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Political Ecology: The orld Food System
Global difference in food patterns is one of the most noticed and researched traits of world's nations. hat we eat and how we consume it, is part of our culture and living style. It is very obvious that an Arab living in KSA is going to consume more dates rather than Fish as compared to a Bengali living in India. Availability is a key factor which is a decisive factor in our eating habits. However, one cannot forget the importance of available capital or money, in affecting our eating habits. Thus availability and affordability are the key factors which play important role in determining our eating patterns. Similarly, this is the reason why a family living in Germany would have a totally opposite food intake as compared to the one living in Mali, Africa.
In 2005, Peter Menzel published his book called, "Hungary Planet:…
Food and Agriculture Organization. World Food Insecurity and Malnutrition: Scope, Trends, Causes and Consequences. 2009
International Monetary Fund. Malawi -- The Food Crises, the Strategic Grain Reserve, and the IMF. 2002
Godoy, Julio. Climate Change Worsening Farming's Trade-Related Woes. 2009
Menzel, Peter. Hungary Plant: What the world eats. 2005
One of the biggest challenges facing the world is controlling the natural resources of the planet. This is because population growth has been leading to increases in demand on available land (in an effort to produce food). The problem is that the world is using more of these resources at an alarming rate and global warming has been impacting weather patterns. In many cases, there are different nitrogen and ammonia substitutes that are designed to reduce this effect. This was utilized as an alternative source in fertilizing the soil and controlling pests.
However, after embracing this strategy for several years, it is obvious that some kind of changes need to take place in dealing with these challenges. As a result, new reforms must be introduced that will transform how the government is working with farmers to control agricultural resources. The best way that this can be achieved is…
Jackson, W. (n.d.). Tackling the Oldest Environmental Problem.
Litfin, K. (2009). Principles of Gaian Governance.
Political Ecology of the World Food System
In the readings examined for this paper, the one central theme is the way politics affects how the environment is treated and how that treatment of the environment then correlates to the food and clean water supply of people all over the world. Nitrogen in fertilizer is one of the big problems, because it does more than just get into the crops which it is designed to assist. Fertilizer, according to Little (2009), is "yet another by-product of fossil fuels" (p. 148). Those fossils fuels are affecting the environment in a very negative way, but fertilizer is important to the growth of crops that people need in order to have enough to eat. It becomes a conundrum when there is a "bad" product that many people do not want used, but that product is basically required to create what is needed to sustain…
Holt-Gimenetz, E. (2007). The great biofuel hoax. Indypendent. Global Policy Forum.
Little, A. (2005). Cooking Oil. Power Trip, Chapter Five, p. 147-177.
Vidal, J. (2010). How food and water are driving a 21st century land grab. The Observer. Global Policy Forum.
Political Ecology of the orld Food System
One of the common challenges that have been impacting the world is the automation of various food systems. This is in response to less people living in the country and more residing in urban areas. Moreover, changes in technology and the commercialization of the food industry are making it difficult for individual farmers to survive. As a result, the food system has become commercialized with less people understanding where their food comes from or how it is grown. Two questions that will be focused on to address these issues include:
How the food system is transforming itself?
hat consumers will do in the future, to deal with possible transformations?
Once this takes place, is when it will be clear as to how the food system is continually evolving. (Bomford 119-127) (Berry 148-152) (Allen 140-150)
hen analyzing the changes that are occurring in the…
Allen, Ericka. Growing Community Food System. N.d, Print.
Berry, Wendell. What are People For? New York: Northpoint Press, 1990. Print.
Bomford, Michael. Getting Fossil Fuels off the Plate. N.d, Print.
Bonheim, Jalaja. Hope Beneath Our Feet. N.d., Print.
Gender and Environment" the authors argue that women are becoming an important part of the ecology movement. The authors suggest that there is a "new conceptual framework" being recognized by feminists as to ecology and the environment. In the recent past, scholars have viewed political ecology as a challenge that deals with quality of life and access to resources -- and much of this movement has revolved around "the domain of men" (Rocheleau, p. 6).
But another approach is emerging; the point of this essay is that gender should also play an important role in the goal of a safe and healthy environment. In fact women in North America and Europe have been active in conservation and environmental movements -- taking to task the "the prevailing paradigm of professional science" -- albeit their work has not caught the attention of the media (and the male power structure) in many cases,…
Political Ecology of the World Food System
"While warning about fat, U.S. pushes cheese sales" by Michael Moss
According to Michael Moss' article "While warning about fat, U.S. pushes cheese sales" from the New York Times, the U.S. government is sending profoundly mixed messages about the consumption of cheese to the American public. Dietary advice is confusing when it is solicited even from objective research studies, but the government has further complicated the public's ability to comprehend how to eat right by simultaneously trying to promote better public heath while bolstering the economic interests of dairy producers. The article notes how an organization called Dairy Management, a creation of the United States Department of Agriculture, actually encouraged the fast food corporation Domino's to create a new pizza with extra cheese, to bolster the pizza chain's flagging sales. While the public gobbled up the new offering, the new pizza…
Moss, Michael. (2010). While warning about fat, U.S. pushes cheese sales. New York Times.
aj Patel's Staffed and Starved.
It begins with a summary of the content then followed by an evaluation and critique of the content.The chapter highlights historical background, development of soya production in the United States and Brazil.
Political Ecology of World Food System
This chapter begins with a poem from oald Dahl's Charlie and the Chocolate Factory the poem is relevant to the introductory section of the chapter titled, Secret ingredients. This section talks about lecithin, an ingredient commonly used in food processing. The author reveals that lecithin, a by product of soybeans is widely used commercially as an emulsifier and makes chocolate slurry better suited for mass production, preservation and mass distribution.
Soya beans are popularly used for production of animal feeds and vegetable oils. In fact, the author mentions that 70% of vegetable oil are products of soybeans. Soya bean production has not been consistent, during the First…
Patel, R. (2008 ). Stuffed and Starved .
Yeh (2009) argues that ecological projects in China must be examined form a political ecology perspective, in which certain state-sponsored projects are seen to be damaging to many of the citizens immediately affected by the ecological pursuits. While this author certainly has a political point to make, it is hardly an ecological one, and ultimately seems to argue for continuing ecological harm out of a sense of political fairness that would ultimately lead to much greater inequalities for the disadvantaged who will, out of sheer political reality, always reap the worst of any situation. That is, of the projects sponsored by the Chinese government were not allowed to go forth in order to provide short-term economic and political benefit to the populous, the resulting ecological damage would impact these people in far worse ways within a generation.
The political ecology perspective is a political perspective on ecological issues, and…
Ho, K.; Chow, Y. & Yau, J. (2003). "Chemical and microbiological qualities of the East River (Dongjiang) water, with particular reference to drinking water supply in Hong Kong." Chemosphere 52, pp. 1441-50.
Ma, C. (2010). "Who bears the environmental burden in China -- an analysis of the distribution of industrial pollution sources?" Ecological economics 69, pp. 1869-76.
Qin, B.; Zhu, G.; Gao, G.; Zhang, Y.; Li, W.; Pearl, H. & Carmichael, W. (2010). "A Drinking Water Crisis in Lake Taihu, China: Linkage to Climatic Variability and Lake Management." Environmental management 45, pp. 105-12.
Tilt, B. (2007). "The political ecology of pollution enforcement in China." China quarterly 192, pp. 915-32.
Unintended Consequences of Pursuing Cheap Food
We have become accustomed to pursuing cheap food. On surface, it is a rational choice. The cheaper the food we buy to eat and drink the better, as the assumption goes. Coupled with this understandable human desire is the ubiquitous corporate advertising of cheap food and business attempts to convince the consumers that the cheap food offers much greater variety of choices than otherwise would be possible. Most consumers fall for these marketing strategies. But there are at least two unintended consequences of pursuing cheap food. Cheap food -- more precisely, what we buy as "cheap food" -- is unhealthy, which we are choosing consciously. And cheap may be not as "cheap" as we assume. There are evidences showing that pursuing cheap food may lead to food crisis and hunger.
