Positive And Negative Reinforcement Essays (Examples)

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Positive & Negative Reinforcements Reinforcement

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46900341

It could be as simple as a high-five, pat on the back, praise, a kiss, or a hug. It could also be simple words and actions that could make her mom feel needed around the house since being needed gives the person a feel of being important -- a form of favorable stimulus.

To strengthen the independent behavior, Dorothy may choose to remove the aversive stimulus in her mom's environment. If it irritates Dorothy's mom to be looked over most of the day (aversive stimulus in this case) because it reminds her of her disability, she could be allowed to spend the whole afternoon by herself if she was able to go to the bathroom on her own. Her mom can also be allowed to skip a chore she dislikes, such as feeding the dogs (aversive stimulus in this case), if she was able to prepare their breakfast all by…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Santrock, J.W. (2005). Psychology (7th Ed.). McGraw Hill: New York.
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Psychology - Reinforcement Applying Positive

Words: 805 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56790141



Specific Application of Negative Reinforcement:

Dorothy could also use negative reinforcement to encourage her mother's effort at becoming more independent. For example, if Dorothy's mother strongly dislikes the type of music that Dorothy listens to at home, Dorothy could immediately turn off her music to reward her mother for every instance in which she came downstairs from her bedroom.

Just as in the case of positive reinforcement, the removal of a stimulus perceived by the subject as unpleasant, (such as rock music), this form of negative reward would work whether or not Dorothy provided the reward in conjunction with and explicit acknowledging that it was a specific reward for her mother's efforts.

Likewise, just as in the case of positive reward, the negative reward would probably work much faster if Dorothy does acknowledge that her extra consideration of her mother's likes and dislikes corresponds directly to her appreciating her mother's…… [Read More]

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Learning Reinforcement for Learning to Effectively Take

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81873442

Learning Reinforcement

For learning to effectively take place, a number of concepts must be brought together and these include but are not in any way limited to environmental, emotional as well as cognitive influences. One of the most prominent learning theories is the social learning theory whose fronting was most prominently done by Albert andura amongst others.

The Social Learning Theory

The social learning theory is founded on the view that most learning is undertaken within the social context. However, according to Ronald L. Akers, the social learning theory must not only be taken to be a theory of peer influence.

With that in mind, the key concepts in this case include; modeling, imitation as well as observational learning. The social learning theory has four basic principles with the first principle stating that most of the learning is informed by an observation of behavior. Here, the reasoning is that the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Akers, Ronald. Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. Transaction Publishers, 2009

Griffin, Ricky Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Cengage Learning, 2009

Sarafino, Edward. Self-Management: Using Behavioral and Cognitive Principles to Manage Your Life. John Wiley and Sons, 2010

Ronald Akers, Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance (Transaction Publishers, 2009), 25.
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Inappropriate Use of the Terms Noncontingent Reinforcement and Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors

Words: 1609 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80593113

Inappropriate use of the terms "noncontingent reinforcement" and "differential reinforcement of other behaviors"

Shakespeare would not have anticipated this issue -- labels for procedures when he wrote "What is in a name, a rose with any other would smell as sweet." The controversy is not about the effect of the procedure but rather relates to if the applied behavior analysis on the use of the terms 'noncontingent reinforcement' -- NC and 'differential reinforcement of other behaviors' -- DO are appropriate and the definitions of the process. The irony is that there is no dispute in the effectiveness of the processes but if the use of the terms is confusing and if the definition of reinforcement is contingent on behavior. The question then is if the issue will be dead and if it can be shown that an alternate name may clear the confusion especially with regard to the term 'contingent…… [Read More]

References

Carr, James E; Severtson, Jamie M. (2005) "On the Appropriateness of the Term

"Noncontingent Reinforcement" European Journal Of Behavior Analysis, vol. 21, no. 6, pp: 21 -- 24.

Kodak, Tiffany; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Romaniuk, Cathryn. (2003) "A comparison of differential reinforcement And Noncontingent Reinforcement For The Treatment Of A Child's multiply Controlled Problem behavior Behavioral Interventions" Behav. Intervent, vol. 18, no, 1: 267 -- 278.

Poling, Alan; Normand, Matthew. (1999) "Noncontingent Reinforcement:An Inappropriate
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Expectation and Reinforcement Theory Expectancy

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21389769

The employees will alter their behavior accordingly, depending on which behavior they feel will have the most positive outcome.

Clearly the correct course of action for the company is to amend the reinforcement mechanisms. This can be done either through positive reinforcement or negative. Passing the course is mandatory, but passing the first time could receive a reward. The company could also reduce the benefit of taking the course. It probably will need to be paid time, but the company could avoid running the course at a nice hotel, instead using normal meeting rooms that do not convey any sense of reward. Make the course as horrible as possible so that employees will want to pass it as quickly as possible.

As well, the company could use negative reinforcement mechanisms. Employees could be punished for failing to pass the course the first time. There are legal limits as to what…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Glass, M. (2010). How can managers use reinforcement theory to motivate employees? Houston Chronicle. Retrieved September 26, 2011 from  http://smallbusiness.chron.com/can-managers-use-reinforcement-theory-motivate-employees-18559.html 

Mathibe, I. (2010). Expectancy theory and its implications for employee motivation. Academic Leadership: The Online Journal. Vol. 6 (3) Retrieved September 26, 2011 from http://www.academicleadership.org/article/expectancy-theory-and-its-implications-for-employee-motivation
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Positive Effects of Taking Vitamins

Words: 2458 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12787912

For instance, British researchers of late administered natural Vitamin E supplements at the rate of 40-800 IU daily to men and women who had suffered a heart attack. Following an average of eighteen months, people who got Vitamin E were seen to have 77% less heart attacks compared to those given a dummy tablet. An additional example can be taken of Abram Hoffer, MD, PhD of Victoria, Canada who has been treating terminal cases of cancer with a severe potency vitamin/mineral regimen. He began performing this several years back to treat their depression and tension associated with the diagnosis of cancer. He observed that 30% of the patients in early states who were long-term users of vitamin supplements have survived ten-year more than comparable patients who were given solely conventional treatment which is a stupendous success. Hence the message drives home that vitamins can reverse cases of very serious diseases.…… [Read More]

References

Challem, Jack. User's Guide to Nutritional Supplements. Basic Health Publications, Inc.

