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Almost all of the advice or moral guidance given here, such as "In serving his superior the man of honor makes every effort to be faithful when he is in office," is geared towards making things runs smoothly in a practical fashion (Classic of Filial Piety, p. 68). Virtue is still important for virtue's sake, but is directly tied to practicality and pragmatism.
Even stronger evidence of the joining of philosophy and practicality is found in the virtues expected of (or desirable in) women, according to a later tract. An honorable widow, who learns that her son desires to travel but is scared that she is too old to make the journey, tells hi, "whether you go depends on what you consider right, whether I follow depends on the rules of propriety" (Women's Virtues and Vices, p. 73). While virtue here seems to take precedence, with both son and mother…
education is that it should be rooted in reason, and in this sense it is based in the philosophical principle of modernism identified by Knight, namely that human reason has the ability to see and understand the world around it, identify its nature and laws and extrapolate its meaning (2008, p. 87). At the same time, however, I also approach education in the sense that there remains a mystery to the world that our human reason cannot always understand. In other words, I see a transcendent reality that exists above us -- and this is rooted in the classical philosophical traditions of the Greeks (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle). I do not view approach as very postmodern in the sense of Hume, Kant, and Nietzsche, who finally stated that there is no truth but what the human mind constructs (Knight, 2008, p. 89). I believe this is to place too much emphasis…
Knight, G. (2008). Issues and alternatives in educational philosophy (4th
ed.). Berrien Springs, MI: Andrews University Press. Retrieved from http://universitypress.andrews.edu
Koonce.G. (Ed) (2016), Taking sides: Clashing views on educational issues expanded (18
Ed.). McGraw Hill Publishers.
The business plan is therefore dependent upon these abilities and constraints. The abilities and constraints that the environment provides are furthermore tempered by the inherent abilities of the business person him- or herself. The third dimension of pragmatism is the constraints and abilities provided by the surrounding society. Hence, entrepreneurship is dependent upon the external physical and social environment, as well as internal factors such as inherent abilities and resources.
When applying this to entrepreneurship policy, the three factors need to be integrated to provide the best possible opportunities for entrepreneurs. According to the OECD (2011), one of the first important focal points should be the local community, where an entrepreneurship development strategy should be implemented. To ensure that all pragmatic factors are integrated, key partners should mutually agree on a clear strategy for entrepreneurship aims. These should focus specifically upon the needs and capabilities of the community of focus.…
Kraaijenbrink, J. (2008, May 22-23). The Nature of the Entrepreneurial Process: Causation, Effectuation, and Pragmatism. Dutch Institute for Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurship (NIKOS). Retrieved from: http://doc.utwente.nl/73744/1/Kraaijenbrink.pdf
OECD (2011). Entrepreneurship Policy Delivery. Retreived from: http://www.oecd.org/document/21/0,3746,en_21571361_38013663_38040823_1_1_1_1,00.html
pragmatism and analytic philosophy uniquely American movements? What elements of American culture (way of life) connect to why those two movements evolved in the U.S. What ideas make them different from the way Europeans of the same period were thinking?
Pragmatism could be called a kind of anti-philosophy. It stresses 'what works' rather than attempts to provide an overarching theory about the nature of the universe. William James, the founder of American pragmatism called ideas 'road maps,' rather than tools that were valuable in and of themselves. Abstract philosophy could not improve human existence. Pragmatists believed that philosophical ideas were valuable based upon the demonstrated benefit that they have to individuals and society, not as metaphysical abstractions.
The concept of pragmatism was well-suited to the American idea that class was an irrational idea, and that hard work should demonstrate one's merit. Proof was in the 'pudding' or the execution, not…
In Medieval times Christianity took over as the dominant form of ethics and through feudalism, divine law organized social and political hierarchy. As religiosity was replaced by humanism, and the Catholic church by alternative viewpoints (Protestantism) political and social structures were torn apart, forcing change and a decline in the structure of feudalism and the opening of a new, more individualistic, some say greedy, system of capitalism. Philosophies of the Age of Englitenment further distanced themselves from using religion as the sole basis for structure with such philosophers as John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Rene Descartes and others holding that human existence was more individual -- and therefore more dependent upon individual morals and judgements. Romanticism took these ideas and, through fusion, merged them with ideas on nature, emotion, and the grand capacity for actualization, but again, through the individual (Tumin and Plotch, 1977; (luhm and Heineman). The modern age is…
Bluhm and Heineman. (2007). Prudent Pragmatism and Consensus: Case Ethics in Monist and in Pluralist Society. In B. a. Heineman, Ethics and Public Policy: Method and Cases (pp. 39-48). New York: Prentice Hall.
Hamilton, Jay and Madison. (1998, July 1). The Federalist Papers. Retrieved September 2010, from Project Gutenberg: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1404
Hildebrand, D. (2003). The neopragmatist Turn. Southwest Philosophy Review, 19(1), 46-54.
Rescher, N. (2003). By the Standards of Their Day. The Monist, 86(3), 469-80.
The participation of the citizens to the political life of the country is limited to the election of their representatives. Here some might wonder according to which criteria these representatives take their decisions.
The actions were believed to be dictated either by the final results or by the ethic code which they might respect. Regardless of the approach, the fact stands that if the citizens wish to have a better control upon the manner in which resources are used and society is managed, they must get involved at a deeper level. The latest tendencies demonstrate that more and more people are drawn by the possibility they have to impact the political decisions. This happens through the organization of the civil society (in the lack of organization there could be no actual decision making).
It has also been argued that in order to be able to speak about real democracy, the…
Neo-liberal policy theories are best understood when delineating Williamson's (1990) "Washington's Consensus" that first introduced and pioneered the concept.
Williamson sought to transfer control of the economy from the public to the private sector believing that this would improve the economic health of the nation and make for a more efficient government. His 10 points included the recommendations that: tax reform would encourage innovation and efficiency; that by governments running large deficits they were, potentially, ruining themselves; that public spending should be redirected to more humane systems such as pro-growth and pro-poor services; that there should b trade liberalization policies as well as encouraging opportunities for investment in foreign projects; privatization of state enterprises; fianncialiaziton of capital; deregulation of restrictions that hamper competition; and privation of state enterprises.
Whilst on first blush, neoliberalism seems to cohere precisely with pragmatism in that it encourages private competition and seeks to transfer power…
Felkins, L. (1997) Introduction to Public Choice Theory,
James, W. 1907. Pragmatism: A New Name for some Old Ways of Thinking, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
-- -- 1909. The Meaning of Truth, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
High school and college students use digital media extensively.
Their typical digital media habits and practices are dangerous.
They often publish personal information that can be used for exploitation.
In many cases, information they publish can harm them in the future.
Willenz, P. (2003). "Internet use involves both pros and cons for children and adolescents: Some youth benefit from Internet use while for others it can exacerbate self-destructive behaviors." American Psychological Association.
etrieved July 10, 2010 from:
Hypothesis # 4
The availability of digital social media has increased the incidence of extramarital affairs by providing a convenient medium for initiating anonymous social overtures.
Digital media have been used extensively to conduct illicit sexual affairs.
The privacy of the medium permits secrecy from spouses and significant others.
