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One has to wonder how much positive reinforcement will only be reinforcing the sense of entitlement they have received from their parents vs. The hard work and responsibility required to succeed in business. Even Skinner, the researcher who articulated the major theoretical constructs of reinforcement and who was a strong advocate of positive reinforcement, recognized the possibility to encourage negative behavior with positive reinforcement. On this matter, he said, "The same mistake is made by the teacher who offers a treat of some kind when the class is getting out of hand. If this behavior is a kind of aggression toward the teacher, the treat may have an opposing effect. ut in the long run, the reinforcement of misbehavior will offset any gain. Unfortunately, the reduction in aggression is immediate but the effect of reinforcement apparent only later. Hence, the practice may be continued, even though in the long run…… [Read More]
Helplessness Theory and Response Contingent Positive Reinforcement Theory. It would not be entirely incorrect to state that these theories merely emphasize different aspects of a similar type of phenomenon. Both of these theories are utilized as a means of determining the causes of clinical depression without delving very much into cognitive processes. Perhaps their lack of insight into cognitive processes can explain their limitations as far as successfully explaining the source of depression and how it fosters within certain people.
The main similarity between these two theories is that they are based on the external experiences that people go through. Each theory states that the outside factors of these experiences help to determine the internal feelings of depression that people develop. This focus on initial experience is largely why neither one of these theories considers very many cognitive processes as the basis of depression. Instead, these theories posit the fact…… [Read More]
Misbehavior in Students: Positive Reinforcement Strategies to Cope ith Negative Student Behavior" Marsh
Submission to Behavioral Interventions
Misbehavior in Students: Positive Reinforcement Strategies to Cope with Negative Student Behavior
This paper addresses peer praise and reinforcement as a possible positive coping strategy for teachers to employ when dealing with different forms of student misbehavior.
Misbehavior in Students: Positive Reinforcement Strategies to Cope with Negative Student Behavior
There are many reasons a student may misbehave in class. These causes may range from diagnosed or undiagnosed learning disabilities, problems in the students' homes, and students' frustrations with the structured discipline of the classroom environment. One frequently overlooked cause of student misbehavior is a student's desire for attention from his or her peers as well as adults. As with the misbehaviors designed to solicit adult attention, students may attempt to intentionally provoke their classmates in an attempt to be noticed and recognized, even…… [Read More]
It could be as simple as a high-five, pat on the back, praise, a kiss, or a hug. It could also be simple words and actions that could make her mom feel needed around the house since being needed gives the person a feel of being important -- a form of favorable stimulus.
To strengthen the independent behavior, Dorothy may choose to remove the aversive stimulus in her mom's environment. If it irritates Dorothy's mom to be looked over most of the day (aversive stimulus in this case) because it reminds her of her disability, she could be allowed to spend the whole afternoon by herself if she was able to go to the bathroom on her own. Her mom can also be allowed to skip a chore she dislikes, such as feeding the dogs (aversive stimulus in this case), if she was able to prepare their breakfast all by…… [Read More]
Hence, variables that occur outside of the classroom have an impact on the teacher's ability to institute positive behavior support (PBS). That makes it all the more vital that strategies are in place in the classroom designed to deal with all setting events, distant and recent, when possible.
Body of Paper -- Distant Setting Events & Antecedents
How do antecedents effect the behavior of students? Antecedents have a tendency to either pull individuals or push individuals into doing something, or feeling a certain way. Author Edward P. Sarafino points out that a stimulus serves as an antecedent; for example, children seeing other children rope jumping before class starts is a stimulus for an antecedent because it sets the table for behavior. The rope jumping is orderly, fun, and children have smiles when they to their rope jumping (Sarafino, 2010, 71).
Children learn through stimulus generalization, by responding to stimuli, and…… [Read More]
Specific Application of Negative Reinforcement:
Dorothy could also use negative reinforcement to encourage her mother's effort at becoming more independent. For example, if Dorothy's mother strongly dislikes the type of music that Dorothy listens to at home, Dorothy could immediately turn off her music to reward her mother for every instance in which she came downstairs from her bedroom.
Just as in the case of positive reinforcement, the removal of a stimulus perceived by the subject as unpleasant, (such as rock music), this form of negative reward would work whether or not Dorothy provided the reward in conjunction with and explicit acknowledging that it was a specific reward for her mother's efforts.
Likewise, just as in the case of positive reward, the negative reward would probably work much faster if Dorothy does acknowledge that her extra consideration of her mother's likes and dislikes corresponds directly to her appreciating her mother's…… [Read More]
For learning to effectively take place, a number of concepts must be brought together and these include but are not in any way limited to environmental, emotional as well as cognitive influences. One of the most prominent learning theories is the social learning theory whose fronting was most prominently done by Albert andura amongst others.