In our culture, we are fascinated by the word "choice." We always…
" (2009) Oguejiofor states that there is no understanding "exept if there is misunderstanding, a negativity that beomes the originative instane of hermeneutis…" (2009)
Oguejiofor writes that Senghor's onept of negritude is entered on the misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the Afrian and his heritage, a situation that has sine imposed enormous burden on all aspets of his life." (Oguejiofor, 2009) Oguejiofor states that negritude has been desribed "…as a philosophy of soial ation" and states additionally that in the view of Senghor "negritude was 'a weapon of defense and attak and inspiration." (2009) Speifially Senghor sates that negritude is the "sum total of the values of the ivilization of the Afrian world, it is not raialism, it is ulture." (Oguejiofor, 2009)
Oguejiofor writes that negritude as a philosophy "has the advantage of 'reognizing the situatedness of our lived historiity as the proper objet of refletion for Afrian philosophi thought. (Salhi…
cited in Quest, 2005)
When Senghor was imprisoned for the already mentioned two years period he composed poetry, read the work of Goethe and delved into Western philosophical works and as well reestablished his link with his fellow Africans and songs and tales were shared from Africa and this resulted in the "fostering [of] an alternative understanding of humanism and society." (Quest, 2005)
The Quest Journal editorial states that it seems nice to think that the prison experiences of Senghor as well as Senghor's knowledge spanning the intellectual traditions of the Western world and his admiration for values, traditions and cultures of Africa together resulted in a "subjectivity that was transcultural and transnational in it sympathies, accomplishments and aspirations." (Quest, 2005) Senghor set the stage for "a post-anthropological humanism, one that truly points to the possibilities for a democratic and cosmopolitan world." (Quest, 2005)
5. Poetry as 'Key' Outlet for Combating Cultural Alienation in for Africans
The work of Nyathi (2005) states that the work of Senghor influenced many and in fact that poetry "became a key outlet for Africans to combat cultural alienation." The work of Baaz and Palmberg (2001) entitled: "Same and Other: Negotiating African Identity in Cultural Production" relates the writings of Leopold Sedar Senghor "on negritude and the ideas of negritude which are "above all associated with the writings of Senghor and Aime Cesaire, were developed by African, Afro-American and Caribbean intellectuals in Paris in the 1930s." (Baaz and Palmberg, 2001) Negritude was defined by Senghor as "the sum of the cultural values of the black world." (Baaz and Palmberg, 2001)
Egyptians of all classes and ages took part in the protests, united in demands and ambitions such as improved wages, improved conditions of working, and political freedom. However, it was the surprising figures of young individuals who took part in the demonstrations that provided drive to the revolt. The young individuals were also key to maintaining the uprising given that numerous meet in Tahrir (Liberation) Square in Cairo as well as other cities across the nation. Egyptian youth are actually the faces behind this leaderless uprising; the revolution was generally impelled by their skill in utilizing social media to gain attention (oudi-Fahimi, El Feki & Tsai, 2011). The new youth backed, and at times, instigated by women is now an aware global citizen, refusing to bear the inability of its rulers to be with the times and provide means of development and rapidly changing economic and social paradigms.
Aday, S., Farrell, H., Lynch, M., Sides, J., & Freelon, D. (2012). Blogs and bullet II-New media and conflict after the Arab spring (No. 80). Peaceworks. United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
Al-Natour, M. (2012). The role of women in the Egyptian 25th January revolution. Journal of International Women's Studies, 13(5), 59.
Auer, M. R. (2011). The policy sciences of social media. Policy Studies Journal, 39(4), 709-736.
Frederiksen, M. (2011). The key role of women in the Egyptian revolution. Retrieved March 01, 2016, from http://www.marxist.com/key-role-of-women-in-egyptian-revolution.htm
While imported species can be controlled to a degree by Governmental regulation, unintentional imports are a different matter. Garth mentions the example of the brown tree snake that stowed away on ships and military equipment during World War II. During this time, obviously, there was not as much awareness of the invasive species problem as there is today. Basically therefore the current era is faced with a problem unintentionally created decades ago.
Another case of unintentional transport that I found particularly interesting in the article is the movement from port to port of ballast water. Ships take on water for balancing purposes. The water is transported to the destination port and discarded. The cycle is repeated from port to port. The aquatic life in this ballast water is then also transported between the ports. As a solution to this, one of the suggestions mentioned in the article is that ships…
McGrath, Susan. (2005, March). "Attack of the Alien Invaders." National Geographic
It also varies with urban or rural residence. Urban households commonly earn more and enjoy a higher standard of living than rural households. The allocation for food spending corresponds to the biggest part of the family budget. However, as family income increases, the share in food in consumption expenses generally drops. This is most likely because of the popularity of "fast foods" nowadays.
The process of socialization takes a lifetime whereby the individual acquires the established beliefs, values, sentiments, norms and behavior of his group and society. It is through socialization that the individual becomes a functioning member of his group. It is also through this process that values, customs and beliefs are passed on from one generation to the other.
Because of the significance of early experiences and primary relationships, the family remains to be the most important socializing agent in the child's life (Davidson and Moore,…
Bellah, R.N. (1970). Beyond Belief. New York: Harper & Row.
Berger, P.L. (1963). Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Doubleday.
Berk, S.F. (1985). The Gender Factory. New York: Plenum.
Broom, DH, Broom, L. And Bonjean, C.M. (1990). Sociology: A Core Text with adapted readings. Belmont, California:Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Global Law and Politics:
Political and legal institutions and communications have played an integral role in the development and provision of legitimacy in contemporary societies. This has been through the development of obligatory collective decisions, general legal principles, exercise of political power, and resolution of conflicts. In the new global system, these legal and political institutions have created and conveyed social values, political power, and social meaning in every sector of the society. Both of the institutions are considered as legitimate because they have been established on core values that are related to essential freedoms, the rule of law, and democracy.
Aspects of a New Global System:
Modern societies across the globe are faced with critical issues and problems that are dealt with at the global level by the establishment of laws and policies, which are developed in various institutions. Global law and politics has had a significant impact on…
Concannon, T (2004), Chapter 5 - Resource Exploitation in Nigeria, Pambazuka News, viewed
27 December 2011,
Ejimeke, A (2010), The Oil Spills We Don't Hear About, The New York Times, viewed 27
In the end, North Carolina seems to suffer from many of the ills experienced by the country at large. Although it is, without doubt, a state blessed with a high level of natural beauty as well as economic prosperity, it is also seriously affected by political and environmental issues that impact the lives of its citizens in very negative ways. hether the state will become increasingly mired in dollar-driven industrial and budgetary problems, or whether the state will eventually pull ahead of its neighbors in dealing with those issues will remain to be seen. One can only hope that a state with as rich a history, and blessed with such potential, will eventually triumph over the problems it currently faces, and arise clean and efficient in the years ahead.
Citizen Times. Staff. "Budget foot-dragging costly and inexcusable." Citizen Times Online Edition. 31 July, 2005. Retrieved on August 1,…
Citizen Times. Staff. "Budget foot-dragging costly and inexcusable." Citizen Times Online Edition. 31 July, 2005. Retrieved on August 1, 2005 http://www.citizen-times.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050731/OPINION01/50729022/1039
Citizen Times. Staff. "TVA should clean up its act, clear up our skies." Citizen Times Online Edition. 01 August, 2005. Retrieved on August 1, 2005 http://www.citizen-times.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20050801/OPINION01/50729017/1039
Hamed, Mubarak, Thomas Johnson and Kathleen Miller, The Impacts of Animal Feeding Operations on Rural land Values, Community Policy Analysis Center, University of Missouri - Columbia. May, 1999.