The anonymity of digital communications facilitates deception in social overtures.
Hertlein, K.M. And Piercy, F.P. "Internet Infidelity: A Critical eview of…
Hertlein, K.M. And Piercy, F.P. "Internet Infidelity: A Critical Review of the Literature." The Family Journal Vol. 14 (2006): 366-371.
Dreaming argument & Pragmatism
The Blumenfelds' argument in regards to dreaming is essentially that since we have dreams that resemble real life experiences, we cannot be certain that at this moment we are not dreaming, given that the character of our experience does not always alert us to the fact that we are in a dream state. Austen's objection to this is that simply being able to say that dreams have a 'real life' quality presumes that one knows what real life is, as distinguishable from dreams. Austen demands that there must be a particular reason to distrust one's senses and think that one is dreaming (Slides 15-16). "It is possible to recognize cases of deception only if there is a background of general non-deception" (Slide 17).
For a Pyrrhonian Skeptic, one must remain in a continual state of doubt. However, the Blumenfelds' argument suggests doubts in the ability…
"A pragmatic approach is a theoretical integration that attempts to bring various theories together through the development of a theoretical framework that can explain the environmental, motivational, cognitive and affective domains of the individual… [hence] with psychologists, truth is changeable… [and] new truth replaces old truth as new truth is theorized, conceived, or discovered…" (Kanu, 2011, Practical Roles of Pragmatism in Pastoral Counseling Ethics).
The Role of Pragmatism in Pastoral Ethics
Pragmatism in pastoral ethics should be embraced by preachers every Sunday -- or on Sabbath mornings, if the church observes Saturday as the day of worship -- which means that the pastor is basically being careful to not delve into subjects that are to controversial and may offend some in the congregation. This paper discusses pragmatism and ethics in pastoral situations.
Martha Ellen Stortz explains in her peer-reviewed article that two years after the terrorist attacks on…
Kanu, Alusine M. (2011). Practical Roles of Pragmatism in Pastoral Counseling Ethics.
Retrieved February 16, 2012, from http://www.articlebase.com .
Stortz, Ellen. (2003). Ethics in the Pulpit? Dialog: A Journal of Theology, 42(4), 351-355.
Wicks, Robert J., Parsons, Richard D., and Capps, Donald. (2003). Clinical Handbook of Pastoral Counseling. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press.
There was a debate at the highest levels of Chinese government as to how to handle the problem, with some arguing for stricter regulation and others insisting that the substance simply be banned (Hanes & Sanello, 2002; Bello, 2005). The voices calling for an outright ban of the substance eventually won out, and thus the cultural detriment that opium presented led directly to the band that sparked two wars (Page, 2003).
The decision to outlaw opium in China did not, of course, stop the opium trade or the use of opium by Chinese citizens, but it did have a significant impact on both business and the internal and external perceptions of Chinese government and culture (Page, 2003; Bello, 2005). Ultimately, China as a whole was forced to acknowledge that it could not remain completely independent either economically or culturally, and that the world had grown in its networks and relationships…
Bairoch, P. (1995). Economics and World History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bello, D. (2005). Opium and the Limits of Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Hanes, W. & Sanello, F. (2002). The Opium Wars. Naperville, IN: Sourcebooks.
Melancon, G. (2003). Britain's China Policy and the Opium Crisis. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
How I might implement the traditional philosophies in my teaching would be in this manner: idealism would be used to teach students that they should strive for something higher, some goal that is an ideal, a virtue, a good -- something like perfection, for example. It may not be possible, but by striving for it, we tend to achieve more than would otherwise be possible. Realism would be used in conjunction with ensuring that students nonetheless remain grounded in reality; for example, a student may want to be able to write a novel by the end of the year. This kind of thinking can be promoted along with idealism, but realism would be employed so as to not cause the student to be disappointed when the end of the year comes and the student cannot write a novel -- in this sense, I would say, "Yes, write a…
Knight, G. Issues and alternatives in educational philosophy (4th ed.). Berrien Springs,
MI: Andrews University Press. Retrieved from http://universitypress.andrews.edu
Koonce, G. (2016) (Ed.), Taking sides: Clashing views on educational issues expanded
(18 Ed.). McGraw Hill Publishers.
Peculiar Ethics of Public Leadership: Pragmatism as a Framework for Action in Public Service
The objective of this study is to examine pragmatism as a framework for action in public services. Towards this end, this work will conduct an extensive review of literature in this area of study.
According to the work of Keith F. Snider entitled "ethinking Public Administration's oots in Pragmatism: The Case of Charles A. Beard" reports that pragmatism because very prominent "around the turn of the 20th century…through the ideas of well-known writers such as William James and John Dewey." (2008) Comaeger (1950) stated that pragmatism is "almost the official philosophy of America." (Stever, 2008) The work of Shields (nd) explains that classical pragmatism "is attractive because it has both depth and complexity." Shields states that these characteristics "have made it difficult to summarize and easy to misinterpret." (nd) Classical pragmatism has been held by scholars…
Dewey, J. (1927). The public and its problems. New York: Henry Holt.
Dewey, J. (1929). The quest for certainty. New York: Minton, Balch.
Dewey, J. (1998). The essential Dewey (vol. 1, L.A. Hickman & T.M. Alexander, Eds.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Garrison, J. (2000) Pragmatism, and Public Administration. Administration & Society; Sep 2000; 32,4:ABI/INFORM Global.
John Rawls' theory…. In his book A Theory of Justice John Rawls offers readers a "Kantian Interpretation" of his "original position," according to an essay in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SAP). First, a review of Rawls' "original position" will set up the explanation of his Kantian link. Rawls posits (in his "original position") that in understanding his philosophy readers should imagine themselves as "…free and equal" and as willing to agree to "commit themselves to the principles of social and political justice" (SAP, p. 1). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy asserts that the "main distinguishing feature" of Rawls' "original position" is "the veil of ignorance" (SEP, p. 1). hat that means is that in order to be certain there is a total "impartiality of judgment, the parties are deprived of all knowledge of their personal characteristics and social and historical circumstances" (SEP. p. 1).
In the original position (the…
Brooks, Thom, and Freyenhagen, Fabian. (2005). The Legacy of John Rawls. New York:
Continuum International Publishing Group.
Piccard, Richard. (2003). A Theory of Justice, by John Rawls. Ohio University. Retrieved February 20, 2012, from http://www.ohio.edu/people/piccard/entropy/rawls.html .