The Social Learning Theory
The social learning theory is founded on the view that most learning is undertaken within the social context. However, according to Ronald L. Akers, the social learning theory must not only be taken to be a theory of peer influence.
With that in mind, the key concepts in this case include; modeling, imitation as well as observational learning. The social learning theory has four basic principles with the first principle stating that most of the learning is informed by an observation of behavior. Here, the reasoning is that the…… [Read More]
Inappropriate use of the terms "noncontingent reinforcement" and "differential reinforcement of other behaviors"
Shakespeare would not have anticipated this issue -- labels for procedures when he wrote "What is in a name, a rose with any other would smell as sweet." The controversy is not about the effect of the procedure but rather relates to if the applied behavior analysis on the use of the terms 'noncontingent reinforcement' -- NC and 'differential reinforcement of other behaviors' -- DO are appropriate and the definitions of the process. The irony is that there is no dispute in the effectiveness of the processes but if the use of the terms is confusing and if the definition of reinforcement is contingent on behavior. The question then is if the issue will be dead and if it can be shown that an alternate name may clear the confusion especially with regard to the term 'contingent…… [Read More]
The employees will alter their behavior accordingly, depending on which behavior they feel will have the most positive outcome.
Clearly the correct course of action for the company is to amend the reinforcement mechanisms. This can be done either through positive reinforcement or negative. Passing the course is mandatory, but passing the first time could receive a reward. The company could also reduce the benefit of taking the course. It probably will need to be paid time, but the company could avoid running the course at a nice hotel, instead using normal meeting rooms that do not convey any sense of reward. Make the course as horrible as possible so that employees will want to pass it as quickly as possible.
As well, the company could use negative reinforcement mechanisms. Employees could be punished for failing to pass the course the first time. There are legal limits as to what…… [Read More]
The popularized Skinnerian position concerning the inadequacy of punishment in suppressing "instrumental" behaviour is, if correct at all, only conditionally correct."
Still other researchers such as aron (1977) state that punishment can work under certain conditions: "(a) if you can punish almost every time, (b) punish immediately, - punish in socially acceptable ways, and (d) do not punish harshly or become overly angry." Regardless of scientific evidence or suspected measures that would make punishment more effective, the intent of punishment in Reinforcement Theory is to suppress inappropriate behavior, not to solve underlying problems. Considering the scope of the application of punishment, it is, in many instances, neither practical nor desirable to replace punishment with a rewards system. Crime is an obvious example. True, suppression may only be short-term with punishment as the only redress, but this is why the length of the prison sentence is designed to match the severity…… [Read More]
The researchers gathered data through face-to-face interviews with sixteen African-American boys over the course of a three-month period during the childrens'2002-2003 academic school year. This was a very limited sampling, albiet with a very specific focus group. All of students were regular education students between the ages of eight and thireen years old. (ilson-Jones & Caston, 2004, p.1)
The study asked what influenced this group of student's success and commitment to school? The interviewers concluded that the collective societal influence of school and home was key in fostering the children's desire to learn. hile other factors were also influential, such as the relative literacy level of the primary caretakers of the child, overall peer and parental attitude to learning, and the willingness to foster such learning in social as well as individual classroom environments played a key factor in student success. The study was said to reinforce findings of the…… [Read More]
One of the key principals in psychology is instrumental conditioning. This is when punishment or reinforcement is utilized to encourage the subject to engage in particular types of behavior. The basic idea behind this approach is to increase the chances that a specific kind of action will take place in the future. Once this happens, is when there can be a transformation in how the subject is reacting to the stimuli that they will see, hear or feel. (Cherry, 2011) This is significant, because it is showing how this is utilized as a basic strategy to subtly change the way someone is responding to various events. To fully understand this technique we will examine how this kind of conditioning is used by someone who is learning to ride a bike. This will be accomplished by: comparing positive / negative reinforcement that relate to the situation, examining the role…… [Read More]
respondent behavior and operant behavior, and give a real-Life example of each.
Operant behaviour encompasses the actions of an individual that are purposefully driven to produce a desired effect. Examples of operant behavior would include a driver pushing the gas pedal in a car to produce a faster speed and giving a child a much-desired gift with the expectation of seeing the child's glee in response. Respondent behavior encompasses the actions of an individual that are not purposefully driven but are nonetheless actions that result from external stimulation. These types of behaviours are frequently referred to as reflexes as they are involuntary responses to an environmental stimuli. Examples of respondent behavior include an individual's yelp of pain when he or she hits his or her finger with a hammer or when an individual involuntarily closes his or her eyes when he or she sneezes.
Distinguish between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement,…… [Read More]
Psychology is a term derived from two Greek words that translate to life explanation, which makes it an important element of daily life. The field of psychology can be described as a discipline that focuses on the study of mind and behavior (Stangor, 2010, p.7). This discipline is characterized by several concepts and approaches that are used by psychologists in understanding human behavior. Since psychology is a broad field, psychologists not only use these concepts and approaches but also conduct scientific research that enables them to understand human behavior. Some of the most common psychological concepts that are used to modify or change an individual's behavior include operant conditioning, positive and negative punishment, and positive and negative reinforcement.