Hartsoe, Steve. "States fighting shortages of state police and highway troopers." Newsday.com. 30 July, 2005. Retrieved on August 1, 2005 http://www.newsday.com/news/local/wire/connecticut/ny-bc-ct -- troopershortage0730jul30,0,702689.story?coll=ny-region-apconnecticut
Country Development: Economic, Social, Political, And Moral
On a very basic level, development means 'growing.' In the language of political science, development is often referred to in terms of 'developed' and 'least developed' countries. Development has thus become synonymous with industrialization, and being able to provide a certain level of material comfort for all citizens. Poverty may be common to all nations, but 'least developed' countries have entrenched forms of poverty in which even basic necessities like sanitary water are scarce. According to the United Nations, a country is deemed to be 'developed' when its citizens can be able to 'lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community" ("hat is development," Volunteering Options, 2013). Nations that are considered to be 'developing' like China and India,…
Drengson, Alan. "Some thoughts on the Deep Ecology movement." Foundation for Deep
Ecology. 2012. 16 Feb 2013.
"European-Americans and Native Americans view each other, 1700-1775.: National Humanities
People's Car Tata Nano
Financial, political and marketing/business commentators alike seem to agree that the Tata Nano, the planet's cheapest car, was a perfect match between an idea and a need when it was introduced -- or at least as a manufacturing idea. Making the smallest of small cars could happen because the timing was right for pairing just such an idea with the quickly emerging appreciation of frugal engineering innovations, or using sophisticated technologies and motivations to make a product that is affordable and helpful to the global economy and ecology. [1: "Stuck in low gear." The Economist. Aug. 20, 2011. http://www.economist.com/node/21526374 accessed January 15, 2012. ] [2: Sadanad Dhume. "Unloved at any speed." Foreign Policy. October 7, 2011. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/10/07/tata_nano_unloved_at_any_speed accessed January 15, 2012. ]
It was for this reason that the project came to life as quickly as it did. It seemed to be the perfect mix of…
The government has rather low environmental expectations. In fact, the consultant found that they are about as lenient as the Mexican restrictions, though the Philippines presents no public relations nightmare as protestors are not rallying against health concerns, as they were in Mexico.
Although the conditions in the Philippines may seem even more ready for outsourcing then the conditions in Mexico, the ethical costs of operating the company in the country are once again too high. Like the situation in Mexico, workers in the Philippines may work for lower wages than workers in the United States, but owners are not being provided with the same level of skill that they would be if continuing to operate the factory in the United States. Because the factory workers would consist mainly of underfed adults and impoverished children, the company would be lucky if workers managed to produce sufficient amounts of products throughout…
Esselaar, Jeanne. (2002). The Debate over Outsourcing in South Africa: Evidence from a case study. Proceedings from Development Policy Research Unit Conference '02. Muldersdrift, Johannesburg.
Casale, Frank J. (2006). The Outsourcing Institute: Mexico Trends & Opportunities.
Retrieved June 1, 2008, from, http://www.outsourcing.com/mexico_trends/mexico.html
Roberts, Russell (2000). The Choice. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Petro-Violence: Community, Extraction and Political Ecology of a Mythic Commodity" makes for an extremely interesting read. The main idea of this article is the legacy of tragedy and violence that surrounds one of the most sought after natural resources on the planet -- oil. The author examines the devastation and sad state of affairs that surround oil from a number of different perspectives, which involve an ecological aspect of what the race for oil is doing to the environment, as well as a social aspect in which he discusses the thievery, belligerence, and loss of lives associated with the gaining and trading of oil.
The author deals with power in this article in a very realistic sense. Oil brings the wielder of it power. In more than one instance in this article, the wielder of oil is a corporate conglomerate and a national government -- such as the situation that…
According to a famous architectural scholar, the architectural industry's slow growth results from wanting political goodwill (Jencks 1973). A good relationship between the two realms is critical to architectural designs' progress, and the stakeholders in both disciplines should understand the underlying relationship (Milne 1981). Goodman first explained the possibility of politics affecting architecture in 1947, but up to now, many have not realized the existing connection between the two domains (Goodman and Goodman 1947.
In this study, the relationship between politics and architecture will explain how architecture is used to play political games and how architecture designs are based on the political environment. The study will also highlight the contribution of politics to modern architectural designs.
The best way to understand how architecture and politics have been relating over the years is to observe different past occurrences concerning the two domains. It is worth noting that the point of…
Architecture Foundation, 2020, November 22. Caruso St John: Yesterday and Today - In conversation with Nana Biamah-Ofosu and Ellis Woodman. YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dpCpl-L7iNg&feature=emb_logo
Beyonce, 2018, June 16. APES**T - THE CARTERS. YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kbMqWXnpXcA
Cornea, N., 2019. Urban Political Ecology. Oxford Bibliographies Online. DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780199874002-0203.
Goodman, P., and Goodman, P., 1947. Communitas: Means of livelihood and ways of life. New York: Vintage.
Jencks, C., 1973. Modern movements in architecture (Vol. 5). Editions Mardaga.
Kwinter, S., 2010. Notes on the third ecology. Ecological Urbanism, pp.94-105.
Lnag, C., 2018 June 19. Art History Experts Explain the Meaning of the Art in Beyoncé and Jay-Z's 'Apesh-t' Video. Time. Retrieved from https://time.com/5315275/art-references-meaning-beyonce-jay-z-apeshit-louvre-music-video/
Milne, D., 1981. Architecture, politics, and the public realm. Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory, 5(1-2), pp.131-146.
Moreover, the global neglect of women (in terms of science) is reflected in the fact that women have been excluded as experimental subjects in drug research, Rosser continues. Certainly pregnant women have been excluded from experiments with pesticides and radioactive materials, but beyond that Rosser explains that "…these drugs and materials are then used without ever having been tested on women" (1991, p. 143). And yet notwithstanding their exclusion from testing, women's research has led to a vast resource of knowledge vis-a-vis the natural environment.
To wit, Rachel Carson correctly extrapolated the deadly effects on the environment due to agricultural pesticides (DDT in particular), and in fact changed the way the government approached pesticides (1991, p. 144). Indeed, Carson's books ("Silent Spring," "Under the Sea-Wind," and others) had an enormous impact on the nation's grasp of environmental dangers and led eventually to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency…
Alldred, Pam, and Dennison, Sarah, 2000, 'Eco-Activism and Feminism: Do Eco-Warriors and Goddesses Need it?', Feminist Review, No. 63, 124-127.
Biehl, Janet, 1991, Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics, South End Press, Cambridge MA.
Eaton, Heather, 2005, Introducing Ecofeminist Theologies, Continuum International Publishing Group, New York.
Kheel, Marti, 1993, 'From Heroic to Holistic Ethics: The Ecofeminist Challenge', in Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature, G. Gaard Ed., Temple University Press: New York.
98). Tickner understands that men and women have been socialized to view "nurturing" as strictly a "feminine trait" and the "dominance of nature as masculine" -- and that the scientific tradition views nature as "something to be conquered and subjugated" (McNamara, p. 552).
Moreover, Tickner believes that care for the global environment must be seen as a "common human value" that men and women can and should respect; also, she asserts that environmental security goals cannot possibly be reached "as long as scholars and policy makers continue to divide the world according to gender stereotypes…" (McNamara, p. 552). In Mary Mellor's book, Feminism & Ecology, the author believes that it is essential for ecofeminists to critique "patriarchy" because women have "disproportionally born the brunt of environmental destruction" (Urbanik, 2001, p. 116). Still, "…getting the relations between humans right will not resolve the ecological imbalance because the source of much of…
McNamara, Kathleen R., 1993, 'Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global Security', Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 46, No. 2, 547-553.
Mellor, Mary, 1997, Feminism & Ecology. New York University Press, New York.
Rocheleau, Dianne E., Thomas-Slayter, Barbara P., and Wangari, Esther. 1996, Feminist Political Ecology: Global Issues and Local Experience, Routledge, New York.
Tickner, J. Ann, 1992, Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global Security, Columbia University Press, New York.