Rorty, Richard. (2007). Pragmatism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February
Pragmatism emerged from the writings of John Dewey who believed that experimentation was the best approach for educating young minds. For example, pragmatists feel that field trips, educational excursions etc. are more effective in teaching students about the world instead of audio-visual aids. Pragmatism includes such as thoughts as futurism, and educational humanism and econstructionism. Pragmatic education philosophy doesn't assign a traditional role to the teachers who are only seen as guides and not exactly more knowledgeable beings. George . Knight in his book on education philosophies explained that pragmatism focuses on real life experiences as the main source of knowledge and education. They gives the example of field trips as he says that for a child to learn about dairy products, its better to take him to a barn and let him experience the whole thing himself instead of showing him a movie on the subject.…
John Dewey, Democracy and Education (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1916)
Knight, George. Philosophy & Education, An introduction in Christian Perspective, Berrien Springs, Michigan: Andrews University Press. 1989
Existentialism from Dostoevsky to Sartre, Edited by Walter Kaufmann, The World Publishing Company, 1956
On the contrary, for Kant, to live a moral life is to live a life that is lived almost completely because of obligation (Moran, Rein & Goodin 2008, p 354). Someone can still do something that is their duty, but that doesn't mean that what they do isn't immoral. A simple example would be if a person owed money: in Kantian morality, if a person paid back the money simply because they owed it and they felt it was their moral obligation to do so, this would be moral; however, if a person paid back money only because they thought that it would help them out if they ever needed to borrow money again, this would be immoral.
Kantian morality -- or the ethical system that we call "deontological" (luhm & Heineman 2007, p. 26) -- has to do with whether or not "its rules do not allow us to…
Bardach, Eugene. (2008). A practical guide for policy analysis: the eightfold path to more effective problem solving. CQ Press; 3rd edition.
Bluhm, William. & Heinemann, Robert A. (2007). Ethics and public policy: method and cases. Longman.
Fischer, Frank. & Miller, Gerald J. (2006). Handbook of public policy analysis: theory, politics and methods. CRC Press; 1st edition.
Moran, Michael., Rein, Martin. & Goodin, Robert E. (2008). The Oxford handbook of public policy. Oxford University Press.
192). his begs for an empirical objective analysis of performance.
In a constructivist approach, which was essentially that used by O'Meara (2004), the more open-ended and subject-driven the research is, the better (Creswell 2009, pp. 8). his approach leads to very clear results given the scope of questioning and sampling used by O'Meara (2004); focusing on the perceived benefits of post-tenure review on faculty performance amongst a group of individuals (faculty and administration) who in this case were well-aligned in their perspective would necessarily lead to conclusive results according to this worldview. A similar analysis of public and student views on the topic, however, would likely lead to very different results, and this worldview inherently lacks appropriate structures for synthesizing such disparate conclusions in an objective manner.
his worldview has specific bearings on certain aspects of the study's finding's. O'Meara (2004) specific concerns concerning the effects of post-tenure…
The pragmatic worldview has both the clearest and the least applicable bearing on the issue at hand. On the one hand, t is easily argued that all that really matters in the issue are the practical outcomes -- post-tenure review is meant to improve faculty performance, and pragmatism would therefore hold that it is a good practice if it succeeds in this, and useless if it doesn't (O'Meara 2004, pp. 179-82; Creswell 2009, pp. 10). This is abundantly clear, but there is little to no agreement amongst various groups as to the actual practical effects of post-tenure review. This study showed that faculty consistently believe they are doing exemplary work, and thus that post-tenure review will have no effect (O'Meara 2004). Student groups and certain administrators (not in this study) have established a need for greater accountability in tenured faculty, and advocate the use of post-tenure reviews for this purpose. An empirical study of the practice's actual effects would be necessary before a true pragmatic conclusion could be drawn regarding post-tenure review.
This makes it clear that no single worldview is adequate in addressing this issue. There is a need for advocacy and the inclusiveness of the constructivist approach, but given the disparity in views ultimately an empirical (i.e. postpositivist) and pragmatic determination will need to be made. An understanding of each of these four worldviews and their perspectives on the post-tenure review is necessary to a full understanding of the issue.
students spend the other half of our time in our class doing hands-on laboratory and project work that is interesting and relevant to our lives (essentially pragmatic ideals). easoning and deduction are good, but we as a learners forget a concept we do not see and practice. To this end, my teacher made a laboratory investigation a major part of our curriculum, giving us the opportunity to observe and to put concepts into practice twice a week. Laboratories are done cooperatively with small groups of students. Sometimes written questions guide us through the thinking process to a specific conclusion. At other times, our teacher give us a single concept that we must somehow derive with no detailed questions to guide us (a pragmatic approach). Our teacher strives to ensure that investigations are relevant to our lives.
Once each semester, we also have the opportunity to undertake an in-depth investigation in…
John Dewey: Father of Pragmatism. (2005). Retrieved July 14, 2005, from Scholastic Inc.
Web site: http://teacher.scholastic.com/products/ect/dewey.htm
Philosopher - John Dewey. (1998). Retrieved July 14, 2005, from tec.uno.edu
Web site: http://tec.uno.edu/George/Papers/EDCI6658/Dewey.html
.....personal ethics derive from a combination of established codifications of moral conduct, such as those embedded in political documents or in religious scripture, but also from my personality, my upbringing, and my worldview. I tend towards a utilitarian point-of-view, in that I do believe that the consequences of actions are more important than worrying about whether an action is inherently right or wrong. I also believe that there are situational variables that make true deontological ethics almost impossible to apply universally and without hypocrisy. Although I make some decisions based on the principle of doing the maximum amount to good for the maximum number of people, I also recognize the importance of a strong ethical character when making decisions "Six Ethical Theories Rough Overview," n.d.). This is why I believe that there can be no one ethical theory that encompasses all situations. A person who has a strong ethical character,…
Putting someone in a classroom is only half of the feat; getting the person to want to learn and be open to knowledge and learning is another thing.
An advocacy or participatory worldview holds that "our world is co-created both by the given cosmos and by how we comprehend it and make choices within it" (Heron 2001). This type of worldview in regards to learning -- e-learning or traditional learning -- is not completely unlike the constructivism theory. Though our world is created by something outside of ourselves, how we live in that world and what we choose to do is completely up to us. This means that no matter whether we are sitting on a computer learning in our living rooms or whether we are in a classroom, what we are being offered and what we are comprehending is all up to the learner and choices are made by…
Heron, J. (2001). Transpersonal co-operative Inquiry. Handbook of action research,
participative inquiry & practice (pp.333-339). CA: Sage Publications.
Daymont, Blau (year) name of publication.
Walls, John. (2000). E-learning vs. face-to-face training: and the winner is… Houston business journal. Retrieved on September 4, 2010, from the Website:
Even the most idealistic young teacher will quickly realize that while the dog did not eat the student's homework, something stopped the student from completing the assignment. eality will seep in, and the teacher will have to adapt to that reality. Existentialism may assist the good teacher in that adaptation process. The teacher that assimilates existentialism into the classroom can help the students understand that they must take responsibility for their own actions, their own deeds, and the homework or project that was (or was not) completed is solely due to their own efforts or lack thereof. The student that learns (and the teacher that teaches) the truths of distractions will both be rewarded accordingly. Distractions can be the cause of anger, anxiety, despair and boredom and if the unlucky student falls victim to those distractions or the underlying emotions brought on by those distractions, then more than just…
Esi, M. (2010) Promoting the human values beyond prejudice and stereotypes, Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti Bulletin Educational Sciences Series, Vol. 62, Issue 1A, pp. 140-146
Moore, A.; Edwards, G.; Halpin, D.; George, R.; (2002) Compliance, resistence and pragmatism; the reconstruction of schoolteacher identities in a period of intensive educational reform, British Educational Research Journal, Vol. 28, Issue 4, pp. 551-565
Certainly, there are implications of idealism, realism, pragmatism, and even existentialism in teaching models; but when it comes to what works in the classroom, one can use a model based on utilitarianism with a constructivist bent and find their way through what has become a mire of philosophical argument. Utilitarianism holds that the most ethical thing one can do is any action that will maximize the happiness within an organization or society. Actions have quantitative outcomes and the ethical choices that lead to the "greatest good for the greatest number" are the appropriate decisions, even if that means subsuming the rights of certain individuals. It is considered to be a consequential outlook in the sense that while outcomes cannot be predicted the judgment of an action is based on the outcome -- or, "the ends justify the means." Deontology is similar, arguing that there are norms and truths that are…
Barone, T. (2000). Aesthetics, Politics, and Educational Inquiry. Peter Lang Publishers.