Cheraskin, E. The Health of the Naturopath: Vitamin Supplementation and Psychologic State.  http://www.doctoryourself.com/cheraskin_naturopath.html 

Dharmananda, Subhuti. Do herbs, Vitamins and antioxidants adversely affect cancer therapies.  http://www.itmonline.org/arts/antioxidants.htm 

Icheku, Vincent. Degenerative Diseases of Ageing: Causes and Prevention. De-Ichekus (UK)
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Instrumental Conditioning

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48791288

Instrumental Conditioning

One of the key principals in psychology is instrumental conditioning. This is when punishment or reinforcement is utilized to encourage the subject to engage in particular types of behavior. The basic idea behind this approach is to increase the chances that a specific kind of action will take place in the future. Once this happens, is when there can be a transformation in how the subject is reacting to the stimuli that they will see, hear or feel. (Cherry, 2011) This is significant, because it is showing how this is utilized as a basic strategy to subtly change the way someone is responding to various events. To fully understand this technique we will examine how this kind of conditioning is used by someone who is learning to ride a bike. This will be accomplished by: comparing positive / negative reinforcement that relate to the situation, examining the role…… [Read More]

References

Classical and Operant Conditioning. (2011). All Psych. Retrieved from: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/conditioning.html

Conditioned Responses. (2009). Emotional Competency. Retrieved from:  http://www.emotionalcompetency.com/conditioned.htm 

Cherry, K. (2011). What is Instrumental Conditioning. About.com. Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/operantconditioning/f/instrumental-conditioning.htm

Robbins, A. (1992). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
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Instrumental Conditioning A Description of

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77270022

(Kimble; Hilgad; Maquis, 1961)

(c) Explain the ole of ewad and punishment in you selected leaning situation of 'How to ide a Bike'

A lot of avesive events ae thee inclusive of withholding einfocement i.e. extinction, emoving a positive einfoces i.e. esponse cost and pesenting an avesive event contingent on a behavio i.e. punishment. The same vaiables that influence the effectiveness of einfocement also influence the effectiveness of punishment, inclusive of the immediacy with which a negative event follows a behavio, the intensity of the event, and the schedule of punishment. It is impotant to compehend that punishment constitute an inescapable aspect of life which individuals tend to lean though both punishing consequences and positive consequences. Fo instance in the selected leaning situation of how to ide a bike, if the leane is not watching whee he is going, he will sustain a fall which is a punishment fo him.…… [Read More]

reference: core for occupation-based practice" SLACK Incorporated.

Dworkin, Barry R. (1993) "Learning and psychological regulation"

Gambrill, Eileen D. (2006) "Social Work Practice: A critical thinker's guide"

Kimble, Gregory A; Hilgard, Ernest Ropiequet; Marquis, Donald George. (1961) "Hilgard

and Marquis' Conditioning and Learning." Appleton-Century-Crofts: New York
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Motivation of Behavior

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28858537

Motivation in Behavior

a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?

Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Leaf, J.B. et al. (2010). "Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and No-No Prompting in Two-Choice Discrimination Learning with Children with Autism." Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, No. 2 (Summer 2010), pp. 215-28.

Lerner, R.M. (2002). Concepts and Theories of Human Development, (3rd ed.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Lund, S.K. (2009). "Discrete Trial Instruction in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention" in E.A. Boutot and M. Tincani (eds). Autism Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorders. Prufrock Press, Inc.

Hergenhahn, B.R. (2009). An Introduction to the History of Psychology, (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
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Read and Complete Appendix's

Words: 472 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33137324

Extinguishing the behavior through negative reinforcement

Differential reinforcement of high-rate behaviors: positive reinforcement of desired behaviors

Antecedent: The teacher asks the student to clean up the cafeteria tables.

Behavior: The student is disrespectful and kicks over a garbage can.

Consequence: The student is given a 'time out' in the classroom with his head down.

Negative reinforcement of problem behavior

Unintended consequence: Defiant student gets to leave and not clean up classroom.

Antecedent: Teacher is not paying attention to Alicia and is helping another student with an assignment.

Behavior: Alicia tries to get the teachers' attention by banging on the metal chair with her heels.

Consequence: Teacher reprimands Alicia.

Negative reinforcement

Unintended consequence: Alicia gets teacher's attention, and some attention is better than no attention at all for Alicia.

Antecedent: Brandon is asked to stay at his desk and finish his work before leaving.

Behavior: Brandon defies the teacher and leaves…… [Read More]

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Ethical Concern That May Arise When Using the Above Methods

Words: 787 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57801380

Psychology Concepts

Psychology is a term derived from two Greek words that translate to life explanation, which makes it an important element of daily life. The field of psychology can be described as a discipline that focuses on the study of mind and behavior (Stangor, 2010, p.7). This discipline is characterized by several concepts and approaches that are used by psychologists in understanding human behavior. Since psychology is a broad field, psychologists not only use these concepts and approaches but also conduct scientific research that enables them to understand human behavior. Some of the most common psychological concepts that are used to modify or change an individual's behavior include operant conditioning, positive and negative punishment, and positive and negative reinforcement.

Operant condition can be described as a learning method that is used to modify or change a person's behavior through experiences and consequences. While it is part of the process…… [Read More]

Reference:

Stangor, C. (2010). Introduction to psychology. Washington, DC: Flat World Knowledge, L.L.C.
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Of Learning

Words: 574 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94066342

Strengthening a desirable behavior in someone can be a challenging experience. The use of psychological theories about learning may help make for a quicker and more effective instructional process. Therefore, adopting these principles in strengthening study skills is more likely to result in positive outcome.

Activity: Increasing study skills

Developing and improving study skills is a gradual and long-term process. This program will incorporate the following skills.

Time management

Effective reading of academic texts

Note taking

Development of academic writing style

Revising and sitting examinations

There will be mentoring of these activities through supervision. Supervision will take the form of checking class activities and assignments as well as oral interviews. This will be done after introduction of the skills. There will also be assessment method featuring periodic continuous assessment tests. The monitoring and assessment will incorporate the use positive and negative reinforcement.

Positive reinforcement

Shaping: as one of the monitoring…… [Read More]

On the other hand, one way of guarding against punishment is to reward for good behavior. Religious organizations are proponents of this notion that there is a reward for good deeds. Most of the religions believe in glorious life in paradise after death as a reward for good deeds while still alive. This has greatly resulted to reduced criminal and sinful activity within religious communities.

Reference

Ito, M., & Kiyoko, N. (1999). Humans' Choice In A Self-Control Choice Situation: Sensitivity To Reinforcer Amount, Reinforcer Delay, And Overall Reinforcement Density. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 87 -- 102.
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Skills for Business Leadership Executive

Words: 3879 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56409084

" Nevertheless, the research to date indicates that participative management techniques can provide a major return on the investment. According to Angermeier, Dunford and Boss (2009, p. 127), "Employee perceptions of the extent to which their work climate is participative rather than authoritarian have important implications for critical work attitudes and behavior."

The research to date has confirmed that employees in highly participative work environments outperformed their counterparts in nonparticipative management organizations (Angermeier et al. 2009). For example, a study by Angermeier and his associates found that employees working in participative management settings provided 14% better customer service, committed 26% fewer clinical errors, demonstrated 79% lower burnout, and were 61% less likely to leave the organization than employees in more authoritarian work environment. According to Angermeier et al. (2009, p. 128), "These findings suggest that participative management initiatives have a significant impact on the commitment and productivity of individual employees."…… [Read More]

References

Angermeier, I, Dunford, BB & Boss, AD 2009, March-April, 'The Impact of Participative

Management Perceptions on Customer Service, Medical Errors, Burnout, and Turnover

Intentions,' Journal of Healthcare Management, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 127-134.