Operant condition can be described as a learning method that is used to modify or change a person's behavior through experiences and consequences. While it is part of the process…… [Read More]
Provide an example of something you learned through positive reinforcement; provide an example of something you learned through negative reinforcement.
Through positive reinforcement, I learned how to throw a ball. My father taught me in the backyard, and the farther I threw it, the more he told me I had done a 'good job.' I learned through negative reinforcement not to breathe through my nose while swimming -- every time I breathed incorrectly, I would always choke on the water, which made me extremely aware of how I was breathing.
Provide an example (and the steps involved) of something you can teach a child or a pet through shaping.
You can housebreak a puppy through shaping. First, you keep the puppy in a crate because it does not want to soil its den, and only let it out of the crate when you can observe the puppy. When the puppy…… [Read More]
Finally, the third category of needs is given by power - or the individuals who wish to have control; they have a small interest in what other people think of them and only desire their obedience.
E: Example: An individual driven by affiliation needs will not make major decisions on his own, but will always consult with his loved ones to get their opinion and approval. A power driven individual on the other hand will make those decisions on his own mostly because he can and this once again assures him of his power.
Skinner's Reinforcement Theory
T: Topic sentence: Skinner's theory identifies four types of responses that could be implemented by a higher power relative to the behavior of a subaltern.
E: Explain what that is: The first possible response would be a positive reinforcement which encourages the individual to continue; the second is negative reinforcement which encourages the…… [Read More]
philosophies regarding ways of teaching and properly inducing learning in students. Not all of these methodologies, however, are congruent with one another. Thus, it is best for a student of education, especially one who is preparing to enter the professional field as a teacher, to develop his or her own particular ideology regarding the style of teaching that he or she will attempt to incorporate. Doing so will not only draw from such an individual's own personal experience, but also from the knowledge and abundance of literature on this subject previously denoted by other noteworthy professionals within this field. By amalgamating these concepts, it is possible for a potential teacher to readily identify his or her core beliefs and translate them into a style of pedagogy which will ultimately provide benefits to students. After a careful consideration of my personal cosmology and worldview, as well as aspects of educational philosophy,…… [Read More]
Boundaries for Children
ules and norms are an expected way of social living. They are predictable and part of our lives, and, therefore, we rarely stop to question their roots. We accept them as part of our routine, as demonstrative of our progressiveness as a nation, and are comfortable in their security. When children don't have boundaries, their lives take a much different turn than parents ever plan. Even if parents don't start out setting boundaries for children, it is never too late to start. The older the child the harder it gets, but the importance of setting boundaries never declines. Setting boundaries for children is important for all who come into contact with them from educators to child care givers to parents, of course, themselves.
Whilst some parents inculcate parenting styles from their own parents, either deliberately, in which intent they may seek to transmit inculcated patterns, or, at…… [Read More]
Consumer Behavior for Marketing
Understanding Consumer Behavior
Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…… [Read More]
Evolution of RTI and Its Purpose
The response to intervention (RTI) initiative is a multi-tiered program that is designed to facilitate the early identification of students with special educational and behavioral needs (What is RTI?, 2016). The purpose of the RTI initiative is two-fold, with the first being the provision of high-quality educational services and the second being the screening of all young learners in general education classrooms (What is RTI?, 2016). The evolution of the RTI initiative was based on early experiences with differentiated instruction as an alternative to conventional practices. In this regard, Fisher and Frey (2010) report that, "In many schools, instruction and time are constant -- they do not vary on a student-by-student basis. RTI was designed as a way to encourage teachers to vary instruction and time to create a constant level of learning" (2010, p. 15). The RTI program also includes the key assumption…… [Read More]
Charlie Fineman who is played by actor Adam Sandler in the 2007 movie Reign Over Me, is a man who, following the 9/11 attacks, has lost his wife and daughters. Unable to confront the trauma consciously, he develops an unusual behavior, choosing to cut himself off from the life he used to know before the tragic events occurred. He becomes withdrawn and non-communicative, his behavior reflecting a vegetative state. He feels unable to let go of the past and develops an obsessive, non-dangerous attachment that determines him to remodel his kitchen regularly. Because of the last words he had said to his wife, remodeling the kitchen became Fineman's response to the guilt he was feeling. He thus developed a survivor's guilt to which he responded. He also cannot respond positively to social interactions because he has implanted himself with the belief that people would only remind him of the loss…… [Read More]
In fact, PBS is an inclusive approach since it becomes increasingly applicable to different segments of society such as multicultural youth and urban youth (Utley, Kozleski, Smith, & Draper, 2002). Perhaps, the reason this form of support applies so universally because it uses a collaborative team of people whom know and care about the troubled teenager. hese individuals such as family members, teachers, counselors, and administrators come together and determine functionally the processes which this individual performs and which ones he/she has trouble with or, in other words, together -- with the assistance of the student too -- they put together a functional behavioral assessment and then determine the specific, individualized needs of the student (Carr, 2002). Based upon that particular student's needs, the team derives approaches to help reduce the problem behavior and replace it with appropriate behavior. he reason that this process is said to have lasting effects…… [Read More]
The nature vs. nurture debate is over whether an individual learns behaviors from their environment (nurture) or whether an individual is born with certain genetic traits and predispositions toward certain behaviors. Today, most developmental psychologists believe that nurture enhances nature: that while biology is important, environment probably trumps biology in most cases. One developmental process that can be explained by both genetics and environment is gender identity. Biology does affect certain aspects of gender and sexuality but environment and conditioning are very important factors in the development of an individual's gender identity.