Dougiamas, M. (1998, November). "A Journey into Constructivism." Retrieved from Dougiamas.Com: http://dougiamas.com/writing/constructivism.html
Eun, B. (2008). "Making Connections: Grounding professional Development in the Developmental Theories of Vygotsky." The Teacher Educator, 43(2), 134+.
Kim, S. (2005). "The Effects of A Constructivist Teaching Approach." Asia Pacific
Condors eat dead squirrels but the colossal birds also consume the poisons intended only for those squirrels. The Condors talk to each other, fearing extinction, introducing naturalism. In 1985 the last 22 Condors are plucked from their tortured habitat and taken to the San Diego Zoo and other venues for captive breeding.
Fast forward to 2012. n ristotelian plot structure with mind-bending irony -- first utilizing the reversal of fortune followed by society's recognition (anagnorisis -- a sudden discovery) that takes people from ignorance to knowledge -- could be a model useful for an enterprising screenwriter delving into the Condor's fate. The reversal of fortune is the demise of the Condor due to human interventions, intended and unintended. That many informed humans have gone from ignorance to knowledge completes the second part of ristotle's plot formula.
s to the irony in proposed ristotelian plot, take Oedipus Rex, for example. In…
As to the irony in proposed Aristotelian plot, take Oedipus Rex, for example. In the masterpiece by Sophocles, Oedipus launches an investigation into who murdered his father, and learns to his chagrin and shock that he alone murdered his father. A screenwriter in 2012 that is blending real-world reality with fictional / naturalism narrative would be to have the father of a little boy (who is fascinated with these enormous birds with the longest wingspan of any bird in North America) investigate -- at the urging of his son -- the reasons some recently released California Condors are seriously ill and dying.
It turns out the father is a member of the National Rifle Association (NRA), a group that refuses to accept the empirical science that shows Condors are poisoned when eating the carcasses of deer and other critters that have been shot with lead bullets. The father's investigation ironically points to his own organization as helping to kill Condors and he can't bear to tell his son, who is already heartbroken that some Condors are dying. This Oedipus-like irony could be considered Aristotelian. it's a father-son plot drenched in angst, descriptively genuine, written with the literary weapons of the future of hope colliding with history.
In conclusion, this not about a "Free Willy" plot. It is about a battlefield between the emerging conservation-minded generation now in middle school and those who are in benign denial as they kill natural world species. The details involve a restless adolescent revolution; thoughtlessness, greed, and adult resistance to good conservation are crushing the natural world. The brilliant, creative genius of a young boy -- who figures out a way to entertain the public (against the will of his parents) with a video that depicts not the toxic resistance of NRA members but the joy of a youthful future -- fits like a glove into the rough draft of a screenwriter searching for fresh themes in a world chocking on old themes.
This is only using the mind as a metaphor for intelligence, however, which would again be a problem for James and would also be a problem from an ontological perspective. In order to consider whether or not Watson has a mind, and indeed whether or not any computer could ever have a mind, a consideration of Gilbert Ryle's thoughts concerning the nature of the mind is very much needed. Ryle asserts that the misunderstanding of the split between the mind and the body that has been a philosophical problem since at least the time of Rene Descartes arises because people misunderstand the nature of the mind by equating it with the body. Though the body is part of what Ryle calls the "deterministic system" of the world and though people have tried to explain the mind using the same deterministic system, what is meant by "mind" in this sense has…
Shaping of the Colonies in 1763
There have been few eras in human history possessed with more of the expectant optimism, and the grim pragmatism, than the century following first contact with the new world of North America. With an expansive landmass, the size of which more than doubled that known to citizens of any European country at the time, brimming with natural resources and lying open for exploration and settlement, many thinkers of the age shared Benjamin Franklin's fateful estimation, made in his tract America as a Land of Opportunity, which claimed "so vast is the Territory of North-America, that it will require many Ages to settle it fully." Penned and published in 1751, Franklin's treatise on the seemingly infinite riches to be reaped by the American colonies failed to fully anticipate man's overwhelming compulsion to compete for the control of land. While America's preeminent philosopher was prescient in…
Bonus Army Invades Washington
With his stirring yet scholarly account of one of America's defining internal conflicts, the Bonus Army's contentious 1932 march on Washington, historian Edward Robb Ellis manages to capture the shared desperation of both the destitute veterans protesting for proper pay, and the depleted government struggling to balance promises with pragmatism. Ellis' deftly written analytical article entitled The Bonus Army Invades Washington manages to convey with astonishing clarity the unique confluence of historical circumstances which led to the Bonus Expeditionary Force's fateful demonstration at the nation's capitol. Utilizing a narrative tone which is at once casual and cerebral, Ellis leads his reader from the killing fields of World War I to the postwar partisanship that plagued Washington, D.C. In the 1930's, covering the collective concerns of an unsteady nation by delving into the personal experiences of the major figures involved. Throughout the article, Ellis harnesses a subtly…
conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement
Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.
Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…
George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 http://www.nationalreview.com/22dec97/mcginnis122297.html . National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis
Volume Library #2, p. 2146
Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism
McGinnis, National Review Online
theory-building, applied research is conducted to solve a problem. Action research is conducted to solve an immediate problem experienced by a practitioner; the problems that are addressed through action research exist in the context or environment in which they conduct their professional work. A construct is an abstraction -- an idea that exists in the mind; if an abstraction is based on something concrete or tangible, it is a concept, but if it is based on something hypothetical or inferential, then the abstraction is a construct. The most important difference between qualitative research and quantitative research is that quantitative research is deductive in relation to the hypothesis, which is determined before the research has actually begun. Quantitative research uses a deductive approach that moves from the general case to the specific. In this manner, the deductive approach considers the potential cause of some phenomenon and explores whether its effect can…
Lodico, M., Spaulding, D., & Voegtle, K. (2010). Methods in educational research: From theory to practice (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
They are instead marketed as extensions to existing graduate courses of study.
