On a personal level, I have tried to condition myself with negative behavior by trying to encourage myself to lose weight by posting an unflattering picture of myself on the refrigerator, to discourage in-between meal snacking. I have to admit that this was initially motivational for me, given that the vision was so unpleasant. However, to condition one's own behavior through negative reinforcement requires a great deal of zeal for such self-punishment. Eventually, I grew tired of looking at the picture and simply removed it. I was similarly unsuccessful in attempting to de-condition myself from selecting unhealthy foods from the cafeteria by putting a photograph of myself at a higher weight in my wallet and forcing myself to look at it before I ate.
The most serious experience I ever had, however, with the difficulties of using negative reinforcement occurred during one of my most difficult trials as a soldier.…… [Read More]
mother in this case study wants to reinforce the behavior of eating peas. She is using operant conditioning, and positive reinforcement methods in particular. The term reinforcement refers to the strengthening of a desired behavioral outcome (Heffner, n.d.). However, there are many methods of reinforcement and positive reinforcement is only one. The mother would be more successful with both children if she identified methods of using negative reinforcement on the child who is not responsive to positive reinforcement.
The positive reinforcement method the mother has chosen involves rewarding the children with praise based on how many peas they have eaten. Using stickers, stars, or any other proxy to tally the number of peas is arbitrary. What matters is that the child receives praise for eating peas. Obviously one of the two children responds well to the praise, and is motivated enough by the praise to continue eating more peas. It…… [Read More]
Positive and Neg. ein Toddler
Social learning theory has given parenting and child development a new lease on life. With the current focus in psychology, and more specifically child psychology, many researchers, educators, child-care providers and parents have gained a new understanding of the intricacies of positive and negative reinforcement and the impact both have upon children. Social learning theory asserts that learning or knowledge acquisition and behavior do not occur in a vacuum and that one of the most intrinsic influence upon them is social interaction (Shuell, 1993) Contrary to the implications of the terms and therefore their assumed meaning, positive vs. negative, not all positive reinforcement is effective and not all negative reinforcement is ineffective. In an attempt to reduce confusion on such a topic many researchers have adopted the use of the term reinforcement contingencies, rather than demarcating the loaded labels of positive and negative reinforcement.
The…… [Read More]
It could be as simple as a high-five, pat on the back, praise, a kiss, or a hug. It could also be simple words and actions that could make her mom feel needed around the house since being needed gives the person a feel of being important -- a form of favorable stimulus.
To strengthen the independent behavior, Dorothy may choose to remove the aversive stimulus in her mom's environment. If it irritates Dorothy's mom to be looked over most of the day (aversive stimulus in this case) because it reminds her of her disability, she could be allowed to spend the whole afternoon by herself if she was able to go to the bathroom on her own. Her mom can also be allowed to skip a chore she dislikes, such as feeding the dogs (aversive stimulus in this case), if she was able to prepare their breakfast all by…… [Read More]
Specific Application of Negative Reinforcement:
Dorothy could also use negative reinforcement to encourage her mother's effort at becoming more independent. For example, if Dorothy's mother strongly dislikes the type of music that Dorothy listens to at home, Dorothy could immediately turn off her music to reward her mother for every instance in which she came downstairs from her bedroom.
Just as in the case of positive reinforcement, the removal of a stimulus perceived by the subject as unpleasant, (such as rock music), this form of negative reward would work whether or not Dorothy provided the reward in conjunction with and explicit acknowledging that it was a specific reward for her mother's efforts.
Likewise, just as in the case of positive reward, the negative reward would probably work much faster if Dorothy does acknowledge that her extra consideration of her mother's likes and dislikes corresponds directly to her appreciating her mother's…… [Read More]
For learning to effectively take place, a number of concepts must be brought together and these include but are not in any way limited to environmental, emotional as well as cognitive influences. One of the most prominent learning theories is the social learning theory whose fronting was most prominently done by Albert andura amongst others.
The Social Learning Theory
The social learning theory is founded on the view that most learning is undertaken within the social context. However, according to Ronald L. Akers, the social learning theory must not only be taken to be a theory of peer influence.
With that in mind, the key concepts in this case include; modeling, imitation as well as observational learning. The social learning theory has four basic principles with the first principle stating that most of the learning is informed by an observation of behavior. Here, the reasoning is that the…… [Read More]
Inappropriate use of the terms "noncontingent reinforcement" and "differential reinforcement of other behaviors"
Shakespeare would not have anticipated this issue -- labels for procedures when he wrote "What is in a name, a rose with any other would smell as sweet." The controversy is not about the effect of the procedure but rather relates to if the applied behavior analysis on the use of the terms 'noncontingent reinforcement' -- NC and 'differential reinforcement of other behaviors' -- DO are appropriate and the definitions of the process. The irony is that there is no dispute in the effectiveness of the processes but if the use of the terms is confusing and if the definition of reinforcement is contingent on behavior. The question then is if the issue will be dead and if it can be shown that an alternate name may clear the confusion especially with regard to the term 'contingent…… [Read More]
The employees will alter their behavior accordingly, depending on which behavior they feel will have the most positive outcome.