4. How do maternal nutrition and alcohol use potentially affect the health of a fetus?
The heath of a fetus is directly related to maternal nutrition and fetal development is hindered by malnutrition or use of alcohol. Excess drinking by the mother can cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which may cause birth defects, mental health problems and hyperactivity in…… [Read More]
training plan for the implementation of EH (electronic health record) that St. Joseph Hospital has launched on May 2012. The training program will consist of approximately 1500 hospital employees and physicians. The implementation of the training program will take 6 months to complete and the program will assist St. Joseph Hospital to deliver a quality healthcare to patients.
Present competitions within the healthcare market environment have made healthcare organizations to continue searching for innovation to capture the opportunities and overcome obstacles as well as surviving within the present competitive environment. Training and education has become a critical tool that healthcare organizations employ to achieve competitive advantages. Implementing training and education for employee assists healthcare organizations to eliminate medical errors associated with healthcare practice which consequently enhances quality healthcare delivery.
Fundamental objective of this paper is to provide training and development for new and existing employees of St. Joseph Health System.…… [Read More]
Knowledge, Skill and attitude:
The objectives of training include enhancement of knowledge, skills and attitude. Knowledge is the body of facts and principles accumulated my mankind in course of time. It is a complex of several related ideas. According to a working definition, knowledge is the matrix of impressions within which the individual situates newly acquired information (Clarke, 2001). From a business perspective, knowledge supports people to analyze situations, make judgments and take decisions, in the process telling what is to done, why, how, where, when and who should perform the actions towards achieving organizational goals. Skill is the ability to transform knowledge into action; it refers to the ability of people to use knowledge effectively and readily to perform desired actions and specific tasks. Skill is also defined as the ability to do something well from talent, training or practice.
The essential difference is that knowledge is to…… [Read More]
Perceived Philosophical Positions of Three Teachers From Your Educational Past (elementary,
I have had a number of memorable teachers throughout the course of my academic career. From elementary school to college, I was fortunate enough to encounter pedagogues who actually were able to enhance the learning process and disseminate didactic lessons for life in general. Although not all of the philosophical positions of the teachers that had the most impact on me were congruent, they all were able to strongly contribute -- either negatively or positively -- to my regard for formal education and the myriad connotations it can take on.
The best teacher I have ever had was my Latin teacher in middle school and high school. The bulk of my secondary education was at a learning institution that spanned from kindergarten to high school, so I was fortunate to have this particular teacher for six years. Perhaps due…… [Read More]
Employee Satisfaction with a Company's Review Process
The following research examines the reason for a decline in employee satisfaction regarding the review process at XYZ, Inc. The results of the survey revealed that sample biases may have confounded the results and that the survey will have to be re-administered to reflect the true attitudes and results of the preliminary research leading up to the current survey. The result showed a high degree of satisfaction with the quality and quantity of management feedback. The results of this survey are inconclusive and further research will need to be conducted to eliminate the possible effects of sample bias.
Delimitations (See Leedy)
A. Literature Review
C. General Management Issues
D. Project Related Issues
F. Definition of Terms
H. Project Submission…… [Read More]
Describe at least three internal and external drivers of change for the organization in this simulation.
