Administrations that preceded the Bush one. Regardless of political color, it must be pointed out that the health care system in the United States does not only depend on the ideological orientation, but also on the people and their own beliefs in terms of human action and interaction. It is a clear fact that "Ten years ago, the U.S. healthcare system was declared "broken," and it has not improved. Fixes promised by managed care have not materialized. Premiums are rising. Hassles for patients and physicians abound. Nearly 45 million Americans are uninsured." (Garson, 2000)

One of the most severe problems facing the health care system in the United States is the discussion that is being held between those that argue health care system is the representative of a social state and the ones that consider health care as part of the minimum basis of social care that a state is mandatory to provide to its citizens in response to the social contract that the citizens of the state…… [Read More]


Garson, Arthur. "Current Perspective. The U.S. Healthcare System 2010. Problems, Principles, and Potential Solutions" 2000. Available at

ImpediMed. "Pre-emptive vs. Reactive Models of Care: Pre-emptive Care Model Prospectively Managing Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Patients" 2012. Available at

Yale School of Medicine. "The PA Profession." 2013. Available at
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Independent Role of Nurse Practitioners

Words: 1140 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82032570

Nurse Practitioners Should Work Independently of Physicians

One of the problems facing health care is the inadequate number of primary-care physicians, more so among the rural population. There are fears that shortages will only get worse as a rising number of patients look for care Under Affordable Care Act. Besides the provision of advanced nursing care, nurses have licenses to offer clinical care, including the ordering of X-rays and lab work, and are particularly helpful in helping patients having chronic conditions like high blood pressure and diabetes cope (Holmes, 2013).

Nearly one third of states now permit nurse practitioners to practice in the absence of physician supervision. Nursing groups as well as health-care interests are however lobbying that nurses be granted the same level of autonomy in all states as in the other states that do not require physician supervision. Some interest group, while still appreciating the efforts put forth by nurses, argue that teamwork instead of autonomy would do more for our health-care than granting nurses autonomy. Angela Golden, an assistant professor at Northern Arizona University and the president of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, is one of those arguing for the case of autonomous practice without physician…… [Read More]


Dueker, M.J., A.K. Jacox, D.E. Kalist, and S.J. Spurr. The Practice Boundaries and Advanced Practice Nurses: An Economic and Legal Analysis. Journal of Regulatory Economics, 27, 2005, 309-29.

Holmes, L. (2013, June 13). Should Nurse Practitioners be able to treat patients without Physician Oversight. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal:

John, P. (2009, January 10). The rise and impact of nurse practitioners and physician assistants on their own and cross-occupation incomes. Retrieved from FPO:

Page, L. (2014, October 29). Physicians, NPs and PAs: Where's all this going? Retrieved from Medscape Multispeciality:
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Graduate Sociology Communauty Development University

Words: 429 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49327497

graduate Sociology ( Communauty development ) University Lome, Togo West Africa, french speeking country Now serving a class Aviation Boxwain Equipment Navy My plan crossrate (change rate- change job) corpsman I gain experience school Physician assistant I 38 years .

Personal statement

I am currently serving in the United States Navy. However, my ultimate career goal is to become a physician or a physician's assistant when I leave the service. A desire to help others has been the driving force in my life path and education. My passion for service is one of the reasons I joined the military in the first place, combined with the experiences in leadership it offered me. I will continue to serve the public even after I retire through my professional work in healthcare. My long-term goal is to become a health care Foreign Service specialist, merging my knowledge of foreign cultures and healthcare delivery systems that I gain in the Navy with my new basis in technical medical expertise in medical school. This is why I hope to change my job in the Navy to become a U.S. Hospital Corpsman, to deepen my exposure to the healthcare field while I am still enlisted and…… [Read More]

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Reason for Choosing Nursing as a Career

Words: 838 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79705697


Personal Statement

Choosing Nursing

My life has centered upon answering a central question. This question has been a in my mind since I was 10 years old. At that age, my first image of medicine was largely influenced by the doctors and nurses who were always helping my grandfather battle a rare form of brain cancer. His illness was a life changing experience for me, as, at that age, I watched his condition gradually deteriorate over a period of three months, and I detested I could do nothing to help. This thought, however painful then, has motivated my entire life, and has led to my choosing of nursing as a profession,

Though some did not approve of this particular career path, I never gave up my dreams. For this reason, I began studying and volunteering so as to combine education in theory with education in practice. Giving back to my community has always been something I have held as a priority. For this reason, it seemed only logical to begin volunteering. Furthermore, I had had experience with this activity due to the fact that I volunteered as a teenager, a time during which I worked with physicians at local…… [Read More]

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Advancing in My Life Is Important to Me

Words: 1039 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98373374

total I have 13 years in the nursing field. Throughout that combined time I have worked in nursing homes / assisted living facilities, home health, as well as in a hospital setting. During the time that I worked in the hospital I worked in a program called share the care. This entailed me working throughout the entire hospital as a nursing assistant, which gave me experience in various areas, i.e. The emergency room, intensive care, pediatrics, oncology and etc. By being apart of this program it has afforded me the opportunity to do what I truly love, be a part of the whole process of nursing sick patients back to health. This has always been a passion of mine.

A Nurse practitioner is a nurse who has completed a graduate nursing degree and training in providing preventive and medical health care to individuals and families in association with a physician. The nurse practitioner provides health screening, performs physical examinations, orders laboratory tests and prescribes specific medications authorized by the physician. Nurse practitioners also educate patients about staying healthy. They often take care of special populations such as the rural poor, migrant farm workers, elderly persons and children. In communities or…… [Read More]


Greensboro AHEC Kids (2005). Nurse practitioner. Retrieved 09/23/05, from

U.S Department of Labor (2004-2005). Physicians Assistant. Occupational Outlook Handbook,, . Retrieved 09/23/05, from
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Role of an Advanced Practice

Words: 3411 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42231364

In other words, physicians authorize the nurse practitioner to prescribe certain medications -- perhaps not all but those medications that are most often required by patients -- without getting approval from a physician. It saves time and is primarily designed to make the patient more comfortable, not just to hand additional authority to the nurse practitioner.

Is prescriptive authority appropriate? This question, according to Patricia Berry, a faculty member at the University of Utah, is raised often because there is in the healthcare industry a "…misapprehension about pain and addiction" (Lebo, p. 1). There are "myths about pain and pain management," Berry is quoted saying. Healthcare professionals get "…addiction, physical dependence and tolerance all mixed up," Berry continues. There are "erroneous beliefs about opioids and addiction, side effects, respiratory depression, those kinds of things," Berry explains (Lebo, p. 1).

In twenty-nine states physician collaboration is a "requirement," Lebo explains on page 2, and there are various regulations and restrictions that accompany physician collaboration. Indeed, in some states APRNs are subject to specific and even daunting restrictions on what medications they may prescribe. In West Virginia, for example, APRNs may not order Coumadin or "…more than 3 days of a benzodiazepine,"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Christianson, Martin. (2011). Advancing nursing practice: redefining the theoretical and practical integration of knowledge. Journal of Clinical Nursing, Vol. 20, 873-881.

