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Should the state of Missouri legalize polygamy?
Comprising 114 counties, Missouri is a U.S. state located in mid-west of the country. The debate of whether or not legalize polygamy (i.e. one man marrying many women) is ethically evaluated here using ethical method and theories.
Five-point analysis method for resolving ethical dilemmas
Ethical questions are deep rooted in the emotions of individuals as well as the society. It is not easy to present and get accepted a solution to ethical dilemma. The five point analysis method for resolving ethical dilemmas has following steps:
Develop a list of premises: This step is of finding options. Listing the solution alternatives. The method will evaluate if polygamy should be legalized, illegalized, banned with heavy punishment, or allowed under specific conditions where the wife has medical issues that require the husband to marry someone else.
Step 2. Eliminate irrelevant or weak premises: After analyzing…
Bramhan, D., (2011), "Tradition of monogamous marriage traced in polygamy hearing,"
Retrieved from: http://www.vancouversun.com/life/Tradition+monogamous+marriage+traced+polygamy+hearing/4087361/story.html
Ethics and Virtue, (n.d.), Retrieved from:
Polygamy, or the practice of having more than one spouse at a time, is a very controversial issue that provides many ethical, moral and practical questions that surround the idea and its implementation into society. The purpose of this essay is to describe the practice of polygamy and why this practice is unwise to participate in due to the many risks toward mental, physical and spiritual health.
This essay will first examine the issues surrounding polygamy and how it has arrived in our society. The pros and cons of this practice will also be examined to demonstrate how polygamy is ultimately destroying our culture and freedom. The effects polygamy has on financial matters, legal issues, health and disease issues and biblical issues will all be addressed in this essay to highlight the true purpose of this disturbing and unwelcomed practice.
Polygamy, simply understood means to be married to…
Barber, N. (2009). The wide world of polygamy: We hate it, others love it. Psychology Today, 19 Feb 2009. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-human-beast/200902/the-wide-world-polygamy-we-hate-it-others-love-it
Rauch, J. (2006). One Man, Many Wives, Big Problems. Reason, 3 April 2006. Retrieved from http://reason.com/archives/2006/04/03/one-man-many-wives-big-problem
Smith, M. (2013). The Dangers of Legalizing Polygamy. Ricochet, 25 June 2013. Retrieved from http://ricochet.com/main-feed/The-Dangers-of-Legalizing-Polygamy
In recent years the issue of Polygamy has received a great deal of attention. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the practice of polygamy. The research will uncover that although polygamy has some disadvantages including family division, there are also some very real advantages associated with the practice and a balanced view of the practice is often lacking in the western world.
Polygamy is defined as "marriage in which a spouse of either sex may have more than one mate at the same time (polygamy)." In most cases polygamy occurs within the context of certain religions and/or social customs.
In fact Al-Krenawi (2006) reports that In cultures covering more than 850 societies across the globe, including Africa, Asia, the Middle East, North America and Oceania, such expanded family structures are known to occur (Hartung, 1982; Valsiner, 1989). In some practicing societies, rates of polygamy may include up…
About the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.. Retrieved March 9 from; http://www.religioustolerance.org/flds.htm
Al-Krenawi, A. (2006) Comparison of Family Functioning, Life and Marital Satisfaction, and Mental Health of Women in Polygamous and Monogamous Marriages.
International journal of social psychiatry.
Al-Krenawi, A., & Lightman, E. (2000). Learning achievements, social adjustment and family conflicts among Bedouin-Arab children from polygamous and monogamous families. Journal of Social Psychology, 140, 345-355.
12 You did it in secret, but I will do this thing in broad daylight before all Israel."
David then repented and ultimately he put away all of his wives and concubines. He took physical care of them but he no longer had sex with any of them. It is believed that his first wife had died and only athsheba was left and they bore another son named Solomon. It is obvious throughout the text that David understood that his various marriages and sexual relationships with women were detestable in the eyes of God.
The punishment for polygamy exacted by God can also be seen in the life of Solomon. Solomon's heart was led astray because not only did he have multiple wives, but he took wives who worshipped other gods after he and the Israelites in general had be warned against intermarriage.
They were from nations about which the…
Armstrong, Herbert W. (1963) "Here's the Plain Truth About Old Testament Polygamy. http://www.eternalcog.org/pdf/hwa/Old%20Testament%20Polygamy.pdf
The Bible. New King James Version
Thompson, John L. Writing the Wrongs: Women of the Old Testament among Biblical Commentators from Philo through the Reformation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
A polygamy. (2008). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
Polygamy began as a practice in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS), which was commonly known as the Mormon Church, between 1830s and 40s. The main reason why polygamy was common during the period was as a result of religion to multiply and replenish the earth. In 1890, plural marriages were prohibited by LDS, although the practice continued to exist in small subgroups. Polygamy is a relationship existing between either one husband and multiple wives or a woman and multiple husbands. In social anthropology, polygamy is defined as the practice of marriage to more than one spouse. Historically, polygamy was practiced as polygyny; one man or as polyandry; one woman having multiple husband. Studies showed that polygamy is one of the most contentious issues bearing on women and women's rights (Lyimo, 2001). Traditionally, polygamy was morally objectionable for various reasons, such as it fosters oppression of women.…
Bailey, M., & Kaufman, A.J. (2010). Polygamy in the monogamous world multicultural challenges for Western law and policy. London: Praeger.
Bledsoe, C.H., & Pison, G. (2004). Nuptiality in Sub-Saharan Africa: contemporary anthropological and demographic perspectives. London: Clarendon Press; .
Fenske, J. (2006). African Polygamy: Past And Present. African Polygamy: Past And Present. Retrieved November 30, 2013, from https://editorialexpress.com/cgi-bin/conference/download.cgi-db_name=CSAE2012&paper_id=115
Hussein, B. (2002). Bedru Hussein is Rector of Meserete Kristos College, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia Mission Focus: Annual Review © 2002 Volume 10 Polygamy: An Ethical Case Study. The Polygamy Issue As Co Nfronted By Meserete Kristos Church. Retrieved December 30, 2013, from http://www.anabaptistwiki.org/mediawiki/images/5/5f/Vol._10_Hussein,_Polygamy-An_Ethical_Case_Study.pdf
On the surface, and with the most shallow of analyses, polygamy would seem to be protected by the First Amendment freedom of religion clause because polygamy in the United States is mainly a phenomenon among specific religious groups -- namely Mormons, fundamentalist Christians, and Muslims (Turley). In fact, even a polygamous marriage that was not rooted in religious tradition could be protected under the Due Process clause, which basically encompasses right to privacy (Hamilton). Indeed, the state of Utah's Supreme Court and the Supreme Court of the United States have heard numerous cases related to the constitutionality of polygamy. According to Turley, "Utah and eight other states make polygamy a crime, while 49 states have bigamy statutes that can be used to prosecute plural families." Yet as many as 50,000 cases of polygamy currently exist in the United States (Turley).
The stigma against polygamy remains strong, and has been…
Altman, Irwin and Ginat, Joseph. Polygamous Families in Contemporary Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Carter, Joe. "Judge Walker's Rational Basis for Supporting Polygamy." First Things. Retrieved online: http://www.firstthings.com/blogs/firstthoughts/2010/08/05/judge-walkers-rational-basis-for-supporting-polygamy/
Hall, Katy. "Sister Wives': TLC's Polygamist Family Asks Us To 'Rethink Marriage'" Huffington Post.. 23 Sept 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/katy-hall/sister-wives-tlcs-polygam_b_736551.html
Hamilton, Marci A. "Utah cases challenge whether anti-polygamy laws are constitutional." CNN.com. July 29, 2004. Retrieved online: http://articles.cnn.com/2004-07-29/justice/hamilton.polygamy_1_polygamy-marriage-argument?_s=PM:LAW
On the other hand, from the legal perspective, the argument that constitutional principles justify reconsidering the issue that polygamy (unlike human sacrifice) warrants
First Amendment protections of the free exercise of religion. For one thing, the modern
Supreme Court has recognized a right of privacy that emanates from the enumerated rights and privileges ever since the 1960s, that could play a role in a modern reanalysis of polygamy at law. Second, while the Equal Protection Clause was available prior to the
19th century decisions about polygamy, equal protection as a legal concept had not yet developed and only became potentially useful to support polygamy in the 20th century.