Women and water in India. In the villages of North Gujarat in India, so much groundwater has been removed that water supplies are now becoming scarce, according to hawana Upadhyay, writing in the journal Agriculture and Human Values. Women in North Gujarat are basically looked upon as "…domestic water users while men are seen as productive water users, despite the fact that women make significant use of water for productive purposes as well"
(Upadhyay, 2005, p. 411). Domestic water usage in India goes well beyond drinking and cooking, Upadhyay writes. Dalit women in Nepal for example grow commercial vegetable crops with the water they draw; they utilize a drip system, which costs just $12 to install, and it results in a profit of around $80 annually. Without a source of safe water, the livelihood of these women would disappear. Still, women's use of water tends to be classified as domestic,…
Buckingham, Susan, 2004, 'Ecofeminism in the Twenty-First Century', the Geographical Journal, Vol. 170, No. 2, 146-154.
Crow, Ben, and Sultana, Farhana, 2002, 'Gender, Class, and Access to Water: Three Cases in a Poor and Crowded Delta', Society and Natural Resources, Vol. 15, 709-724.
Dobscha, Susan, and Ozanne, Julie L. 2001. 'An Ecofeminist Analysis of Environmentally Sensitive Women Using Qualitative Methodology: The Emancipatory Potential of an Ecological Life', Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, Vol. 20, No. 2, 201-214.
Eaton, Heather, 'Ecofeminism and Globalization', Feminist Theology, Vol. 8, No. 41, 41-55.
The same argument could reasonably be made for the United States' even more egregious subsequent invasion of Iraq in 2003; the pubic, altruistic reason given was that weapons of mass destruction must be eradicated from this potentially dangerous rogue state. The terrorist attacks on the orld Trade Center in 2001 surely gave the U.S. more fodder for its defensive justification for invading. Iraq is, perhaps coincidentally, perhaps not, an oil-rich nation and curiously, to date, no weapons of mass destruction have ever been located within its borders.
One could argue that this unilateral action by the United States to protect its resource is no different that the colonial imperialistic power games of decades past. Kuniholm goes so far as to call this the "Great Game," and avers it is no different from that played by imperial powers in the past (546).
The preceding figure and facts make clear which states…
Energy. Who Consumes the Most Oil? Web. 23 July 2010.
Bartra, Valentin. "An Institutional Framework for a More Efficient Use of Natural Resources."
Minerals &; Energy - Raw Materials Report 22.1 (2007): 1-12 Print.
BPa. BP PIPELINES: An energy lifeline. UK: BP Publishing, 2009. Print.
It deals with inbuilt societal problems that cannot simply be dealt with due to the fact that they are so internalized. They therefore require a restructuring of societal systems -- that is, a transition and this can be done -- according to Rotman and Loorbach (2008) - by looking into the social structure of the problem
Transition management has already come a long way. As Rotman and Loorbach D (2008) observe:
The progress made in practice as well as the theoretical developments shows that modern times require experimental, innovative, multidisciplinary and participative forms of governance like transition management. In line with the underlying philosophy we cannot be certain about this, but transition management seems to be in tune with present societal demands, research and policy.
At the same time: "We are, however, also a long way from realizing a sustainable society, which means that there are ample challenges for the…
Australian Govt (2007)Tackling Wicked Problems. pdf.
BBC How many people can live on planet earth?
Castro (2004) Sustainable Development: Mainstream and Critical Perspectives Organization Environment; 17; 195
In other industrialized countries, however, like Germany, Italy and Japan, the main concern of governments today is that not enough children are being born to even reach the level of the replacement rate. This is almost certainly a mistake since reduction of population should be the main goal in order to save the planet, and additional middle-class consumers in Western nations are the greatest burden on the environment.
Encouragement of voluntary euthanasia will be another method of reducing the excess population. Today many billions of dollars are spent on the last thirty days of life and 65% of physicians and nurses in one survey admitted that had provided unnecessary treatments for the terminally ill. That statistic was mentioned frequently in the debates over health care reform, with the implication that those dollars would be better spent on medical care for younger and healthier people at the start of their productive…
The advantages of network use are apparent enough and from such an obvious position, it is interesting that there is an inadequacy in the understanding of the processes by which networks function. Thus, the article focuses on the role of network governance and its impact on network effectiveness.
The authors demonstrate that network effectiveness while not entirely illusive is a difficult prospect. This phenomenon is multifaceted and multi-tiered and consequently the solutions that are engaged to create network effectiveness must align themselves with this particular reality. The problems of explicating effectiveness begin at the level of conceptualization and measurement. They note that despite these theoretical impediments effectiveness requires a measure of articulation.
The authors contrast organizational as opposed to network governance and suggests that most of the literature on the subject of governance does not specifically address the issues of the role of networks in the governance dynamic. The establishment…
Dwyer, P.D. And Minnegal, M. (2006). The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: Risk, Uncertainty and Decision-Making by Victorian Fishers. Journal of Political Ecology 13:1-23
Emerson, R. (1962). Power-Dependence relations. American sociological review 27 (1):31-41.
Newcomer, K.E. (2007). Measuring Government Performance. International Journal of Public
Administration, 30: 307 -- 329.
wrong with this picture?
The viewpoint being espoused expresses some wonderful ideas but fails to take into consideration the basic selfishness of man. Expecting the kind of cooperation and dedication that would be necessary to accomplish what is being suggested in this scenario is highly idealistic. It would require the putting aside of both national interests and personal interests on a scale much larger than that necessary for the United Nations to operate. Suggesting that this might be possible is unrealistic. ather, the more reasoned approach is to allow the natural markets to develop.
In the short-term, the world's energy supply system will remain essentially as it is for the next several decades except that the demand in growth will continue due to sustained modernization in China, India and elsewhere. This means that new sources of oil and other energy sources need to be developed alongside strides in energy efficiency.…
Adger, W.N. (2001). Advancing a political ecology of global environmental discourses. Development and Change, 681-715.
Armitage, K.C. (2005). State of Denial: The United States and the politics of global warming. Globalizations, 417-427.
Global Warming: Fact ather Than Fiction
The focus of this paper is on global warming and its causes. In the introduction phase, we have given a brief overview of the problem alongside a brief look at the details of the problem itself. It is mentioned here that how much change has actually recorded in the previous decades and what the future might hold on for the planet if the trend keeps on going as it is right now. It has also mentioned the consequences of rise in temperatures which can result in many different scenarios.
We then focused on the causes of the problem and again had a brief overview of it, the causes were divided into two main sections and proper emphasis was given on one of it in order to give the root cause of the phenomena. The discussion phase have a more in-depth look at the causes…
Johansen, B. (2002). The Global Warming Desk Reference. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Uzawa, H. (2003). Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Press.
Weart, S. (2003). The Discovery of Global Warming. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.
Harris, P. (2003). Global Warming and East Asia. New York: Routledge.
Another area of change brought on by the assistance of the EDF is that which now more explicitly connects environmental degradation with certain social and demographic factors. The creation of its Scorecard ebsite in 2001 would bring a new dimension to the social discourse on environmental issues. According to Dooley (2001), with this new scorecard in place, "on the main Environmental Justice page, entering a ZIP code generates a report of the varying degrees of environmental burden within that area for different racial, ethnic, and income groups. The burdens include releases of toxic chemicals, cancer risk from hazardous air pollutants, and facilities emitting criteria air pollutants." (Dooley, p. 367)
Other recent decisions also reflect the degree of success that the EDF has had in moving governments forward on specific issues. So is this reflected in the text by Zimmerman (1995), which reports on a decision in the case of City…
Dooley, E.E. (2001). Environmental Defense Scorecard: Environmental Justice. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(8).
Environmental Defense Fund. (2011). Our Mission and History. EDF.org.
F.B. (1979). Spectrum. Environment, 21(2).
Zimmerman, J.F. (1995). High Court Action To Elevate Costs Of Solid Waste Disposal. National Civic Review, 84(1).
Tide Detergent and the Political Environment
According to Otto Bettmann's memorably titled book, The Good Old Days -- They Were Terrible, adulteration of soaps and foodstuffs were rife in the era of the 1910's and 1920's before Tide Detergent became a reality in the 1930's America. (Bettmann, 1974) Thus, the main legal consideration for Proctor & Gamble was not the safety of Tide or indeed any detergent as a product, rather it was forming a patent for its manufacture, to avoid the chemical process for manufacturing detergent becoming widely known. Today, the method of securing patents is so widely circulated that there are books written on the subject in the form of do-it-yourself guides. (Pressman, 2000) Also, there are sites on the Internet devoted to patent protection. But at the time, P&G's methodology of creating something to make whites truly whiter was a hotly contested patented product. After all, "for…
U.S. Water News Online (November 1998) "Science, not politics, should determine environmental regulations, scientist tells detergent industry."