Clearly the correct course of action for the company is to amend the reinforcement mechanisms. This can be done either through positive reinforcement or negative. Passing the course is mandatory, but passing the first time could receive a reward. The company could also reduce the benefit of taking the course. It probably will need to be paid time, but the company could avoid running the course at a nice hotel, instead using normal meeting rooms that do not convey any sense of reward. Make the course as horrible as possible so that employees will want to pass it as quickly as possible.
As well, the company could use negative reinforcement mechanisms. Employees could be punished for failing to pass the course the first time. There are legal limits as to what…… [Read More]
One of the key principals in psychology is instrumental conditioning. This is when punishment or reinforcement is utilized to encourage the subject to engage in particular types of behavior. The basic idea behind this approach is to increase the chances that a specific kind of action will take place in the future. Once this happens, is when there can be a transformation in how the subject is reacting to the stimuli that they will see, hear or feel. (Cherry, 2011) This is significant, because it is showing how this is utilized as a basic strategy to subtly change the way someone is responding to various events. To fully understand this technique we will examine how this kind of conditioning is used by someone who is learning to ride a bike. This will be accomplished by: comparing positive / negative reinforcement that relate to the situation, examining the role…… [Read More]
(Kimble; Hilgad; Maquis, 1961)
(c) Explain the ole of ewad and punishment in you selected leaning situation of 'How to ide a Bike'
A lot of avesive events ae thee inclusive of withholding einfocement i.e. extinction, emoving a positive einfoces i.e. esponse cost and pesenting an avesive event contingent on a behavio i.e. punishment. The same vaiables that influence the effectiveness of einfocement also influence the effectiveness of punishment, inclusive of the immediacy with which a negative event follows a behavio, the intensity of the event, and the schedule of punishment. It is impotant to compehend that punishment constitute an inescapable aspect of life which individuals tend to lean though both punishing consequences and positive consequences. Fo instance in the selected leaning situation of how to ide a bike, if the leane is not watching whee he is going, he will sustain a fall which is a punishment fo him.…… [Read More]
Motivation in Behavior
a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?
Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he…… [Read More]
Psychology is a term derived from two Greek words that translate to life explanation, which makes it an important element of daily life. The field of psychology can be described as a discipline that focuses on the study of mind and behavior (Stangor, 2010, p.7). This discipline is characterized by several concepts and approaches that are used by psychologists in understanding human behavior. Since psychology is a broad field, psychologists not only use these concepts and approaches but also conduct scientific research that enables them to understand human behavior. Some of the most common psychological concepts that are used to modify or change an individual's behavior include operant conditioning, positive and negative punishment, and positive and negative reinforcement.
Operant condition can be described as a learning method that is used to modify or change a person's behavior through experiences and consequences. While it is part of the process…… [Read More]
Extinguishing the behavior through negative reinforcement
Differential reinforcement of high-rate behaviors: positive reinforcement of desired behaviors
Antecedent: The teacher asks the student to clean up the cafeteria tables.
Behavior: The student is disrespectful and kicks over a garbage can.
Consequence: The student is given a 'time out' in the classroom with his head down.
Negative reinforcement of problem behavior
Unintended consequence: Defiant student gets to leave and not clean up classroom.
Antecedent: Teacher is not paying attention to Alicia and is helping another student with an assignment.
Behavior: Alicia tries to get the teachers' attention by banging on the metal chair with her heels.
Consequence: Teacher reprimands Alicia.
Unintended consequence: Alicia gets teacher's attention, and some attention is better than no attention at all for Alicia.
Antecedent: Brandon is asked to stay at his desk and finish his work before leaving.
Behavior: Brandon defies the teacher and leaves…… [Read More]
Strengthening a desirable behavior in someone can be a challenging experience. The use of psychological theories about learning may help make for a quicker and more effective instructional process. Therefore, adopting these principles in strengthening study skills is more likely to result in positive outcome.
Activity: Increasing study skills
Developing and improving study skills is a gradual and long-term process. This program will incorporate the following skills.
Effective reading of academic texts
Development of academic writing style
Revising and sitting examinations
There will be mentoring of these activities through supervision. Supervision will take the form of checking class activities and assignments as well as oral interviews. This will be done after introduction of the skills. There will also be assessment method featuring periodic continuous assessment tests. The monitoring and assessment will incorporate the use positive and negative reinforcement.
Shaping: as one of the monitoring…… [Read More]
" Nevertheless, the research to date indicates that participative management techniques can provide a major return on the investment. According to Angermeier, Dunford and Boss (2009, p. 127), "Employee perceptions of the extent to which their work climate is participative rather than authoritarian have important implications for critical work attitudes and behavior."