From a legal perspective, it may be more difficult to uphold anti-polygamy laws today, precisely because, (unlike human sacrifice or the unauthorized consumption of controlled narcotics), the actual act of maintaining multiple sexual relationships is not legally prohibited. Unmarried individuals…
Witte, J. (2008). "Can America Still Bar Polygamy? Much has changed since the late
1800s, and many arguments for keeping the ban aren't very compelling"
Christianity Today. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from:
What this practice really meant, though, was that the same amount of income was now expected to support two Nnaife, both of his wives, and all of their children, and especially when the household wasn't operating as a single unit, this caused a great deal of hardship, tension, and imbalance. In addition, it caused emotional and psychological grief for Nnu Ego, who had to listen to Nnaife consummating his new marriage only feet from where she lay trying to fall asleep. Truly nothing was hers after this marriage -- not even the love of her husband.
The Women of Nigeria
This is not actually the first time that Nnu Ego experiences the hardships of polygamy in the novel. She had previously been married to another man, and after a short time of her failing to become pregnant by him he took a new wife, and Nnu Ego had to work…
Emecheta, B. (1980). The Joys of Motherhood. New York: George Braziller.
Mashour, a. (2005). Islamic Law and Gender Equality: Could There be a Common Ground?: A Study of Divorce and Polygamy in Sharia Law and Contemporary Legislation in Tunisia and Egypt. Human Rights Quarterly 27(2): 562-596.
Ogundipe-Leslie, M. (1994). Re-creating ourselves: African women & critical transformations. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
polygamy with specific reference to its practice in the city of Colorado Arizona. Polygamy is defined as the practice of keeping one or more wives at one time, the history and studies regarding polygamy signifies the fact that early leaders used to keep one or more wives at one time, ordinary individuals also adopted this practice. Hence, polygamy became a custom and a rule in many countries of the world. The facts regarding polygamy practices state "Polygamy has been practiced by mankind for thousands of years. Many of the ancient Israelites were polygamous, some having hundreds of wives. King Solomon (peace be upon him) is said to have had seven hundred wives and three hundred concubines. David (Dawood) had ninety-nine and Jacob (Yacub, peace be upon them both) had four. Advice given by some Jewish wise men state that no man should marry more than four wives. No early society…
As retrieved at http://www.arizonan.com/ColoradoCity/On April 17,2004
As retrieved from A polygamous Mormon group in Utah and Arizona is preparing for an apocalypz ex-members say By ROBERT GEHRKE http://www.mazeministry.com/mormonism/polygamy/sect/sect.htm . On April 17,2004
As retrieved fromPractical Aspects of Polygamy
The benefits polygamy has for women and the controls it places on men.
Should the state of Missouri legalize polygamy?
Health Management Associates (NYSE: HMA)
HMA is a company established in 1977 that runs acute care health care facilities in America. The HMA offers facilities like internal medicine, surgery, emergency room care, oncology, diagnostic care, radiology, and pediatric services. It also offers x-ray, lab, respiratory therapy, and physical therapy. The company has total 71 hospitals having above eleven thousand beds.
Conduct an internal financial analysis of Health Management Associates
With annual revenues increased to $5.87 billion, the company is showing growth in many areas. The internal financial analysis of the company gave following figures:
After Tax OE
The company's ratio analysis shows that the current…
Financial Analysis, (2009), Retrieved from:
HMA Company Financials, (2013), Retrieved from:
Bill Against Polygamy
I wonder how many of us would like to be politicians in a world and a country where few groups can get themselves to agree on things. Think, for example, of something as seemingly simple as religious freedom. Of course, most of use agree with the Constitution, that people should be allowed to believe and worship as they want. But what about religious groups that are not "normal," according to most people's views? Polygamy is one such example. Many who practice this form of marriage have religious reasons for doing so. Most of us find his practice strange and disturbing. It is therefore difficult for us to believe that the Constitution should grant such people the right to marry more than one person legally and to provide any other benefits that come with this. So, the debate goes on. And for this reason I do not envy…
Kaminer, W. (2013). Why is Polygamy Illegal? Council for Secular Humanism. Retrieved from: http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=library&page=kaminer_28_5
The New York Times (1860). The Bill Against Polygamy. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/1860/04/07/news/the-bill-against-polygamy.html
U.S. Marriage Laws. (2013). Retrieved from: http://usmarriagelaws.com/search/united_states/polygamy/index.shtml
Coolidge" in response to learning that the prodigious reproduction of the male roosters involved access to many hens and not just one (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007).
Objective Evaluation of Criticism of the Polygamous Lifestyle:
Aside from the arguments based solely on cultural beliefs and notions of the definition of marriage in Western society, there are also more objective criticisms to polygamous marriage. When such marriages involve the prospect of child rearing, there are issues of child welfare, at least in terms of how being raised in a polygamous family affects psychological development in the child (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007). The main concern is that it distorts the view of marriage and family in the minds of children.
However, on closer examination, such criticisms may be less valid on any objective principle and relate more to deviation from establishes norms and biases in mainstream culture. If anything, children raised within polygamous…
Dougherty, J., Johnson, K. (2007). "Sect Leader Is Convicted as an Accomplice to Rape"
New York Times, September 26, 2007. Retrieved May 14, 2009, from The New
York Times database, at:
How could they take out an element that was supposed to aid in a person's salvation? A lot of church leaders continued a "sub rosa" promotion of polygamy, starting what is now called the post-Manifesto era (2011). President Wilford Woodruff, George Q. Cannon and Joseph F. Smith, sent Mormons to church colonies in Mexico to take part in plural marriages (2011). (Some of those people included Brigham Young Jr.) a great deal of these marriages were sealed in Mexico by Anthony Ivins, who later became a member of the First Presidency. Other post-Manifesto marriages were done in Canada, on ships on the Pacific Ocean, and in Utah as well as other neighboring states (2011).
These marriages were not able to keep their secrecy, and when the news got out, there were many anti-polygamy activists who were incredibly angry. Apostle eed Smoot, a monogamist and member of the Church of Latter-day…
Abanes, R. (2003). One nation under Gods: A history of the Mormon church. Basic Books.
Compton, T.M. (2011). The four major periods of Mormon polygamy. The Signature Books
Library. Accessed on March 3, 2011:
Women also do not possess the same rights as men in this country, and therefore have to be subordinate to males.
In the United States, cultural and personal value is often tied to a person's accomplishments. Social status is gained through hard work, social networking, and perhaps success in business or in society. Money helps to define a person's success. Polygamy is frowned upon in the United States largely because of the country's Judeo-Christian background but also because women are seen as equals to men (Embry, 1987). This creates a cultural and social value for women, and they are not to be subjugated or limited by the men in their lives. The Mormon sects that still embrace the practice of polygamy use women as status symbols or symbols of religious power and purity (Altman and Ginat, 1996). Much in the way the Saudi's use polygamy. But instead of changing with…
Aarts, Paul and Nonneman, Gerd. (2005). Saudi Arabia in the Balance: Political
Economy, Society, Foreign Affairs. New York University Press: New York.
Ahmed, Leila. (1982). "Western Ethnocentrism and Perceptions of the Harem." Feminist
Studies, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Autumn, 1982), pp. 521-534.
Stenhouse demonstrates remarkable insight into the gender roles and norms that plural marriage entails. The marriage is qualitatively different than a monogamous one. As Stenhouse notes, the husband "aims to be looked upon more as a ruler than as the head of a family," (149). Flowers confirms Stenhouse's observations, "the practice of polygamy tended to instill in people the attitude of despotism or authoritarianism" (22). Polygamy also reveals a deep contradiction in Mormon philosophy. "The irony is that a gospel of universal brotherhood…is so marked on every hand by borders, boundaries, and radical difference" (Givens 295).