Fagerstrom, L., and Glasberg. a-L. (2011). The first evaluation of the advanced practice

Nurse role in Finland -- the perspective of nurse leaders. Journal of Nursing Management,

Vol. 19, 925-932.
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Complexities of Modern Medicine Have

Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10274930

3. The current emphasis on wellness as the overall goal of health care has placed considerable pressure on the health care educational system (Kreitzer, 2009). The wellness emphasis has caused the health care educational system to focus its attention on treating the entire patient and to provide the patient with the maximum amount of choice, quality, convenience, and personal care while maintaining affordability. This means that medical schools must begin to train more physicians interested in performing primary care services and to direct these physicians to areas of the country that have been traditionally poorly served. In order to develop an overall system where preventive medicine is practiced so that more serious medical difficulties can be avoided a solid network of primary care providers is necessary. Ideally, these providers would be in the form of licensed physicians but a system that utilizes a hybrid mixture of physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners would work as well in the interim. The education system must also begin adapting its curriculum so that its graduates and students are capable of assisting in the goal of maintaining overall wellness among the general public. Toward this end all health care professionals must begin integrating their…… [Read More]


Cullen, T.J. (1997). The National Health Service Corps: Rural physician service and retention. Journal American Board Family Practice, 272-279.

Intitute of Medicine. (2001). Crossing the Quality Chasm: A new Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Kreitzer, M.J. (2009). Health Professions Education and Integrative Health Care. Washington, D.C.: Institute of Medicine Integrative Medicine and the Health of the Public.

Krystal Knight, e. a. (2010). Health Centers' Contributions to Training Tomorrow's Physicians. Washington, D.C.: Division of Public Policy and Research National Association of Community Health Centers, Inc.
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School Clinics Affects on Students

Words: 3382 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58532109

Utilization of the data and collection of the data should be one of the main aims of the policy makers. The data can be used by the policymakers in order to develop the policies and implement these in order to make sure that improvement can be ensured (Basch, 2011, p. 9).

3. One of the main roles that can be played by the policy makers includes reviewing the policies that have already been designed for the schools. How these previous policies have played roles in an improvement of academics of the children, their environments and their health are important parts of the review by the policymakers. It is important that funding is collected for the issues that affect health and academics of children.

4. The policymakers should make sure that the importance of school-based health clinics that can play roles in looking after the needs of the students.

Great levels of differences can be made by the schools in improving heath of the students. There is a great variety of educational supports that can be provided by the schools. Some of these services include healthcare programs, mental health services and breakfast programs. The importance of school-based programs lies in the…… [Read More]


Basch, C. (2011). Executive Summary: Healthier Students Are Better Learners. Journal of School Health 81, pp. 4-107.

Bruzzese, J., Sheares, B.J., Vincent, E.J., Du, Y., Sadeghi, H., Levison, M.J., Mellins, B.R., and Evans, D. (2011). Effects of a School-based Intervention for Urban Adolescents with Asthma: A Controlled Trial. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. April 15, 2011 183, pp. 998-1006.

Gall, G., Pagano, M.E., Desmond, S., Perrin, J.M., and Murphy, J.M. (2000). Utility of Psychosocial Screening at a School-based Health Center. Journal of School Health 70, pages 292 -- 298.

Geierstanger, P.S., Amaral, G., Mansour, M., and Walters, R.S. (2004). School-Based Health Centers and Academic Performance: Research, Challenges, and Recommendations. Journal of School Health 74, pages 347 -- 352.
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New Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines

Words: 2607 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97455247

Dr. Robb-Nicholson's data best supports the scenario that more incidents of breast cancer will be discovered due to the reduced number of screenings that the new guidelines suggest. According to the numbers she gives, the mortality rate for breast cancer decreases every year and this decrease can be attributed to the previous screening guidelines. She writes that the USPSTF has based the new guidelines on statistics rather than clinical data and the message that they are conveying to the public is that the number of deaths that regular screenings at beginning at the age of forty is too small to keep the guidelines as they were previously. (6)

The best approach would be to keep the guidelines the way they were before the change. There was not enough clinical data to support the change in guidelines. Also, because the mortality rate for breast cancer has steadily declined with women following the previous guidelines, there is no rational behind the change. If there are changes to be made to the guidelines, they should be based on clinical data and not just statistics alone. The statistics do not give us a true and clear picture of the mortality rates of breast cancer.…… [Read More]

References Cited

1. Cancer Weekly. Concerned Federal Screening Mammography Guidelines to Limit Access for Younger Women. Susan G. Komen for the Cure. 2010: 1665.

2. Stick with Older Mammography Recommendations. Stanford Experts Say. March 3, 2010 (Press Release from Stanford Hospital & Clinics).

3. Hoppel, Ann M. To screen, and when to screen: the mammography age divide. Clinician Reviews. 2009: 19.12.

4. Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. USP-STF: no routine mammography for women younger than 50 years. 2010; 23.2, p.66.
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Nurse Practitioner R N From R N

Words: 3164 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61840213

115). It seems many nurses or RN who prepare for the role of nurse practitioner are not fully informed of the demands that may be placed on them in their new role. This in turn may lead to job dissatisfaction later down the line and ultimately limit ones ability to succeed in their chosen field. Presently there is not enough research provided to provide conclusive evidence one way or another as to the extent to which problems or gaps in teaching may influence one's decision to move from one career to the next.

More information could be collected in the form of self-report surveys as mentioned previous that would assess whether nurses felt they were prepared educationally to take on the challenges of the role they currently held or aspired to (Evans, n.d.; Dumas, Villeneuve, & Chevrier, 2000). There are others however, that believe that in some cases the RN aspiring to the role of nurse practitioner or even that of physician assistant is adequately prepared to define the scope of their practice, and prepared for rotations in education, however, surveys do reveal a need for greater education of the ways to "best teach adult clinical students how to learn…… [Read More]


Blossom, Y.J., Ying-Chen, Y., & Wen-Hung, L. (2007). The influence of job characteristics on job outcomes of pharmacists in hospital, clinic, and community pharmacies. Journal of Medical Systems, 31(3): 224-29.

Buppert, C. (1999). Nurse Practitioner's business practice & legal guide. New York:

Aspen Publishers, Inc.

Dumas, L., Villeneuve, J. & Chevrier, J. (2000). A tool to evaluate how to learn from experience in clinical settings. Journal of Nursing Education, 39:6, 251-57.
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System Analysis of T-System Because of Its

Words: 3124 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5881106

System Analysis of T-SYSTEM

Because of its ability to improve the quality and delivery of health care services, the Electronic Health Record is becoming a necessity in almost every healthcare organization. The purpose of this paper is to explain the impact of having an electronic health record system in an emergency department. The current computerized system used at Suny Downstate Hospital in Brooklyn is called T-SYSTEM, and has been in operation since 2007. Documentation prior to its implementation was achieved through handwritten notes on various forms as well as through dictation by doctors. Suny Downstate Hospital had to update its system in order to meet state standards and quality core measures. The transition from paper to electronic documentation is major; while it assures many advantages, it also faces many challenges. As the author of this paper, I will be using my workplace as the unit (ED) project observed. I will also identify other healthcare professionals, such as fellow nurses who are assigned to Super User or to Preceptor positions and other multidisciplinary care providers, who assist with the system. I will also discuss the system, its benefits, contributions, deficiencies, and the challenges that the system must overcome in order to…… [Read More]

Reference List

B., C. (2012, November 19). Personal interview.

B., G. (2012, December 2). Personal interview.

E., G. (2012, November 19). Personal interview.

Fraser, C. (2012, November 19). Personal interview.
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Steps to Consider When Making a Healthcare Legislation

Words: 1626 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59119409

Policy-Bill on Protecting Access to Primary Care Act

Objective and anticipated outcome of the proposed legislation or regulation

On August 2, 2013, Congresswoman Suzanne Bonamici (D-OR) introduced the Protecting Access to Primary Care Act (H.R. 2986). The primary objective of the proposed legislation was to improve access to primary care for individuals enrolled in Medicaid. The anticipated outcome is that the bill will improve reimbursement rates for nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and other primary health care providers. The proposed legislation will make a small but significant change to the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which will motivate primary care providers to serve Medicaid patients (Brooks et al., 2015). With the current nursing shortage, it is anticipated that the Act will attract at least one million extra nursing professionals in the field. It is obvious that the country needs more primary care providers to meet the needs of the increasing population (Ricketts, 2013).

