Positive And Negative Reinforcement Essays (Examples)

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On a personal level, I have tried to condition myself with negative behavior by trying to encourage myself to lose weight by posting an unflattering picture of myself on the refrigerator, to discourage in-between meal snacking. I have to admit that this was initially motivational for me, given that the vision was so unpleasant. However, to condition one's own behavior through negative reinforcement requires a great deal of zeal for such self-punishment. Eventually, I grew tired of looking at the picture and simply removed it. I was similarly unsuccessful in attempting to de-condition myself from selecting unhealthy foods from the cafeteria by putting a photograph of myself at a higher weight in my wallet and forcing myself to look at it before I ate.

The most serious experience I ever had, however, with the difficulties of using negative reinforcement occurred during one of my most difficult trials as a soldier. This….

mother in this case study wants to reinforce the behavior of eating peas. She is using operant conditioning, and positive reinforcement methods in particular. The term reinforcement refers to the strengthening of a desired behavioral outcome (Heffner, n.d.). However, there are many methods of reinforcement and positive reinforcement is only one. The mother would be more successful with both children if she identified methods of using negative reinforcement on the child who is not responsive to positive reinforcement.
The positive reinforcement method the mother has chosen involves rewarding the children with praise based on how many peas they have eaten. Using stickers, stars, or any other proxy to tally the number of peas is arbitrary. What matters is that the child receives praise for eating peas. Obviously one of the two children responds well to the praise, and is motivated enough by the praise to continue eating more peas. It….

Positive and Neg. ein Toddler
Social learning theory has given parenting and child development a new lease on life. With the current focus in psychology, and more specifically child psychology, many researchers, educators, child-care providers and parents have gained a new understanding of the intricacies of positive and negative reinforcement and the impact both have upon children. Social learning theory asserts that learning or knowledge acquisition and behavior do not occur in a vacuum and that one of the most intrinsic influence upon them is social interaction (Shuell, 1993) Contrary to the implications of the terms and therefore their assumed meaning, positive vs. negative, not all positive reinforcement is effective and not all negative reinforcement is ineffective. In an attempt to reduce confusion on such a topic many researchers have adopted the use of the term reinforcement contingencies, rather than demarcating the loaded labels of positive and negative reinforcement.

The dangers….

It could be as simple as a high-five, pat on the back, praise, a kiss, or a hug. It could also be simple words and actions that could make her mom feel needed around the house since being needed gives the person a feel of being important -- a form of favorable stimulus.
To strengthen the independent behavior, Dorothy may choose to remove the aversive stimulus in her mom's environment. If it irritates Dorothy's mom to be looked over most of the day (aversive stimulus in this case) because it reminds her of her disability, she could be allowed to spend the whole afternoon by herself if she was able to go to the bathroom on her own. Her mom can also be allowed to skip a chore she dislikes, such as feeding the dogs (aversive stimulus in this case), if she was able to prepare their breakfast all by….

organizational culture and in particularly emphasize the need to design a better Strategic Intelligence, wherein motivation, foresight, vision and partnering are united in a cohesive alignment that fosters leadership and knowledge building (Maccoby et al., 2014, p. 62). In my current organization, co-workers are all too often motivated by selfish principles -- they want the lightest schedule, they want to avoid heavy lifting, they try to get the ear of the managers so as to improve their own working condition at the expense of others. This type of behavior is reflected in management as well. The culture is very dog-eat-dog, and I feel that in a hospital, the culture should be more caring, with more emphasis on solidarity than on selfish desires.
Thus, in my organization, I would promote a culture that is rooted in teamwork and putting patients first; I would promote happy interactions with co-workers and patients by….


Specific Application of Negative Reinforcement:

Dorothy could also use negative reinforcement to encourage her mother's effort at becoming more independent. For example, if Dorothy's mother strongly dislikes the type of music that Dorothy listens to at home, Dorothy could immediately turn off her music to reward her mother for every instance in which she came downstairs from her bedroom.

Just as in the case of positive reinforcement, the removal of a stimulus perceived by the subject as unpleasant, (such as rock music), this form of negative reward would work whether or not Dorothy provided the reward in conjunction with and explicit acknowledging that it was a specific reward for her mother's efforts.

Likewise, just as in the case of positive reward, the negative reward would probably work much faster if Dorothy does acknowledge that her extra consideration of her mother's likes and dislikes corresponds directly to her appreciating her mother's effort to comply….

Aversive Control
Punishment can be defined as a way to reduce a given behavior by attaching a consequence to behaving a certain way or doing a particular thing. Some of the consequences that denote positive punishment include loud noise, electric shock and a reprimand. The consequences that denote negative punishment include money, access to a given social environment and food. Several studies have discussed the effects and implications of aversive control. The main topics that have been covered include how they affect the use of nicotine, analysis of man's neuropsychiatric behavior and the use of aversive techniques such as punishment tools.