Tide Liquid Detergent: Technological Development detergent is "a synthetic chemical that acts as a soap." (Willet, 1998) Until the 20th century, "very few synthesized chemicals existed," and the widespread synthesizing of materials out of the hydrocarbons that compose detergents was not possible until after the Second World War, when Tide was invented. (Willet, 1998) But still, it is difficult from today's perspective to appreciate the full implications for the technical components of the wide synthesizing of hydrocarbons. Unlike soap, detergents do not react poorly with hard water and causes the mineral salts in the water to form an insoluble substance, leaving laundry gray after repeated washings. (Bellis, 2004).
This is one reason during Victorian times; laundry washing was such an arduous, to say nothing of an infrequent household event. (Flanders, 2004) At the time, the Procter & Gamble Company made ivory soap but knew soap's disadvantages regarding clothing, so "by the 1920s, P&G chemists had figured out a way to create chemicals with special two-part molecules, one end of which was attracted to water and the other end of which was attracted to grease and dirt. Using this chemical in water could loosen grime in clothes, holding it suspended until it could be washed away. They called these new molecules synthetic surface-active agents -- synthetic surfactants for short."
Sustainability More About Politics Than Science?
The environment is a word which refers to the natural effects around us including the atmosphere, seas and oceans, rocks and mountains, plants, ice formations, human beings, stars and several others. These effects are best left in their natural state because when they get disturbed, they could have serious consequences on the atmosphere, electricity, water, weather, fire and the earth's magnetism. Sadly, this is the situation of things now and these consequences are real. Several problems are facing the environment causing global adverse effects and putting the people in it at risk. This research studies these problems and determines if the scientific and political measures put in place are effective in mitigating them
Environmental issues facing the world
The disturbances in the environment have brought about noticeable changes in climate and high frequencies of natural disasters. Take for example; the problem of global warming…
Abraham John et al. The Importance of Science in Addressing Climate Change. Climate science. 2011. Print
Scorce Jason. The Role of Government in Environmental Protection. Grist. 2006. Online journal
Burns Steven. Environmental Policy and Political Tends in Public Debate. Natural resources and environment. Vol 23. No. 2. 2008. Print.
Rinkesh. Current Environmental Issues. Conserve energy future. 2017. Online journal.
Climate Change and Moral Responsibility
The position that will be supported in this paper is that climate change is a fact and Americans in the U.S. have a moral responsibility to address it.
The background to this issue includes the following: since the 19th century, scientists and researchers have been looking more closely at changes in the climate and the impact of greenhouse gases on the atmosphere. As Meyer and Roser point out, "the emission of greenhouse gases causes climate change" (223). Since the rise of industrialization, greenhouse gases and pollutants have surged, leading to global warming, which has resulted in polar ice caps melting, sea levels rising, and temperature and weather patterns changing -- all of which has major ramifications for the planet.
From the standpoint of distributive justice, specific questions arise when looking to address climate change. For instance, many people believe there should be a cap on…
Javeline, Debra. "The Most Important Topic Political Scientists Are Not Studying:
Adapting to Climate Change." Perspectives on Politics, vol. 12, no. 2 (2014): 420-434.
Meyer, Lukas; Roser, Dominic. "Distributive Justice and Climate Change: The
Allocation of Emission Rights." Analyse & Kritik: Journal of Philosophy and Social Theory, vol. 28, no. 2 (2006): 223-249.
His task becomes more difficult, however, when he attempts to prove that the right to an unpolluted environment is equal to other rights such as the right to property and life. His basic political philosophy reflects nothing new since Locke; it is in his application that his argument disintegrates.
Blackstone assumes that human responsibility for environmental changes is a foregone conclusion. Though his assumption here could be debated, for the sake of argument we will assume that he is correct. It does not, however, automatically follow that it is an ethical imperative for mankind to care for and protect the environment in the same manner that society is designed to protect and ensure freedom. In traditional liberal political thinking, an individual's freedom is thought to end where it impinges on someone else's. Blackstone argues that environmental degradation falls into this category, and that one individual's right to a pristine environment…
The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.
Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.
It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…
Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.
Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.
Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11
Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies (Smith 2007). Notice the continuum here -- globalization, like modernization, is a process, but a process that insists movement from A to B. is not only desirable, but necessary to become part of the Global Club. hile this is primarily an economic determinant, nothing exists in a vacuum. Therefore, economics drive technological, social, cultural, political, and even biological factors. And, with this exchange of paradigms, there is transnational circulation of ideas, languages, popular culture, and communication through acculturation. Typically, we see the movement of globalization moving into the developing world…
Achebe, C 2000, Home and Exile, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Adams, W 2006, The Future of Sustainability: Re-THinking Environment and Development in the 21st Century, viewed December 2011, http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/iucn_future_of_sustanability.pdf
Aristotle VII, 'Politics', pp. 1339a 29-30.
Bartlovich, C, Mannur, A (eds.) 2001, Marxism, Modernity and Post-Colonial Studies, Cambridge University Press, New York.
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
lowland Maya decimation is much more than at any time before, and there are currently several studies that concentrate on the period from roughly A.D. 750 to A.D.1050. Previously, researchers have had a tendency to sum up clarifications of the decimation from individual locales and areas to the marshes in totality. Later methodologies push the extraordinary differences of changes that took place over the swamps amid the Terminal Classic and Early Post classic periods. Along these lines, there is presently a general agreement on the view that Maya culture and civilization in general did not fall, albeit numerous zones did experience significant change
Present scenarios are the result of the long haul elements of human-environment interplay. The fact of the matter is that, we have a long-term viewpoint, keeping in mind the end goal to best comprehend continual changes in ambient environs we observe in present times
. Analysis of…
Aimers, James J. "What Maya Collapse-Terminal Classic Variation in the Maya Lowlands." Springer Science+Business Media (2007): 330-337.
Oldfield, F., ed. 1998. Past global changes (PAGES): Status reportand implementation plan. IGBP Report 45. Stockholm: International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme
Dunning, Nicholas, et al. Arising from the Bajos: The Evolution of a Neotropical Landscape and the Rise of Maya Civilization. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
Chase, A.F., and Chase, D.Z. (1992). El norte y el sur: pol?'tica, dominios y evolucio'n cultural maya.Mayab 8: 134 -- 149
Preservation of Historical uildings
The economic and political contexts that influenced the practice of heritage conservation of historical buildings
The prevalence of the practice of heritage conservation has been instigated with cultural concerns that arise from a developed human society, along with its gradual movement toward becoming a more technologically-advanced civilization. Primarily, heritage conservation, specifically of historical sites and buildings, was introduced as part of organizations' attempts to preserve humanity's cultural heritage. That is, the argument put forth in introducing heritage conservation is culture-based.
Stipe (2003) elucidates on this point, where he considers heritage conservation as initially introduced through an acknowledgment and implementation of cultural preservation. For the author, the conservation of historic buildings is essential because they are our "physical link to the past" (xiv). As such, historic buildings also serves as a reminder to and remembrance for people about the significant events in history that are considered important…
Klamer, A. And P. Zuidhof. (1999). "The values of cultural heritage: merging economic and cultural appraisals." CA: The J. Paul Getty Trust.
Klatt, M. (October 2004). "Car culture." Preservation Online. Available at: http://www.nationaltrust.org/Magazine/archives/arch_story/100804.htm.
Serageldin, I., E. Shluger, and J. Martin-Brown. (2001). Historic cities and sacred sites: cultural roots for urban futures. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.
Stipe, R. (2003). A richer heritage: historic preservation in the twenty-first century. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
S. production value. Exports account for approximately half this amount (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). Figure 2 portrays three views of bamboo. One: A bamboo forrest; Two: A bamboos shoot; Three: A bamboo grove walkway.