Defining an e-Marketing Plan for MGSM
From the competitive analysis, MGSM has significant competition regionally and nationally in the area of certificates. There are several lessons learned from this competitive analysis however which can make MGSM's Certificate program more competitive. First, MGSM needs to realize that there is a continuum of pragmatism vs. prestige that certificate programs align to, as is seen in the competitive analysis completed. The use of accreditation is the foundational element of all successful educational marketing programs (Cornuel, 2007) and MGSM needs to use this as the foundation of their e-marketing planning efforts. Accreditation is a measure of credibility in academic markets (Cornuel, 2007). MGSM needs to define accreditation levels for each of its certificate programs to attain the highest level of credibility possible. Second, MGSM needs to develop a specific, defensible niche of…
Adel I. El-Ansary. (2006). Marketing strategy: taxonomy and frameworks. European Business Review, 18(4), 266.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Christy MK Cheung, Matthew KO Lee, & Neil Rabjohn. (2008). The impact of electronic word-of-mouth: The adoption of online opinions in online customer communities. Internet Research, 18(3), 229-247.
Eric Cornuel. (2007). Challenges facing business schools in the future. The Journal of Management Development, 26(1), 87-92.
rhetoric in modern day proceedings, the topic will reflect the modern day influence that rhetoric has on governmental processes from decision making to laws that are passed in Congress.
The paper shall deal with the importance of rhetoric in modern day proceedings, with its influence on governmental processes from decision making by Presidents to that of the Congress, The paper shall argue that rhetoric is far moved away from reality.
The terminology 'rhetoric' traces its origin in different periods of time in its different interpretations. Its different interpretations at different times led people to seek its origin in many ways and in varied histories. At times it is used disparagingly as oral out bursting of radicals; at other times it is generalized as a public speech. Traditionally, it is also seen to be used to indicate a branch of study relating to speech. People are also seen to use the…
Short and Highly Idiosyncratic History of Rhetoric. Retrieved at http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~robertsmiller/histrhet.html. Accessed on 15 July, 2004
Bennett, Drake; Pauken, Heidi. All the President's Lies. The American Prospect Volume. 14 no. 5, May 1, 2003 Retrieved from www.prospect.org/print/V14/5/bennett-d.html. Accessed on 15 July, 2004
Bostdorff, Denise; Goldzwig, Steven. Idealism and pragmatism in American foreign policy rhetoric: The case of John F. Kennedy and Vietnam. Presidential Studies Quarterly; New York; Summer 1994; Volume: 24, Issue: 3, p.515
Friedlin, Jennifer.Scorecard on Bush Finds Rhetoric Gap. March, 08, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.womensenews.org/article.cfm/dyn/aid/1740Accessed on 15 July, 2004
Synthesize traditional and progressive education for today's students. Education digest. Vol. 68, Issue 7, 4-8. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=9317873
Cohen, L.M. & Gelbrich, J. (1999). Philosophical perspectives in education. Oregon State University, School of Education. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP2.html
Moser, .D. (1951, July). The educational philopophy of William T. Harris. Peabody Journal of education. Vol. 29, No. 1, 14-33 etrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www. Jstor, org/stable/1489104
Nehring, J.H. (2006, February 1). Progressive vs. traditional: eframing an old debate. Education week. Vol. 25, Issue 21, 32-33. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=19705742
Neil, J. (2005, January). John Dewey: Philosophy of education. Experimental learning. Wilderdom.com. etrieved January 17, 2011, from http://wilderdom.com/experiential/JohnDeweyPhilosophyEducation.html
Sternberg, J., & Zhang, L. (2005, Summer). Styles of thinking as a basis of differntiated instruction. Theory into practice, 44(3), 245-253. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=111&sid=4dc68d17-580a=4983=af18=762283ca50ef%40sessionmgr114
Ackerman, D.B. (2003, March). Synthesize traditional and progressive education for today's students. Education digest. Vol. 68, Issue 7, 4-8. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=9317873
Cohen, L.M. & Gelbrich, J. (1999). Philosophical perspectives in education. Oregon State University, School of Education. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP2.html
Moser, R.D. (1951, July). The educational philopophy of William T. Harris. Peabody Journal of education. Vol. 29, No. 1, 14-33 Retrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www. Jstor, org/stable/1489104
Nehring, J.H. (2006, February 1). Progressive vs. traditional: Reframing an old debate. Education week. Vol. 25, Issue 21, 32-33. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=19705742
I view education holistically. Students are developing their character and their values in addition to facts and figures. Language learning is a critical component of character development because language mastery enhances cross-cultural communication. A fellow teacher offers a powerful statement on the role of progressivism in the classroom: "In a progressivist classroom, teachers plan lessons to arouse curiosity and push the student to a higher level of knowledge. The students are encouraged to learn by doing and to interact with one another. This develops social virtues such as cooperation and tolerance for different points-of-view," (Wilt 2003). A progressive teaching philosophy acknowledges the persistence and potency of change. Optimism and creativity will motivate my students to achieve, inspiring their curiosity and ability to think critically.
The means by which I will achieve my teaching objectives include the use of proven classroom management techniques, the implantation of creative cooperative learning strategies, and…
Haugen, L. (1998). Writing a Teaching Philosophy Statement. Iowa State University. Retrieved online: http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching/philosophy.html
Sofsian, D. (n.d.). Teacher education philosophies. Retrieved online: http://ezinearticles.com/?Teacher-Education-Philosophies&id=227410
Wilt, B.L. (2003). A personal philosophy of education. Retrieved online: http://schoolmarm.org/main/index.php?page=p-genphil
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…
Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.
Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…
Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;
Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.
Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.
Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
Psychology and Teaching- The Importance of Art
How Childhood Events develop a lifetime in Art
One of the crucial times in an individual's life is early childhood. Early childhood acts as the basis for all later undertakings in one's life. It is not only the kids who suffer in case we, as a community, fall short in meeting their needs. We, the community, also suffer as a result. It is essential to note that their achievements are also our achievements. According to a recent report, the cost of every high school dropout is approximately at $292,000 (Sum, Khatiwada, McLaughlin, & Palma, 2009). Dropping out from high school is not a singular incident, but also a conclusion of several factors, commencing in early childhood. Encouraging parents and kids in the childhood years would possess some influence into elementary school, high school, early years of adulthood, and far beyond. The executives of…
Adolf Hitler: Biography and Character. (2015, September 20). Retrieved from www.suu.edu/faculty/ping/pdf/hitlerbiography.pdf
Brown, J. (2008). Educating the whole child Curriculum Development. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and.
Clark, E. (2012). A Psychological Analysis of Adolf Hitler. Washington DC: University of Mary.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Health policy is a term that is commonly used to refer to plans, decisions, and initiatives that are carried out to accomplish specific goals relating to delivery of health care and promoting the well-being of individuals within a community. As a result, these plans, decisions or initiatives usually incorporate a vision for the future, which is essentially the expected outcome of its implementation. The vision for the future helps in establishing specific targets and references in the short- and long-term of the implementation of the policy. Notably, the development and implementation of the policy is characterized by some major political forces since politics is the basis of policy making. An example of a current health care policy is the Affordable Care Act of Maryland.
Affordable Care Act of Maryland
The Affordable Care Act of Maryland is an example of a current health policy issue that was enacted in 2010 to…
Cohn, J. (2014, September 29). 7 Charts That Prove Obamacare Is Working. Retrieved September 19, 2015, from http://www.newrepublic.com/article/119623/obamacare-one-year-seven-charts-show-law-working
"How Will the Uninsured in Maryland Fare Under the Affordable Care Act?" (2014, January 6). The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved September 20, 2015, from http://kff.org/health-reform/fact-sheet/state-profiles-uninsured-under-aca-maryland/
Kitces, M.E. (2015, May). Navigating the Affordable Care Act: Understanding the Law and Planning Implications for Clients. Journal of Financial Planning, 28(5), 28-35.