Background contributing to the legislation/regulation formation

Presently, the ACA offers increased remuneration rates for physicians. Unfortunately, it has failed to increase reimbursement for other primary care professionals such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners (Ricketts, 2013). For example, if a Medicare/Medicaid patient goes to the physician's office, Medicare will…… [Read More]


Brooks, C. J. M., Barnes, H., & Altares, S. D. (2015). Federal Polices Influence Access to Primary Care and Nurse Practitioner Workforce. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 11, 5, 526-530.

Davis, K., Abrams, M., & Stremikis, K. (2011). How the Affordable Care Act will strengthen the Nation's Primary Care Foundation. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 26, 10, 1201-3.

O'Malley, A. S. (2013). After-Hours Access to Primary Care Practices Linked with Lower Emergency Department Use and Less Unmet Medical Need. Health Affairs (Project Hope), 32, 1, 175-83.

Ricketts, T. C. (2013). How the Affordable Care Act Will Affect Access To Health Care in North Carolina. North Carolina Medical Journal, 74, 4.)
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Use of Advanced Nurses to Improve Healthcare Access

Words: 3619 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43233063

Healthcare Innovation

Healthcare is one of those industries and fields of work where the promotion of innovation and change management is key. It is also one of those fields where managing that change through tried-and-true practices such as evidence-based practice and so forth is a must. One change that is changing nursing a lot, especially when it comes to the advanced levels of nurses, is the flattening of the hierarchy that typically exists when it comes to what nurses are allowed to do, what they are expected to do and what they must do. Whether it be the aging of the population, the shortage of some types of doctors (or doctors in general) or general access to quality care for patients in general, there is often a distinct reason for the need and thus the prior mentioned need for innovation and proper change management in the nursing field is necessary and needed. While physicians and doctors in general should indeed remain above nurses when it comes to their level of responsibility and their list of duties, there is also the need to raise the profile and responsibility level of nurses and the shifts in the healthcare industry and society as…… [Read More]


Bassett, E. (2010). Doctors face cash flow problems with Medicare. Fort Worth Business

Press, 22(47), 29.

Delgado, C., & Mitchell, M. M. (2016). A Survey of Current Valued Academic Leadership

Qualities in Nursing. Nursing Education Perspectives, 37(1), 10-15. doi:10.5480/14-1496
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Analyzing the Strategic Planning

Words: 4804 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46611744

Strategic Planning May Successfully Aid the Patient-Centered Medical Home Model's Implementation and Value to Our Health Care System

How Using Strategic Planning May Successfully Aid the Patient-Centered Medical Home Model's Implementation and Value to Our Health Care System

In 1967, the AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics) introduced the concept of Medical Homes. These homes were at first assigned for obtaining children's medical records. Several decades later in 2002, the Academy expanded its policy statement on the concept, making it more comprehensive, accessible, compassionate and culturally-effective. The new policy also changed the focus of medical home from the child to the family. The ACP (American College of Physicians) and the AAFP (American Academy of Family Physicians) have also developed their own patient-care models which they refer to as "advanced medical home" and "medical home," respectively (PCPCC, 2007).

Many health care experts agree that the basic components of medical home definition include accessibility, teamwork, comprehensive care, patient-centered care and a focus on safety and quality. The medical home model is now accepted universally as a framework for how primary care ought to be structured and delivered. Some have described the medical home concept as a philosophy of care delivery that allows physicians…… [Read More]


AHIMA. (2013). Assessing and Improving EHR Data Quality. Journal of AHIMA, 84(2), 48-53.

AHIMA Board of Directors. (2011). New View of HIM: Introducing the Core Model. American Health Information Management Association.

AHRQ. (n.d.). Defining the PCMH. Retrieved March 11, 2016, from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality:

Alexander, J. A., Paustian, M., Wise, C. G., Green, L. A., Fetters, M. D., Mason, M., & Reda, D. K. (2013). Assessment and Measurement of Patient-Centered Medical Home Implementation: The BCBSM Experience. Annals of Family Medicine, 11(1), S74-S81.
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Horizontal Violence the Victorian and Other Healthcare

Words: 1352 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23075663

Horizontal Violence

The Victorian and Other Healthcare Facilities still have issues with horizontal violence in their work environments where many of these incidents occur, however, their facility feels, according to the Contemporary Nurse web site, that the main reason that there is so much animosity in the Victorian health center is because of the constant aggression that these nurses receive from dementia patients which causes some of these nurses to be more anxious, uptight, restless, and more likely to say something to offend other nursing staff especially the younger, less experienced, new graduates that have just joined the healthcare team. The Victorian chairman addressed in a letter he had wrote to the Minister for Health to politely ask him to think about his opinion on the report that the Victorian's Taskforce hostile working environment even though he shares his own beliefs and facts, noted in the "Victorian Taskforce on Violence in Nursing," about healthcare providers are consistently being exposed to bullying and violence in the workplace environment.

Furthermore, the participation and assistance of the individuals on the taskforce within Australian and intercontinental studies do reveal that since the nurses are the ones who out on the floor caring for patients,…… [Read More]


Morand, M. (2005, November). Victorian task force on violence in nursing. Retrieved from

Neill, J. (2007, February 28). Qualitative vs. quantitative research: key points in a classic debate. Retrieved from a
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Infection Related to Catheter Usage in Hospitals

Words: 9212 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56883508

Quality Improvement Program

Needs Assessment and Quality Improvement Plan

Paula Stechschulte, PhD, RN


This paper discusses the process of drafting a quality improvement plan at a community level medical facility, a plan that is aimed at reducing days under urinary catheter and also reducing the rates of infections associated with the said catheters. As a high rate of incidence of infection related to catheter usage is costly for the hospital, this implementation strategy is aimed both at reducing hospital costs and boosting patient health, safety and satisfaction. The requirement for this strategy is a level of nursing education, dedication and commitment that will necessitate training and a "go-live" session of implementation which can be stressful for workers and for patients as both adjust to change. The management directors will need to not only monitor progress using the Six Sigma method but also will need to effectively maintain levels of employee morale and support so that staff fatigue does not set in as a result of over-emphasis of the importance of monitoring catheters and implementing the overall strategy. The budget for the plan is estimated to be within the employable funds of the hospital but alternative fund raising measures are…… [Read More]


APIC (2008). -- Home. Guide to the Elimination of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTIs). Retrieved January 16, 2016, from

Brusch, J. (2015, August 18). Diseases & Conditions - Medscape Reference. Catheter-Related Urinary Tract Infection: Transmission and Pathogens, Guidelines for Catheter Use, Diagnosis. Retrieved January 15, 2016, from

Cetina, K. K., Bruegger, U. (2001). Transparency regimes and management by content in global organizations: The case of institutional currency trading. Journal of Knowledge Management, 5(2): 180-194.

Cooper, A. (2002). Six Sigma deployment in a large integrated health system. Quality Congress. ASQ's Annual Quality Congress Proceedings, ABI/INFORM Global: 71-76.
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Australian Health Care

Words: 1706 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62216658

Critical Thinking and Analysis

Developing critical thinking skills and using those skills to analyze the nursing practices, guidelines and standards provides the individual with the ability and capabilities to advance in a nursing career, helps the individual to assist others in achieving their goals and objectives, and assists the individual in the quest to become a more effective and efficient nurses. One recent study determined that nurses can also benefit from enhanced critical thinking skills "by describing the mental processes, or vigilance, nurses use to differentiate the significant from the non-significant observations made with regard to patients" (Robert, Petersen, 2013, p. 86). If that is true then critical thinking skills can be quite important to the nurse who is seeking to develop a relationship with his or her patients that provides for the optimum recovery through comprehensive observation.