The research to date has confirmed that employees in highly participative work environments outperformed their counterparts in nonparticipative management organizations (Angermeier et al. 2009). For example, a study by Angermeier and his associates found that employees working in participative management settings provided 14% better customer service, committed 26% fewer clinical errors, demonstrated 79% lower burnout, and were 61% less likely to leave the organization than employees in more authoritarian work environment. According to Angermeier et al. (2009, p. 128), "These findings suggest that participative management initiatives have a significant impact on the commitment and productivity of individual employees."…… [Read More]
philosophies regarding ways of teaching and properly inducing learning in students. Not all of these methodologies, however, are congruent with one another. Thus, it is best for a student of education, especially one who is preparing to enter the professional field as a teacher, to develop his or her own particular ideology regarding the style of teaching that he or she will attempt to incorporate. Doing so will not only draw from such an individual's own personal experience, but also from the knowledge and abundance of literature on this subject previously denoted by other noteworthy professionals within this field. By amalgamating these concepts, it is possible for a potential teacher to readily identify his or her core beliefs and translate them into a style of pedagogy which will ultimately provide benefits to students. After a careful consideration of my personal cosmology and worldview, as well as aspects of educational philosophy,…… [Read More]
Q4. Depressed patients, when they note their mood is worsening, should record in an automatic thought log the date and time of the thought, the situation, the automatic thoughts, their emotions, the adaptive responses they use and the outcome. This helps the client understand the frequency by which they are plagued with depressive thoughts, what situations provoke such moods, the type of (usually irrational) thinking processes that lead to the depressed mood, and how well they coped with the mood. The therapist can gain a sense of the degree to which the client is depressed, the client's coping mechanisms, and the degree to which the depressive stimulus is irrational (such as feeling rejected by a friend when the friend does not call) or real (a chronically ill parent at home).
Q5. Behavioral therapy can be problematic, given that different cultures reinforce different behavioral norms, and a child from a bicultural…… [Read More]
Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.
Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.
Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…… [Read More]
The best method for conducting the study would involve the use of a case study. Since this would be a group, setting, the case study method would allow the researcher to conduct in-depth investigations. Case studies offer the researcher an opportunity to use various data gathering sources like interviews, and observations (Halligan & Marshall, 2013). In order for the researcher to conduct an in-depth study of the subjects, the case study would offer an effective method for data gathering. The researcher would manage to immerse him/herself into the group or could make observations as the participants attend their quit smoking classes. Being a participant would allow the other participants to open up to the researcher more easily. Since the classes mostly consist of around 20 people, this makes it a small number and easy for the researcher to deal with. A case study method would ensure that…… [Read More]
The fact that getting back into these activities will remove the negative reinforcement of somebody else doing her job around the house might change her behavior and get her to move around much faster.
As previously mentioned, all of these things that were mentioned are decided by an evaluation and a decision of the things that still motivate Dorothy's mother, assuming that she has not reached an age where she is indifferent about things. Dorothy can promise, as positive reinforcements, small gifts as well, such as books or music, which can grow in importance and value once the willingness to become independent again starts manifesting with Dorothy's mother. Some of the negative reinforcements will simply include things like removing some of the bitter medicine from the list of medicines that needs to be taken under all conditions.
There are several situations or conditions when punishment will fail to enforce…… [Read More]
Organizational Behavior and Teamwork
Southwest Airlines, Inc. has become an example of notable success. One reason for its significant achievement is its application of Reinforcement Theory to its employees. These applications have resulted in a highly motivated workforce, which is intimately tied to Southwest's success among business leaders. Even so, not even Southwest can satisfy its employees' needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy; rather, Southwest can only give some raw materials for satisfying those needs.
Are Southwest Airlines Inc. leadership and policies fulfilling Maslow's Needs Theory stages?
Abraham Maslow's 5-stage needs theory, developed in the United States during the 1940's and 1950's (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010), includes the following stages: biological and physiological needs; safety needs; belongingness and love needs; esteem needs; and self-actualization (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010). The most basic needs that are basic to survival and are at the bottom…… [Read More]
memory, classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. The paper also describes the effect of diversity issues on the learning process. In addition to that, the paper also summarizes the psychiatric disorders and their effect on learning and memorizing process. Lastly, the paper gives a comparison between various behavioral counseling approaches.
THEOIES OF LEANING AND MEMOY
Learning is an important topic in the field of psychology. Learning refers to a permanent change in the behavior and attitude of a person. The reason behind this change is experience and thus maturation or illness has nothing to do with it. This definition of learning as a permanent change and therefore it eliminates the temporary mood swings and illnesses from it. In this paper, we will be focusing on two types of learning: (Wood, 2010)
Instrumental Conditioning (Wood, 2010)
There are a lot of visuals and sounds that trigger certain emotions…… [Read More]
Axelrod, M.I., & Zank, A.J. (2012). Increasing classroom compliance: Using a high-Probability command sequence with noncompliant students. Journal of Behavioral Education, 21(2), 119-133.