Internally, organizational changes are driven by three external pressures, as defined by Lewin's along the three-stage model of unfreezing, changing and refreezing employee behaviors. Motivating people during each of these change stages reinforces the acquired behaviors. Unfreezing involves the motivational factor of persuading people to replace the old behaviors and attitude with the preferred behaviors and attitudes by demonstrating the need for change by infusing employees with the knowledge and the confidence that the new behaviors and attitudes are needed to cope with external pressures. (Kreitner and Kinicki, 2004). hen, refreezing means the new behavior and attitude become integrated into the normal standard operating procedures of the organization. hen, the external pressures of positive reinforcement, modeling and coaching should be used to encourage the desired behaviors continuance. 'Change and constancy are relative…… [Read More]
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]
(Kimble; Hilgad; Maquis, 1961)
(c) Explain the ole of ewad and punishment in you selected leaning situation of 'How to ide a Bike'
A lot of avesive events ae thee inclusive of withholding einfocement i.e. extinction, emoving a positive einfoces i.e. esponse cost and pesenting an avesive event contingent on a behavio i.e. punishment. The same vaiables that influence the effectiveness of einfocement also influence the effectiveness of punishment, inclusive of the immediacy with which a negative event follows a behavio, the intensity of the event, and the schedule of punishment. It is impotant to compehend that punishment constitute an inescapable aspect of life which individuals tend to lean though both punishing consequences and positive consequences. Fo instance in the selected leaning situation of how to ide a bike, if the leane is not watching whee he is going, he will sustain a fall which is a punishment fo him.…… [Read More]
Class room management holds extreme importance in the process of teaching. It is mandatory for a teacher to manage her class effectively in order to achieve her predetermined instructional goals. 'Successful classroom management involves much more than rules and discipline. Indeed research into classroom management demonstrates that effective teachers are proactive about student behavior, and they involve students in the process of establishing and maintaining rules and routines'. (Strong, 2007)
An effective instructional is dependent on various factors, and a properly managed classroom is definitely one of those factors. There is no way that a teacher can achieve her desire objective, if the process of teaching is taking place in a poorly managed classroom. A properly managed classroom along with attractive materials can definitely attract the attention of students and involve them in the process of learning. Management of classroom is also important to avoid any unnecessary wastage…… [Read More]
Extinguishing the behavior through negative reinforcement
Differential reinforcement of high-rate behaviors: positive reinforcement of desired behaviors
Antecedent: The teacher asks the student to clean up the cafeteria tables.
Behavior: The student is disrespectful and kicks over a garbage can.
Consequence: The student is given a 'time out' in the classroom with his head down.
Negative reinforcement of problem behavior
Unintended consequence: Defiant student gets to leave and not clean up classroom.
Antecedent: Teacher is not paying attention to Alicia and is helping another student with an assignment.
Behavior: Alicia tries to get the teachers' attention by banging on the metal chair with her heels.
Consequence: Teacher reprimands Alicia.
Unintended consequence: Alicia gets teacher's attention, and some attention is better than no attention at all for Alicia.
Antecedent: Brandon is asked to stay at his desk and finish his work before leaving.
Behavior: Brandon defies the teacher and leaves…… [Read More]
Latent learning; this is the type of learning that takes place oblivious of the reinforcements that are applied though these reinforcements can be useful later on in the process of learning. It is the education that is instantly expressed in a response that is obvious. Here, an organism may be learning but the information learnt is not instantly expressed (obert Jensen, 2006). For instance, a child may watch the elders set the table and they may not instantly set the table but will store that knowledge and information till the day and time that they will need it.
Insight learning; this is the understanding that one has even without much effort or many trials and errors. This type of learning allows the person to be able to form associations between events and objects that can help them solve new challenges that may come their way (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011 ). This…… [Read More]
Strengthening a desirable behavior in someone can be a challenging experience. The use of psychological theories about learning may help make for a quicker and more effective instructional process. Therefore, adopting these principles in strengthening study skills is more likely to result in positive outcome.
Activity: Increasing study skills
Developing and improving study skills is a gradual and long-term process. This program will incorporate the following skills.
Effective reading of academic texts
Development of academic writing style
Revising and sitting examinations
There will be mentoring of these activities through supervision. Supervision will take the form of checking class activities and assignments as well as oral interviews. This will be done after introduction of the skills. There will also be assessment method featuring periodic continuous assessment tests. The monitoring and assessment will incorporate the use positive and negative reinforcement.
Shaping: as one of the monitoring…… [Read More]
" Nevertheless, the research to date indicates that participative management techniques can provide a major return on the investment. According to Angermeier, Dunford and Boss (2009, p. 127), "Employee perceptions of the extent to which their work climate is participative rather than authoritarian have important implications for critical work attitudes and behavior."
The research to date has confirmed that employees in highly participative work environments outperformed their counterparts in nonparticipative management organizations (Angermeier et al. 2009). For example, a study by Angermeier and his associates found that employees working in participative management settings provided 14% better customer service, committed 26% fewer clinical errors, demonstrated 79% lower burnout, and were 61% less likely to leave the organization than employees in more authoritarian work environment. According to Angermeier et al. (2009, p. 128), "These findings suggest that participative management initiatives have a significant impact on the commitment and productivity of individual employees."…… [Read More]
Motivation in Behavior
a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?
Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he…… [Read More]
cognitive psychology, learning theories are significant in both their variety and the different ways in which researchers approach "knowing." Within the sphere of cognitive psychology the cognitive learning theory is among the most popular areas of study. The cognitive learning theory suggests that learning is a behavioral change based on the acquisition of information about the environment. Bandura (1986) suggested that what individuals think and feel about themselves necessarily impacts subsequent individual behaviors. As a theory of learning, social cognitive theory is based on the notion that individual's learn by watching others perform and that the internal thought processes people have are critical for a proper understanding of the individual (Santrock, 2008).
The two theories I choose to research for this assignment are Albert Bandura's observational learning theory and B.F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. While both theories involve theories of learning, the differences between the two theories are significant.…… [Read More]
For instance a child performs poorly in examination and the parent decides to withdraw his promise to take the child to the zoo during the holiday.
Positive punishment; it is a process by which stimulus is immediately added after a specific behavior so that future frequency of the behavior is decreased. A good example is of a pick pocket is taken to prison and subjected to learning of a given artwork so that when he comes out of prison he can make his own money through the artwork learned.
Negative punishment; it is a process by which stimulus is removed immediately after a given behavior so that future frequency of that behavior is decreased. Example is when a student performs poorly in class and the parent decides to cut down the student pocket money, the pocket money acts as the stimulant that has been removed hence a negative punishment.
The…… [Read More]
Psychology Foundation of Learning -- Coping with a disobedient Child
Punishing the child to create a change in behavior would be one method to employ at the camp. This could be accomplished by creating an avoidant behavior punishment strategy by withdrawing the presence of the leader and the group, from the girl, when the child engages in self-harm or bites another individual. The punishment could involve forcing the girl to spend a 'time out' period in the camp director's office or in her bunk under the supervision of a reliable person, but not someone whom the girl feels the same positive feelings towards as her friends and the group leader. Or, the girl could be assigned an additional duty to the directive she initially refused.
Method II: Substitution
Substituting an alternative behavior by reinforcing an incompatible response in the girl is another possibility to deal with her behavior. The stimulus…… [Read More]
Also, commonality of age reinforces common social concepts of what a marriage should be like, thus creating further reinforcing social bonds between husband and wife. The reinforcement of reflective social identities such as the female self as yielding and the male as more dominant, as well as variables of age of this couple means it is the most likely to remain together for the next 3-4 years. Furthermore, the longer such a couple stays together, the more likely the pattern is to continue. A male individual with a high need for control coupled with a female dependant individual are likely to create a change-adverse marriage that reinforces both individual's constructed identities and creates a socially validated norm of a happy marriage.
Contrast this sense of stability and happiness, however socially constructed upon stereotyped identities, of the partners of cell 8, the couple most likely to separate. The partners of this…… [Read More]
psychological concepts. In some questions, specific scenarios were also given and we had to analyse them with reference to psychological concepts. Over all, this assignment broadened our knowledge of psychology and improved our thinking skills.
To answer this question, first we have to understand the meaning of gender. While sex refers to the biological differences between males and females, gender refers to the sociological differences between males and females. Gender however can be influenced by biological differences but it basically is a social phenomena. Gender differences can vary in different cultures and societies. For e.g. most of the females work in the U.S. But many women in Asian countries do not go to work. So if women and men were classified on basis of going to work, then women in U.S. would be very different from women in the Asian countries.
Let us now talk about gender roles. Gender roles…… [Read More]
Self-Monitoring in Education
Putting individuals with "intellectual disabilities" and "challenging behaviors" into regular classrooms is clearly a good idea - the educational literature supports this. But what happens once they are in the classroom? How does one then improve the social behavior and learning opportunities of these students? One idea, cooperative learning (also called peer tutoring), does show some promise; however, another idea based around the technique of self-monitoring/self-recording is specifically highlighted in the article under discussion. This method (which trains a student to identify, record and modify inappropriate behavior) was introduced to a certain thirteen-year-old girl named Pauline who had lived in a Romanian orphanage for ten years and had suffered "severe deprivation and abuse." The specific behaviors targeted in Pauline were stereotypic in quality (body-rocking and hand gazing) as well as consistent in quantity (they occurred consistently throughout the school day).
This "targeting" of behavior took the form…… [Read More]
From Skinner's perspective, Jane's abusive relationships with men are the result of being 'rewarded' for being stereotypically vulnerable or flirtatious in a feminine fashion: only by acting this way is she not beaten and rewarded with compliance from men. The causes of Jane's behavior are positive reinforcement for sexual behaviors and negative reinforcement for independence in the form of physical punishment. This pattern will continue throughout Jane's life, unless she is de-conditioned from such a behavior pattern. A therapist would try to find a new, alternative system of rewards for Jane, such as encouraging her to seek out an education, where she would be rewarded for qualities other than submissiveness and sexuality.