Figure 2: Three Views of Bamboo (adapted from Stickman).
As bamboo production levels have risen, the amounts of raw materials needed to facilitate the production have simultaneously increased. The bamboo industry in Anji predominantly harvests bamboo from plantations, as it primarily grows a fast growing and easily cultivated, bamboo species, locally known as "maozhu" or "moso bamboo" (phyllostachys heterocycla) (Binnquist, Lopez, and Shanley). .
Currently in Anji, the cultivation of moso bamboo encompasses 60% of the forest area, with the percentage rising as plantations expand. Along with the hefty production of bamboo, the intense cultivation bamboo industry uses mammoth amounts of fertilizers and pesticides; which contributes to negative environmental effects. In reference to the bamboo production…
Applegate, Ed and Johnsen, Art. Cases in advertising and marketing management: real =
situations for tomorrow's managers Plymouth, United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.
Adhikary, Nripal. "Treatment Process." Abari Adobe and Bamboo Research Institute. 2009.
Web. Available at: . 09 October 2009.
Legal Ethical Environment
[Type the document title]
Over the last several years, the mining industry has faced similar challenges. Part of the reason for this is because of the increase in demand for a host of different raw materials. In the case of Rio Tinto and HP illiton, they are facing similar challenges from various safety issues. elow we will examine how both companies are addressing this underlying problem. (Goodman, 2004)
Identify two firms with similar problems but from different countries
Two firms that are facing similar challenges that are from different countries include: Rio Tinto (based out of the UK) and HP illiton (headquartered in Australia). Where, they are wrestling with how to improve mine safety, due to a series of accidents that have occurred.
Conduct a comparative analysis of the firms
The two firms are facing increasing pressure to improve mine safety standards because of a number of…
Australian Mine Disaster. (1998). Mine Web. Retrieved from: http://www.mineweb.com/mineweb/view/mineweb/en/page67?oid=80326&sn=Detail
Goodman, P. (2004). Booming China Devouring Raw Materials. Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43765-2004May20.html
Perrin, C. (2010). Rio Tinto Spends More. IB Times. Retrieved from: http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/85861/20101126/rio-tinto-spends-more-for-underground-mine-safety.htm
Stevens, M. (2007). African Deaths Highlight BHP Mine Safety Problems. The Australian. Retrieved from: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/african-deaths-highlight-bhps-safety-problems/story-e6frg77f-1111115202285
Epidemiological Analysis of Obesity
As a result of increasingly sedentary lifestyles and poor nutritional choices, an increasing number of consumers are gaining weight and obesity has reached epidemic levels in many countries. Although the social and economic consequences of obesity are well documented, there remains a need to better understand the epidemiology of obesity in order to formulate effective population-based interventions. To this end, this paper provides an analysis of the obesity problem in the United States compared to Thailand where obesity is not as great a problem, but where the prevalence of obesity is still on the rise. A further comparison of obesity rates and obesity-related healthcare costs in New York compared to national rates and costs is followed by an assessment concerning how the political aspects of this issue hinder the ability of epidemiologists in addressing this problem. In addition, recommendations concerning four new policies or laws that…
Anderson, P.M., Butcher, K.F. And Levine, P.B. (2003). Economic perspectives on childhood obesity. Economic Perspectives, 27(3), 30.
Clinton, J., & Smith, D. (1999). Understanding childhood obesity. Jackson, MS: University
Press of Mississippi.
Daniels, S.R. (2006). Consequences of childhood overweight and obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47.
The project in question that of Building a reduced-sulfur generating, coal-fired plant by GHECO-One in Map Ta Phut, Thailand was examined for potential environmental impact due to the possible damage that the plant could cause. The company has stated throughout that their wish is to construct a plant that will be both environmentally and physically safe for the people, plants and animals that live within the region. This evaluation looks at that report with a specific view towards whether this environmental assessment is overly politicized in order to pacify the examining board of the country, and whether the site will have a cultural impact for the regions fishermen and others who either work in the area or are in some way affected by it. This evaluation is conducted to determine if the impact assessment met all of the requirements of a truthful and straightforward telling of the facts.…
EBR., 2009. Construction of GHECO-One coal-fired IPP power plant continues in Thailand. Retrieved from http://www.energy-business- review.com/news/construction_of_ghecoone_coalfired_ipp_power_plant_continu es_in_thailand_090526
Fujitsu., 2012. Fujitsu's ICT helps to solve environmental issues in Thailand. Retrieved from http://www.fujitsu.com/global/news/pr/archives/month/2012/20120207 - 02.html
GHECO-One., 2010. Thermal power plant project. Retrieved from http://www.glow.co.th/OurProject/EN/GHECO- ONE/Summary%20report%20of%20GHECO-ONE_English.pdf
Hariharan, M., 2011. Thailand's Map Ta Phut crisis -- The NGO side of the story. Retrieved from http://www.icis.com/blogs/asian-chemical - connections/2010/03/thailands-map-ta-phut-crisis -- .html
In the final analysis, heavy metals are like many other substances found in nature; oxygen, for example, is essential for life but can be enormously harmful and even deadly if present in sufficient concentrations. Likewise, heavy metals were shown to be essential for many human endeavors, but a growing body of evidence suggests that long-term exposure to such substances can have significant adverse health consequences.
Baos, ., Blas, J., Bortolotti, G.., Marchant, T.A. & Hiraldo, F. (2006). Adrenocortical response to stress and thyroid hormone status in free-living nestling white storks (Ciconia) exposed to heavy metal and arsenic contamination. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(10), 1497.
Bothwell, S. (2001, Fall). Spreading it. Alternatives Journal, 27(4), 10.
Carter, F.W. & Turnock, D. (2002). Environmental problems of East Central Europe. London: outledge.
Coon, S., Stark, a., Peterson, E., Gloi, a., Kortsha, G., Pounds, J., Chettle, D. & Gorell, J. (2006). Whole-body lifetime occupational lead…
Baos, R., Blas, J., Bortolotti, G.R., Marchant, T.A. & Hiraldo, F. (2006). Adrenocortical response to stress and thyroid hormone status in free-living nestling white storks (Ciconia) exposed to heavy metal and arsenic contamination. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(10), 1497.
Bothwell, S. (2001, Fall). Spreading it. Alternatives Journal, 27(4), 10.
Carter, F.W. & Turnock, D. (2002). Environmental problems of East Central Europe. London: Routledge.
Coon, S., Stark, a., Peterson, E., Gloi, a., Kortsha, G., Pounds, J., Chettle, D. & Gorell, J. (2006). Whole-body lifetime occupational lead exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(12), 1872.
To a great degree individual environmentalists, and especially martyrs, those who have lost their lives or liberty are seen by those in the most radical circles as defining members of their group. It is also clear that for the most part individuals in the movement are not recognized as such, excluding public figures such as former vice president Al Gore, who just received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work on climate change ("Al Gore" 21) or the frequent Green Party presidential candidate Ralph Nader, an ardent environmentalist.
Al Gore." estern Mail (Cardiff, ales) 13 Feb. 2007: 21.
Baird, Stephen L. "Climate Change: A Runaway Train?. The Human Species Has Reshaped Earth's Landscapes on an Ever-Larger and Lasting Scale." The Technology Teacher 66.4 (2006): 14.
Environmentalism." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Crichton, Michael. "Environmentalism as Religion Run Amok." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of…
Al Gore." Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales) 13 Feb. 2007: 21.
Baird, Stephen L. "Climate Change: A Runaway Train?. The Human Species Has Reshaped Earth's Landscapes on an Ever-Larger and Lasting Scale." The Technology Teacher 66.4 (2006): 14.
Environmentalism." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Crichton, Michael. "Environmentalism as Religion Run Amok." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) 132.2706 (2004): 22.