Polygamy in America has almost become synonymous with Mormonism. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has been at the center of a national debate that spanned the issues of religious freedom, federalism, and feminism. Plural marriage mirrored an unequal social structure that pervaded Mormon culture and indeed much of the culture of…
Flowers, Ronald Bruce. That Godless Court? Supreme Court Decisions on Church-State Relationships. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1989.
Givens, Terry L. People of Paradox: A History of Mormon Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Gordon, Sarah Barringer. The Mormon Question: Polygamy and Constitutional Conflict in Nineteenth Century America. North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press.
Krakauer, Jon. Under the Banner of Heaven: A Story of Violent Faith. Doubleday, 2003.
At first, Young was ambivalent towards the Methodist -- or any other -- Church. He "held back from joining the Methodists" like his brothers had because of an "independent, deliberate personality" that rejected belief under pressure (8). Methodist revival meetings also turned Young off because of their "loud, crowded, and hyperactive" qualities," (8). Yet while living in the Auburn-Port Byron area, during an economic depression, he was "swept up by religious enthusiasm" and joined the Methodist Church in 1824 (13). The conversion turned out to be integral to Young's "program of self-improvement," (14). The Church prompted Young to give up swearing, one of his self-admitted habits. He experimented with vegetarianism, too, in an attempt to live an overall cleaner and healthier lifestyle. The religion also helped him to overcome his shyness and fear of public speaking (14). In addition to helping him on his personal path, the Methodist…
5. The Gold Rush altered the course of westward expansion, driving increasing numbers of non-Mormons to western lands and especially to California. The Gold Rush was therefore instrumental in preventing Young from entertaining the idea of moving the Mormon camp to California. Young feared a "renewed Mormon/non-Mormon conflict," (94). Mormon Samuel Brannan struck gold and was later excommunicated because he refused to tithe on his huge fortune (94-95). A large number of fortune-seeking trailblazers had made the path to the Great Salt Lake basin easier, which solidified the decision to settle in what is now Salt Lake City (95). Therefore, the Gold Rush had a huge impact on the geography of Mormon settlement. The Gold Rush also directly benefitted the Mormons economically, as gold seekers would stop in Salt Lake City en route to California.
6. By the 1850s, Salt Lake City's Mormon businesses were prospering due to trade with gold seekers. Young encouraged economic self-sufficiency and diversification from what could have easily been an agriculture-dependent economy. Young and the Mormons had brought "to the Great Basin 75 to 100 black slaves," a fact that Young "tried to conceal from federal officials" due to the brewing controversy over slavery in the new territories (104). In spite of this, Young was ambivalent about the Civil War because it represented for him the spiritual end times. When it became apparent that the North was headed for victory, Young took an opportunistic stance of supporting the Union but for strategic reasons only. Young remained staunchly pro-slavery. In 1850 also, Young encouraged the development of an "Iron Mission" that would take advantage of the wealth of raw materials like iron in the region (108). By the end of the 1850s, Young was involved in three "broad categories" of business: first, deals involving partnership with the Mormon Church; second, those involving partnerships with other businessmen; and third, those in which Young was the sole investor (149).
7. Although the Transcontinental Railroad did not pass directly through Salt Lake City, it benefitted the Mormon economy. At the same time, Young feared the large numbers of non-Mormons it would bring to the territory (179). Young agreed with the prevailing patriarchal view that men have dominion over women; that women were inherently inferior to men; and were also less intelligent (192). Moreover, women represented sin, temptation, and spiritual corruption. The United Order was "a system of economic cooperation that called upon selected Mormon communities to pool their equipment, their property, and their energy and work together," (199). It was therefore a system of socialist cooperatives. Variations depended on different levels of economic commitment to the cooperative.
Monogamous Nuclear Families, Polygamous and Communal Families
Family has different connotations for different persons and cultures. In American society, the word is usually meant to denote a nuclear family consisting of a father, mother and their children. However the meaning of family in Asia is different because the family includes the grandparents, relatives and siblings of the elders. Family thus would also denote an entire clan. In African communities the Mormon system has its own connotation of family. Most of the world has some form of plural marriage, or polygamy, and is sanctioned by religions. Polygamy is not a non-western practice, but also exists in modern Western societies. (Koktvedgaard Zeitzen, 2008)
The common type of family being the nuclear family, the other types have all along attracted researchers to attempt to find an anthropological theory for polygamy that has spread to U.S. And UK to Malaysia, India, regions of Africa…
Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Al-Krenawi, Salem. (1997) "Social Work Practice with Polygamous Families Child and Adolescent" Social Work Journal, vol. 14, no. 6, pp: 445-458.
Al-Krenawi, Alean; Sheva, Beer; Graham, John R. (2006) "A Comparison of Family
Functioning, Life and Marital Satisfaction, and Mental Health of Women in Polygamous and Monogamous Marriages" Int J. Soc Psychiatry, vol. 52, no. 1, pp: 5-17.
Altman, Irwin; Ginat, Joseph. (1996) "Polygamous Families in Contemporary Society"
As a case in point, the chapter begins with the case of U.S. Congressman Vito Fossella, who would not visit family when his gay sister was present, but who secretly had a relationship and child with a woman other than his wife. According to the author (p. 123), "Vito and Victoria Fossella represent two of the decidedly unwitting bedfellows who jostle uncomfortably beneath the patchwork quilt of contemporary family forms and values."
nterestingly, the chapter points out that polygamy has historically been much more prevalent than monogamy, which was historically practiced by less than one quarter of the world's population. Again investigating the situation in South Africa, where polygamy is legalized, the author shows that there are several manifestations of this phenomenon. Some men, for example, do not bother to register polygamous marriages, since they started with a civil marriage, which precludes a legal change to polygamy. Although not legally…
Interestingly, the chapter points out that polygamy has historically been much more prevalent than monogamy, which was historically practiced by less than one quarter of the world's population. Again investigating the situation in South Africa, where polygamy is legalized, the author shows that there are several manifestations of this phenomenon. Some men, for example, do not bother to register polygamous marriages, since they started with a civil marriage, which precludes a legal change to polygamy. Although not legally married, they openly practice this. Other men engage in long-term extra-marital affairs, some of which are so culturally acceptable that mistresses are introduced to wives, and husbands divide their time among their different sets of families.
One interesting point the chapter makes is that polygamy in modern societies are on the decline simply for economic reasons, where few can afford more than one wife and family, especially if the wives are not wage earners. The rest of the chapter considers various forms of polygamous marriages in South Africa, all of which are apparently consensual among the husband and wives, although some jealousy issues arise from time to time. The chapter indicates that this type of marriage is likely to gradually vanish as South Africa's economy modernizes.
Stacey, J. (2011). Unhitched: Love, Marriage, and Family Values from West Hollywood to Western China. NYU Press.
S. Congress' prohibition of the practice and the Court's refusal to allow the practice, conflicted with the rights of individuals engaged in such practice. The actions of a religious group which are normally protected under the First Amendment and the laws of states like Utah that might wish to turn a blind eye to the practice were not allowed.
The states claim the social contract has been broken because the U.S. government has infringed upon individuals' liberty to marry more than one person and the states' rights to regulate matters not specifically delineated in the Bill of Rights. However, if this were the case that a state could secede every time the federal government disagreed with a state's definition of individual liberties. Virtually every constitutional dispute in the history of the nation, regarding the Bill of Rights, from abortion, to affirmative action, to gay marriage, to free speech, could justify…
Monogamy as a Rational Social Practice
What is monogamy?
We as humans have been programmed in a way so as to believe that the morally and socially expectable pattern of marriage remains to be monogamy. ut let's first define what we actually mean by monogamy. What this concept really means is to have just one sexual partner at a time or more appropriately, having just one life partner. This may refer to being with one person in your entire life or at least one person at a time.
For much of the history of mankind, this has been a default relationship that one is supposed to follow. Some ancient cultures did have other practices such as polygamy or bigamy but this was just the preferable pattern of things. The concept of monogamy evolved so as to provide a balanced life to the children, as they would have a better life…
Barber, Ray E. Marriage and the Family. McGraw Hill, 1939.
Fisher, Helen E. Anatomy of love: The Natural History of Monogamy, Adultery and Divorce. Norton Publishers, 1992.