Neuroscience & biology
From a more physiologically-driven perspective, a therapist might see Jane's and her father's behaviors as a result of a chemical imbalance, such as a deficit or excess of certain neurotransmitters, like dopamine or serotonin. The…… [Read More]
2. The following is a learning scenario using operant conditioning. A girl is mad at her boyfriend because he doesn't do the dishes enough. The boyfriend is the learner, and the behavior that needs to be learned is doing the dishes. Using operant conditioning, the girlfriend can teach the boyfriend to participate more in household chores by either withholding sex from the boyfriend (punishment); yelling at him (negative reinforcement); or being extra nice to him when he does do the dishes (positive reinforcement).
3. Mnemonic devices are one of the best ways to improve memory in certain situations. One way a person could apply mnemonic devices is to try to memorize people's names, something that can be hard to do at a party. So if a woman's name is Meg and has blonde hair, the person can remember her name by associating it with Meg Ryan. Or if a guy…… [Read More]
Self and Others
The manner in which people view themselves has been shown to be an important predictor of their behavior, achievement, and physical and psychological health. There has been a growing trend in recent years to promote a positive self-view in young people through the avoidance of failure. Increasingly, positive reinforcement is provided for merely taking part and trying rather than succeeding or failing, with little regard to the long-term consequences of such practices. To help identify the long-term implications of such practices, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine whether keeping children from having to face failure provides them with an accurate view of themselves as they relate to the people around them and others around them. A discussion concerning how, as these children grow and mature, they will likely deal with cognitive dissonance and failure in their lives is followed by a summary…… [Read More]
By providing more time for children to be in school, the program takes away dangerous time that students will be on the streets making negative alliances. Additionally, by increasing home-school interactions and providing greater access to teachers, the program may offset some of the negative conditions caused by single parent homes.
Because studies have suggested that juvenile alliances and socioeconomic status, as well as other social conditions, are some of the causes for juvenile delinquency, addressing those causes has become an important method to avoiding juvenile offenders, victims, and witnesses of violent crimes. ith schools being a major part of children's lives during childhood and adolescence, teachers and administrators, with programs like KIPP, must take on the burden of preventing or counterbalancing these social conditions that lead to juvenile delinquency. Although the process of doing so may seem difficult to teachers who have been educated primarily in instructing and only…… [Read More]
Discuss the relevant information about the student's behaviors. What factors early on contribute to how she is today?
Liz, a 15-year-old high school Freshman, has been exhibiting certain behaviors lately and in the past that have been affecting her today. Liz has been functioning below grade level academically. She cannot work independently, "hates" school, and rebels against all authority. She is defensive and uses abusive language. She tends to blame others for her carelessness and seldom takes responsibility. According to Liz's parents, Liz seldom slept enough when she was younger, so as to give them a break from her behaviors. As Liz grew older, she began to react impulsively. She has been caught distributing drugs and refuses to get tested, psychologically.
There are certain factors, from the past, that may have contributed to how Liz is today. First of all, Liz seemed to be deprived of sleep, early on,…… [Read More]
Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.
Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.
Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.
Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.
Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.
Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…… [Read More]
Analysis of the crime scene
After Jeffrey Dahmer was sentenced, he was taken to the Correctional Institution of Columbia, located in Portage; a town in Wisconsin. During his first incarceration year, Dahmer was confined separately in order to keep him physically safe in case he interacted with other prisoners. With his consent, when the first solitary confinement year was over, Dahmer was taken to a unit that was less secure. Here, he was made to work for two hours each day; he used to clean the ablution block.
Apparently, Dahmer adapted well to life in prison, although he had at first been separated from the other inmates. He ultimately managed to convince the authorities to let him interact more with his fellow prisoners. Dahmer learnt religion from photos and books he received from his father. The Correctional Institution of Columbia even allowed him to go through baptism; it was…… [Read More]
Babies -- Birth to Year One
Thomas Balmes' 2010 documentary Babies portrays the stage of development that infants undergo from their birth to their first year. Focusing on four culturally diverse families and lifestyles, the film gives its viewers insight into how a child's cognitive and physical developments manifest throughout 12 months of life. One surprising aspect of the child's development stage that was shown in the documentary was the fact that even through the different parental backgrounds the basic stages that infants undergo remained ultimately the same. The children cried at certain physical impacts, they gurgled and laughed at forms of amusement, they began to speak and form words in their own languages, and they moved on to crawl, stand, and walk by the end of their first year. Regardless of nationality -- Namibian, Japanese, Mongolian, and American -- and the methods used by cultural and lifestyle constraints, there…… [Read More]
Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.
Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.
Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…… [Read More]
') (Tingstrom et al., 226) in correspondence with the example provided by the researchers responsible for this evaluation, it may be deduced that such method of positive reinforcement implementation is best suited to a younger educational context such as grammar school. It may only be considered appropriate to attach the positive consequences of individual efforts with the capabilities of an entire class in settings where future prospects such as class rank and college admissions have not yet entered into the discourse over performance motivators.