A nurse who understands that thinking through what he or she is observing and then coming to a logical conclusion, is a nurse who likely cares enough to observe what is happening with the patient in the first place. For example, knowing that a patient with certain signs and symptoms will exhibit reactions to treatments or medications either positively or adversely can…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bozorgmehr, K.; Bruchhausen, W.; Hein, W.; Knipper, M.; Korte, R.; Razum, O.; Tinnemann, P.; (2014) The global health concept of the German government: strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities, Global Health Action, Vol. 7, pp. 1-4

Christou, A. & Thompson, S.C.; (2013) Missed opportunities in educating Aboriginal Australians about bowel cancer screening: Whose job is it anyway? Contemporary Nurse: A Journal for the Australian Nursing Profession, Vol. 46, Issue 1, pp. 59-69

Garrity, M.K.; (2013) Developing nursing leadership skills through reflective journaling: a nursing professor's personal reflection, Reflective Practice, Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp. 118-130

German, M.; (2013) Developing our cultural strengths: Using the 'Tree of Life' strength-based narrative therapy intervention in schools, to enhance self-esteem, cultural understanding and to challenge racism, Educational & Child Psychology, Vol. 30, Issue 4, pp. 75-99
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Reducing Readmission for Diabetes Patients

Words: 2695 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37664548

Quality Improvement Project

Diabetes -- Chronic Condition Background

Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Risk factors for type 1 diabetes

Risk factors for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

Risk factors for gestational diabetes

The Rationale for Selection

The Target Population

Intervention Plans

Target Goals

It has been estimated that in New York there is roughly two million people, or over twelve percent of the population, that have diabetes; furthermore, of this population, over half a million people have the condition but are not aware that they have it (American Diabetes Association, N.d.). It is further estimated that nearly five and a half million people, or over a third of the population, have prediabetes. Diabetes and diabetes-associated cardiovascular diseases have become the leading cause of death in the region accounting for roughly two-thirds of the deaths and the rates of diabetes has lead this trend to be referred to as the diabetes epidemic (Frieden, 2006).

Diabetes does not affect the general population evenly. Some communities are affected more severely (disparately impacted) by diabetes but do not receive a commensurate share of diabetes research, treatment and education; these communities include (American Diabetes Association, N.d.):

Latinos/Hispanics (English)

Latinos/Hispanics (Spanish)



Native Hawaiians…… [Read More]


American Diabetes Association. (N.d.). Health Disparities. Retrieved from American Diabetes Association:

American Diabetes Association. (N.d.). New York, New York. Retrieved from American Diabetes Association:

CDC. (2013). Diagnosed Diabetes, Age Adjusted Rate (per 100) Adults - Total 2013. Retrieved from Center for Disease Control:

Department of Health. (N.d.). Diabetes. Retrieved from New York State:
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Personal Statement for Admission Into Nurse Practitioner Program

Words: 810 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95846146

Personal Statement Application for the Nurse Practitioner Program at UCSF

I first experienced the duties of a nurse practitioner in WHATEVER, a small mountain village in Nepal.

From 1996-1998, I worked as a Community Health Volunteer with the American Peace Corps. During those two years, I worked with Nepalese women and children, teaching classes on first aid, family planning and nutrition. I also organized immunization clinics, ran a health library, and conducted community needs assessments.

I have always found great fulfillment in healthcare and in being part of people's recoveries. For this reason, I majored in Kinesiology and Biology at the University of Minnesota, even working towards an application to the Physician Assistant program during my last two years. After graduation, I worked as a nursing assistant.

Since then, I have also gained greater familiarity with pharmaceuticals and the managed healthcare system in my present work with the Daiichi Corporation.

Working as a Peace Corps Volunteer in Nepal, however, has significantly broadened my perspective on health and patient needs.

In the United States, many people equate healthcare with getting treatment when one is sick. However, there is much more to health than the occasional shot, prescription pill or worse, surgery.…… [Read More]

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State of the DNP

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2444227

DNP today a clash of culture, power, politics or none of these?

When first instituted, the DNP (Doctor of Nursing Practice) degree was thought to address a very important deficit within the nursing profession, namely a need for greater preparation of nurses to enter an increasingly complex and technologically sophisticated medical environment while still staying true to the practice-based focus of nursing. Before the DNP, nurses could either effectively remain stalled at the master's level of education or they could pursue a PhD, a research-focused degree. The DNP was designed to 'bridge the gap' between these two degrees for nurses who wished to remain in clinical practice yet gain a greater grounding in evidence-based medicine. Today, "there are many enthusiasts toward the DNP. Seen by some as a symbol of social progressivism…better parity with other practice disciplines such as medicine, audiology, physical therapy, and pharmacy, which all require a doctoral degree for entry into practice" (Bellini 2012:6). Thus, the DNP is not without precedent in other fields and can be seen as another step towards parity and the demand that nursing be regarded as an equal to, rather than as an auxiliary to other fields of medicine. It is patient-focused…… [Read More]


Bachmann, H. (2011) SDS reports: The DNP degree. Retrieved from: 

Bellini, S. (2012). The Doctor of Nursing Practice for entry into advanced practice: The

controversy continues as 2015 looms. NAINR. 12(1):1-6.
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PPACA on March 23 2010 the Patient

Words: 1009 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73826994


On March 23, 2010 the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was signed into law by President Barack Obama. Along with the Health Care Reconciliation Act of 2010, the PPACA became part of the overall Health Care Reform concept of 2010. The health care reform process was promoted as a way to completely transform the health care industry and ensure that all Americans received affordable health care. While supporters praise the legislation as a revolutionary law which will benefit ordinary Americans, critics claim that the Obama Administration used the health care reform process as a means of gaining control over the entire health care system. In an attempt to compare and contrast the provisions of this new law, this essay will discuss several provisions of the new health care legislation and compare the benefits as well as the criticisms of them.

Section 5501 of the PPACA provides for Medicare to pay primary care physicians, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, and physicians assistants a 10% bonus beginning in 2011. (PPACA: A Closer Look) This includes practitioners of family medicine, internal medicine, geriatric medicine and pediatric medicine "if at least 60% of their Medicare allowed charges & #8230;were for primary…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Appleby, Julie. (2011, Jan. 10). Effort To Reward Medicare Advantage Plans Draws Criticism. Kaiser Health News. Retrieved from

"Side Effects: Obamacare Could Punish Docs for Better Quality Care." (2010, July 16). The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved from

Gold, Jenny. (2011, Jam. 18). "Accountable Care Organizations, Explained." NPR. Retrieved from

"Health Care Reform: Annual Fee on Prescription Drug Manufacturers and Excise Tax on Medical Devise Manufacturers." (2010, Apr.). Covington & Burling LLP Retrieved from
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Legislation of Foreign Nurses Practicing in the United States

Words: 2042 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16385907

Legislation of Foreign Nurses Practicing in the United States

The United States Health Care system is undergoing a major crisis of nurse-staffing shortage. A survey conducted by the American Hospital Association -- AHA of 715 hospitals performed during spring 2001 showed that a vacancy of 126,000 positions of registered nurses prevails through out the nation. The International Council of Nurses -- ICN, a federation of 125 nursing organizations indicated it to be a global problem. In order to meet the staff requirements, the U.S. health care facilities, both individually and in collaboration are persistently demanding the state and federal law makers to smoothen the restrictions in both the state regulations and U.S. immigration law to permit an increased influx of foreign-educated nurses. (Trossman, 2002)

Cheryl Peterson, MSN, Registered Nurse, a senior policy fellow in the practice department of ANA reveals that there are three primary modes that foreign educated nurses can have permission to enter into the U.S. To practice such as firstly, permanent visas for those who desire to become residents of the U.S.; secondly, temporary visas, for those who have reached the nation to work only for a specified period of time; and finally, under negotiated trade agreements,…… [Read More]


"All Foreign Healthcare Workers Must Re-certify" Retrieved from Accessed 3 October, 2005

Maddox, P.J. (Dec. 31, 1998) "Administrative Ethics and the Allocation of Scarce

Resources" Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Retrieved from Accessed 4 October, 2005

"Position Statement on Recruitment and Rights of Foreign Nurses" Retrieved from
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Analyzing the US Healthcare System

Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99362072

U.S. Healthcare System: An Analysis

Healthcare System: An Analysis

The United States healthcare system is far more than simply a health insurance system with multiple contributors, neither is the government solely responsible for funding the system -- thus it is a hybrid health insurance system. The funding pattern depicts the system aptly, in the year 2010, 12% of funding came from local and state coffers, 38% from the federal government and 50% from private funds. Regardless of the source of funding, most people seek care from private health facilities (Dorning, 2014).