An aversive stimulus can maintain the behavior of an organism that rids another organism of the targeted aversive stimulus. This is definitely different from positive reinforcement where the reinforcing event is the production of the stimulus. One distinct characteristic of aversive control is an avoidance or escape behavior targeted. The maintained….

Learning Reinforcement
For learning to effectively take place, a number of concepts must be brought together and these include but are not in any way limited to environmental, emotional as well as cognitive influences. One of the most prominent learning theories is the social learning theory whose fronting was most prominently done by Albert andura amongst others.

The Social Learning Theory

The social learning theory is founded on the view that most learning is undertaken within the social context. However, according to Ronald L. Akers, the social learning theory must not only be taken to be a theory of peer influence.

With that in mind, the key concepts in this case include; modeling, imitation as well as observational learning. The social learning theory has four basic principles with the first principle stating that most of the learning is informed by an observation of behavior. Here, the reasoning is that the learning process is triggered….

Inappropriate use of the terms "noncontingent reinforcement" and "differential reinforcement of other behaviors"
Shakespeare would not have anticipated this issue -- labels for procedures when he wrote "What is in a name, a rose with any other would smell as sweet." The controversy is not about the effect of the procedure but rather relates to if the applied behavior analysis on the use of the terms 'noncontingent reinforcement' -- NC and 'differential reinforcement of other behaviors' -- DO are appropriate and the definitions of the process. The irony is that there is no dispute in the effectiveness of the processes but if the use of the terms is confusing and if the definition of reinforcement is contingent on behavior. The question then is if the issue will be dead and if it can be shown that an alternate name may clear the confusion especially with regard to the term 'contingent behavior'….

The employees will alter their behavior accordingly, depending on which behavior they feel will have the most positive outcome.
Clearly the correct course of action for the company is to amend the reinforcement mechanisms. This can be done either through positive reinforcement or negative. Passing the course is mandatory, but passing the first time could receive a reward. The company could also reduce the benefit of taking the course. It probably will need to be paid time, but the company could avoid running the course at a nice hotel, instead using normal meeting rooms that do not convey any sense of reward. Make the course as horrible as possible so that employees will want to pass it as quickly as possible.

As well, the company could use negative reinforcement mechanisms. Employees could be punished for failing to pass the course the first time. There are legal limits as to what this….

Instrumental Conditioning
PAGES 4 WORDS 1331

Instrumental Conditioning
One of the key principals in psychology is instrumental conditioning. This is when punishment or reinforcement is utilized to encourage the subject to engage in particular types of behavior. The basic idea behind this approach is to increase the chances that a specific kind of action will take place in the future. Once this happens, is when there can be a transformation in how the subject is reacting to the stimuli that they will see, hear or feel. (Cherry, 2011) This is significant, because it is showing how this is utilized as a basic strategy to subtly change the way someone is responding to various events. To fully understand this technique we will examine how this kind of conditioning is used by someone who is learning to ride a bike. This will be accomplished by: comparing positive / negative reinforcement that relate to the situation, examining the role of….

(Kimble; Hilgad; Maquis, 1961)
(c) Explain the ole of ewad and punishment in you selected leaning situation of 'How to ide a Bike'

A lot of avesive events ae thee inclusive of withholding einfocement i.e. extinction, emoving a positive einfoces i.e. esponse cost and pesenting an avesive event contingent on a behavio i.e. punishment. The same vaiables that influence the effectiveness of einfocement also influence the effectiveness of punishment, inclusive of the immediacy with which a negative event follows a behavio, the intensity of the event, and the schedule of punishment. It is impotant to compehend that punishment constitute an inescapable aspect of life which individuals tend to lean though both punishing consequences and positive consequences. Fo instance in the selected leaning situation of how to ide a bike, if the leane is not watching whee he is going, he will sustain a fall which is a punishment fo him. (Gambill,….

Motivation of Behavior
PAGES 4 WORDS 1331

Motivation in Behavior
a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?

Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he applied to….

Extinguishing the behavior through negative reinforcement
Differential reinforcement of high-rate behaviors: positive reinforcement of desired behaviors

Antecedent: The teacher asks the student to clean up the cafeteria tables.

Behavior: The student is disrespectful and kicks over a garbage can.

Consequence: The student is given a 'time out' in the classroom with his head down.

Negative reinforcement of problem behavior

Unintended consequence: Defiant student gets to leave and not clean up classroom.

Antecedent: Teacher is not paying attention to Alicia and is helping another student with an assignment.

Behavior: Alicia tries to get the teachers' attention by banging on the metal chair with her heels.

Consequence: Teacher reprimands Alicia.

Negative reinforcement

Unintended consequence: Alicia gets teacher's attention, and some attention is better than no attention at all for Alicia.