McKay, Gerald. "The Myth of Monogamy: Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and Humans." Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality (2000).
Weaver, Bryan R. "Marriage and the Norm of Monogamy." The Monist (2008).
n "Some Moral Minima," Lenn Goodman argues things simply wrong. Do Goodman ? Using specific examples, explore challenges Goodman presents relativism. Determine universal moral requirements, defend answer.
Moral minima: Goodman's arguments against relativism
Given the increasing globalization of modern society, combined with the influence of postmodernism, the philosophy of moral relativism has become increasingly popular and accepted within the academy. However, according to Lenn E. Goodman's essay "Some moral minima," some things are 'just wrong.' Goodman writes: "All living beings make claims to life" (Goodman 2010: 88). In other words, to protect the sanctity of human life, sometimes it is necessary to lay down certain absolute ground rules of morality that, regardless of cultural differences, must be obeyed. These include prohibiting: terrorism; hostage taking and child warriors; slavery, polygamy, and incest; and rape and female genital cutting (Goodman 2010: 88).
However, while these ideas may seem like 'no brainers'…
Goodman, Lenn. (2010). Some moral minima. The Good Society, 19 (10): 87-94.
The lands thus granted were generally publicly held prior to the grants, which usually meant that the lands themselves had at one point been the rewards of military conquests, making them fairly just rewards for military service. Others would cultivate this land and pay taxes or tributes to the landowner, who in turn had to pay a tithe to the public government, creating a system very similar to feudal Europe and perpetuating the large land holdings through hereditary inheritance. As conquests faded away, the actual granting of lands became far less common (as there was simply less land to go around), but the permanence of previous grants continued to perpetuate the growth of a hereditary land-owning class. New grants were issued that gave certain individuals the right to collect taxes on certain areas of public land, but these individuals had to collect the taxes themselves and make what profit they…
Islam and Human Rights
a Critique of Contemporary Muslim Approaches
The basic objective of this research is note the errors that are committed by Muslims in their argument of human rights in Islam or in other words to explore possible means of formulation of a more coherent alternative expression of values to point out the errors committed by Muslims in their attempt to argue the case of human rights in Islam in the hope that efforts and resources expended in that direction can be derived to a more agreeable end; which is the exploration of possible means of formulating a more coherent alternative expression of values to the so-called "Islamic human rights."
A considerable amount of literature has been produced on these issues by competent Muslim thinkers and scholars but because they either
purposefully or 2) inadvertently chose to follow almost the same style as explored in the Western tradition…
Hassan, Riffat, Ph.D. ( ) Are Human Rights Compatible with Islam? The Issue of the Rights of Women in Muslim Communities, University of Louisville, KY [Online available at: http://www.religiousconsultation .org/hassan2.htm
Islam 101 "Human Rights in Islam" 2005 [Online available at: http://www.islam 101. com/rights/index.Htm 'Allamah Abu Al'A'la Mawdudi at Tawid Journal 'Vol.. IV No. 3 Rajah-Ramadan 1407 ajab-Ramadahan 1407 Human Rights in Islam.]
plural marriages from the standpoint of the Church of the Latter Day Saints, commonly referred to as Mormons. The writer uses several published works to examine the history and beliefs regarding plural marriages as doctrine through the church. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
Ask most people one fact that defines the Church of Latter Day Saints, (Mormons) and they will answer, plural marriages. The belief that the Mormon church still condones and encourages plural marriages (Polygamy) remains prevalent throughout the nation, even though the practice stopped being sanctioned by the church years ago (Nearly, 2000). Young men still joke about converting to Mormonism so they can enjoy all of their girlfriends as wives, while women who catch their men looking at other women still joke that they are not Mormon so the husband might as well give it up. It has been years since the church…
VERN ANDERSON, HISTORY OF MORMON FOUNDER'S 33 WIVES CASTS POLYGAMY AS 'TRAGICAMBIGUITY'., The Columbian, 01-09-1998, pp D. 8.
LYNN NEARY, Analysis: Existence of polygamy today, its history in the Mormon Church and the church's views on the practice., Talk of the Nation (NPR), 07-18-2000
BOB EDWARDS, Analysis: Polygamy trial to begin in Utah., Morning Edition (NPR),
Mormon Polygamy: A History
Female circumcision, has been a point of contention for many years with regard to Islam, as Islam or more specifically the Quran and "secret" texts of it have often been used as the sited foundation of the practice. hat is abundantly clear is that this practice in its mildest to most extreme forms predates the Quran and the Prophet Mohamed. Once again this may be an example of a situation where Mohamed observed something that he believed was hurting women and he attempted to control the practice. Though there is also evidence that this is not something Mohamed would ever have observed, as it was a secluded practice, performed by women on women and that it was not prolific within the region, where he lived and traveled.
Leonard 168) the Quranic evidence associated with circumcision is limited to two passages. One Hadeeth discusses circumcision…
Abu-Hamdiyyah, Mohammad. The Qur'an: An Introduction. London: Routledge, 2000.
Badawi, Jamal. "Gender Equity in Islam" webpage at http://www.soundvision.com/info/gender/femalecircumcision.asp,2007 .
Cook, Michael a. The Koran: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Cragg, Kenneth. The Mind of the Quran: Chapters in Reflection. London: Allen & Unwin, 1973.
estern world thinks of Muslim women, it is often in terms of Muslim women as an oppressed stereotypes. This includes images of women in hijabs, Turkish women in chadors and women who must be veiled in public at all times. Distorted beliefs about Islamic beliefs regarding polygamy and the subservient role of women further contribute to the stereotype that Muslim women are more oppressed than their Christian counterparts.
However, while strict laws do present limits to the public lives of many Arab and Muslim women, these stereotypes do not present a complete picture of their lives. As ethnographer Susan Schafer Davis observed, Muslim women have and continue to exert considerable influence in the private sphere of family and women's associations. This gave them much more autonomy and power than Christian women of the same era.
This paper examines the scope of a Muslim woman's authority and power within the private…
Al Faruqi, Lamya. 1994. Women, Muslim Society and Islam. Plainfield, IN: American Trust Publishers.
Davis, Susan Schaefer. 1985. Patience and Power: Women's Lives in a Moroccan Village. Cambridge: Schenckman Books.
Harik, Ramsay M. And Marston, Elsa. 1996. Women in the Middle East: Tradition and Change. New York: Franklin Watts.
Islam-Husain, Mahjabeen. 1997. "It's Up to Muslim Women to Reclaim Our God-Given Rights," in Islam. Jennifer A. Hurley, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Smith claimed that polygamy was practiced by the "pre-Judaic" tribes (Harris). Polygamy was called "celestial marriage," and Joseph Smith claimed that he received his orders to practice polygamy in a religious vision ("The Mormons"). Polygamy was and still is illegal even though it was still a part of the Mormon traditions.
According to the BBC, there are "substantial differences" between the Church of Latter-Day Saints and the Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox Christian Churches. Even though all the Christian Churches are based on the teachings of Jesus Christ, they all differ in their practices and beliefs. The Mormon Church also has a different leadership hierarchy than other Christian Churches, but one that still includes priests, bishops, and clergy. Unlike in the Catholic Church, the Mormon priesthood is not a professional one (BBC).
Besides the practice of polygamy, several things set apart Mormonism from other Christian faiths. The Mormons believe that "human…
BBC. "Religion and Ethics -- Mormonism." Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/mormon/
Harris, William. "Mormons." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 26 Mar. 2009
"The Mormons." PBS. Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/mormons/
By Goodman's analysis, the systematic murder of one million people motivated by the specific intention of genocide is morally worse than the systematic murder of one million and one people selected arbitrarily. The author does not explain why the motivation for unjustified murder is such an important distinction; it would seem that unjustified murder is always wrong and that the scale of victims is always a more accurate measure of that moral offense than the reason or intent behind unjustified murder of innocent people.