Noncompliance or the failure to complete an assignment/instruction is a problematic behavior within the school system and can result in several counterproductive outcomes for students such as poor learning, friction in the classroom, disruptive behaviors, etc. Previous research has indicated that giving a high probability command sequence prior to a low probability request has been shown to increase compliance in difficult students. High probability command sequences (HPC) are simple commands which an individual is very likely to comply with. The researchers were interested in determining if using HPCs before giving low probability requests would also increase compliance in students in special education classes or with behavioral disorders. Two special education students were tested in this study. After developing a list of HPCs and low probability commands (LPC)…… [Read More]
All the early pioneers of behaviorism including Watson were important to the development of psychology as a social science (Moore, 2011). In fact, Watson deserves the most credit for being the first person to propose behaviorism as a science, using the tools of the scientific method to measure human behavior. However, human behavior is remarkably complex and Watson’s early research failed to capture the nuances of human cognitive-behavioral responses. Pavlov built upon Watson’s foundation, and is probably the most famous of all the pioneering behaviorists. Pavlov’s famous dog experiments have become part of the common vernacular (Clark, 2004). Like Pavlov, B.F. Skinner focused on operant conditioning. However, Skinner took the entire concept of conditioning a step further by showing how stimuli could be manipulated to manipulate responses. Pavlov had yet to break free from the purely mechanistic methods of measuring human behavior. Skinner used behavioral research to show…… [Read More]
ehavioral Therapy vs. Freud's Psychoanalysis
Amazing advances have been made in the treatment of mental illness throughout the years (Merck, 2004). An understanding of what causes some mental health disorders has resulted in a greater sophistication in customizing treatment to the underlying basis of specific disorders. Thus, many mental health disorders can now be treated almost as successfully as physical disorders.
Most treatment methods for mental health disorders are either categorized as somatic or psychotherapeutic (Merck, 2004). Somatic treatments include drug therapy and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapeutic treatments include individual, group, or family and marital psychotherapy; behavior therapy techniques; and hypnotherapy. There are many others, as well
Research reveals that for major mental health disorders, a treatment plan involving both drugs and psychotherapy is more effective than either treatment method on its own. This paper will discuss two treatment methods -- behavioral therapy and psychoanalysis -- in an effort to…… [Read More]
Skinner's radical behaviorism has been used to provide explanations for a number of behavioral phenomenon including criminal behavior (Skinner, 1966). For instance, the crime of burglary offers an example of how antisocial behaviors are learned through reinforcement. Members of society that commonly engage in theft or burglary learn their trade via the reinforcing aspects of stealing. The need to steal may be initially activated by means of some form of need or desire to have material gain; however, for many individuals who habitually engage in thievery repeated stealing is positively reinforced by the tangible acquisition of goods provided by these activities. For many of these individuals this behavior is reinforced by the notion that it is easier to steal from others then to apply oneself, work hard, and take the chance on getting the lees than desired rewards. However, many habitual criminals actually put in as much effort into…… [Read More]
Teaching Philosophy, Teaching Style
I teach in such a way that students can gain the tools and experience to help them successfully contribute to the world today. In that respect, my teaching philosophy is based on empowering students so that they are equipped to both have aspirations and fulfill them in a way that is socially productive. Subsequently, one of the fundamental characteristics of my teaching philosophy is to encourage students, and provide the sort of nurturing and positive reinforcement that fosters confidence and enables them to firstly believe in themselves and in their own abilities. Thus, there is a definite aspect of care and care ethics that actuates the way I teach. This principle is well aligned with my belief in positive reinforcement as one of the fundamental ways of bolstering the learning prowess of students through techniques such as constructive criticism. Additionally, I also attempt to teach in…… [Read More]
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…… [Read More]
Skinner and Harlow to Investigating Influences on Behaviors.
One of the most common challenges for psychologists is: understanding the underlying motivations behind specific behavior. This is because there are a wide variety of theories that are providing different interpretations surrounding the primary causes. A good example of this can be seen with disparities in the philosophies of Skinner and Harlow in explaining human motivation. To fully understand each theory requires comparing and contrasting both approaches with one another. These elements will offer the greatest insights about the rationale behind individual behavior.
Skinner was focused on the behaviorist approach. This is when there is an emphasis on how the actions (i.e. thoughts, feelings and deeds) of an individual will influence their conduct. According to Skinner, everyone is impacted by these actions throughout the course of their lives with a principal known as operant conditioning. This takes place based upon positive…… [Read More]
Similarly, a married man, though he has a wife, can feel a sense of lack sexually. This sense of lack can lead him to rape a female subordinate at work.