Antecedent: Brandon is asked to stay at his desk and finish his work before leaving.

Behavior: Brandon defies the teacher and leaves the classroom.

Consequence: Brandon gets to leave.

Positive reinforcement (of a negative behavior)

Unintended consequence:….

Of Learning
PAGES 2 WORDS 574

Strengthening a desirable behavior in someone can be a challenging experience. The use of psychological theories about learning may help make for a quicker and more effective instructional process. Therefore, adopting these principles in strengthening study skills is more likely to result in positive outcome.
Activity: Increasing study skills

Developing and improving study skills is a gradual and long-term process. This program will incorporate the following skills.

Time management

Effective reading of academic texts

Note taking

Development of academic writing style

Revising and sitting examinations

There will be mentoring of these activities through supervision. Supervision will take the form of checking class activities and assignments as well as oral interviews. This will be done after introduction of the skills. There will also be assessment method featuring periodic continuous assessment tests. The monitoring and assessment will incorporate the use positive and negative reinforcement.

Positive reinforcement

Shaping: as one of the monitoring tools, will be useful in case the learner experiences difficulty….

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4 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Positive and Negative Reinforcement Reinforcement

Words: 1343
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

On a personal level, I have tried to condition myself with negative behavior by trying to encourage myself to lose weight by posting an unflattering picture of myself on…

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2 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Positive and Negative Reinforcement of Behavior

Words: 677
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

mother in this case study wants to reinforce the behavior of eating peas. She is using operant conditioning, and positive reinforcement methods in particular. The term reinforcement refers…

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7 Pages
Term Paper

Children

Pros and Cons of Positive and Negative Reinforcement in Toddlers

Words: 1797
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Positive and Neg. ein Toddler Social learning theory has given parenting and child development a new lease on life. With the current focus in psychology, and more specifically child…

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2 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Positive & Negative Reinforcements Reinforcement

Words: 595
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

It could be as simple as a high-five, pat on the back, praise, a kiss, or a hug. It could also be simple words and actions that could…

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2 Pages
Essay

Business

Negative Reinforcement and Motivation

Words: 603
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

organizational culture and in particularly emphasize the need to design a better Strategic Intelligence, wherein motivation, foresight, vision and partnering are united in a cohesive alignment that fosters…

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3 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Psychology - Reinforcement Applying Positive

Words: 805
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

Specific Application of Negative Reinforcement: Dorothy could also use negative reinforcement to encourage her mother's effort at becoming more independent. For example, if Dorothy's mother strongly dislikes the type of…

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3 Pages
Literature Review

Psychology - Behaviorism

Positive Reinforcement and Nicotine

Words: 991
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Literature Review

Aversive Control Punishment can be defined as a way to reduce a given behavior by attaching a consequence to behaving a certain way or doing a particular thing. Some of…

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5 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Learning Reinforcement for Learning to Effectively Take

Words: 1504
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Essay

Learning Reinforcement For learning to effectively take place, a number of concepts must be brought together and these include but are not in any way limited to environmental, emotional as…

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5 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Inappropriate Use of the Terms Noncontingent Reinforcement and Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors

Words: 1609
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Inappropriate use of the terms "noncontingent reinforcement" and "differential reinforcement of other behaviors" Shakespeare would not have anticipated this issue -- labels for procedures when he wrote "What is in…

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2 Pages
Research Paper

Leadership

Expectation and Reinforcement Theory Expectancy

Words: 635
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Research Paper

The employees will alter their behavior accordingly, depending on which behavior they feel will have the most positive outcome. Clearly the correct course of action for the company is…

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4 Pages
Research Paper

Psychology

Instrumental Conditioning

Words: 1331
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Instrumental Conditioning One of the key principals in psychology is instrumental conditioning. This is when punishment or reinforcement is utilized to encourage the subject to engage in particular types of…

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4 Pages
Research Proposal

Teaching

Instrumental Conditioning A Description of

Words: 1326
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Research Proposal

(Kimble; Hilgad; Maquis, 1961) (c) Explain the ole of ewad and punishment in you selected leaning situation of 'How to ide a Bike' A lot of avesive events ae thee…

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image
4 Pages
Research Paper

Psychology

Motivation of Behavior

Words: 1331
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Motivation in Behavior a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning? Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the…

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image
2 Pages
Research Paper

Teaching

Read and Complete Appendix's

Words: 472
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Extinguishing the behavior through negative reinforcement Differential reinforcement of high-rate behaviors: positive reinforcement of desired behaviors Antecedent: The teacher asks the student to clean up the cafeteria tables. Behavior: The student…

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2 Pages
A-Level Coursework

Teaching

Of Learning

Words: 574
Length: 2 Pages
Type: A-Level Coursework

Strengthening a desirable behavior in someone can be a challenging experience. The use of psychological theories about learning may help make for a quicker and more effective instructional process.…

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