Polygamy, Rape, Incest, and Genital Mutilation
Professor Goodman's reasoning about polygamy, rape, incest, and genital mutilation represent his weakest line of reasoning. Specifically, his view of polygamy completely ignores the issue of gender inequality and suggests that polygamy is necessarily harmful to women. The obvious counterargument is that this is only true because of the extent to which women are already objectified and comparatively powerless in…
Stacey describes the Mosuo as matrilineal -- all family ties pass down through the mother's line, even though it is not a culture where women rule over males. The Mosuo's social structures question the presumed naturalness of patriarchy and that of the nuclear family unit. In Mosuo society, girls are given their own rooms at night from a young age and it is accepted that men will have sexual intercourse with women. There is no sense of sexual immorality -- or the idea that male-female sexual connections are permanent.
Amongst the Mosuo, women live together and raise children together Sometimes male-female couples will unite for life, but the children do not belong to the father, as there is no concept of the child being tied to the father through genetics. Other Mosuo couples are transient, but there is no sense of superiority of one type of union or another. A…
Stacey, Judith. Unhitched: Love, Marriage, and Family Values from West Hollywood to Western
China. New York: NYU Press, 2011.
Spoils System was part of the Jackson administration's method of job placements. Because Jackson was heavily opposed to the officeholders in the federal government, his first act once sworn into presidential office was to fire those he believed to be part of a "self-serving bureaucracy" and to reward his supporters by hiring them into office. The system was a form of patronage in the 1830s, and Jackson managed to remove at least one-fifth of the federal officeholders.
The Nullification Crisis
The controversy over the act of nullification -- in which a state can declare a law unconstitutional -- heightened during Jackson's presidency in 1832. South Carolina erupted angrily after the passing of a tariff bill that barely lowered the tariffs issued in 1828 and 1832. Because Jackson was heavily opposed to the process of nullification, he proposed to pass a bill on using the military as a forceful solution to…
"Lyman Beecher's Sermons on Intemperance (primary document)." Issues & Controversies in American History. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2011. .
"The Liquor Dealer's Rights' (primary document)." Issues & Controversies in American History. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2011. .
"The Monster, or, the Curse and the Cure of the Strong Drink (Excerpts) (primary document)." Issues & Controversies in American History. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2011. .
"News Article Describing Veto of a New York Temperance Bill (primary document)." Issues & Controversies in American History. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2011. .
" Emecheta uses metaphors, similes and allusions with appropriate timing and tone in this book, and the image of a puppet certainly brings to mind a person being controlled, manipulated, made to comply instantly with any movement of the controlling hand. In this case Ego seems at the end of her rope -- the puppet has fallen nearly to the floor and is dangling helplessly.
The Emecheta images and metaphors are sometimes obvious, as this one is, but always effective. The reader is clearly aware of Ego's initial identity, and Ego's swift feet of lightness and intensity running in the misty darkness, presents a fluid sensation -- a hoped for escape. She is running towards a new identity and when she hits the gravel road the color is of blood and water and she runs like this will be her duty forever, like someone is following her. The image of…
Derrickson, Teresa. "Class, Culture, and the Colonial Context: the Status of Women in Buchi Emecheta's The Joys of Motherhood. International Fiction Review 29.12 (2002):
Emecheta, Buchi. The Joys of Motherhood. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994.
Fishburn, Katherine. Reading Buchi Emecheta: Cross-Cultural Conversations. Santa Barbara,
In fact in some instances women are not even treated like human beings. However, in other parts of the world Muslim women enjoy relative equality and freedom. It is important to recognize that not all Muslims are extremists or violent towards women.
Men in Islam
As it pertains to men in the Islamic world, their positions in Muslim society are significant. The Islamic religious leaders are and have been men ever since the inception of the religion. Men hold the highest positions in the Muslim faith and they still dominate positions in government in Islamic nations.
The dominance in men in Muslim society is the most prevalent in the Muslim home. As with other aspects of Islam, the amount of power or dominance that men have has a great deal to do with the nation that they live in. However for the most part Muslim men are seen as the…
Hekmat, Anwar. Women and the Koran the Status of Women in Islam. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1997.
Knapp, Michael G. "The Concept and Practice of Jihad in Islam." Parameters 33.1 (2003): 82+.
Tell, Carol. "The Women of Afghanistan." Social Education 66.1 (2002): 8+.
What Is the Difference Between Sunni and Shiite Muslims -- and Why Does it Matter? http://hnn.us/articles/934.html
marriage that I consider to be contrary to the ideals I hold. This essay will discuss how polygamy and incest-based marriage is diametrically opposed to my own personal views on matrimony and marriage. This essay will also discuss the role of bride wealth or dowry in our society today. Finally this essay will examine Herzog's (2009) film that captured the mating rituals of the Wodabbe culture in Central Africa.
Polygamy and Incest
The text defined polygamy as " the marriage between one man and two or more women." Polygamy represents a male dominated family unit that is typified by many offspring and large families. This practice has been idealized throughout the Mormon religious cult and other international societies more tolerant on this form of marriage and lifestyle.
There seems to be advantages for all parties involved in polygamy and I realize that this way of life may work in some…
Bonvillain, N. (2013). Cultural Anthropology, 3rd Ed. Pearson Education Inc., Saddle River New Jersey.
Herzog, W. (2009). Wodabbe: Herdsmen of the Sun. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MlnO1QDqpaQ
The provincial capital of Enga is Wabag. The two other main centers of population are Wapenamanda and Laiagam. Porgera, at the western edge of the province, is home to a gold mine operated by Barrick Gold.
Enga is unique among the provinces in Papua New Guinea in that it has only one major linguistic and ethnic group: Enga speakers. Although dialects of the Enga language vary greatly from Laiagam in the west to Wapenamanda in the east,
Engans' shared ethnic identity overshadows the existence of other ethnic groups in the province, such as Ipili speakers
(around Porgera) and Nete speakers.
Porgera, the giant gold and copper mine in the far west, has brought about rapid change for some, but most people still grow cash crops -- coffee, pyrethrum and cool-weather
European vegetables -- in their steep mountain gardens.
Porgera is all but spent, but other nearby mineral finds mean that…
Feil, D.K. (1978, May). Women and men in the Enga te. American Ethnologist, 5: 2: 263-279.
Meggitt, M.J. (1974). "Pigs are our hearts!" The te exchange cycle among the Mae Enga of New Guinea. Oceania, 44.3.
Waddell, Eric. (1975). How the Enga cope with frost: Responses to climatic perturbations in the central highlands of New Guinea. Human Ecology. 3.4:249-273
Baki, Gari. Speech by Mr. Gari Baki, OBE, O.St.J, DPS, Commisioner of Police. First Constable Martha Taian. PNG National Woman's Day. Hideaway Hotel, National Capital District. 23 March 2007.
Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste" (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks and Meyer: 1).
If there is no transcendent ethical or moral standard, then cultural relativists argue that culture becomes the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong. This ethical system is known as cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the view that all ethical truth is relative to a specific culture. hatever a cultural group approves is considered right within that culture. Conversely, whatever a cultural group condemns is wrong (Relativism: 2).
The key to the doctrine of "cultural relativism" is that right and wrong can only be judged relative to a specified society. There is no ultimate standard of right and wrong by which to judge culture. Proponents of cultural relativism believe this cultural diversity proves that culture alone…
Anderson, Kerby. "Cultural Relativism." (2004):1-5.
Accessed 1 April 2012.
"Argument by Morality: Axiological Argument." 2002. Accessed 7 April 2012.
In 1846, Young led the church to the Great Salt Lake in Utah, where they established Salt Lake City, yet tensions continued between the settlers and the Federal Government (Church Pp). The Edmunds Act of 1882 countered the Mormon's practice of polygamy, a practice that had prevented Utah being recognized as a state (Church Pp). In 1890 a revelation from God changed church beliefs and practices when the fourth Church president, ilford oodruff, issued the Great Accommodation, which basically banned plural marriages and in 1896, Utah became a state (Church Pp).