Primary Care

Individuals seek primary care for almost all the health concerns they encounter, for instance, one may look for primary care even for common afflictions such as viral fever, bacterial infection or influenza. Individuals also look for primary care if they think they have broken a bone; have skin rash or a sore muscle. Primary care providers (PCPs) could be physicians, physician assistants and NPs (Nursing Practitioners). Primary care is also about coordinating care, such as different kinds of health advice and referrals to the next level of care.

Secondary Care

At the secondary care level, the patient is taken care of by a more specialized professional of…… [Read More]


Baldwin, D. M. (2003). Disparities in Health and Health Care: Focusing Efforts to Eliminate Unequal Burdens. The Online Journal of Issues in Healthcare, 8(1).

CDC. (2014, March 13). Healthy People 2020. Retrieved from National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention:

Dorning, J. (2014, June). The U.S. Health Care System: An International Perspective. Retrieved from Department for Professional Employees:

Squires, D., & Anderson, C. (2015, October 8). U.S.Health Care from a Global Perspective: Spending, Use of Services, Prices, and Health in 13 Countries. Retrieved from The Commonwealth Fund:
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Nursing Knowledge A Controversy the Scope of

Words: 1742 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26357332

Nursing Knowledge: A Controversy

The scope of the nursing profession has increased dramatically over the last thirty years. The demarcation between medical and nursing tasks is quickly dissolving as the nursing profession is becoming increasingly multidisciplinary and complex. In 1996, nurse practitioners were mandated to obtain master's degrees to address their changing role in medical care (Nicoteri & Andrews, 2003). In this multidisciplinary and evolving healthcare environment, adaptation is paramount to providing effective patient care. Currently, there is a controversy in nursing regarding the direction that the development of nursing knowledge should take. There are many critics who believe that developing new nursing theories is an effective way to promote this development. However, theories are often abstract and not adaptable to specific healthcare settings. The belief that the knowledge base for nursing should evolve entirely from theory has important implications for nursing as an academic discipline and by extension the effective treatment of patients.

There are two models or ideologies for advancing nursing knowledge, namely a theory approach and a practice approach. The theory-based approach develops nursing knowledge in a proactive, yet untested way. It creates the theory first and the knowledge is meant to follow. Those who support this…… [Read More]


Attree, M. (2001). Patients' and relatives' experiences and perspectives of 'good' and 'not so good' quality care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33, 456 -- 466.

Burman, M.E., Hart, A.M., Conley, V., Brown, J., Sherard, P., Clarke, P.N. (2009). Reconceptualizing the core of nurse practitioner education and practice. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 21, 11-17.

Hart, A.M., Macnee, C. (2007). How well are NPs prepared for practice: Results from a 2004 survey. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 19, 35 -- 42.

Mantzoukas, S., Jasper, M. (2008). Types of nursing knowledge used to guide care of hospitalized patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62, 3, 318-326.
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Should There Be One Organization That Is the Voice for Nursing If Yes Why If No Why Not

Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5796315

Nursing associations: Is there a need for professional organizations? If yes, why? If no, why not?

Throughout its history, nursing has struggled to establish itself as a separate, worthy profession with a unique set of paradigms and ways of knowing. Nurses are not simply inferior doctors or the helpers of doctors, as was once commonly thought. Professional associations play a vital role in establishing nurses' credibility. Such associations often take on the responsibility for systemizing theories of professional knowledge; defining specializations of the profession and specialist definitions; raising educational and practice standards; offering professional education; creating a base of authority and approval within the profession and larger society; defining ethics and enabling the profession to self-regulate and define its ethical standards (Matthews 2010).

Although professional associations serve a vital function for all professions, it could be argued that for nurses the need is particularly acute, given the volatility of the healthcare profession. To save costs, many institutions are asking nurses to take on an increasingly challenging workload, subsuming many of the tasks once relegated exclusively to doctors. Conversely, some physicians' assistants may be asked to perform tasks that should be performed by nurses. Nursing associations help ensure that the limits…… [Read More]


American Nursing Association. Retrieved from: 

Greggs-McQuilkin, D. (2005). Why join a professional nursing organization? Nursing, 35 (19).

Retrieved from:
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Ethics Nursing Choose a Potential

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86000956

My solution has the potential benefits including the following. First, our hospital would be hailed as a progressive institution that serves all members of its community. Second, our hospital would benefit from improved quality of care. As a family nurse practitioner, I value the holistic approach to nursing. All aspects of the patient's life are taken into consideration. Other benefits more directly impact the patient's outcomes, and also workplace morale. As Oberle & Hughes (2008) point out, "administrators should provide opportunities for discourse to help staff reduce moral distress and generate creative strategies for dealing with this," (p. 707). Finally, benefits include ascription to the most fundamental of tenets of nursing. The American Nurses Association (2010) states that humanist, feminist, and social ethics should at all times be adhered to in the advanced nursing practice. The only costs associated with my solution would be the time and energy spent convincing administration to open our visitation rights policy to all committed partners. There are no foreseeable costs with opening the policy. In fact, the additional visitors would be a financial benefit to the institution in terms of positive publicity and also additional sales in the cafeteria and retail sector attached to…… [Read More]


American Nurses Association (2010). Code of Ethics for Nurses. Silver Spring: ANA.

Kaplan, C. (n.d.). Ethical dilemmas. Advance Healthcare Network. Retrieved online: 

Oberle, K. & Hughes, D. (2008). Doctors' and nurses' perceptions of ethical problems in end-of-life decisions. JAN 33(6): 707-715.
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Curriculum for Medical Training Intervention

Words: 897 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24921450

Medical trauma triage management requires skillful curriculum development, which in turn depends on an assessment of needs and an anticipation of potential barriers to implementation. The initial needs assessment has revealed required resources of about four or five medical services providers such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners. Support personnel may be provided, but an additional challenge will arise when implementing the curriculum in a real world setting such as a trauma center, emergency room, or intensive care unit. Adequate space and time must be carved out for the curriculum implementation, without disturbing standard operating procedures. At the same time, improving trauma triage management will ultimately facilitate patient service delivery and maximize care outcomes, goals that should continually be communicated to the institutional administration as well as all participants in the program.

Each phase of the ADDIE model, an industry benchmark for curriculum development, "requires constant evaluation," (Allen, 2006, p. 439). Evaluation from curriculum developers must be supplemented by office and institutional support. Formal institutional support is more likely when curricular elements are presented with technological tools and presentation aids including flow charts, content checkpoints, formative tests, assessments, and other potentially distracting but nevertheless useful tools in the arsenal of…… [Read More]


Allen, W.C. (2006). Overview and evolution of the ADDIE training system. Advances in Developing Human Resources 8(4): 430-441.