Murray, R. (2009, October). Setting Hospital Rates to Control Costs and Boost Quality: The Maryland Experience. Health Affairs, 28(5), 1395-1405.
" (Montessori, 9) There is a counter-intuitive disconnect between the priorities of the educational system and the real-life demands of individuals attempting to function ably therein.
Here, Montessori speaks to the incredible irony present even in higher education, where students are essentially intended to be prepared for the real world but are instead isolated in a false environment where priorities such as a streamlined means of graded evaluation, a disregard for the physical or emotional needs of students and an overall proclivity toward isolation from true conditions of worldly socialization tend to misappropriate crucial transitional learning years.
In some regards, Montessori's work is relatively outdated, betraying its origins in the first half of the 20th century by criticizing an absence of services that are now present in many universities. Some of the better funded academic institutions do possess programs availing medical treatment and psychological counseling to students where needed at…
Axelrod, P. (2005). Beyond the Progressive Education Debate: A Profile of Toronto Schooling in the 1950s. Historical Studies in Education
Beyer, L.E. (1999). William Heard Kilpatrick. International Bureau of Education, XXVII (3).
Calhoun School (CS). (2009). Progressive Education. Calhoun.org.
Davies, S. (2002). The Paradox of Progressive Education: A Frame Analysis. Sociology of Education, 75, 269-286.
In fulfilling these initiatives the delivering of exceptional value and knowledge to prospects and customers to attain the role of trusted advisor and earn lifetime customer loyalty is the ultimate measure of effective marketing." There is a strong emphasis on setting and exceeding the expectations of customers and also striving to deliver exceptional value both in terms of insights and intelligence as well. Above all this definition focuses on how to create trust and attain the role of trusted advisor with customers, regardless of the market orientation being B2B or B2C. The intent of this definition is to make sure all components or areas of a marketing strategy are working in conjunction with each other, synchronized to deliver exceptional results over time. In that way the focus of the marketing strategies is on internal process clarity and outward, to meeting and exceeding customers' expectations so trust can be created and…
Bill Baker. (2009). Your Customer is Talking - to Everyone: Social media is the new channel for customer connection. Information Management, 19(4), 20.
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Ruth King. (2009, January). 13-Word Marketing Definition: Work to get clients and not customers. Reeves Journal, 89(1), 16.
David M. Raab. (2009). Tools to Support Social Media Marketing: Choose an application within the framework of an enterprise strategy. Information Management, 19(4), 27.
Religious Daoism has reconciled itself with philosophical Daoism by claiming its purpose as "cultivating this special epistemic ability, obediently following teachers and traditions. The philosophical strain's emphasis on natural spontaneity, freedom and egalitarianism, leads them to favor political anarchy." (Hansen, 3) as a result, while Religious Dao tends to views itself as a complement to the philosophical doctrine, philosophical Dao rejects such a relationship. Instead, there is a perception in the relativist worldview that religion, or any such social organization designed to pigeonhole the purposes of Dao's questions or parables, is in fact a subversion of its most important values. However, we are at least reconciled in our own distance from the faith aspects of Dao's observance. Instead, we find that when taken together, the core elements of Daoism bear great relevance to our understanding of Buddhist spiritual traditions just as they do to our understanding of eastern philosophical impulses.…
Brooks, P. (1997) Taoism: Growth of a Religion. Stanford Hansen, C. (2003) Taoism (Daoism). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Online at < http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/taoism/ >
Miller, J. (2001). Envisioning the Daoist Body in the Economy of Cosmic Power. Daedalus, 130.
OCRT. (1998). Taoism (a.K.A. Daoism). Religious Tolerance. Online at http://www.religioustolerance.org/taoism.htm >
Pregadio, F.. (1996). The TAOIST CANON (DAOZANG). Kenyon College. Online at http://www2.kenyon.edu/depts/Religion/Fac/Adler/Reln270/Daozang.htm .
Deontology and Consequentialism
An Analysis of "Rightness" from Deontological and Teleological Perspectives
Deontological ethics stems from the notion that one is obliged by duty to behave in a "moral" manner. There are a number of theories that range from moral absolutism to Divine Command theory that may be described as deontological, but each differs in its approach to "morality" even though each recognizes an "obligation" to attend to a set of rules. In contrast to deontological ethics are teleological ethics, which gauge the morality of one's actions by their consequences. A number of theories may be classified as teleological, such as utilitarianism, pragmatism and consequentialism. This paper will explore the ideas behind deontological and teleological ethics and show how an approach to "morality" must observe at least some objective standard, and that it is the objective standard that makes an action "right," and not the dutiful adherence to the standard…
Dreier, Jamie. "In defense of consequentializing."
Horgan, Terrry; Timmons, Mark. "Untying a Knot from the Inside Out: Reflections on the 'Paradox' of Supererogation."
Locke, John. "Essay Concerning Human Understanding." Bartleby. Web. 27 Nov
As the leader of the free world, the United States remains in the limelight as the rest of the world keeps a keen eye on how they conduct their affairs. As it appertains to constitutional interpretation, the U.S. has a sound philosophy dubbed 'living constitutionalism.' In the American constitutional dispensation, as in other countries, the letter of the law is unequivocal. That notwithstanding, many agree that every society is dynamic in nature. As such, as society keeps changing, there is a growing need for the constitution to be equally as dynamic in view of various considerations. Implementing and enforcing the letter of the law as stated in constitutional clauses often has its shortcomings. The concept 'Living Constitutionalism' revolves around humanizing the law. By adding the element of humanity in the law, the constitution gains a dynamic element. This idea relates to the view of the society as contemporaneous,…
Alstyne, William Van. 2010. "Clashing Visions of a "Living" Constitution: Of Opportunists and Obligationists." Cato Supreme Court Review 13-26.
Balkin, Jack M. 2012. "Panelist Papers: The Roots of the Living Constitution." Boston University Law Review 92, 4:1129-1160.
Denning, Brannon P. 2011. "Common Law Constitutional Interpretation: A Critique." Constitutional Commentary 27, 3:621-645.
Dodson, Scott. 2008. "A Darwinist View of the Living Constitution." Vanderbilt Law Review 61, 5:1319-1347.
Verification of Interpretation -- Trustworthiness
Dependability and Confirmability
Advanced Qualitative esearch Methods
The role of research methods knowledge and its benefits for social research is an area of debate and confusion since the beginning of the profession's inception (Austin, 1983). Central to this understanding is the broader context of social research as new found study areas. In social research, the knowledge of research methods helps in selecting appropriate method for a particular area of research as well the knowledge of strengths and weaknesses of particular methods can lead a researcher to choose combine methods and adopt strategies to address the weaknesses of a particular method. In this research report the author intends to describe advanced qualitative research method, theory, practical implications, ethical consideration as well as types of advances research methods, the importance and significance of employing qualitative research methods, the sampling procedures and data collection and analysis…
Bates, R.A. (2005). Mulivariate research methods. In R.A. Swanson, & F.H. Elwood (Eds.), Research in organizations: Foundations and methods of inquiry (pp. 115-142). San Francisco, CA: Berrstt-Koehler.