During the 20th century, the Church maintained a dominant role in Utah and as of mid-2001, the Governor and all Federal senators, representatives and members of the Supreme Court are all Mormon (Church Pp). During the 1970's the Church received political and economic pressure concerning its institutionalized racism, which prevented males of black ancestry from ordination, thus, the Church…
The History of the Church. http://www.lds.org/churchhistory/history
Church History. http://www.religioustolerance.org/lds_hist.htm
Latter-day Saints, Church of Jesus Christ of. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition;
Moral Minima" by Lenn E. Goodman. (2010) The Good Society 19(1): 87-94
Discussion of morality is almost always contentious. Who defines morality? Whose morality is it? Can one culture's morality be imposed on another's? Can the Westerners judge non-Westerns based on Western understandings of morality and vice versa? These are obviously legitimate questions. Philosophers, social scientists, human rights activists, politicians, and even criminals engage in this debate. In the last sixty years, advocates of diversity and respect for all cultures have condemned old colonial and racial classifications of the world, arguing that cultural practices of different nations must be analyzed and understood within the context of these specific nations. These people are generally called "moral relativists," especially by critics of such a view. Critics argue that moral relativism is morally bankrupt and that it ends up justifying abhorrent practices around the world. They argue that there are certain practices that…
Opponent to Gay Marriage offer Illusory Arguments
The book The Invisible Gorilla: How Our Intuitions Deceive Us by Chabris and Simons truly makes a strong case for how six different types of illusions (or beliefs) truly disserve the human population. The six common illusions that the book discusses are the illusion of memory, the illusion of confidence, the illusion of knowledge, the illusion of cause and the illusion of potential. Chabris and Simon argue that one can see these illusions at work in a range of human interactions and current events. Sometimes these illusions demonstrate the fallibility of the human mind; sometimes they just demonstrate the need of human beings to impose meaning or order upon things or events which lack both.
A current issue that demonstrates several of the six illusions that Chabris and Simons discuss is the debate over gay marriage. Those who oppose gay marriage often demonstrate…
Chabris, C., & Simons, D. (2009). The invisible gorilla: And other ways our intuitions deceive us. New York: Random House.
Forman, S. (2011, June 23). Five arguments against gay marriage: Society must brace for corrosive change. Retrieved from: http://www.nydailynews.com/opinion/arguments -
Kidshealth.org. (n.d.). Teaching your child tolerance. Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/talk/tolerance.html
Once the practice of Islamic worship the women of that region began to be subjected to stricter codes, from marriage to dress and the risk of honor becoming an even greater issue grew. The terrorization by the Mongols and Turks was quite different from the terror under Saddam. The Mongols and Turks utilized slavery, rape, beatings and murder. Saddam instead took on an entirely different approach. His first goal was fear coupled with violence to maintain the plans he made for the society and culture. He was less about Islam and more about self-promotion and the glorification of Iraq. This type of leader is most like Josef Stalin of the Soviet Union. One never knew when or why you might be targeted.
Following the fall of the Ba'th government, the population of women in Iraq was at approximately 60%. They are a definite majority and should be in a better…
"AEI - Post-Saddam Iraq Conference Series." Welcome to AEI. Web. 7 July 2010. .
Chesler, Phyliss. "Are Honor Killings Simply Domestic Violence?" The Phyllis Chesler Organization. Web. 7 July 2010. .
Coleman, Isobel. "Women, Islam, and the New Iraq | Foreign Affairs." Home | Foreign Affairs. Web. 7 July 2010. .
"Culture in Post-Saddam Iraq:: Middle East Quarterly." Middle East Forum. Web. 7 July 2010. .
Despite what seems as a more permissive approach regarding the consumption of alcohol or coffee, Catholicism and Mormonism both believe that there should be no sex before marriage and that the example of Christ should be a central example to each believer. Additionally, holiness in the world is a message that both religions put one as an objective we should try to have for our lives and at a global level.
Modesty is probably also a common denominator of both faiths. People should be modest, both in terms of how they dress and show around their riches and in terms of the way they decide to live their lives. There is something happy about living a modest life and something that ties into the initial conception of the Christian faith.
Many have labeled Mormonism as a cult and, most likely, it has everything to do with the fact that we…
1. Style Guide - the Name of the Church. On the Internet at http://newsroom.lds.org/ldsnewsroom/eng/style-guide.Last retrieved on October 31, 2008
2. On the Internet at http://www.lds.org/ldsorg/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=bbd508f54922d010VgnVCM1000004d82620aRCRD&locale=0&sourceId=05d69daac5d98010VgnVCM1000004d82620a
3. Las Vegas Mormon Temple. On the Internet at http://lasvegasmormontemple.org/las-vegas-mormon-temple.Last retrieved on October 31, 2008
4. Taylor, William. 1980. Tale of Two Cities: Mormons vs. Catholics. Little Red Hen, Incorporated
Kabul is a cosmopolitan center and demonstrates a willingness to modernize but outside Kabul old traditions remain strong and there is little interest in these rural areas for any change.
III. Social Factors
The rural nature of Afghan society cannot be over-emphasized. The population of the country is estimated at 24 million but it is highly fragmented into a variety of ethnic groups that are further broken down into tribal groups. This tribal fragmentation has been encouraged by the countries bordering Afghanistan that have, in order to promote their own political agendas, disturbed any efforts by the Afghan central government from uniting these tribes. hat has developed is a system of ethnically-based rivalries supported by localized Islamic religious sects.
Tribal traditions inside Afghanistan tend to be more powerful than either Islamic theology or political philosophy and these traditions can be harsh toward women (Rohde). Gender roles under tribal traditions are…
Bickers, Robert. The Scramble for China: Foreign Devils in the Qing Empire, 1832-1914. New York: Penguin Global, 2011.
Cleary, Thomas. The Essential Confucius: The Heart of Confucius' Teachings in Authentic I Ching Order. New York: Book Sales, 2000.
Countries and Their Cultures. Afghanistan. 2011. 4 May 2011 .
Ellis, Deborah. Women of the Afghan War. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2000.
un for Your Wife
ay Cooney's un for Your Wife through Philosophical Inquiry
un for Your Wife is a British farce written by ay Cooney who also played the main protagonist, John Smith, in the play in theater performances in Britain in the 1980s. The play explores numerous issues ranging from ethics, polygamy, and faithfulness to the aesthetics of British culture in the 1950s. The whole play, however, is a farce and sometimes acts in the play seem to be mindless, performed just for the sake of humor although some forms of humor used in the play also seem to be bland. One way to make sense of the play is to explore it through branches of philosophy such as metaphysics and epistemology. Both of these branches of knowledge ultimately suggest that there is subjectivity and relativity in our ways of knowing. This may be useful in understanding un for…
Metaphysics (n.d.) PBS Glossary. Retrieved on 17 October 2011, from http://www.pbs.org/faithandreason/gengloss/metaph-body.html
Steup, Matthias (2005) Epistemology. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved on 17 October 2011, from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/epistemology/
Judith Stacy is a professor as well as author of cultural and social analysis. She focused mainly on studies of gender, queer relationships, and sexuality. She explores the typical pattern of relationships that deviate the basic western marriages idea in her article.
In 1968 Stacey got her bachelor degree from university of Michigan. In 1968 she received degree of Maters in history from university of Illinois and from Brandeis she received her PhD in sociology degree in 1969. She stayed in the faculty of university of California in 1979-1997 and then she appointed as Streisand professor of gender studies and PRF of sociology in southern California.
Judith Stacy, an expert on the family is very well-known for her challenging research on conventional issues. She seems to be very impatient with the increasing war situation of same sex marriages, divorce, fatherlessness, marital fidelity and the like. She unveils many profiles around…
Stacey, Judith. Unhitched: Love, Marriage, and Family Values from West Hollywood to Western
China. New York: NYU Press, 2011.
Status of Women in Choson Dynasty
The status of women in the Choson dynasty is not worthy of discussing but of pitying. Women used to have two ranking in this dynasty, one that of a sex slave, and the other one, if the woman has brains and is lucky, was that of a power manipulator (Park, 4). Either women were highly regarded due to their social status or the relationships with that of high ranking officials or the royals or they were taken up as things that need not be cared but used, as many sex scandals and coercive seductions in the history of the Choson dynasty represents.