Bass, E.B. (n.d.). Step 1: Problem identification and general needs assessment.

Swanson, R.A. & Holton, E.F. (2009). Training and development practices. Chapter 12 in Foundations of Human Resource Development.
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Ouuch Making Excellent Health Responses

Words: 4319 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96010800

Prior to Launching Technology Initiatives

Over the past seven years, many healthcare organizations, like OUUCH, have begun to transition from the traditional paper-based systems to EHR systems. Research has shown that over a period of time. EHR systems can improve quality of care for patients, provide more accurate information, and overall improve safety issues relating to reducing mistakes with patients. In the exploratory study, "Change factors affecting the transition to an… [EHR] system in a private physicians' practice: An exploratory study," Aaron D. Spratt, Social Security Administration and Kevin E. Dickson (2008), Southeast Missouri State University, report that the U.S. health care industry reportedly ranks among the world's leading inefficient information enterprises. Although the system needs major changes, the transition process however, creates a high change in the business aspect of an organization. Spratt and Dickson (2008) explain that for an EHR system to be successful, doctors must be involved from the very beginning of the process. Mary Ellen Schneider (2006), Senior Writer, also asserts in the journal article, "Customization, involvement key to & #8230;[EHR] success," that doctors need to be involved in the process in order to customize their system to fit their specific needs. Prior to OUUCH launching…… [Read More]


Amatayakul, M. (2009). EHR vs. EMR: what's in a name? Healthcare Financial

Management. Healthcare Financial Management Association. Retrieved May 13, 2010

from HighBeam Research:

Bennett, D. (2009). EMR market includes small and large system vendors. Managed Healthcare
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Health Care Industry

Words: 1212 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76415813

Health Care

The Staffing Policies Matrix

Hospitals are in the clubs quadrant of the staffing policies matrix. Hospitals are in this sector because careers are slow-moving. This means that the focus is not on constant promotion. Instead, individuals work based on their specialist area, whether it be nursing, rehabilitation, or various medical specialties. On a day-to-day basis the focus is on being reliable and consistent.

Sonnenfield and Pieperl (1988) note that organizations in the clubs sector have a fixed hierarchy with an emphasis on status. This is true of hospitals with overall status based on the hierarchy of professions. This hierarchy has support staff at the lower levels, nurses at the middle levels, medical professionals at the higher levels, and specialist medical staff such as surgeons at the highest level. Within the levels, seniority determines status. Seniority is also the basis on which promotion is generally given. This is a slow-moving process, where individuals will eventually gain a senior status and a subsequent promotion.

Another important point is that individuals work based on their specialty area, while all employees contribute to the overall service being supplied. The overall service is the provision of health care, with individual specialty areas needing…… [Read More]


Porter, M.E. (1980). Competitive strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors. New York: The Free Press.

Sonnenfield, J.A., & Peiperl, M.A. (1988). Staffing policy as a strategic response: A typology of career systems. Academy of Management Review, 13, 588-600.
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Childhood Depression

Words: 4442 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78449735

Childhood Depression

Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors, and overall quickly improving the outlook for depressed adult individuals.

Unfortunately, there exist a significant number of individuals suffering from depression that are not benefiting from the research developments, educational campaigns, and treatment options that have changed the outlook for so many others. Childhood depression has been an under-recognized disorder.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).

Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).

Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).

Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
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Healthcare Industry Changes in Healthcare in the

Words: 1234 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32949900

Healthcare Industry

Changes in healthcare in the last ten years

In the last two decades, the average cost of healthcare per person was $2,800. This almost doubled in a span of ten years to reach a staggering $4,700. The cost tripled to reach $7,500 per person in 2008. This has happened as the number of Americans without insurance keeps increasing. The number of uninsured Americans has risen from 13.1% in 2001 to 16.3% in 2008 (Chideya, 2012). This implies that approximately 50 million people are uninsured today the reason being the job losses that were witnessed during the world economic meltdown and employer's decision to cut back on coverage (Chideya, 2012). A number of innovations in the healthcare sector were also registered within the last ten years especially the use of iPhone in clinical trials. These phones could be turned into EKG monitors that automatically transmitted data to a cardiologist (Chideya, 2012). This innovation is yet to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Upon approval heart patients will be in a position to check their symptoms whenever they are (Chideya, 2012). The device is very cost effective as it is expected to cost $100. Besides, it is…… [Read More]

References List

Chideya, F. (2012). Healthcare 5, 10, 20 years in the past and Future. Retrieved from


Garson, A. & Levin, S.A. (2001). Ten 10-Year Trends for the Future of Healthcare: Implications

for Academic Health Centers. Ochsner Journal, 3(1), 10-15.
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Nursing the Future of Health

Words: 1185 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68858301

People who are in poor health are less likely to work and, when in work, are less prolific. They are less probable to invest in their own schooling or to save for retirement, and so to support the broader economy. Experts believe that the present economic and labor market, social security arrangements, retirement age and the relations between all of them will need to be considered when addressing the economic benefits of better health in the future. The substantiation is clear; a healthy population including healthy older people can add substantially to the economy (Figueras, McKee, Lessof, Duran & Menabde, 2008).

4. The wisdom of depending on International Medical School Graduates (IMGs) to fill gaps in physician supply, while U.S. medical schools hold class size constant, is questionable. In addition, the aging of the physician workforce, the decreasing hours worked by both physicians in practice and physicians in residency, and a 20% reduction in the effort of the increasing proportion of female physicians, will result in a significant decrease in the "effective" supply of physicians. Should the gap be filled by a major substitution of nurse practitioners, physician assistants, chiropractors, acupuncturists, and others, or are there alternatives?

This gap should…… [Read More]


ANA's Health System Reform Agenda. (2008). Retrieved from


Figueras, J., McKee, M., Lessof, S., Duran, A. & Menabde, N. (2008). Health systems, health and wealth: Assessing the case for investing in health systems. Retrieved from 

Sultz & Young, (2011). Health Care USA Understanding its Organization and Delivery.
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United States Has the Most

Words: 6833 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34903730

al., 2010).

Nursing and the ER

The Emergency Room is often one of the most visible parts of healthcare for political debate. It is also one of the most difficult environments for a modern nurse. It is interesting that one of the founders of modern nursing had emergency experience prior to developing her overall theories. Nightingale also looked at negatives and positives that are the conditions, which could help make people recover and reach their actual potential, as also noted by Maslow hierarchy of needs. She did not look or speak directly of the disease per se, but rather, looked at air, clean water, environment, and sanitation. She published her book in1860 with the title a "Notes on Nursing: What it Is and What it Is Not," connecting human beings and quality of human life, and comparing the stagnant sewage she saw in Scutari, as well as in London. She wrote, "I have met a strong stream of sewer coming up the back staircase of a grand London house from the sink as I have ever met in Scutari."? This is probably still true to date. She talked about the negative influences such as apprehension, uncertainty, waiting and expectation, and…… [Read More]


Americans at Risk. (March 2009). Families USA. Retrieved from:

Patient Perceptions in the Emergency Department: Physicians, Physician Assistants,

Nurse Practitioners. (30 August 2010). Retrieved from:
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Postoperative Vision Loss Elements of

Words: 8700 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21606334

More times than not, a patient will argue that he did not understand what the physician stated to him; even amidst documented proof the medical professional and the patient did engage in an informed conversation. "The fact that a meeting took place does not necessarily mean that there was a meeting of the minds" (Informed consent…, 2010, ¶ 5). This issue leads some health care providers to assert that informed consent forms possess little value, particularly when a legal battle ensues and the professional cannot prove the patient did, in fact, understand the informed consent process.