Biech, E 2001, the Pfeiffer Book of Successful Team-Building Tools: Best of the Annuals. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
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Philosophies Regarding Ways of Teaching and Properly

Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42331370

philosophies regarding ways of teaching and properly inducing learning in students. Not all of these methodologies, however, are congruent with one another. Thus, it is best for a student of education, especially one who is preparing to enter the professional field as a teacher, to develop his or her own particular ideology regarding the style of teaching that he or she will attempt to incorporate. Doing so will not only draw from such an individual's own personal experience, but also from the knowledge and abundance of literature on this subject previously denoted by other noteworthy professionals within this field. By amalgamating these concepts, it is possible for a potential teacher to readily identify his or her core beliefs and translate them into a style of pedagogy which will ultimately provide benefits to students. After a careful consideration of my personal cosmology and worldview, as well as aspects of educational philosophy,…… [Read More]

References

Behav, A. (2006). On the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ . Retrieved from
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Existential Therapists State That All

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63461143



Q4. Depressed patients, when they note their mood is worsening, should record in an automatic thought log the date and time of the thought, the situation, the automatic thoughts, their emotions, the adaptive responses they use and the outcome. This helps the client understand the frequency by which they are plagued with depressive thoughts, what situations provoke such moods, the type of (usually irrational) thinking processes that lead to the depressed mood, and how well they coped with the mood. The therapist can gain a sense of the degree to which the client is depressed, the client's coping mechanisms, and the degree to which the depressive stimulus is irrational (such as feeling rejected by a friend when the friend does not call) or real (a chronically ill parent at home).

Q5. Behavioral therapy can be problematic, given that different cultures reinforce different behavioral norms, and a child from a bicultural…… [Read More]

References

Automatic thought record. Template available November 20, 2010 at http://students.georgiasouthern.edu/counseling/relax/ATR.pdf

Piotrowski, Nancy a. (2003, January). Gestalt therapy. Magill's encyclopedia of social science:

Psychology. University of California, Berkeley. Available November 20, 2010 at http://salempress.com/store/samples/magills_encyclopedia_of_social_science_psych/magills_encyclopedia_of_social_science_psych_gestalt.htm
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American and Japanese Early Childhood

Words: 14069 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63412707

Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.

Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.

Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.

Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.

Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.

Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
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Psychology Learning Outcome the Best Method for

Words: 5136 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78750258

Psychology

Learning Outcome

The best method for conducting the study would involve the use of a case study. Since this would be a group, setting, the case study method would allow the researcher to conduct in-depth investigations. Case studies offer the researcher an opportunity to use various data gathering sources like interviews, and observations (Halligan & Marshall, 2013). In order for the researcher to conduct an in-depth study of the subjects, the case study would offer an effective method for data gathering. The researcher would manage to immerse him/herself into the group or could make observations as the participants attend their quit smoking classes. Being a participant would allow the other participants to open up to the researcher more easily. Since the classes mostly consist of around 20 people, this makes it a small number and easy for the researcher to deal with. A case study method would ensure that…… [Read More]

References

Everly, J.B., Holtyn, A.F., & Perone, M. (2014). Behavioral functions of stimuli signaling transitions across rich and lean schedules of reinforcement. Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior, 101(2), 201-214.

Graham, S., & Folkes, V.S. (2014). Attribution theory: Applications to achievement, mental health, and interpersonal conflict. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Halligan, P.W., & Marshall, J.C. (2013). Method in madness: Case studies in cognitive neuropsychiatry. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Huitema, B. (2011). The analysis of covariance and alternatives: Statistical methods for experiments, quasi-experiments, and single-case studies (Vol. 608). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
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Psychology First of All a

Words: 2432 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70728439

The fact that getting back into these activities will remove the negative reinforcement of somebody else doing her job around the house might change her behavior and get her to move around much faster.

As previously mentioned, all of these things that were mentioned are decided by an evaluation and a decision of the things that still motivate Dorothy's mother, assuming that she has not reached an age where she is indifferent about things. Dorothy can promise, as positive reinforcements, small gifts as well, such as books or music, which can grow in importance and value once the willingness to become independent again starts manifesting with Dorothy's mother. Some of the negative reinforcements will simply include things like removing some of the bitter medicine from the list of medicines that needs to be taken under all conditions.

Question

There are several situations or conditions when punishment will fail to enforce…… [Read More]

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Organizational Behavior and Teamwork

Words: 9355 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50662786

Management

Organizational Behavior and Teamwork

CASE ASSIGNMENT

Southwest Airlines, Inc. has become an example of notable success. One reason for its significant achievement is its application of Reinforcement Theory to its employees. These applications have resulted in a highly motivated workforce, which is intimately tied to Southwest's success among business leaders. Even so, not even Southwest can satisfy its employees' needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy; rather, Southwest can only give some raw materials for satisfying those needs.

Are Southwest Airlines Inc. leadership and policies fulfilling Maslow's Needs Theory stages?

Abraham Maslow's 5-stage needs theory, developed in the United States during the 1940's and 1950's (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010), includes the following stages: biological and physiological needs; safety needs; belongingness and love needs; esteem needs; and self-actualization (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010). The most basic needs that are basic to survival and are at the bottom…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/careers/career_opportunities.html

Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Sustainability. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/index.html

Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. (2010). Organizational behavior. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from students.flatworldknowledge.com Web site: http://students.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/study/4?e=

IWon. (n.d.). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www1.iwon.com Web site: http://www1.iwon.com/home/careers/company_profile/0,15623,1310,00.html
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State of Learning Disabilities

Words: 2561 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9838806

memory, classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. The paper also describes the effect of diversity issues on the learning process. In addition to that, the paper also summarizes the psychiatric disorders and their effect on learning and memorizing process. Lastly, the paper gives a comparison between various behavioral counseling approaches.

THEOIES OF LEANING AND MEMOY

Learning is an important topic in the field of psychology. Learning refers to a permanent change in the behavior and attitude of a person. The reason behind this change is experience and thus maturation or illness has nothing to do with it. This definition of learning as a permanent change and therefore it eliminates the temporary mood swings and illnesses from it. In this paper, we will be focusing on two types of learning: (Wood, 2010)

Classical Conditioning

Instrumental Conditioning (Wood, 2010)

Classical Conditioning

There are a lot of visuals and sounds that trigger certain emotions…… [Read More]

References

Cassidy*, S. (2004). Learning styles: An overview of theories, models, and measures. Educational Psychology, 24(4), 419 -- 444.

Cortiella, C., & Horowitz, S. (2014). The State of Learning Disabilities (1st ed., pp. 3-5). New York: National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.ncld.org/images/content/files/stateofld2014/2014%20State%20of%20LD%20FINAL%20FOR%20RELEASE.pdf

Lutz, S., & Huitt, W. (2003). Information Processing and Memory: Theory and Applications (1st ed., pp. 1-5). Valdosta: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from  http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/papers/infoproc.pdf 

Nelson-Jones, R. (2011). Theory and practice of counselling and therapy (1st ed., pp. 1-3). Los Angeles, Calif.; London: SAGE.
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Axelrod M I & Zank A J 2012 Increasing

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26413880

Axelrod, M.I., & Zank, A.J. (2012). Increasing classroom compliance: Using a high-Probability command sequence with noncompliant students. Journal of Behavioral Education, 21(2), 119-133.

Noncompliance or the failure to complete an assignment/instruction is a problematic behavior within the school system and can result in several counterproductive outcomes for students such as poor learning, friction in the classroom, disruptive behaviors, etc. Previous research has indicated that giving a high probability command sequence prior to a low probability request has been shown to increase compliance in difficult students. High probability command sequences (HPC) are simple commands which an individual is very likely to comply with. The researchers were interested in determining if using HPCs before giving low probability requests would also increase compliance in students in special education classes or with behavioral disorders. Two special education students were tested in this study. After developing a list of HPCs and low probability commands (LPC)…… [Read More]

References

Axelrod, M.I., & Zank, A.J. (2012). Increasing classroom compliance: Using a high-probability command sequence with noncompliant students. Journal of Behavioral Education, 21(2), 119-133.