Borg, W., & Gall, M. (1989). Educational research: An introduction. White Plains, NY: Longman.
Carspecken, P.F. (1996). Critical ethnography in educational research: A theoretical and practical guide. NY: Routledge.
Churchill, Jr., & Gilbert A. (1998). Basic Marketing Research, Second Edition. The Dryden Press, Orlando.
Sino-U.S. elations in the Post-Cold War Era
Today, China and the United States are inextricably linked in the modern world and some observers maintain that any disagreements that emerge between the two countries are relatively insignificant and will not adversely affect this growing economic and political relationship. By contrast, other international analysts argue that recent trends in China's economic and military growth will inevitably result in armed conflict between these two superpowers. To determine the facts, this paper provides a discussion concerning the accuracy of these respective viewpoints concerning the status of Sino-U.S. relations in the post-Cold War era, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
China's development in the 20th century
The 20th century was a turbulent one for China, marred by major famines, foreign occupation and civil unrest.[footnoteef:1] Despite these problems and the enormous challenges in achieving self-sufficiency in food production, the…
Bruce, Jacobs J. "Looking North, Looking South: China, Taiwan, and the South Pacific," China Review International (Fall 2012) 19(3), pp. 367-372.
Buszynski, Leszek, "The South China Sea: Oil, Maritime Claims, and U.S. -- China Strategic Rivalry," The Washington Quarterly (2012), 35(2), pp. 139-156.
"China" (2015). CIA World Factbook. [online] available https://www.cia.gov/library / publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html.
"China economic profiles," (2015) NationMaster. [online] available: http://www.nation master.com/country-info/profiles/China/Economy.
Hofstede's National Culture Model
The term organizational culture did not emerge in the literature until the late 1970s and represents a relatively new addition that has gained a lot of attention since its introduction. Hofstede (1990) poses a series of questions that are directed towards organizational culture:
First, can organizational cultures be "measured" quantitatively, on the basis of answers of organizational members to written questions, or can they only be described qualitatively?
Second, if organizational cultures can be measured in this way, which operationalizable and independent dimensions can be used to measure them, and how do these dimensions relate to what is known about organizations from existing theory and research?
Third, to what extent can measurable differences among the cultures of different organizations be attributed to unique features of the organization in question, such as its history or the personality of its founder?
The quantitative measures of the cultures of…
Hofstede, G., Neuijen, B., Ohayv, D., & Sanders, G. (1990). Measuring Organizational Cultures: A Qualitative and Quantitative Study across Twenty Cases. Administrative Sciences Quarterly, 286-316.
McSweeney, B. (2002). Hofstede's model of national cultural differences and their consequences: A triumph of faith - a failure of analysis. Human Relations, 89-118.
The Hofstede Centre. (N.d.). What about Brazil? Retrieved from The Hofstede Centre: http://geert-hofstede.com/brazil.html
The Hofstede Centre. (N.d.). What about Saudi Arabia? Retrieved from The Hofstede Centre.
reason than his critique of Plato, Popper provides much food for thought about political philosophy, and especially the political philosophies underlying American society and government. So much modern critical theory and political philosophy is rooted in Plato that it is easy to take for granted that much of what is said in The Republic and other texts needs to be scrutinized. Plato was brilliant but not sacrosanct. I appreciate that Popper urges his readers to criticize Plato and cease believing Plato to be a sacred text. Criticizing Plato actually fulfills Plato's very own objective in his writings, which is to stimulate dialogue and discussion, promote open-mindedness, and encourage critical thought rather than blind faith. What else is the cave analogy if not an urging to readers to step outside the shadow world of falsehood and into the light of truth?
Ironically, Popper champions Plato by critiquing his arguments. Popper is…
Though the information can be used for policy advocacy, allowing social workers to lend their voices to those clamoring for greater attention to education and early prevention programs, the bulk of the article's information concerns hoped-for and suggested programs that are as of now not implemented, and the information covers many instances in which the social worker's hands would be legally tied in terms of seeking alternatives to imprisonment without the legislative changes suggested in the article. Still, this information can be used in a general way for viewing some common issues encountered by social workers in their practice, including the encouragement of seeking out and joining education and prevention programs for at-risk individuals and families on a voluntary basis and equipping the social worker with a better overall understanding of the current individual and societal needs and constraints of the system.
The long-term pragmatism and overall cultural and societal…
Such prohibition, Bentham contended, would be a contradiction to the preservation of individual rights. He even goes so far as to signal the necessity for a change in approach to contending with any questions regarding the prescription of rights, here channeled through the words of John Stuart Mill. The remarks seem directed in their derisive tone at the unempirical thinkers espousing the Law of Nature as a singular lens for evaluating human rights.
"Instead of taking up their opinions by intuition, or by ratiocination from premises adopted on a mere rough view, and couched in language so vague that it is impossible to say exactly whether they are true or false, philosophers are now forced to understand one another, to break down the generality of their propositions, and join a precise issue in every dispute." (Mill, 1)
Guided by the central principle that morality may defined as the creation, extension…
California Medical Association (CMA). (1973). Where We Stand -- CMA Position Papers: Abortion. Western Journal of Medicine, 116(6), 42-59.
Mill, J.S. (1838). Bentham. London and Westminster Review. Online at http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/bentham/bentham
Rachels, J. (1993). The Utilitarian Approach. The Elements of Moral Philosophy, pg.
91-101. New York: McGraw Hill.
The Bureau appears to have backed down under public pressure, adverse criticism compelling the Bureau to realize that its stance was indefensible. Clearly, the Orlando Code Enforcement Bureau could not justify the use of a public safety ordinance to force a local businessperson to remove the American flags displayed in her windows.
Thus, code enforcement in Florida, as in many other locations across the United States, is shaped by a variety of practical and theoretical considerations. Zoning laws are generally intended to maintain community uniformity. Community uniformity, especially where such homogeneity produces an image of wholesomeness, cleanliness, security, trendiness, etc. is usually considered an aid to increasing property values. If standards are maintained, property values will be maintained or even increased. Local communities commonly enact local controls that either reflect specific local conditions or augment state standards. The Orlando Code Enforcement Board attempted to enforce a hurricane safety ordinance against…
Arbuckle, Mark R. "Vanishing First Amendment Protection for Symbolic Expression 35 Years after United States V. O'Brien." Communications and the Law 25.2 (2003): 1+.
Korn, Donald Jay. "Choosing a Home That Has Value: How to Make Sure You Profit from Life's Biggest Investment." Black Enterprise Aug. 2003: 65+.
Liberty Counsel. "Displaying the American Flag Comes Under Fire." Life, Liberty and Family. 8 Sept. 2005. URL: http://libertyblogs.blogspot.com/2005/09/displaying-american-flag-comes-under.html .
Posner, Richard A. "Pragmatism vs. Purposivism in First Amendment Analysis." Stanford Law Review 54.4 (2002): 737+.