Currently, lawyers routinely challenge informed consent forms in courtrooms throughout the United States (U.S.). "The model consent forms incorporate substantial details of anesthesia techniques, risks and other elements of 'informed consent', so that a strong presumption is established on its face" (Informed consent…, 2010, ¶ 7). During the informed consent process, to help inoculate the physician against lawsuits, healthcare providers must follow strict guidelines. They need to early explain and communicate properly each aspect of the consent form to the patient.

Two different and distinct philosophies of liability exist regarding informed consent. One: The common law battery may be defined as unauthorized touching of…… [Read More]


Anaesth, B.J. (2009). Perioperative visual loss: What do we know, what can we do? Department

of Anesthesia and Critical Care. University of Chicago. Retrieved January 25, 2010 from

Booth, B. (2008). Informed consent at the heart of New York lawsuit. Retrieved January 26,

2010 from
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Telemedicine Will Telemedicine Improve the Quality of

Words: 7147 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87286452

Telemedicine: Will telemedicine improve the quality of healthcare and its delivery for remotely located advanced healthcare para-professionals?

The basic purpose of this study is to discuss whether telemedicine will improve the quality of health care and it's delivery for remotely located advanced health care para-professionals.

The scope of the study is over seeing as it covers the implication of implementation of telemedicine as a professional genre. It would also show how the installation of telemedicine means to other researchers, who want to take this field further and analyze it other context such as financial system of medical systems, telemedicine implicaiton on Medicare etc.

The researcher plans to adopt a case study / historical methodology of research by first collecting a literature review and then finally using it as a base for the analysis of the hypothesis questions. The researchers will also plan to use both primary and secondary sources. Primary sources will consist of government documentation and first hand interviews documented in reports. Secondary resources will include articles, web sites etc.


The following is a proposed resources for the study.

Dakins, D.R., "Wild-Eyed Revenue Projections Create Moving Target for Home Healthcare Market," Telemedicine and Telehealth Networks, 1995, 2:3:3.

Consensus…… [Read More]


1. Dakins, D.R., [1995]. "Wild-Eyed Revenue Projections Create Moving Target for Home Healthcare Market," Telemedicine and Telehealth Networks, 2:3:3.

Author not available, [1993]. Consensus Statement, First Mayo Telemedicine Symposium.

Grigsby J, Barton PL, et al. [1994]. Analysis of expansion of access to care through use of telemedicine and mobile health services. 3: Telemedicine policy: quality assurance, utilization review, and coverage. Denver: Center for Health Policy Research;:8.

Fishman, Dorothy J., [07-01-1997]. Telemedicine: bringing the specialist to the patient.. Vol. 28, Nursing Management, pp 30(3).
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Health Reforms and the Role of Nurse Practitioners

Words: 1696 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87188194

Nursing Practice Expected to Grow and Change

Ageing of population and healthcare providers, coupled with reforms to healthcare, will raise demands for professionals in the field, also expanding existing professionals' required skill sets and roles. Physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, nurses, and medical assistants are included in this growth area. Fortunately, healthcare is characterized by a swiftly expanding and large workforce (with 23000 new entrants every month, nationally); this sector progressed even in recent economic recessions (Survey, 2013). Registered Nursing (RN) is one of the leading U.S. occupations which is projected to grow 26% and add the highest number of jobs by 2020 (an estimated 1.2 million RNs overall), as per U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (Survey, 2013). This stems from a projected rise in demand, as well as a need for replacing the current ageing RNs. Nursing careers are being pursued in America increasingly; the number of students enrolled in Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) increased by about 20,000 (5.1%) in 2011 from 2010 figures. Concurrently, there are indications that competent applicants are turned away from training due to limited financial resources and faculty shortages (Survey, 2013). An American Association of Colleges of Nursing survey conducted in 2011…… [Read More]


Buerhaus, P., DesRoches, C., Applebaum, S., Hess, R., Norman, L., & Donelan, K. (2012). Are Nurses Ready for Health Care Reform? A Decade of Survey Research. Nursing Economics, 329.

Dunbar-Jacob, J. (2011). The Changing Role of Nursing in Health Care Reform. Pittsburgh: Pitt Nurse. Institute for Nursing Centers Survey (2008). Retrieved from

NURSE-MANAGED HEALTH CENTERS. (2011). Retrieved from:

Pohl, J.M., Tanner, C., Barkauskas, V.H., Gans, D., Nagelkerk, J., & Fiandt, K. (2010). Nurse-managed health centers' national survey: Three years of data. Nursing Outlook, 58(2), 97-103
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Information Systems in Healthcare

Words: 4901 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16336011

Health Information System

Promoting Action Design Research to create value in healthcare through IT

Recently there has been varying proof showing that health IT reduces costs while improving the standard of care offered. The same factors that had caused delays in reaping benefits from IT investment made in other sectors (i.e. time consuming procedural change) are also very common within the healthcare sector. Due to the current transitive nature of the Healthcare sector, new IT investment is likely not going to provide maximum value unless this new investment is backed up with a total reform of healthcare delivery. The overall ability of healthcare IT value researchers to add value to practice will be severely limited as a result of the traditional ex-post approach to measuring IT and the fact that government spurs significant investment. It may be risky to generalize or compare results from traditional IT value research with those from healthcare due to the difference between them. It is broadly accepted that the key to improved healthcare quality and reduced cost is Healthcare Information Technology (HIT) (Sherer, 2014). The idea of Knowledge Management (KM) as a probable solution to most of the problems confronting the U.S. And international healthcare…… [Read More]


Fichman, R., Kohli, R., & Krishnan, R. (2011). The role of information systems in healthcare: Current research and future trends. Information Systems Research, 22(3), 419-428.

Goh, J.M., Gao, G., & Agarwal, R. (n.d.). Evolving work routines: Adaptive routinization of information technology in healthcare. Information Systems Research, 22(3), 565-585.

Hoffnagel, E., Woods, D., & Leveson, N. (2006). Resilience engineering: Concepts and precepts. Abingdon: GBR: Ashgate Publishing.

Jones, S., Heaton, P., Riudin, R., & Schneider, E. (2012). Unraveling the IT productivity paradox lessons for health care. The New England Journal of Medicine, 366(24), 2243-2245.
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Analyzing Entrepreneurship Nurse Owned Clinics

Words: 2303 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37871987

Entrepreneurship: Nurse-Owned Clinics and Beyond Mobile FNP (Family Nurse Practitioners)

There are over 125,000 NPs (nurse practitioners) in the U.S., as per estimates of the AANP (American Academy of NPs). Compared to physician assistants, NPs enjoy greater autonomy and responsibility, and have been increasingly assuming roles in administrative leadership, aside from their conventional patient-care duties at clinics and hospitals. However, owing to the thorough knowledge required to succeed within private practice settings, NPs often establish independent practices after many years of experience at healthcare centers such as hospitals, in the role of salaried NPs (Furlow, 2011).