The current construction of World-Systems analysis holds that core countries, including America, Europe's thriving economies, and developed nations in Africa and Asia, derive enormous economic and political power from "the axial division of labor of a capitalist world-economy (that) divides production into core-like products and peripheral products" (Wallerstein 28). Madagascar's relative abundance of untapped natural resources, in the form of massive "old-growth" tropical rainforests, and deposits of minerals like chromite and titanium ore which are now used in the construction of cellular telephones and laptop computing devices, represent peripheral products that can be exploited for the ongoing manufacture and distribution of the core products driving the engine of globalized commerce.
(America, China, India)
Babones, Salvatore J., and Maria Jose Alvarez-ivadulla. "Standardized Income Inequality Data for Use in Cross-National esearch." Sociological Inquiry 77.1 (2007): 3-22.
Chase-Dunn, Christopher, Yukio Kawano, and Benjamin…
Babones, Salvatore J., and Maria Jose Alvarez-Rivadulla. "Standardized Income Inequality Data for Use in Cross-National Research." Sociological Inquiry 77.1 (2007): 3-22.
Chase-Dunn, Christopher, Yukio Kawano, and Benjamin D. Brewer. "Trade globalization since 1795: Waves of integration in the world-system." American Sociological Review (2000): 77-95.
Duiker, William J. Contemporary World History. Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2009.
Friedman, Thomas L. The world is flat [updated and expanded]: A brief history of the twenty- first century. Farrar Straus & Giroux, 2006.
Environmental Worldview: A Confessional of Contradictions
To assess my environmental worldview, perhaps the most effective method to deploy is to reflect on a typical day in my life, when I am living at home and when I am outside the university community -- on a typical garbage day. On that day, I put out half a week's refuse, in a plastic, non-biodegradable bag, on my curb. (The store brand of plastic bags was on sale this week at the local supermarket.) As I look down my street, I see others engaged in a similar process. One woman in a housedress drags a huge black amorphous bag of refuse, another neighbor, a tired businessman in a suit, wheels large plastic bins with lids expressly designed to keep away the teeth and claws of other species. Then, I remember it is recycling day, and I dash into the home to lug out…
These climatic changes in turn impact negatively on the economy and the people within the region. There is need hence for the environmental protection for sustainable development. Though there have been significant measures like the formulation of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (AWPPA) which was geared towards protection of the marine environment especially tackling pollution and shipping safety laws to be in place (Justice Laws Website, 2013), there is still more that Canada can do to ensure a sustainable economic growth of this region.
Canada must therefore resort to ecosystem-based management system within the Artic region. There is need to ensure an approach that will take into account the co-management of the species in the Artic region that may cross the international borders like the polar bear and the Arctic birds. The collaborative approach to the ecosystem should also include the Arctic research and science ventures conducted in collaborative…
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, (2013). Canada's Arctic Foreign Policy. Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://www.international.gc.ca/arctic-arctique/arctic_policy-canada-politique_arctique.aspx?lang=eng
Geopolitics in the High North, (2013). Statement on Canada's Arctic policy. Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://www.geopoliticsnorth.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=138:statement.
Justice Laws Website, (2013). Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. A-12). Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/A-12/
According to Fitzpatrick & Keegan (2010), "This use of historical ecology to study "the complex, historical interactions between human populations and the ecosystems they have inhabited" (Kirch 1997a, p.2; see also Crumley (ed.) 1994), has been applied in other parts of the world to observe anthropogenic changes through time. Archaeologists, influenced by a wide array of scientific fields, have taken a keen interest in understanding how humans adapted, influenced, modified, and impacted their environment. This is a difficult endeavor, however, because "environments change and the magnitude of change are never constant" (O'Brien 2001, pp. 29-30). (Fitzpatrick, Keegan, pg. 30, 2007)
Fitzpatrick & Keegan point to the uses of historical ecology to investigate the interrelationships between humans and the biosphere. The importance of noting environmental changes as separate from human involvement may be erroneous. Environmental changes are hinted by proponents of historical ecology to have been initiated by humans through their…
Anderson, a. 2009, Epilogue: Changing Archaeological Perspectives upon Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands1, University Press of Hawaii.
Balee W. (1998), Historical Ecology: Premises and Postulates -- Chapter 1.
Bird DW., Richardson JL., Veth PM., Barham AJ. (2002) Explaining Shellfish Variability in Middens on the Meriam Islands, Torres Strait, Australia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 457-469
Erlandson, Rick (2010) Archaeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems.
Corporate Social esponsibility and Environmental Ethics
Abstract/Introduction -- No one can argue that the international business community is becoming more and more complex as a result of globalism. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S. vice president and environmental activist Al Gore, who showed him pictures of icecaps melting, he thought…
Career Services. The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from:
Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Supply Chain.. APEC
Human Resources Development Working Group. Retrieved from: http://hrd.apec.org/index.php/Corporate_Social_Responsibility_in_the_Global_Supply_Chain.
One article in a past issue of the Kappa Omicron NU publication Forum explored the real-world teaching of service learning as a tool for involving students in their community. The study had the established goal of making clear the practical applicability of the academic learning in family and consumer sciences, and the necessity of community involvement for students in these programs and other human science specializations, as well as for families who put family and consumer sciences to use every day (Leach 1998). As my specialization is family studies, much of the research and findings of this study are directly applicable to my own planned career in family and consumer sciences.
The article provides background by detailing the connection between family and community, which is "the family's more immediate external environment" and, if properly engaged, a solid source of support both materially and emotionally for the home economist (Leach 1998).…
AAFCS. (2003). American association of family and consumer sciences official website. Accessed 31 August 2009. http://www.aafcs.org/
Bois, D. (1997). "Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards." Distinguished women of past and present. Accessed 31 August 2009. http://www.distinguishedwomen.com/biographies/richards-es.html
Carland-Adams, B. (2009). "When Mom dates, Dad stops visiting his kids." journal of marriage and family, August. Accessed 31 August 2009.
Since the peak in residential Black/hite segregation during the 1960s and 1970s, there has been a slow decline in the index of dissimilarity; however, this did not translate into an increase in interactions with different racial groups ("Residential Segregation" 15-19). By the 2010 Census, the average hite person still lives in a predominantly hite neighborhood and the average Black person lives in a predominately minority neighborhood. By comparison, the residential segregation experienced by Hispanics and Asians has remained relatively stable during the latter decades of the 20th century and during the first decade of the new millennium.
The two main competing models are "human ecology" and "socioeconomic status" ("Residential Segregation" 47). The human ecology model proposes that segregation is created by trends in migration and new housing starts, institutionalized discrimination, population growth, an urban center's size and age, and the demographics specific to a region. By comparison, ilson…
Farley, Reynolds and Frey, William H. "Changes in the Segregation of Whites from Blacks during the 1980s: Small Steps Toward a more Integrated Society." American Sociological Review 59.1 (1994): 23-45. Print.
"Farmville: Film Description." POV, American Documentary, Inc. (2009). Web.
Hirschman, Charles. "Immigration and the American Century." Demography, 42.4 (2005): 595-620.
Logan, John R., Stults, Brian J., and Farley, Reynolds. "Segregation of Minorities in the Metropolis: Two Decades of Change." Demography 41.1 (2004): 1-22. Print.
The apparent garbage crisis of overflowing landfills would help develop urban landscapes for the future city.
Establish an overlay district of employment to encourage high-income employment in strategic locations
I would like to see the city where health systems are integrated and sharing one regional headquarter.
The leaders must facilitate development programs that generate high-income jobs.
I must address my quest for an economically vital and people-friendly future city. The apparent garbage crisis of overflowing landfills would help develop urban landscapes for the future city. There are various ways in which trash could be transformed into treasure. Based on my understanding of the Clearwater's challenges and opportunities, coupled with the current economic conditions, I believe the below strategies will translate Clearwater into a new city of my desire.