To cite briefly, women were the most repressed in this dynasty, many restrictions, though still prevail today, they are the outgrowth of the older laws and rules that binds women to obey the laws that are today proclaimed as against…
Kendall, Laurel, and Mark Peterson, ed. (1983) Korean Women: View from the Inner Room. New Haven: East Rock Press, pg. 28-39.
Kim, Yung-Chung, ed. (1979) Women of Korea: A History from Ancient Times to 1945. Seoul: Ewha University Press, pg. 33.
Mattielli, Sandra, ed. (1977) Virtues in Conflict: Tradition and the Korean Woman Today. Seoul: Samhwa, pg. 145-190.
Park, Young-hai, ed., (1986) Women of the Yi Dynasty Seoul, Korea: Research Center for Asian Women, Sookmyung Women's University, pg. 4.
role of a prophet in society has often been questioned and misunderstood. Prophets are often seen as peculiar people who receive divine inspiration. The purpose of this paper is to discuss whether a prophet is always inspired. We will begin our discussion by defining prophetic inspiration and the function of a prophet. Our discussion will then focus on how to distinguish between prophecy that is inspired and prophecy that is uninspired.
The prime examples of prophetic inspiration can be found in the bible. According to a book entitled Inspiration and Revelation in the Old Testament, it is very difficult to explain the function of the Hebrew prophet. The book asserts that this difficulty exist because the function of the prophet is beyond that of human experience and is characterized by philosophical and religious assumptions. (Robinson) The author also asserts that 'The Hebrew prophets have so greatly influenced religion…
Camille, Michael. "Prophets, Canons and Promising Monsters." The Art Bulletin 78.2 (1996): 198+. Questia. 5 Aug. 2004 .
Cohon, Beryl D. The Prophets: Their Personalities and Teachings. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1939.
Engammare, Max. "Calvin: A Prophet Without a Prophecy." Church History 67.4 (1998): 643-661.
Erler, Mary C. "Palm Sunday Prophets and Processions and Eucharistic Controversy." Renaissance Quarterly 48.1 (1995): 58+. Questia. 5 Aug. 2004 .
" It said that an expanding range of adult parenting arrangements and the growing disconnection between marriage and children. The report believed that it would be wise to examine the events, which have been happening. Canada recently stood at the forefront of Western nations in instituting radical changes in family law. The U.S.A. seemed to be taking the same direction (Cere).
The dominant stand among legal elites, including the two groups, which wrote the two reports, was that the family law should not aim at protecting the rights of children to grow up with their own, married parents (Cere 2005). Instead, it should protect and promote a concept called "family diversity." The stand drew from the belief that societies flourished when people of different backgrounds lived and worked together. The authors of the reports argued that society would be better off with all kinds of families co-existing and viewed as…
Buckley, William. F. Does Marriage Matter? National Review: National Review, Inc., December 22, 2003
Cere, Daniel. Love and Marriage. Public Interest: The National Affairs, Inc., Spring 2005
Hoffnung, Michele. Wanting it All: Career, Marriage and Motherhood During Colle Educated Women's 20s. Sex Roles: a Journal of research: Plenum Publishing Corporation, May 2004
News and Society. Cohabitation Not Equal to Marriage: Vanier Study Reports. Community Action: Community Action Publishers, October 26, 2005
Storni, Alfonsina. "You ant Me hite." The Norton Anthology of orld
Vol. F. Ed. Sarah Lawall and Mayard Mac. New York: Norton, 2002. 2124-2125
The poem titled "You ant Me hite" written by Alfonsina Storni explores the issue of women mistreatment by men. The women complain how men expect them to be virgins when they (men ) are not.
Atwood, Margaret and Martin, Valerie.The Handmaid's Tale . Anchor.1998
In this book the author portrays how women are only valued for their fertility and they are allowed access to education in the patriarch society. This work is important to the research since it shows how women were mistreated by being regarded as sex symbols as well as not being allowed access to education.
Staves, Susan. Married omen's Separate Property Rights in England, 1660(1833. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1990.
This work is a recollection of the actual case studies and examples of various…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. Oxford: Heinemann, 1996.
Atwood, Margaret.The Handmaid's Tale . Anchor.1998
Staves, Susan. Married Women's Separate Property Rights in England, 1660(1833. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1990.
Stewart, Maaja A. Domestic Realities and Imperial Fictions: Jane Austen's Novels in Eighteenth-Century Contexts. Athens: U. Of Georgia P, 1993.
family, friendship and love are addressed by the collection of authors in the readings. Specifically, these include issues of sexuality, gender, homosexuality, and the relationship between parents and children. All these issues have changed as the world developed sociologically and technologically. Current technological and informational developments for example have a profound effect on the morals and norms relating to the above issues.
In terms of sexuality, Erich Fromm suggests that erotic love is frequently deceptive, as it is mistaken for the phenomenon of love itself, rather than an extension of the emotion. When the union is however achieved, no barriers are left to conquer and the tendency is to crave a new union with another stranger. This urge is however frequently curbed by the ethics of sexuality imposed by society as described by Bertrand Russell. Although the structure of society favors polygamy, monogamy is often imposed by the subconscious that…
George's argument preserves the fundamental truths that democracy in its most theocratic incarnation promotes, with regards to basing moral law on arbitrary grounds.
My position is precisely the same as George's: that same sex marriage is wrong and immoral. Same sex marriage affirms the value of sex for pleasure only, and is therefore an affront to moral law. Moral law, moreover, proclaims marriage as a union between one man and one woman with the intention of having children. Same-sex marriage is an affront to the concept of patriarchal law and the social contract between a man and a woman. It is inconceivable to allow the definition of marriage to expand beyond the natural law definition. If a democracy is founded on moral principles, then same sex marriage has no place in the society. Democracy promotes human rights. The pursuit of happiness is pursuant on moral principles, which, although rooted tacitly…
George, Robert P. "Neutrality, Equality, and 'Same-Sex Marriage.'" Essay Two.
Macedo, Stephen. "Homosexuality and the Conservative Mind." Essay One.
gay and lesbian individuals should be allowed to legally marry. Same-sex marriage has been made legal in nine states (as of November, 2012). However, "Between 1998 and 2006, twenty-seven states amended their constitutions to prohibit same sex marriage" (Salka, et al., 2012). Clearly this is a contentious issue in America. Thesis: same-sex marriage should be legal in the United States because to continue to deny gay and lesbian couples the right to be legally married is a discriminatory practice which goes against the Constitutional guarantees of equal protection and due process in the 5th and 14th Amendments.
Argument: The polling that has taken place over the past year in America clearly shows that the majority of citizens support same-sex marriage. hen attitudes change in America in such dramatic fashion as the attitudes have changed regarding same-sex marriage, it makes a powerful statement to the courts. A CBS News poll taken…
Kopicki, Allison. (2013). Polls Show Consistent Gains in Support for Same-Sex Marriage.
The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2013, from http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com .
Madrid, Jessica, and Rice, Stephen. (2013). Examining Cynicism in Regards to Reasons for Gay Marriage. Review of European Studies, 5(1, 45-50.
ProCon.org. Should gay marriage be legal? Retrieved March 30, 2013, from http://gaymarriage.procon.org .
Mill take issue with the Puritans? Explain.
Famed government theoretician John Stuart Mill took great exception with the Puritans who traveled to the New orld in order to start a community based upon similar fanatical religious beliefs. The reason that he took such issue with the Puritans is that they used religion as a basis of government but worse than this they used that religious intolerance in order to oppress and marginalize others. The Puritans made their laws based upon the assertion that their restriction encouraged moral behavior, but in doing so they took away each person's right to make individual choices. Mill wrote, "ith respect to what is said of the necessity of protecting society from the bad example set to others by the vicious or the self-indulgent; it is true that bad example may have a pernicious effect, especially the example of doing wrong to others with impunity…
Douglass, Frederick. "Oration in Memory of Abraham Lincoln." N.p. n.d. Web. 18 March. 2013.
El-Shabazz, El-Hajj Malik (Malcolm X). "The Ballot or the Bullet." N.p. n.d. Web. 18 March.