Tingstrom et al. also identify the independent group-oriented contingencies, which "involve consequences, and criteria for all group members, but access to reinforcement for each group member is based on each member's performance (e.g., 'whoever makes a 90% or higher on the end chapter math test will be able to pick a prize from the treasure chest.' (Tingstrom et al., 226) in many ways, this has proved…… [Read More]
Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. atson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.
During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…… [Read More]
The behavior conditioning arises from the punishment not being liked, and therefore the behavior is avoided.
The last form of reinforcement, extinction, occurs when a reaction to a certain behavior is denied and removed, and resultantly the unwanted behavior is decreased, if not terminated. An example of extinction reinforcement includes a child who hides behind furniture in an attempt to gain attention - which is a response that has previously been positively reinforced. hen the child's attention-seeking actions are subsequently ignored, the behavior decreases, if not stops.
Research indicates positive reinforcement is the most powerful of the reinforcement paradigms (Heffner). Other methods of operant conditioning, such as punishment, can potentially summon additional negative responses such as anger and resentment. In situations of positive reinforcement, both parties involved focus on the positive aspects of the experience, which adds to the fulfillment of the desired behavior.
Examples of reinforcement principles from my…… [Read More]
Managers dislike unmotivated employees and for a good reason. Having such employees can bring down the success of a business in an instant. As a result, it is very imperative for a manager to utilize financial motivation or non-financial motivation to its employees to keep his or her business alive. This paper will provide three ways in which a manager can motivate its workers. The first method is alternative work arrangement. The second method deals with positive reinforcement. The third and final method involves satisfier and hygiene factors.
Alternative Work Arrangements
One motivational technique that employees and employers seem to benefit from is alternative work arrangements, which include compressed workweeks, flexible work hours (flextime), job-sharing, and telecommuting (Lombardi and Schermerhorn, 2007). Compressed workweeks reduce how many days a week an employee works by allowing him or her to work more hours per day. Both parties benefit from this…… [Read More]
Time-Outs in the Classroom
Time-Outs for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Time-Outs for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
On the second page of a 2010 report published by the National Disabilities ights Network (NDN) called School is Not Supposed to Hurt is a picture of a 7-year-old girl who died while being restrained and secluded in a Wisconsin school. This report went on to describe the wide-spread used of restraints and seclusion by schools in the United States and its publication triggered a congressional investigation. The Government Accountability Office (GAO, 2009) published its own report a few months later, which examined 10 court cases resulting in criminal convictions, civil adjudications, or settlements. These 10 cases formed the basis for judging the veracity of hundreds of allegations of mistreatment, injuries, and death resulting from children being restrained or secluded by school personnel. Even more troubling was the…… [Read More]
Self-Concept is what one believes about themselves. These beliefs stem from the notion of unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard takes place when individuals, especially parents, demonstrate unconditional love. Conditioned positive regard is when that love seems to only come when certain conditions are met. ogers's theory states that psychologically healthy people enjoy life to the fullest and thus they are seen as fully functioning people (Humanistic Perspective, n.d.).
Abraham Maslow felt that individuals have certain needs that must be met in a hierarchical fashion. These needs are grouped from the lowest to the highest. These needs are seen as including basic needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, achievement needs, and ultimately, self-Actualization. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, these needs must be achieved in order. This means that one would be unable to fulfill their safety needs if their physiological needs have not been…… [Read More]
A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior
Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability
Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition
If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws
Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences
Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible
APA rules for research studies
Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject
Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions
Trace conditioning…… [Read More]
The fact that getting back into these activities will remove the negative reinforcement of somebody else doing her job around the house might change her behavior and get her to move around much faster.
As previously mentioned, all of these things that were mentioned are decided by an evaluation and a decision of the things that still motivate Dorothy's mother, assuming that she has not reached an age where she is indifferent about things. Dorothy can promise, as positive reinforcements, small gifts as well, such as books or music, which can grow in importance and value once the willingness to become independent again starts manifesting with Dorothy's mother. Some of the negative reinforcements will simply include things like removing some of the bitter medicine from the list of medicines that needs to be taken under all conditions.
There are several situations or conditions when punishment will fail to enforce…… [Read More]
Organizational Behavior and Teamwork
Southwest Airlines, Inc. has become an example of notable success. One reason for its significant achievement is its application of Reinforcement Theory to its employees. These applications have resulted in a highly motivated workforce, which is intimately tied to Southwest's success among business leaders. Even so, not even Southwest can satisfy its employees' needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy; rather, Southwest can only give some raw materials for satisfying those needs.
Are Southwest Airlines Inc. leadership and policies fulfilling Maslow's Needs Theory stages?
Abraham Maslow's 5-stage needs theory, developed in the United States during the 1940's and 1950's (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010), includes the following stages: biological and physiological needs; safety needs; belongingness and love needs; esteem needs; and self-actualization (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010). The most basic needs that are basic to survival and are at the bottom…… [Read More]