Describe the core behavioral characteristics of the criminal psychopath. Name and describe any five instruments used to measure psychopathy. What is the difference between criminal psychopathy and mental disorder?
a. The core characteristics of the criminal psychopath are a lack of empathy, egocentricity, lack of shame or remorse, and tendency for lying and manipulation
b. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist is a psycho-diagnostic tool used in tandem with the broader PCL-R inventory to measure a person's psychopathic profile.
The Psychopathic Personality Inventory is a self-report survey used to comprehensively index personality traits without explicitly referring to anti-social or criminal behaviors themselves.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory measures various components of person's personality with a self-report inventory. Each component is measured by…… [Read More]
Freud's Theory Of Repression
Freud is popularly known as the father of psychoanalysis and the idea of psychological repression of memories and urges, even though he was neither the first psychoanalyst or even the first to posit the existence of repression. His justifiable fame comes both from the way he popularized psychoanalysis, and from his further development of its theories. He is commonly attributed with creating the theory of the conscious and subconscious, of the many sexual complexes and drives which run our lives and our subconscious, and with the idea that things which are not socially acceptable will be hidden away within the subconscious. Freud called this process of burying the unacceptable aspects of life away into the subconscious regression, which he was to eventually succinctly defined thus: "the essence of repression lies simply in the function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness." (Rieff, 147) It is…… [Read More]
Language and children with autism:
Sources of cognitive deficits
Deficits in language development are one of the most commonly-noted, early signs a child may be autistic. Autistic children often fail to meet appropriate developmental milestones in language. High-functioning autistics or individuals with Asperger's Syndrome usually do not show developmental delays in using language, but may communicate in an inappropriate manner. "Autism is diagnosed on the basis of three primary areas of impairment: social functioning, language and communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests or activities...esearch on autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders suggests that the social and communication impairments are unique and specific deficits, that define the autism phenotype" (Tager-Flusberg 2006).
The extent to which social and communicative impairments in autism are interlinked remains hotly debated. It is generally agreed upon and noted by researchers and parents alike that there is a wide spectrum of difference in…… [Read More]
Psychology Dual Diagnosis: Substance elated Disorders and Co-Occurring Disorders
The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of the terms. The DSM-V is a manual that is made use of by professionals in the field of medicine and mental health. They specifically refer to this manual when they are diagnosing disorders related to the mental health of a patient and the use of substances. Through the use of this manual, there is a standard way of diagnosing disorders (ockville, 2005). Substance use disorders are often found to exist with co-occurring disorders. This report highlights the assessment and treatment of substance related disorders and the co-morbid disorders.
The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of…… [Read More]
Further extending the application of the stimulus-response model, it can also be argued that weapons such as guns are being heavily associated with numerous components of flight simulators such as killing. Weapons such as guns are associated with the feeling of being able to kill or assault the enemy in the video game. Unfortunately, these interest or passion for weapons is oftentimes also associated with real life weapons. To prove, news of children playing guns or accidentally firing real guns are nothing new today. Just early this year, two-eight-year-old boys uncovered a gun and fired into the playground (see Pierce & Stoltz, 2009).
The fifth statement of this assignment is brief but very meaningful and insightful. It simply says, "Don't just stand there…do something."
I have learned that to some extent the issue of media violence and children exposure to them has become mundane to most of us.…… [Read More]
Personality: Behavior, Thoughts, Motives, and Emotions That Characterize a Person
Personality: a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives and emotions that characterizes an individual.
Psychologists use a variety of tests to determine and study a vast number of personality traits among groups of people. They've found that although everyone exhibits five to ten central traits that determine how we react to different people and various situations, not all traits carry the same weight in their importance in someone's life. (Where you might fear speaking in front of a crowd, for example, I may find it invigorating and fun.) We all have secondary traits, too (food preferences, for example, or how we feel about a style of dress), but these aren't as stable as the central traits. Although secondary traits can change as we mature and grow, central traits generally stick with us our entire lives. The central…… [Read More]
The major reason for building leadership training for employee is to drive up the business excellence in both the operations and a goal achievement. Since itz Carlton has built passion for excellence, the company builds approach for senior leaders to lead the organization effectively. As the method to enhance leading style within the organization, the hotel implements Gold standard to reinforce senior executive. The technique includes:
Providing a unique orientation standard for the senior executive
Daily line up meeting
Positive and negative einforcement
The itz Carlton makes the approach plan to develop senior leaders to increase the satisfaction of the guests. Apart of the leading strategy, the Ladies and Gentlemen are well informed on what are they are supposed to do in order to improve the services of the organization. Using the brand awareness, the hotel has been able to stay at the top…… [Read More]
Neo-behaviorism and Classical S-R Behaviorism
Behaviorism is regarded as an approach in the field of psychology that emphasizes the significant role of environmental factors in shaping people’s behavior. This approach of psychology emphasizes that environmental factors influence behavior more than intrinsic or genetic factors. Based on this school of thought, all behaviors are influenced by interactions with the environment and therefore focuses on stimulus-response behaviors. The behaviorist movement has attracted several varying perspectives among different psychologists including John Watson’s classical S-R behaviorism. Classical S-R behaviorism is an approach that postulates that all psychological functions can be explained through observable, overt, and measurable muscular movements, nerve impulses, and glandular secretions (Moore, 2011).