Goldman, Emma. "Anarchism: What it Really Stands For." Print.
marriage must always precede ordination and whether priests and widowhood may be allowed to remarry after widowhood or divorce was one of the topics of discussion at the revolutionary 1923 Pan-Orthodox Congress, which aimed to produce reform-oriented results that would allow the Orthodox Church to be better adapted to the new realities of the world in the period after World War I.
On both issues, beyond any economic or social arguments, the discussion should always revert back to the Scriptures and to what the Scriptures say about these elements. For example, the Congress agreed that the Scriptures allow for marriage after ordination (or, in fact, that there is nothing in the Scriptures that prohibits that, meaning, by extrapolation and law principle, that whatever is not prohibited, is considered to be in line with the canonical law).
In his initial analysis, Viscuso also makes an important note on why that is:…
1. Viscuso, Patrick. A Quest for Reform of the Orthodox Church. Berkeley, 2006.
The desire to legislate morality is well established in American history. Our forefather's passed legislation to prohibit acts that they felt might induce people to behave in a socially unacceptable manner. The impetus to legislate morality comes from the tension created between an individual's personal liberty and the concern that this liberty may create a licentious quality that would be terrible.
Some laws are necessary for protecting the physical well-being of individuals and their property and the ordinary function of society, however, legislating morality often has unintended consequences. For example the passage of the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919 outlawed the possession and sale of alcohol. Nevertheless, the demand for liquor continued resulting in the criminalization of producers, suppliers and consumers. Police, courts and prisons were overwhelmed with new cases, organized crime increased in power, and corruption among law enforcement officials was extended. The amendment was repealed…
Doyle, Michael E. (Producer). "Legislating Morality." Films for the Humanities and Sciences [Video]. Today's Life Choices, University of Notre Dame. (1996). 4 April 2012.
Global Business Cultural Analysis
Synopsis of Nigerian government
Nigerian monarchy to presidential system
The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government
Nigerian major commodities
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria
Model of culture
Universalism or Particularize
How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world
How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?
The role of women in the workplace
Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)
Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria
Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…
Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host.
Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)
Proof of the Objectivity of Morals" (1969) Barmbrough is trying to prove that common sense defeats philosophical explanations in many cases. He says that information that can be proven by the five senses or simply because it is true, is more important than the language used to make the point. This paper argues that a commonsense view that could be understood by all is more important than "double talk" that is philosophical but cannot be understood by everyone.
Moore himself speaks largely in terms of knowledge and belief and truth and falsehood rather than of the language in which we make our common sense claims"(Bambrough 37). In his argument he says that words should not be subjective. Communication should be tangible and concrete. He contrasts factual information with valuable information. He argues that people do have moral information that goes beyond the factual. This is information that could and should…
Although morals can be used as a starting point, they can't be the finishing points. The author disagrees with this point. This means that ethics is used to help us pinpoint the facts. Ethics has a place in helping to find errors. People cannot live by facts alone. What's more, ethics sometimes can be the answer in itself. There are merely ethical solutions to many, if not most, dilemmas. He also argues that there are logical and moral answers for settling disputes and problems. People who say that there are no methods for settling moral disputes, more often than not, end up talking in circles.
Bambrough is defending morals as a method for objectivity in this paper. He feels that there are moral answers to dilemmas and that facts may not be the best way to solely solve problems.
Bambrough, Ranford. "A Proof of the Objectivity of Morals." American Journal of Jdnce. (1969) P. 37-53
Kung San Trial Marriages and U.S. Divorce Rates.
The!Kung San are a hunter-gatherer people that inhabit the Kalahari desert in Africa. They are the ushmen who have managed to live a contented, self-governed life while the rest of the world has sprung up around them in a mass of technology and dysfunction. They live a community life where the economy is based on sharing and "among the first words a child learns are na ("give it to me") and ihn ("take this")" (Shostak 2000:44) giving outsiders the impression of a quaint carefree nomadic life.
Nevertheless there are many similarities shared between Americans and the!Kung San, some of which are as simple as equal love for their children, to the interesting arrangements of a 'trial marriage'. A!Kung trial marriage could be acquainted with people living together before getting married, or cohabiting as part of a condition before marriage, depending on religious…
Family, Marriage and De Facto Unions
Pontifical Council for the Family, Vatican November 2000
Online copy: www.catholicculture.org/docs/doc_view.cfm?recnum=3242&CFID=488458&CFTOKEN=13604336
US Divorce Rates
Mormonism was founded by Joseph Smith in the early 19th century in New York. Its formal name is the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. During the Second Great Awakening (a Protestant movement in America in the early 1800s), Smith generated and drew support for his vision of America's privileged place in the history of Christianity. Smith's vision was rooted in the reformist movement of the Great Awakening and the doctrines that Smith taught were of the omantic spirit that fueled the Awakening, attracting many people of the time who looked forward to the return of Christ to the world as foretold in the New Testament (Smith, 2004). The new message that Smith gave to his followers was that "on the morning of the 22nd of September 1827 the Angel of the Lord delivered" to him "a series of records of the aboriginal inhabitants of North America" -- records…
Bushman, C. (2006). Contemporary Mormonism: Latter-Day Saints in Modern
America. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Jackson, A. (2012). The Mormon Faith of Mitt Romney: What Latter-Day Saints Teach
and Practice. UT: Kudu.
Marriage, Divorce and Family Functions
Define the Institute of Marriage and identify the important cultural functions
Marriage encompasses a broad definition of the interpersonal unions established between partners granting them familial bond based on legal, social, and religious grounds. Further, marriage grants partners mutual conjugal rights. The family as a social unit functions to ensure the cooperation of its members based on aspects of child rearing and managing reproduction. Cultures endeavor to dictate the marriage patterns among other aspects. Cultures define the types of marriages such as monogamy, polygamy, and polyandry. On the economical aspect, cultures dictate dowry, bride wealth, and service.
Different societies have set different limitations on marriage. For example, some societies practice polygamy, especially African cultures whereas Westerners shun it and prefer monogamy. In the U.S., partners cannot enter into a new marriage arrangement without coming to a close on the previous one.
Love and marriage…
Brown, S. & Lin, I. (2012).The Gray Divorce Revolution: Rising Divorce Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults, 1990-2010 The Journals of Gerontology doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbs089
Kennedy, S. & Ruggles, S. (2014). Breaking Up Is Hard to Count: The Rise of Divorce in the United States, 1980-2010. Demography. 51:587-598. DOI 10.1007/s13524-013-0270-9
Tach, M. L. & Eads, A. (2015). Trends in the Economic Consequences of Marital and Cohabitation Dissolution in the United States. Demography. 52:401-432. DOI 10.1007/s13524-015-0374-5
Vespa, J. & Painter II, A. (2011). Cohabitation History, Marriage, and Wealth Accumulation. Demography. 48:983-1004. DOI 10.1007/s13524-011-0043-2
Human rights are the activities, freedoms and conditions that all human are entitle to enjoy, and these rights include economic, political, cultural and social rights. Putting differently, human rights are inalienable, inherent, indivisible and interdependent, which cannot be taken away, must be respected, and which the governments are to put in places the instrument to regulate laws and policies for human rights protection. Similarly, international human rights are the set of rules that guide the conducts of state's behaviors. Globally, countries enter into treaties to guarantee certain rights and refrain from violating these rights within their jurisdictions. (IJRC, 2016). The historical facts of human rights started from the declaration of universal human right rights in 1948, and the expressions are referred as aggregate rights of humans. The UDHR ("Universal Declaration of Human Rights") (IJRC 2016 p 1) was ratified by 48 countries with some Muslim countries such as Iran, Iraq,…
First Amendment Cases
There are several provisions in the First Amendment to the United States' constitution, all of which have been implemented in various court cases. In Engels v. Vitale, which centered around the legality of a mandated school prayer in New York state, many would perceive the issue as one of a "freedom of religion." More specifically, however, this case involved the First Amendment's clause that, "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion," which was applied to state governments by the Fourteenth Amendment. This is known as the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, and is quite distinct from the provision allowing the free exercise of religion.
In Oregon v Smith, it was determined that a state employee could indeed be terminated and denied unemployment benefits for the use of an illegal substance (in this case peyote) even when its use was part of a religious…