Bryan, J., Day-Vines, N.L., Griffin, D., & Moore-Thomas, C. (2012). The disproportionality dilemma: Patterns of teacher referrals to school counselors for disruptive behavior. Journal of Counseling & Development, 90(2), 177-190.

Clees, T.J., & Greene, E.B. (2014). Discriminative Stimulus Social Skills Training: The Effects

of Video-based Exemplars of Teacher Requests on the Compliance of Students with Behavioral Disorders. Journal of Special Education Technology, 29(2), 1-17.
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behaviorism as a'separate'school of thought

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19430443

Question 1

All the early pioneers of behaviorism including Watson were important to the development of psychology as a social science (Moore, 2011). In fact, Watson deserves the most credit for being the first person to propose behaviorism as a science, using the tools of the scientific method to measure human behavior. However, human behavior is remarkably complex and Watson’s early research failed to capture the nuances of human cognitive-behavioral responses. Pavlov built upon Watson’s foundation, and is probably the most famous of all the pioneering behaviorists. Pavlov’s famous dog experiments have become part of the common vernacular (Clark, 2004). Like Pavlov, B.F. Skinner focused on operant conditioning. However, Skinner took the entire concept of conditioning a step further by showing how stimuli could be manipulated to manipulate responses. Pavlov had yet to break free from the purely mechanistic methods of measuring human behavior. Skinner used behavioral research to show…… [Read More]

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Behavioral vs Freud's Psychoanalysis

Words: 1907 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57399492

Labor

ehavioral Therapy vs. Freud's Psychoanalysis

Amazing advances have been made in the treatment of mental illness throughout the years (Merck, 2004). An understanding of what causes some mental health disorders has resulted in a greater sophistication in customizing treatment to the underlying basis of specific disorders. Thus, many mental health disorders can now be treated almost as successfully as physical disorders.

Most treatment methods for mental health disorders are either categorized as somatic or psychotherapeutic (Merck, 2004). Somatic treatments include drug therapy and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapeutic treatments include individual, group, or family and marital psychotherapy; behavior therapy techniques; and hypnotherapy. There are many others, as well

Research reveals that for major mental health disorders, a treatment plan involving both drugs and psychotherapy is more effective than either treatment method on its own. This paper will discuss two treatment methods -- behavioral therapy and psychoanalysis -- in an effort to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Psychoanalytic Association (1998). About psychoanalysis. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.apsa.org/pubinfo/about.htm.

Beystehner, K. (1997). Psychoanalysis: Freud's Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality. Northwestern University. Retrieved from the Internet at:  http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/beystehner.html .

Guterman, J. (July 1996). Doing mental health counseling: A social constructionist re-vision. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. American Mental Health Counselors Association. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.jeffreyguterman.com/writing/solution.html.

HealthinMind.com. (2004). Individual Therapies. Retrieved from the Internet at:  http://healthinmind.com/english/individth.htm .
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Theory and Criminal Behavior

Words: 847 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25165465

Theories

Skinner's radical behaviorism has been used to provide explanations for a number of behavioral phenomenon including criminal behavior (Skinner, 1966). For instance, the crime of burglary offers an example of how antisocial behaviors are learned through reinforcement. Members of society that commonly engage in theft or burglary learn their trade via the reinforcing aspects of stealing. The need to steal may be initially activated by means of some form of need or desire to have material gain; however, for many individuals who habitually engage in thievery repeated stealing is positively reinforced by the tangible acquisition of goods provided by these activities. For many of these individuals this behavior is reinforced by the notion that it is easier to steal from others then to apply oneself, work hard, and take the chance on getting the lees than desired rewards. However, many habitual criminals actually put in as much effort into…… [Read More]

References

Andrews, D.A. & Hoge, R.D. (1999). The psychology of criminal conduct and principles of effective prevention and rehabilitation. Forum on Corrections Research. Special Edition. 12 -- 14. Retrieved on April 1, 2013 from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/pblct/forum/special/espe_b-eng.shtml

Bandura, A. (1977). Social leaning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime:Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.

Skinner, B.F. (1966). The phylogeny and ontogeny of behavior. Science, 153, 1204 -- 1213.
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Behavioral Theory Influence on Personality

Words: 1219 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83372965

In case a reinforcing stimulus does not ensue as a result of a behavior, the probability of a repetition of such a behavior decreases. Again, if a behavior is followed by an aversive stimulus, the probability of a repetition of such a behavior decreases. The removal of an aversive stimulus by an experimenter results in a negative reinforcement. If an aversive stimulus, which follows a certain type of behavior, is removed, the chance of repetition of such a behavior increases. The operant conditioning behavioral theory may find applications in the educational sphere for understanding and manipulating the behavior of students. However, it may not always be possible for teachers to determine positive and negative reinforcements for every situation or behavior. (Davis, 2006)

Another behaviorist whose theories added to the understanding of human behavior and how it influences personality was Albert Bandura. According to Bandura, people may learn new behavior by…… [Read More]

References

Boeree, C. George. (2006) "Alberta Bandura: 1925-Present" Retrieved 28 March,

2009 from  http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html 

Colarelli, Stephen M. (2003) "No best way"

Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Educational Theories for Pedagogues

Words: 1054 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80538058

Teaching Philosophy, Teaching Style

I teach in such a way that students can gain the tools and experience to help them successfully contribute to the world today. In that respect, my teaching philosophy is based on empowering students so that they are equipped to both have aspirations and fulfill them in a way that is socially productive. Subsequently, one of the fundamental characteristics of my teaching philosophy is to encourage students, and provide the sort of nurturing and positive reinforcement that fosters confidence and enables them to firstly believe in themselves and in their own abilities. Thus, there is a definite aspect of care and care ethics that actuates the way I teach. This principle is well aligned with my belief in positive reinforcement as one of the fundamental ways of bolstering the learning prowess of students through techniques such as constructive criticism. Additionally, I also attempt to teach in…… [Read More]

References

Behav, A. (2006). On the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ . Retrieved from
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Application of a Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students

Words: 60754 Length: 230 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60817292

Pedagogic Model to the Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students

Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of…… [Read More]

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the origins and types of behavioral therapy

Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32631060

Behavioral therapy has its roots in basic behaviorism, the principle that human behavior can be modified through systematic training or interventions. Since B.F. Skinner first laid the foundations for behaviorism through experimentation, the methods used in behavioral therapy have changed dramatically. Behavioral therapy, or behavior therapy, is not one but a variety of approaches that psychological counselors use to help clients change their behaviors. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) advocates the use of behavior therapy as an “effective treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),” (p. 1).

Behavior therapies are designed not just to change target behaviors but also to change the ways people feel about themselves and the world, which is why behavior therapy can improve self-esteem (Herkov, 2016). Some of the most common approaches to behavioral therapy fall under the rubric of cognitive-behavioral therapy, which is used in a variety of clinical settings. In fact, Craske…… [Read More]

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Skinner and Harlow to Investigating Influences on

Words: 786 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41877117

Skinner and Harlow to Investigating Influences on Behaviors.