However, classical S-R behaviorism has attracted considerable criticism from various psychologists on the premise that it’s insufficient to account for the wide range of human behavior. One of the major criticisms of classical S-R behaviorism is from Edward C.…… [Read More]
An early influence on Gestalt psychology was the philosopher Immanuel Kant, who stressed that humans do not perceive the world as it is. Rather, they impose cause and effect relationships on it and therefore our perceptions are influenced by their experiences. Max Wertheimer was the strongest proponent of this approach. Gestalt psychology greatly declined when Nazis came to power in Germany and many scholars were forced to flee. In the United States, behaviorism was too strong to overcome, and many of its ideas were in opposition to Gestalt beliefs.
Humanistic therapy overlaps with CBT and both are very common in today's society. It emphasizes the growth and fulfillment of the self or self-actualization through self-mastery, self-examination and creative expression. Although the influences of the unconscious and society are taken into account, freedom of choice in creating one's experience is essential and is often referred to as self-determination. A humanistic therapist…… [Read More]
lessons observed varied depending on the school. In high school, the aims were to learn about the history of art, whereas in younger grades such as elementary and early middle school years, the aim was explorative creativity and self-expression.
Common Core Standards addressed: The National Core Art Standards (2015) were addressed including "generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work," "organize and develop artistic ideas and work," and "refine and complete artistic work."
The instructional strategies used included dialogue, coaching in the use of art supplies and materials in the younger grades, and engaging in discussions about art among the high school students.
The methods of assignments used included creative expression in elementary art classes, as well as written and oral presentations.
Teachers engaged students and fostered critical thinking via asking questions and allowing students to respond.
An educational theory that was put into practice is Gardner's (2011) theory of multiple…… [Read More]
The popularized Skinnerian position concerning the inadequacy of punishment in suppressing "instrumental" behaviour is, if correct at all, only conditionally correct."
Still other researchers such as aron (1977) state that punishment can work under certain conditions: "(a) if you can punish almost every time, (b) punish immediately, - punish in socially acceptable ways, and (d) do not punish harshly or become overly angry." Regardless of scientific evidence or suspected measures that would make punishment more effective, the intent of punishment in Reinforcement Theory is to suppress inappropriate behavior, not to solve underlying problems. Considering the scope of the application of punishment, it is, in many instances, neither practical nor desirable to replace punishment with a rewards system. Crime is an obvious example. True, suppression may only be short-term with punishment as the only redress, but this is why the length of the prison sentence is designed to match the severity…… [Read More]
Charlie Fineman who is played by actor Adam Sandler in the 2007 movie Reign Over Me, is a man who, following the 9/11 attacks, has lost his wife and daughters. Unable to confront the trauma consciously, he develops an unusual behavior, choosing to cut himself off from the life he used to know before the tragic events occurred. He becomes withdrawn and non-communicative, his behavior reflecting a vegetative state. He feels unable to let go of the past and develops an obsessive, non-dangerous attachment that determines him to remodel his kitchen regularly. Because of the last words he had said to his wife, remodeling the kitchen became Fineman's response to the guilt he was feeling. He thus developed a survivor's guilt to which he responded. He also cannot respond positively to social interactions because he has implanted himself with the belief that people would only remind him of the loss…… [Read More]
The nature vs. nurture debate is over whether an individual learns behaviors from their environment (nurture) or whether an individual is born with certain genetic traits and predispositions toward certain behaviors. Today, most developmental psychologists believe that nurture enhances nature: that while biology is important, environment probably trumps biology in most cases. One developmental process that can be explained by both genetics and environment is gender identity. Biology does affect certain aspects of gender and sexuality but environment and conditioning are very important factors in the development of an individual's gender identity.
4. How do maternal nutrition and alcohol use potentially affect the health of a fetus?
The heath of a fetus is directly related to maternal nutrition and fetal development is hindered by malnutrition or use of alcohol. Excess drinking by the mother can cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which may cause birth defects, mental health problems and hyperactivity in…… [Read More]
respondent behavior and operant behavior, and give a real-Life example of each.