Establish an overlay district of employment to encourage high-income employment in strategic locations: the future city will be a…
It uses indicators such as life expectancy, literacy and infant mortality of nations around the world to develop an index of well-being. he U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1972 identified quality of life components in six environmental areas- economic, political, social, health, natural and physical. Coping behavior is one characteristic of quality of life as seeking an improved quality of life involves making good decisions, meeting one's needs and having greater access to resources. Basic human rights -- the right to be born, right to develop to full intellectual potential, right to full access to resources of the nation and right to live a satisfying life are included in conceptualizing quality of life. In the Human Ecological approach to quality of life individuals and families must be assisted to strengthen their abilities to reach their full potential. Human Ecology study therefore seeks to train leaders who understand basic human needs…
This chapter explains the 'quality of life' phrase which was born in the 1970s, and relates it to coping skills and why it must be an important aspect of Human Ecology study. Each person and family defines their own quality of life. The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) was developed to measure quality of life. It uses indicators such as life expectancy, literacy and infant mortality of nations around the world to develop an index of well-being. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1972 identified quality of life components in six environmental areas- economic, political, social, health, natural and physical. Coping behavior is one characteristic of quality of life as seeking an improved quality of life involves making good decisions, meeting one's needs and having greater access to resources. Basic human rights -- the right to be born, right to develop to full intellectual potential, right to full access to resources of the nation and right to live a satisfying life are included in conceptualizing quality of life. In the Human Ecological approach to quality of life individuals and families must be assisted to strengthen their abilities to reach their full potential. Human Ecology study therefore seeks to train leaders who understand basic human needs and will be able to help individuals and families to secure their basic needs through policy approaches and community services.
Chapter 16. International Study of Human Ecology and Quality of Life.
The School of Human Ecology has determined that it is important to include an international dimension in the Human Ecology course. It stresses the importance of understanding other cultures and values especially of people in less-developed areas of the world. The Program in International Studies in Human Ecology was therefore developed to address this need. Some of the international concerns and issues that must be addressed to bring about improvements in the quality and condition of the lives of people in developing countries include poverty and illiteracy. Individuals preparing for leadership roles in international areas must therefore have knowledge of these issues, and be able to manage and coordinate programs which affect large numbers of people, resources and environments.
" (Capital, p. 915)
Ecological damage is grounded in resource depletion and density of population. You can have 10,000 over a 1000 acre land and this might not hurt the ecological balance but when you have the same number of people on 10 acre land, the balance is seriously disturbed as water, minerals, and other resources of a very small area are constantly being used up. This is what happened during the colonization process. Only some nations were constantly being robbed of their natural resources while nothing was coming from European countries. It must always be a two-way flow of resources because when its one-way, it leads to multifarious environmental and ecological problems. It is for this reason that Accion Ecologica argues "it's time to shut off the tap" to stem the "unjust flow of energy, natural resources, food, cheap labour and financial resources from the South to the North."…
Karl Marx, Capital, volume 1 (New York: Vintage, 1976), p. 896; Malthus to Ricardo, August 17, 1817, in David Ricardo, Works and Correspondence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1952), vol. 7
Alfred W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).
Karl Marx, the Poverty of Philosophy (New York: International Publishers, 1963)
Acci n Ecol gica, "No More Plunder, They Owe Us the Ecological Debt!" (Retrieved October 10, 2007 from www.cosmovisiones.com/DeudaEcologica/a_averde78in.html,1999).
134). In addition, ussian authorities have also joined with the international community to protect the lake. In this regard, Hudgins adds that, "Increased awareness of such threats to the unique ecology of Lake Baikal has prompted a number of international organizations -- including the Sierra Club and Baikal Watch in the United States -- to join the ussians in their efforts to protect this natural wonder of the world" (1998, p. 135). According to the Sierra Club, "Lake Baikal, arguably ussia's most significant environmental treasure -- it contains a fifth of the world's unfrozen freshwater and is a UNESCO World Heritage site -- is being polluted by toxic waste from a paper mill that Vladimir Putin ordered reopened for economic reasons" (Pollutin' Putin, 2010, para. 2). In fact, the recently reopened paper mill disposes of toxic wastes directly into Lake Baikal's fragile biological system (Hoare, 2008). While the Sierra Club…
Current programs. (2010). Baikal Watch. Retrieved from http://www.earthislandprojects.org / project/campaignPage.cfm?pageID=7&subSiteID=1&CFID=43926225&CFTOKEN=32
Gladkochub, D.P., Donskaya, T.V., Wingate, M.T., Poller, U., Kroner, a., Fedorovsky, V.S.,
Mazukabzov, a.M., Todt, W. & Pisarevsky, S.A. (2008). Petrology, geochronology and tectonic implications of C. 500 Ma metamorphic and igneous rocks along the northern margin of the Central Asian orogen. Journal of the Geological Society, 165, 235-237.
Analytical tools and techniques used in approximating dam breakages are usually evaluted and comparison made in orders to ascertain there effectiveness. During dam construction, it is necessary to evaluate the potentiality of dam failure modes, breach the necessary paramenters related to failuere modes, and define routing and the map of the consequent discharge hydrograph. This paper outlines how mapping of propable inudation emanating form the dam failures needs numerous elements i.e. likely dam failures, break parameters, hydrologic scenario that are connected to failure models, including routing and mapping of the consequent discharge hydrograph. The unsteadily flowing routing models i.e HEC-AS are oftenly applied in computation and rfelction of the dam's downstream consequences emaneting from dam failures. Approximation of the break elements i.e. time of development and width is carried out externally to the model in use.
In the recent past most agencies are enganging themselves…
Resources Program, July1992, http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/dams/Images/pdfs/technote_1.pdf
operation and data management of the water-authority with a specific focus on the ability to provide a sustainable water supply for the next century in the Caribbean. This literature review will examine previous studies (both qualitative and quantitative) of water sustainability and specific problems related to water quality, such as the build-up of nitrogen in the water supply. It will also review ways to assess water quality through the use of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) as a feasible tool of water management. The review will conclude with different philosophies of water delivery in the developing world, specifically the use of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and the philosophy's pros and cons.
According to Gleick (1998), the impending water crisis is one which will have seismic political and environmental consequences, if not addressed soon: "as human populations continue to grow, these problems are likely to…
Al-Barqawi, H. & Zayed, T. 2008. Infrastructure management: Integrated AHP/ANN model to evaluate municipal water mains' performance. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 14:305-318.
Aspinall, R. & Pearson, D. 2000. Integrated geographical assessment of environmental condition in water catchments: Linking landscape ecology, environmental modelling and GIS
Journal of Environmental Management (2000) 59, 299 -- 319
Current events of the environmental ethics
Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming. One of the leading researchers (in the causes and effects of climate change; and in the field of allergies) in Europe has discovered that the burning of the fossil fuel that has increased over the recent past has resulted into the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide facilitates the growth of the ragweed- an invasive plant- moreover; the hay fever is triggered of by this plant's pollen grains. Both early and long seasons of allergy are caused by the bloom of the birch trees as a result of the warmer temperatures (White, 1967).
Non-environmentally friendly behaviors currently such as the increased acts of war has not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources but has also caused stress in…
Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. California: Houghton Mifflin.
Van, W., & Peter C. (1997). Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecology and the Missing
Human Subject. New York: SUNY Press.
Varner, G. (1998). In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental
This leads one to believe that they are not very well off financially and the mother has not real education in order to obtain employment since she is currently attaining administrative assistant training. Antonio also has issues with controlling his behavior when in the daycare environment, as he frequently has violent outbursts and crying spells.
If one were to assess Antonio from an Eco-Feminist perspective one would be better able to understand Antonio and his present behavior. Ecofeminism is the social movement that regards the domination of women and nature as unified. It is one of the few movements and analyses that in fact connect the two movements. Lately, ecofeminist theorists have extended their analyses to reflect on the interconnections flanked by sexism, the domination of nature, and also racism and social dissimilarities (What is Ecofeminism, n.d.). Daniel spent a lot of time suppressing Hilda in his behavior that he…
"Neil Adger on Social Resilience." (2010). Retrieved December 2, 2010, from Ecological
Sociology Web site: http://ecologicalsociology.blogspot.com/2010/05/neil-adger-on-social-resilience.html
Kendall, Diana. (2008). Sociology in our Times. Belmont: Thompson Wadsworth.
Mannelli, Sandra. (n.d.). What Are Defense Mechanisms Anyway? Retrieved December 3, 2010,