One of the most common challenges for psychologists is: understanding the underlying motivations behind specific behavior. This is because there are a wide variety of theories that are providing different interpretations surrounding the primary causes. A good example of this can be seen with disparities in the philosophies of Skinner and Harlow in explaining human motivation. To fully understand each theory requires comparing and contrasting both approaches with one another. These elements will offer the greatest insights about the rationale behind individual behavior.

Skinner

Skinner was focused on the behaviorist approach. This is when there is an emphasis on how the actions (i.e. thoughts, feelings and deeds) of an individual will influence their conduct. According to Skinner, everyone is impacted by these actions throughout the course of their lives with a principal known as operant conditioning. This takes place based upon positive…… [Read More]

Maultsby, M, 1998, Behavior Therapy, Acrobem. Available from:

Ratcliff, D, 1988, BF Skinner, Rationalpi, Available from:
Schrier, R, 1977, Behavioral Primatology, Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillside.
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Human Nature How Do They

Words: 1249 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37655691

Similarly, a married man, though he has a wife, can feel a sense of lack sexually. This sense of lack can lead him to rape a female subordinate at work.

Describe the core behavioral characteristics of the criminal psychopath. Name and describe any five instruments used to measure psychopathy. What is the difference between criminal psychopathy and mental disorder?

a. The core characteristics of the criminal psychopath are a lack of empathy, egocentricity, lack of shame or remorse, and tendency for lying and manipulation

b. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist is a psycho-diagnostic tool used in tandem with the broader PCL-R inventory to measure a person's psychopathic profile.

The Psychopathic Personality Inventory is a self-report survey used to comprehensively index personality traits without explicitly referring to anti-social or criminal behaviors themselves.

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory measures various components of person's personality with a self-report inventory. Each component is measured by…… [Read More]

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How Have Psychologists Revisited Freud's Theory of Repression

Words: 2910 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90202356

Freud's Theory Of Repression

Freud is popularly known as the father of psychoanalysis and the idea of psychological repression of memories and urges, even though he was neither the first psychoanalyst or even the first to posit the existence of repression. His justifiable fame comes both from the way he popularized psychoanalysis, and from his further development of its theories. He is commonly attributed with creating the theory of the conscious and subconscious, of the many sexual complexes and drives which run our lives and our subconscious, and with the idea that things which are not socially acceptable will be hidden away within the subconscious. Freud called this process of burying the unacceptable aspects of life away into the subconscious regression, which he was to eventually succinctly defined thus: "the essence of repression lies simply in the function of rejecting and keeping something out of consciousness." (Rieff, 147) It is…… [Read More]

Bibliography." August 8, 2004. http://www.usd.edu/~tgannon/jungbio.html

Matson, Floyd. "Humanistic theory: the third revolution in psychology" The Humanist, March/April 1971. August 8,. 2004 http://web.isp.cz/jcrane/IB/Humcrit.html

Slater, Lauren. "Why Is Repression Possibly Better Than Your Therapist?" New York Times, 23 Feb 2003. August 8, 2004. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/23/magazine/23REPRESSION.htm

Rieff, P. (Ed.) Freud: General Psychological Theory. New York: Collier, 1963

Webster, Richard. Excerpts from Why Freud was Wrong: Sin, Science and Psychoanalysis (1995). August 8, 2004. http://www.richardwebster.com
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Adolescent Learner Unique Needs the

Words: 2696 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88845591

Matching students' interests with learning objectives will increase the chances of students' learning. They tend to use it and remember it long after. Using literature relevant to adolescents, for example, will raise their literacy and capacity to address contemporary issues affecting them. Reading materials about adolescents and for adolescents are another window into their world that teachers should be looking into. This is the time when they should read about themselves rather than simply sitting down for an hour and taking notes (Chckley).

Applying Learning in the Community through Projects

Projects, which give meaning to learning in the classroom, will leave an impression in adolescents' mind (Checkley, 2004). Learning about Veterans Day as a service-learning project, for example, demonstrates this. Students may be asked to identify a veteran in their family or among their acquaintances or friends. They may be asked to write the veteran a letter of appreciation or…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Checkley, K. (2004). Meeting the needs of the adolescent learner. Vo. 46 # 5 Education

Update: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Retrieved on July

21, 2012 from http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/ed_update/ecc200408.checkley.pdf

Cherry, K. (2012). Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. About.com: The New
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Language Autism Language and Children With Autism

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57801154

Language Autism

Language and children with autism:

Sources of cognitive deficits

Deficits in language development are one of the most commonly-noted, early signs a child may be autistic. Autistic children often fail to meet appropriate developmental milestones in language. High-functioning autistics or individuals with Asperger's Syndrome usually do not show developmental delays in using language, but may communicate in an inappropriate manner. "Autism is diagnosed on the basis of three primary areas of impairment: social functioning, language and communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests or activities...esearch on autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders suggests that the social and communication impairments are unique and specific deficits, that define the autism phenotype" (Tager-Flusberg 2006).

The extent to which social and communicative impairments in autism are interlinked remains hotly debated. It is generally agreed upon and noted by researchers and parents alike that there is a wide spectrum of difference in…… [Read More]

References

ABA therapy. (2011). Bright Tots. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at  http://brighttots.com/aba_therapy.html 

Engaging with the self. (2011). Bio Portfolio. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at  http://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/86890/Engaging-With-The-Self-Mirror-Behaviour-In-Autism-Down-Syndrome-And-Typical.html 

Schoenstadt, Arthur. (2011). Language development in autistic children emedtv.

Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://autism.emedtv.com/autism/language-development-in-autistic-children.html
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Analyzing Psychology of Trauma

Words: 3530 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40788305

Psychology Dual Diagnosis: Substance elated Disorders and Co-Occurring Disorders

The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of the terms. The DSM-V is a manual that is made use of by professionals in the field of medicine and mental health. They specifically refer to this manual when they are diagnosing disorders related to the mental health of a patient and the use of substances. Through the use of this manual, there is a standard way of diagnosing disorders (ockville, 2005). Substance use disorders are often found to exist with co-occurring disorders. This report highlights the assessment and treatment of substance related disorders and the co-morbid disorders.

Introduction

The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Substance-related and addictive disorders. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/documents/substance%20use%20disorder%20fact%20sheet.pdf

Bierut, L., Dinwiddie, S., Begleiter, H., Crowe, R., Hesselbrock, V., Nurnberger, J.,. . ., & Reich, T. (1998). Familial transmission of substance dependence: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and habitual smoking: a report from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry. 55(11), 982-8. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/9819066

Brunette, M. F., Mueser, K. T., & Drake R. E. (2004). A review of research on residential programs for people with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Drug Alcohol Rev, 23,471-481.

Collins, R. L. Blane, H. T., & Leonard, K. A. (1999). In OttP. J., Tarter, R. E., Ammerman, R. T. Sourcebook on substance abuse: Etiology, epidemiology, assessment, and treatment. Boston: Allyn and bacon, pp.153-165.
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Teaching Our Kids to Kill

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13451529



Further extending the application of the stimulus-response model, it can also be argued that weapons such as guns are being heavily associated with numerous components of flight simulators such as killing. Weapons such as guns are associated with the feeling of being able to kill or assault the enemy in the video game. Unfortunately, these interest or passion for weapons is oftentimes also associated with real life weapons. To prove, news of children playing guns or accidentally firing real guns are nothing new today. Just early this year, two-eight-year-old boys uncovered a gun and fired into the playground (see Pierce & Stoltz, 2009).