Operant behaviour encompasses the actions of an individual that are purposefully driven to produce a desired effect. Examples of operant behavior would include a driver pushing the gas pedal in a car to produce a faster speed and giving a child a much-desired gift with the expectation of seeing the child's glee in response. Respondent behavior encompasses the actions of an individual that are not purposefully driven but are nonetheless actions that result from external stimulation. These types of behaviours are frequently referred to as reflexes as they are involuntary responses to an environmental stimuli. Examples of respondent behavior include an individual's yelp of pain when he or she hits his or her finger with a hammer or when an individual involuntarily closes his or her eyes when he or she sneezes.
Distinguish between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement,…… [Read More]
Latent learning; this is the type of learning that takes place oblivious of the reinforcements that are applied though these reinforcements can be useful later on in the process of learning. It is the education that is instantly expressed in a response that is obvious. Here, an organism may be learning but the information learnt is not instantly expressed (obert Jensen, 2006). For instance, a child may watch the elders set the table and they may not instantly set the table but will store that knowledge and information till the day and time that they will need it.
Insight learning; this is the understanding that one has even without much effort or many trials and errors. This type of learning allows the person to be able to form associations between events and objects that can help them solve new challenges that may come their way (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011 ). This…… [Read More]
Provide an example of something you learned through positive reinforcement; provide an example of something you learned through negative reinforcement.
Through positive reinforcement, I learned how to throw a ball. My father taught me in the backyard, and the farther I threw it, the more he told me I had done a 'good job.' I learned through negative reinforcement not to breathe through my nose while swimming -- every time I breathed incorrectly, I would always choke on the water, which made me extremely aware of how I was breathing.
Provide an example (and the steps involved) of something you can teach a child or a pet through shaping.
You can housebreak a puppy through shaping. First, you keep the puppy in a crate because it does not want to soil its den, and only let it out of the crate when you can observe the puppy. When the puppy…… [Read More]
cognitive psychology, learning theories are significant in both their variety and the different ways in which researchers approach "knowing." Within the sphere of cognitive psychology the cognitive learning theory is among the most popular areas of study. The cognitive learning theory suggests that learning is a behavioral change based on the acquisition of information about the environment. Bandura (1986) suggested that what individuals think and feel about themselves necessarily impacts subsequent individual behaviors. As a theory of learning, social cognitive theory is based on the notion that individual's learn by watching others perform and that the internal thought processes people have are critical for a proper understanding of the individual (Santrock, 2008).
The two theories I choose to research for this assignment are Albert Bandura's observational learning theory and B.F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. While both theories involve theories of learning, the differences between the two theories are significant.…… [Read More]
Consumer Behavior for Marketing
Understanding Consumer Behavior
Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…… [Read More]
Posche Case Analysis
The intent of this case analysis is to evaluate the buye decision pocess the typical Posche custome undetakes when seaching fo a new high-pefomance spots ca. The Posche spots ca enthusiasts' decision pocess is significantly diffeent than that of the Cayenne and Panamea customes, and these diffeences will be discussed. The factos that contibuted to Posche selling significantly moe lowe-piced models in the 1970s and 1980s is also analyzed. An explanation of the positive and negative attitudes towads bands like Posche is povided, in addition to the ole the Posche band plays in the self-concept of buyes.
Analyzing the Decision Pocess of the Posche Custome
The coe custome base of Posche has a self-concept of being exceptional in evey aea of thei lives, fom thei ability to set and supass vey challenging objectives, to thei ability to ean above-aveage incomes and have exceptional lifestyles as a esult.…… [Read More]
Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.
Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.
Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.
Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.
Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.
Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…… [Read More]
Above all, there is the need for a responsive and supportive instructor who is genuinely interested in assisting the students get to their learning goals in the short-term and their broader objectives in the long-term. All of these strategies are discussed in the article to minimize the probability of students quitting the programs. The Rochester nstitute of Technology's staff specifically sees the first few weeks as critical in the development of a commitment to completing online learning courses.
Response and Reaction to Article
n the article analyzed (McClure), the insights provide a glimpse into how critical it is to have change management strategies in place for getting online students to become committed to online programs. nstead of relying purely on technology alone and celebrating it, the article provides a glimpse into how difficult it is for institutions to get students to take ownership and accountability of online courses. What is…… [Read More]
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]
Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities
The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…… [Read More]
Class room management holds extreme importance in the process of teaching. It is mandatory for a teacher to manage her class effectively in order to achieve her predetermined instructional goals. 'Successful classroom management involves much more than rules and discipline. Indeed research into classroom management demonstrates that effective teachers are proactive about student behavior, and they involve students in the process of establishing and maintaining rules and routines'. (Strong, 2007)
An effective instructional is dependent on various factors, and a properly managed classroom is definitely one of those factors. There is no way that a teacher can achieve her desire objective, if the process of teaching is taking place in a poorly managed classroom. A properly managed classroom along with attractive materials can definitely attract the attention of students and involve them in the process of learning. Management of classroom is also important to avoid any unnecessary wastage…… [Read More]
Finally, the third category of needs is given by power - or the individuals who wish to have control; they have a small interest in what other people think of them and only desire their obedience.