According to the Chief Executive of the NNCC (National Nursing Centers Consortium), Tine Hansen-Turton, a substantial growth has been observed in nurse-run health clinics, before as well as subsequent to the implementation of the ACA (Affordable Care Act). She claims the number of nurse-run clinics across the nation has now grown to five-hundred; this figure is expected to rise, with providers seeking more cost-effective means of providing healthcare (Toner, 2014). Furthermore, since nurses' salaries are lower than physicians', significant savings can be achieved. Further, they do not hesitate to provide healthcare in areas that are medically underserved (e.g., remote rural localities). Nevertheless, nurse practitioners…… [Read More]


Aiken, L.H. & Sage, W.M. (1992). Staffing national health care reform: a role for advanced practice nurses. Akron Law Review, 26. Retrieved from

Fraino, J.A. (2015). Mobile nurse practitioner: A pilot program to address service gaps experienced by homeless individuals. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 53. Retrieved from

Furlow, B. (2011, May 30). Business advice for nurse practitioners considering private practice. Clinical Advisor. Retrieved from advice-for-nurse-practitioners-considering-private-practice/article/203953/

Helseth, C. (2010, May 7). Advanced practice nurses fill health care gaps in rural areas. Rural Health Information Hub. Retrieved from monitor/advanced-practice-nurses-fill-gaps/
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Organization Is a Small to

Words: 1892 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60644347

Samson is herself a minority and half of the nursing staff in the office are non-white. One of the senior doctors is Latino. Samson helped staff trace some of the office miscommunications to a lack of cultural sensitivity. Diversity issues are on the table at one of every two staff meetings, according to Samson. Diversity awareness has improved as a result of directly confronting stereotypes that had previously prevailed in inter-office communications. Samson also believed that diversity awareness was most important in regards to patient relations. Therefore, Samson encouraged staff members to take into account communication differences and other issues related to diversity when addressing patients.

7. Synergy and Human Capital

Generating cooperation and fostering personal strengths is one of Samson's main goals as the Senior Administrator. Achieving the goals of the organization depends on a positive workplace environment, which in turn is fostered by synergy. Samson helped create an environment of empowerment, in which human capital was treated as being equally as valuable as financial capital. Helping all staff members feel indispensable was one of the first steps towards achieving this goal. Then, Samson ensured that staff meetings would be held regularly and attended by all staff. Voicing objections…… [Read More]


"Health Care Administrator," (nd). The Princeton Review. Retrieved online:

Samson, D. (2010). Interview.
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Military Retirees Are Entitled to

Words: 12717 Length: 46 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18599361

First of all only a scant few of these Veterans groups will acknowledge the "promise" of free health care; for the most part these groups will tout the benefits already promised by the Veterans Administration and assert that cuts in these benefits are the same a broken promise-or contractual breach in legal terms. The idea of the United States military making a "promise" or forging a legally binding agreement between individual veterans or groups of veterans is barred by the United States Constitution. As will be demonstrated in the Literature Review, specific Constitutional language from Article I give Congress and only Congress the express authority to make laws and regulations pertaining to the armed forces. Therefore, the idea the military breached a contract with service members is, ultimately, inherently inaccurate. Combining the lack of specific language within the materials provided by any governmental agency with the clear language of the Constitution, it becomes readily apparent that there is no validity to the claim of the Government breaking any contractual relationship with veterans, either individually or collectively.

Some of these groups are also fraudulently acting on behalf of veterans-although the data suggests that the overwhelming amount of such groups are legitimate…… [Read More]


.... (n.d.). The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. The RETIRED MILITARY ADVOCATE. Retrieved November 29, 2010, from 

Best, R. (2003, August 7). Military Medical Care Services: Questions and Answers. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-17.

Birkey, a. (2010, July 21). Fraudulent vets charity raised big money in Minnesota. The Minnesota Independent, p. 3.

Burrelli, D. (2008, August 12). Military Health Care: The Issue of Promised Benefits. Congressional Research Service, 1, 1-14.
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The Changing Healthcare Staffing Trends

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22583195

Health Care Staff Trends

The healthcare system has seen various changes over the decades with the aim of making the care more efficient and quality to the citizens. One of the most important changes is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care (PPAC) which has significantly changed the demand for healthcare professionals and the vacancies they have as well as the hiring and staffing practices by the healthcare organizations. These changes occasioned by the PPAC have various tenets and also implications that come with them especially for the healthcare sector in the future.

The PPAC has resulted in the rising of the nurse practitioner and the physician assistant roles within the healthcare system. This has made many healthcare organizations to focus more on the team approaches to providing care which is geared towards employing more nursing practitioners and physician assistants who will help in providing care to the aging population. This will result in creation of more vacancies for the healthcare professionals hence making the industry more attractive and at the same time it will ensure the industry attract more professional human resource over the coming years.

The PPAC also came with significant changes in the health IT which gave the…… [Read More]


Barnet S., (2015). 5 ways the PPACA has changed healthcare staffing and workforce trends. Retrieved November 12, 2015 from

Moore M., (2015). What are HRM Strategies. Retrieved November 12, 2015 from

Wright P.M., (2015). Human Resource Strategy. Adapting to the Age of Globalization. Retrieved November 12, 2015 from
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Midwifery in Primary Care New Directions for

Words: 2611 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83945934

Midwifery in Primary Care

New Directions for Midwives:

Addressing Novel Primary Care Roles

Looking towards the future, radical changes are sweeping the United States healthcare system with the advent of a new public healthcare system. This change and the economic reality of care should motivate all healthcare providers to question of who can best meet the healthcare needs of women. Nurse midwives are advanced practice nurses educated in the field of primary health care for essentially normal women and newborns. Their focus is wellness and health education. Once patients are introduced to the concept of a nurse practitioner and the services provided, the majority are satisfied with the quality of the care received. Evidence suggests that women, if given a choice, prefer the ministrations of a female practitioner over that of a male for their intimate healthcare needs. As a predominantly female group, nurse midwives are an excellent source of qualified providers for women (Avery, 2000). This essay will focus on the expanding role of midwives across the primary care landscape, focusing on their specialized application to providing healthcare to women in relation to peri- and post-menopausal care.

Traditionally, Certified Nurse Midwives were exclusively focused on childbirth. Care by Midwives…… [Read More]

Rossouw, J.E., Anderson, G.L., Prentice, R.L. (2002). Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 288(3):321-33.

Santoro, N., Brown, J.R., Adel, T. And Skurnick J.H. (1996). Characterization of reproductive hormonal dynamics in the perimenopause. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 81(4):1495-501.

Santoro, N. And Randolph, J. (2011). Reproductive hormones and the menopause transition. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 38(3):455-66.
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Health Policy Economics Class Master Degree Level

Words: 2850 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91626873

Health Policy Economics class. Master Degree level. It 8-12 pages long 10 resources. The topic Over-Utilization Emergency Room Services. I uploading project details.

Reliance on emergency departments for non-emergent services has been on the increase with many people visiting them since they provide timely access to primary care. The 1985 Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) mandated Medicare institutions to provide emergency departments for patients despite their regardless of their ability to pay for these services. Many of the uninsured or underinsured thus find these emergency rooms as the most convenience sources of health care. Overutilization of emergency rooms is a vicious cycle as a result of increasing health care costs that are associated with this phenomenon. Three possible solutions to this problem are identified which are health care homes, retail clinics and telehealth with the best solution being the health care homes.

Overutilization of emergency room services

Problem statement

Overutilization of emergency room services is one of the major causes of the increase in healthcare costs. This increase comes majorly as a result of majority of the patients seen in emergency rooms being recipients of Medicaid which is used for non-emergent purposes. Overutilization of emergency rooms has…… [Read More]


Blackstone, E.A., Buck, A.J., & Simon, H. (2007). The Economics of Emergency Response. Policy Sciences, 40(4), 313-334. doi: 10.2307/25474342

Brailsford, S.C., Lattimer, V.A., Tarnaras, P., & Turnbull, J.C. (2004). Emergency and On-Demand Health Care: Modelling a Large Complex System. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 55(1), 34-42. doi: 10.2307/4101825

Bristol, N. (2006). Overtaxed U.S. emergency care system needs reorganisation. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 332(7556), 1468. doi: 10.2307/25689667

Carey, K., Burgess, J.F., & Young, G.J. (2009). Single Specialty Hospitals and Service Competition. Inquiry, 46(2), 162-171. doi: 10.2307/29773415