Statement 5

The fifth statement of this assignment is brief but very meaningful and insightful. It simply says, "Don't just stand there…do something."

I have learned that to some extent the issue of media violence and children exposure to them has become mundane to most of us.…… [Read More]

References

Heusmann L.R. et al. (2003). Longitudinal Relations between Children's Exposure to TV

Violence and their Aggressive and Violent Behavior in Young Adulthood:

1977-1992. Retrieved from http://www.lsa.umich.edu/psych/news/spotlight/spotlight/?id=70 on Sept. 29, 2009.

Kring, a.M. et al. (2007). Abnormal Psychology 10th Edition. Massachussets: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Importance of the Study of Personality

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78192070

Personality: Behavior, Thoughts, Motives, and Emotions That Characterize a Person

Personality: a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives and emotions that characterizes an individual.

Psychologists use a variety of tests to determine and study a vast number of personality traits among groups of people. They've found that although everyone exhibits five to ten central traits that determine how we react to different people and various situations, not all traits carry the same weight in their importance in someone's life. (Where you might fear speaking in front of a crowd, for example, I may find it invigorating and fun.) We all have secondary traits, too (food preferences, for example, or how we feel about a style of dress), but these aren't as stable as the central traits. Although secondary traits can change as we mature and grow, central traits generally stick with us our entire lives. The central…… [Read More]

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Ritz Carlton Hong Kong Is

Words: 2078 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28874201

The major reason for building leadership training for employee is to drive up the business excellence in both the operations and a goal achievement. Since itz Carlton has built passion for excellence, the company builds approach for senior leaders to lead the organization effectively. As the method to enhance leading style within the organization, the hotel implements Gold standard to reinforce senior executive. The technique includes:

Providing a unique orientation standard for the senior executive

Developmental training

Daily line up meeting

Positive and negative einforcement

Peer pressure

Internal meeting

The itz Carlton makes the approach plan to develop senior leaders to increase the satisfaction of the guests. Apart of the leading strategy, the Ladies and Gentlemen are well informed on what are they are supposed to do in order to improve the services of the organization. Using the brand awareness, the hotel has been able to stay at the top…… [Read More]

References

Evans, J.R., and William M.L. (1991). The Management and Control of Quality. 4th ed. Cincinnati: South-Western, 1999.

Feigenbaum, A.V. (2005). Total Quality Control. New York: McGraw- Hill.

Ivanovic, S. Galicic, V. & Susnjar, N. (2010). Leading Effective Meeting in a Hospitability Organization. UTMS Journal of Economics, 1(1): ,13-18.

Peters, T., & Austin, N. (1985). A passion for excellence: The leadership difference. New York: Random House.
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Behaviorism and Neo behaviorism Approaches

Words: 734 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20135841

Neo-behaviorism and Classical S-R Behaviorism

Behaviorism is regarded as an approach in the field of psychology that emphasizes the significant role of environmental factors in shaping people’s behavior. This approach of psychology emphasizes that environmental factors influence behavior more than intrinsic or genetic factors. Based on this school of thought, all behaviors are influenced by interactions with the environment and therefore focuses on stimulus-response behaviors. The behaviorist movement has attracted several varying perspectives among different psychologists including John Watson’s classical S-R behaviorism. Classical S-R behaviorism is an approach that postulates that all psychological functions can be explained through observable, overt, and measurable muscular movements, nerve impulses, and glandular secretions (Moore, 2011).

However, classical S-R behaviorism has attracted considerable criticism from various psychologists on the premise that it’s insufficient to account for the wide range of human behavior. One of the major criticisms of classical S-R behaviorism is from Edward C.…… [Read More]

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History of Psychology Although the

Words: 857 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53888937

An early influence on Gestalt psychology was the philosopher Immanuel Kant, who stressed that humans do not perceive the world as it is. Rather, they impose cause and effect relationships on it and therefore our perceptions are influenced by their experiences. Max Wertheimer was the strongest proponent of this approach. Gestalt psychology greatly declined when Nazis came to power in Germany and many scholars were forced to flee. In the United States, behaviorism was too strong to overcome, and many of its ideas were in opposition to Gestalt beliefs.

Humanistic therapy overlaps with CBT and both are very common in today's society. It emphasizes the growth and fulfillment of the self or self-actualization through self-mastery, self-examination and creative expression. Although the influences of the unconscious and society are taken into account, freedom of choice in creating one's experience is essential and is often referred to as self-determination. A humanistic therapist…… [Read More]

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Epistemology Teaching Pedagogy and Learning

Words: 1542 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51672220

lessons observed varied depending on the school. In high school, the aims were to learn about the history of art, whereas in younger grades such as elementary and early middle school years, the aim was explorative creativity and self-expression.

Common Core Standards addressed: The National Core Art Standards (2015) were addressed including "generate and conceptualize artistic ideas and work," "organize and develop artistic ideas and work," and "refine and complete artistic work."

The instructional strategies used included dialogue, coaching in the use of art supplies and materials in the younger grades, and engaging in discussions about art among the high school students.

The methods of assignments used included creative expression in elementary art classes, as well as written and oral presentations.

Teachers engaged students and fostered critical thinking via asking questions and allowing students to respond.

An educational theory that was put into practice is Gardner's (2011) theory of multiple…… [Read More]

References

Friere, P. (2005). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Online: https://libcom.org/files/FreirePedagogyoftheOppressed.pdf

Hall, C.S., Lindzey, G. & Campbell, J.B. (1998). Theories of Personality. 4th Edition. Hamilton.

Gardner, H. (2011). Frames of Mind. New York: Basic.

Goldstein, D. (2014). The Teacher Wars. New York: Doubleday.
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Rewards and Punishment Reinforcement Theory

Words: 878 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74077121

The popularized Skinnerian position concerning the inadequacy of punishment in suppressing "instrumental" behaviour is, if correct at all, only conditionally correct."

Still other researchers such as aron (1977) state that punishment can work under certain conditions: "(a) if you can punish almost every time, (b) punish immediately, - punish in socially acceptable ways, and (d) do not punish harshly or become overly angry." Regardless of scientific evidence or suspected measures that would make punishment more effective, the intent of punishment in Reinforcement Theory is to suppress inappropriate behavior, not to solve underlying problems. Considering the scope of the application of punishment, it is, in many instances, neither practical nor desirable to replace punishment with a rewards system. Crime is an obvious example. True, suppression may only be short-term with punishment as the only redress, but this is why the length of the prison sentence is designed to match the severity…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baron, R.A. (1977) Human Aggression NY: Plenum Press

Driscoll, M.P. (1994). Psychology of learning for instruction. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Kohn, A. (1993). Punished by rewards. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.

Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall
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Reign Over Me

Words: 1437 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92368103

Charlie Fineman who is played by actor Adam Sandler in the 2007 movie Reign Over Me, is a man who, following the 9/11 attacks, has lost his wife and daughters. Unable to confront the trauma consciously, he develops an unusual behavior, choosing to cut himself off from the life he used to know before the tragic events occurred. He becomes withdrawn and non-communicative, his behavior reflecting a vegetative state. He feels unable to let go of the past and develops an obsessive, non-dangerous attachment that determines him to remodel his kitchen regularly. Because of the last words he had said to his wife, remodeling the kitchen became Fineman's response to the guilt he was feeling. He thus developed a survivor's guilt to which he responded. He also cannot respond positively to social interactions because he has implanted himself with the belief that people would only remind him of the loss…… [Read More]

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Psychology Briefly Describe the Differences

Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14840903



The nature vs. nurture debate is over whether an individual learns behaviors from their environment (nurture) or whether an individual is born with certain genetic traits and predispositions toward certain behaviors. Today, most developmental psychologists believe that nurture enhances nature: that while biology is important, environment probably trumps biology in most cases. One developmental process that can be explained by both genetics and environment is gender identity. Biology does affect certain aspects of gender and sexuality but environment and conditioning are very important factors in the development of an individual's gender identity.

4. How do maternal nutrition and alcohol use potentially affect the health of a fetus?

The heath of a fetus is directly related to maternal nutrition and fetal development is hindered by malnutrition or use of alcohol. Excess drinking by the mother can cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which may cause birth defects, mental health problems and hyperactivity in…… [Read More]

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Respondent Behavior and Operant Behavior and Give

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17056816

respondent behavior and operant behavior, and give a real-Life example of each.

Operant behaviour encompasses the actions of an individual that are purposefully driven to produce a desired effect. Examples of operant behavior would include a driver pushing the gas pedal in a car to produce a faster speed and giving a child a much-desired gift with the expectation of seeing the child's glee in response. Respondent behavior encompasses the actions of an individual that are not purposefully driven but are nonetheless actions that result from external stimulation. These types of behaviours are frequently referred to as reflexes as they are involuntary responses to an environmental stimuli. Examples of respondent behavior include an individual's yelp of pain when he or she hits his or her finger with a hammer or when an individual involuntarily closes his or her eyes when he or she sneezes.

Distinguish between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement,…… [Read More]

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Psychology of Learning and Obesity

Words: 2133 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51315269



Latent learning; this is the type of learning that takes place oblivious of the reinforcements that are applied though these reinforcements can be useful later on in the process of learning. It is the education that is instantly expressed in a response that is obvious. Here, an organism may be learning but the information learnt is not instantly expressed (obert Jensen, 2006). For instance, a child may watch the elders set the table and they may not instantly set the table but will store that knowledge and information till the day and time that they will need it.

Insight learning; this is the understanding that one has even without much effort or many trials and errors. This type of learning allows the person to be able to form associations between events and objects that can help them solve new challenges that may come their way (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011 ). This…… [Read More]

References

David N. Perkins, (1992). Transfer of Learning. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from  http://learnweb.harvard.edu/alps/thinking/docs/traencyn.htm 

Encyclopedia Britannica, (2011 ). Insight in Learning Theory. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289152/insight

Gonzalez, J.J. (2002). Modeling Erosion of Security and Safety Awareness. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference of the System Dynamics Society July 28 - August 1, 2002 Palermo, Italy, Vol., 200. Retrieved on April 10, 2010 from www.ikt.hia.no/.../Modeling%20Instrumental%20Conditioning%20(HICSS'36%20pap

Jeffry Ricker, (2011). What is Stimulus Generalization & Discrimination? Retrieved December
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Learning and Behavioral Analysis Learning

Words: 1261 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67415605



Provide an example of something you learned through positive reinforcement; provide an example of something you learned through negative reinforcement.

Through positive reinforcement, I learned how to throw a ball. My father taught me in the backyard, and the farther I threw it, the more he told me I had done a 'good job.' I learned through negative reinforcement not to breathe through my nose while swimming -- every time I breathed incorrectly, I would always choke on the water, which made me extremely aware of how I was breathing.

Provide an example (and the steps involved) of something you can teach a child or a pet through shaping.

You can housebreak a puppy through shaping. First, you keep the puppy in a crate because it does not want to soil its den, and only let it out of the crate when you can observe the puppy. When the puppy…… [Read More]

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Attitude Theories

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32317263

cognitive psychology, learning theories are significant in both their variety and the different ways in which researchers approach "knowing." Within the sphere of cognitive psychology the cognitive learning theory is among the most popular areas of study. The cognitive learning theory suggests that learning is a behavioral change based on the acquisition of information about the environment. Bandura (1986) suggested that what individuals think and feel about themselves necessarily impacts subsequent individual behaviors. As a theory of learning, social cognitive theory is based on the notion that individual's learn by watching others perform and that the internal thought processes people have are critical for a proper understanding of the individual (Santrock, 2008).

The two theories I choose to research for this assignment are Albert Bandura's observational learning theory and B.F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. While both theories involve theories of learning, the differences between the two theories are significant.…… [Read More]

References:

Bandura, A. (1986). "Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory." Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Miller, N.E., & Dollard, J. (1941). Social Learning and Imitation. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retrieved from http://www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/eff.html

Santrock, J.W. (2008). A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development (M. Ryan, Ed., 4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (Original work published 2002), pgs. 26, 30, 478
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Consumer Behavior for Marketing Understanding Consumer Behavior

Words: 3123 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5001570

Consumer Behavior for Marketing

Understanding Consumer Behavior

Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…… [Read More]

References

Cherry K (2012) Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Retrieved http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classical-vs.-operant-conditioning.htm

Pavlov IP. (1927) Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.

Skinner BF (1953) Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.
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Adult Learning Through the Filters of B F

Words: 937 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91441607

Adult Learning Through the Filters of B.F. Skinner & The Color Purple

Adult Learning as Seen Through B.F. Skinner and The Color Purple

The main character in the novel, musical play, and film The Color Purple is Celie, a fourteen-year-old girl living in rural Georgia between the years 1909 to 1949. Celie has been abused and oppressed by men throughout her life. Her father raped and impregnated her. He took her children away from her and let her think they were dead. Finally, her father gives Celie to Albert in marriage, even though Albert wanted to marry Celie's younger and prettier sister, Nettie. Shug is Albert's mistress who rotates in and out of his life, and in so doing, eventually aligns with Celie, becoming her mentor, protector, and lover. Celie's time with Shug is instructive and fosters many changes in Celie's thinking about religion, her own body, sexual relations, independence…… [Read More]

References

Skinner, B.F. (1972). Beyond freedom and dignity. New York: Vintage Books.

Smith, L.D.; Woodward, W.R. (1996) B.F. Skinner and behaviorism in American culture. Bethlehem, PA: Lehigh University Press.

The Color Purple (1985). Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved http://www.rottentomatoes.com / m/color_purple/.
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Porsche Case Analysis the Intent of This

Words: 1461 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24271679

Posche Case Analysis

The intent of this case analysis is to evaluate the buye decision pocess the typical Posche custome undetakes when seaching fo a new high-pefomance spots ca. The Posche spots ca enthusiasts' decision pocess is significantly diffeent than that of the Cayenne and Panamea customes, and these diffeences will be discussed. The factos that contibuted to Posche selling significantly moe lowe-piced models in the 1970s and 1980s is also analyzed. An explanation of the positive and negative attitudes towads bands like Posche is povided, in addition to the ole the Posche band plays in the self-concept of buyes.