E: Example: An individual driven by affiliation needs will not make major decisions on his own, but will always consult with his loved ones to get their opinion and approval. A power driven individual on the other hand will make those decisions on his own mostly because he can and this once again assures him of his power.
Skinner's Reinforcement Theory
T: Topic sentence: Skinner's theory identifies four types of responses that could be implemented by a higher power relative to the behavior of a subaltern.
E: Explain what that is: The first possible response would be a positive reinforcement which encourages the individual to continue; the second is negative reinforcement which encourages the…… [Read More]
The "Theories At A Glance" manual discussed a variety of healthy behaviors. Select two theories that can be used to explain why people behave the way they do. Discuss the basic premise and constructs of the theories you choose. Cite two examples of how each theory could be used to explain a health behavior.
Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)
The relationship that exists between behavior and attitudes, beliefs and intention is studied under TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior). TA (Theory of easoned Action) is also associated with TPB. According to TA and TPB, behavior is mainly determined by behavioral intention. These models show that the attitude of an individual affects behavioral intention. Hence, the behavior of a person towards the performance of some particular behavior is also influenced. In addition to this, beliefs concerning individuals who have close association (these people have the decision making power of approving…… [Read More]
Knowledge, Skill and attitude:
The objectives of training include enhancement of knowledge, skills and attitude. Knowledge is the body of facts and principles accumulated my mankind in course of time. It is a complex of several related ideas. According to a working definition, knowledge is the matrix of impressions within which the individual situates newly acquired information (Clarke, 2001). From a business perspective, knowledge supports people to analyze situations, make judgments and take decisions, in the process telling what is to done, why, how, where, when and who should perform the actions towards achieving organizational goals. Skill is the ability to transform knowledge into action; it refers to the ability of people to use knowledge effectively and readily to perform desired actions and specific tasks. Skill is also defined as the ability to do something well from talent, training or practice.
The essential difference is that knowledge is to…… [Read More]
For instance a child performs poorly in examination and the parent decides to withdraw his promise to take the child to the zoo during the holiday.
Positive punishment; it is a process by which stimulus is immediately added after a specific behavior so that future frequency of the behavior is decreased. A good example is of a pick pocket is taken to prison and subjected to learning of a given artwork so that when he comes out of prison he can make his own money through the artwork learned.
Negative punishment; it is a process by which stimulus is removed immediately after a given behavior so that future frequency of that behavior is decreased. Example is when a student performs poorly in class and the parent decides to cut down the student pocket money, the pocket money acts as the stimulant that has been removed hence a negative punishment.
The…… [Read More]
Employee Satisfaction with a Company's Review Process
The following research examines the reason for a decline in employee satisfaction regarding the review process at XYZ, Inc. The results of the survey revealed that sample biases may have confounded the results and that the survey will have to be re-administered to reflect the true attitudes and results of the preliminary research leading up to the current survey. The result showed a high degree of satisfaction with the quality and quantity of management feedback. The results of this survey are inconclusive and further research will need to be conducted to eliminate the possible effects of sample bias.
Delimitations (See Leedy)
A. Literature Review
C. General Management Issues
D. Project Related Issues
F. Definition of Terms
H. Project Submission…… [Read More]
A child can learn that pressing a button on remote changes a channel on a television set. The experiment used two set of participants where one set learnt from a machine while the others learnt from a human participant. It was evident that the use of a ghost machine yielded better results compared to the use of a participant (Nairne, 2011).
The method used to learn how observational learning influences children will be the use of questionnaires. Short questionnaires will be sent to twenty baby care centers to evaluate the observational learning skills possessed by the caregivers. The questionnaires will be filled by the participants using three main methods. Centers that are a long distance from researcher's location will be provided with the questionnaires through emails. Centers where the care giver is busy will be called when convenient and the questionnaire filled through a telephone conversation. Centers that are…… [Read More]
From Skinner's perspective, Jane's abusive relationships with men are the result of being 'rewarded' for being stereotypically vulnerable or flirtatious in a feminine fashion: only by acting this way is she not beaten and rewarded with compliance from men. The causes of Jane's behavior are positive reinforcement for sexual behaviors and negative reinforcement for independence in the form of physical punishment. This pattern will continue throughout Jane's life, unless she is de-conditioned from such a behavior pattern. A therapist would try to find a new, alternative system of rewards for Jane, such as encouraging her to seek out an education, where she would be rewarded for qualities other than submissiveness and sexuality.
Neuroscience & biology
From a more physiologically-driven perspective, a therapist might see Jane's and her father's behaviors as a result of a chemical imbalance, such as a deficit or excess of certain neurotransmitters, like dopamine or serotonin. The…… [Read More]