Analyzing the Decision Pocess of the Posche Custome

The coe custome base of Posche has a self-concept of being exceptional in evey aea of thei lives, fom thei ability to set and supass vey challenging objectives, to thei ability to ean above-aveage incomes and have exceptional lifestyles as a esult.…… [Read More]

references. JMR, Journal of Marketing Research, 33(3), 293.

U.S. Car Buyers In Germany Enjoy Personal Touch and Speedy Highways. (2008). German Business Review,3,8.

James H. Gilmore, & B. Joseph Pine Ii. (2002). Customer experience places: The new offering frontier. Strategy & Leadership, 30(4), 4-11.

Gumpert, David E.. (1986, March). Porsche on Nichemanship. Harvard Business Review, 64(2), 98.

Lesser, J., & Hughes, M.. (1986). The Generalizability of Psychographic Market Segments across Geographic Locations. Journal of Marketing, 50(1), 18-27.
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Psychology Definitions Psychosis Loss

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85134043



Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.

Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.

Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.

Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.

Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.

Chapter 14

Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…… [Read More]

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Internet Use for Distance Learning

Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43396329

Above all, there is the need for a responsive and supportive instructor who is genuinely interested in assisting the students get to their learning goals in the short-term and their broader objectives in the long-term. All of these strategies are discussed in the article to minimize the probability of students quitting the programs. The Rochester nstitute of Technology's staff specifically sees the first few weeks as critical in the development of a commitment to completing online learning courses.

Response and Reaction to Article

n the article analyzed (McClure), the insights provide a glimpse into how critical it is to have change management strategies in place for getting online students to become committed to online programs. nstead of relying purely on technology alone and celebrating it, the article provides a glimpse into how difficult it is for institutions to get students to take ownership and accountability of online courses. What is…… [Read More]

In the article analyzed (McClure), the insights provide a glimpse into how critical it is to have change management strategies in place for getting online students to become committed to online programs. Instead of relying purely on technology alone and celebrating it, the article provides a glimpse into how difficult it is for institutions to get students to take ownership and accountability of online courses. What is most refreshing is the fact that the author does not criticize the students, yet describes how a social ecosystem must first be created that can support the students' needs for community, reinforcement of their learning strengths, and underscores how critical the role of the instructor is. Beyond being a mentor, the instructor in an online environment must work to reach out and not only teach the content, but also help students to overcome the barriers to their learning experience online. This includes providing online students with the flexibility of learning how they choose to. it's critical for online learning institutions to take this approach as advocated in the article and work at change management first, over and above merely enabling technologies for distance learning.

Reference:

McClure, Ann. "Distant, Not Absent." University Business Nov 2007 1-3. 25 Mar 2008 http://www.universitybusiness.com/viewarticle.aspx?articleid=933.
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Contingency Management Alcohol & Marijuana

Words: 11354 Length: 41 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27822679

" (1995)

The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.

McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)

Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)

Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
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Activities to Reduce Inappropriate Behaviors Displayed by

Words: 10021 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93835103

Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities

The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…… [Read More]

references, and favorites)

Child and Family Assets

(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)

Functional and Meaningful Interactions

(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)
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Education the Key Elements of Classroom Management

Words: 3833 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76254855

Classroom Management

Class room management holds extreme importance in the process of teaching. It is mandatory for a teacher to manage her class effectively in order to achieve her predetermined instructional goals. 'Successful classroom management involves much more than rules and discipline. Indeed research into classroom management demonstrates that effective teachers are proactive about student behavior, and they involve students in the process of establishing and maintaining rules and routines'. (Strong, 2007)

An effective instructional is dependent on various factors, and a properly managed classroom is definitely one of those factors. There is no way that a teacher can achieve her desire objective, if the process of teaching is taking place in a poorly managed classroom. A properly managed classroom along with attractive materials can definitely attract the attention of students and involve them in the process of learning. Management of classroom is also important to avoid any unnecessary wastage…… [Read More]

References

Evertson, C.M, & Weinstein, C.S. (2006). Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (p.51)

Mcleod, J, Fisher, J, & Hoover, G. (2003). The Key Elements of Classroom Management: Managing Time and Space, Student. Alexandria, USA: ASCD Publication.(p. 75)

Stronge, J.H. (2007). Qualities of Effective Teachers. Alexandria, USA: ASCD Publication. (p.40)
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Management - Motivation and Behavior

Words: 724 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70473553

Finally, the third category of needs is given by power - or the individuals who wish to have control; they have a small interest in what other people think of them and only desire their obedience.

E: Example: An individual driven by affiliation needs will not make major decisions on his own, but will always consult with his loved ones to get their opinion and approval. A power driven individual on the other hand will make those decisions on his own mostly because he can and this once again assures him of his power.

Skinner's Reinforcement Theory

T: Topic sentence: Skinner's theory identifies four types of responses that could be implemented by a higher power relative to the behavior of a subaltern.

E: Explain what that is: The first possible response would be a positive reinforcement which encourages the individual to continue; the second is negative reinforcement which encourages the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barnet, T., 2006, Reinforcement Theory, Reference for Business, http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Pr-Sa/Reinforcement-Theory.htmllast accessed on May 20, 2008

Chapman, a., 1995-2008, Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs,  http://www.businessballs.com/maslow.htm l. Ast accessed on May 20, 2008

September 2002, What Is Motivation?, University of South Australia,  http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/motivation/Pages/What%20is%20Motivation.html . Ast accessed on May 20, 2008

2002-2007, Acquired Needs Theory, Changing Minds, http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/acquired_needs.html. Ast accessed on May 20, 2008
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Health Behavior the Theories at a Glance

Words: 7053 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74310569

Health Behavior

The "Theories At A Glance" manual discussed a variety of healthy behaviors. Select two theories that can be used to explain why people behave the way they do. Discuss the basic premise and constructs of the theories you choose. Cite two examples of how each theory could be used to explain a health behavior.

Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

The relationship that exists between behavior and attitudes, beliefs and intention is studied under TPB (Theory of Planned Behavior). TA (Theory of easoned Action) is also associated with TPB. According to TA and TPB, behavior is mainly determined by behavioral intention. These models show that the attitude of an individual affects behavioral intention. Hence, the behavior of a person towards the performance of some particular behavior is also influenced. In addition to this, beliefs concerning individuals who have close association (these people have the decision making power of approving…… [Read More]

References

Bandura A. Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1986.

Bronfenbrenner, U 1994 'Ecological Models of Human Development', International Encyclopaedia of Education, Vol 3, Oxford, Elsevier.

Eddy Module 2. Dr. James Eddy. Social Learning Theory (SLT/SCT): Reciprocal Determinism, Expectations, Value Expectancies. Accessed March 18th, 2012 from: mms://mediasrv1.ccs.ua.edu/CCS-AO2/HHE520/tape2b/2b_clip1.wmv

Eddy Module 2a. Dr. James Eddy. SLT/SCT (cont'd): Observational Learning, Reinforcement, Self-Efficacy, Emotional Coping. Accessed March 18th, 2012 from: mms://mediasrv1.ccs.ua.edu/CCS-AO2/HHE520/tape2b/2b_clip2.wmv