Here, Aristotle recognizes the variances which appear
to define our establishment of the means to pursuing happiness, musing that
"the characteristics that are looked for in happiness seem also, all of
them, to belong to what we have defined happiness as being. For some
identify happiness with virtue, some with practical wisdom, others with a
kind of philosophic wisdom, others with these, or one of these, accompanied
by pleasure or not without pleasure; while others include also external
prosperity." (Aristotle, I: 8) Aristotle uses this as a divining rod for
dissecting the various relationships which are perpetuated amongst
individuals. His argument engages in the dialectical process to discern
that which is 'good' apart from that which is 'evil' or 'neutral.' Through
such an engagement, he achieves a satisfactorily defended notion of 'good':
"Aristotle identifies the distinctively human phenomenon of
action arising from reason as the function of the human being:…
Eliot, G. (1872). Middlemarch. Penguin Classics.
McNickle, D. (1936). Surrounded. University of New Mexico Press.
Rachels, James. (1993). The Utilitarian Approach. The Elements of Moral
Philosophy, pg. 91-101. New York: McGraw Hill.
Rachels, James. (1993). Kant and Respect for Persons. The Elements of
Moral Philosophy, pg. 127-138. New York: McGraw Hill.
In America, the great pragmatists John Dewey and William James are blamed for the American university's current fallen 'state,' a state of freedom from shared morality.
However, Arden provides no statistical evidence or even anecdotal as to why American universities are morally lacking, other than the fact he disagrees with their embrace of the right of the individual learner to choose his or her own path. He makes the assumption that the reader agrees with his contention that American universities are morally bankrupt. Pragmatism's benefits, such as academic freedom of expression are completely discounted as having any positive influence upon higher education. While some of Arden's contentious, that American undergraduates are insufficiently community-minded, may have some (highly debatable) merit as topics of discussion, his preference for Luther's ideal of a university as a place of spiritual and moral rather than intellectual learning, and for limits upon undergraduate self-expression, are not…
Using catchy phrases like "rigorous, not ruthless," Collins repeatedly emphasizes the importance of the "right people." Being rigorous and attracting the right people means hiring self-motivated and creative individuals committed to the organization and who can be guided without being tightly managed. ith the current emphasis on human resources, Collins' advice will ring true for many managers reading Good to Great. Hiring and keeping the right staff may be one of the keys to success for organizations. Moreover, Collins claims that good-to-great organizations resist restructuring and layoffs, instead placing an emphasis on keeping the "right people" on the team for good.
Collins advises managers to "Confront the Brutal Facts (Yet Never Lose Faith)" in Chapter 4. In keeping with his theme on pragmatism, Collins compares a&P to Kroger to show the difference between mediocre success and greatness. The two grocery giants started off in nearly the same manner but only…
Collins, Jim. Good to Great. New York: Harper, 2001.
Many may call this pragmatism, and by following in the path of Christ, even unknowingly, is to embrace pragmatism is one's life. Sara Miles spent her time among the poorest people on the planet, similar to Christ's instruction that performing acts of kindness to the "least of these my brothers, you did it to me." (Matt. 25:40)
So when she finally decided to enter a Episcopal church and celebrate the Holy Eucharist, it would seem a natural extension of her life experiences. Food had always been an underlying, but important part of her, and there she was sharing the body and blood of Christ. She had always been involved in social justice, albeit in a secular way, and had not embraced the Christian Liberation Theology that was popular at the same time. This could have been caused by her acquired distrust of theological dogmas. However, it seems that the sharing…
Good News Bible: The Bible in Today's English Version. New York: American Bible
Society, 1976. Print.
Miles, Sara. Take This Bread: A Radical Conversion. New York: Ballantine, 2007. Print.
"Disaster" as a Trigger
Joseph Scanlon, Director of the Emergency Communications esearch Unit at Carleton University, states that the term "disaster" has undergone a transformation in the wake of 9/11. Its transformation is the center of debate for researchers whose work relies on an adequate definition and understanding of "disaster" -- yet Scanlon makes clear that he has been particularly struck "by how much of the debate [is]...influenced by awareness of various events and how much of that awareness [is] media related" (Scanlon 2005:13). In the field of emergency communications, that awareness has led to a new culture of "disaster" maintenance, and it has been largely influenced by media representation. According to Wolf Dombrowsky, "the term 'disaster' has only ephemeral significance. It is a trigger, a flag to signal a meaning, a stimulus to produce a specific reaction" (Dombrowsky 1998:15). Dombrowsky's assertion has been challenged by several researches, but…
Alexander, D 2005a, 'An Interpretation of Disaster in Terms of Changes in Culture,
Society and International Relations. What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old
Questions. [Ed. Ronald W. Perry & E.L. Quarantelli] International Research
Committee on Disasters.
The combination of these factors established a basic foundation for looking at the entire impact of specific ideas and events on the individual's cognitive system. (James, 2005, pp. 45 -- 132)
John Dewey was able to take these ideas and theorized that the social environment will have an impact on: the activities of the mind and ultimately individual behavior. At the heart of his beliefs, was the view that psychologists should move away from stimulus-based responses and towards understanding the entire neural pathway. This is when psychologists can comprehend how certain thoughts are impacting the behavior of the person. These principles are illustrating how Dewey was building off of the ideas from James to expand the role of functionalism. (James, 2005, pp. 179 -- 268)
James Angell took the ideas of Dewey and expanded upon them. Under this philosophy, he identified three major points of functionalism to include: studying the…
Functionalism. (2006). Stanford University. Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/functionalism/
James, W. (2005). James and Dewey. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Simon, L. (1996). William James Remembered. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
In this regard, Frye notes that, "The social changes appeared most profoundly to the majority of citizens not in the statistics of gross national product or the growth of technological inventions but in the dramatic occupational changes that faced fathers and sons and mothers and daughters" (1999, p. 4).
The innovations in technology that followed the Industrial evolution also served to shift the emphasis on education for agricultural jobs to more skilled positions as demand for these workers increased (Frye, 1999). In other words, as American society changed, so too did the requirements for American education and the process can be seen to be mutually reinforcing and iterative by Frye's observations concerning the effects of these trends on U.S. society during this period in American history. In this regard, Frye notes that, "With the change in types and numbers of occupations and their focus in towns and cities, other elements…
Coffey, a. (2001). Education and social change. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Frye, J.H. (1999). The vision of the public junior college, 1900-1940: Professional goals and popular aspirations. New York: Greenwood Press.
Kaminsky, J.S. (1999). A new history of educational philosophy. Westport, CT: Greenwood
Educational Theory: Dewey vs. Eliot
The contrast between the contemporary educational theories of John Dewey and Charles . Elliot cannot be subsumed under the dichotomies of 'right and wrong' so much as the two men's different sociological contexts, although the two men expressed contempt of one another during their respective lifetimes. Overall, Dewey stressed the idea of education through one's pursuit of a vocation and Charles . Eliot's stressed the need for education for education's sake for the vocations. Dewey believed education was a constant process, and that life was an education, while Eliot saw a strong dichotomy between university life and professional life, as well as those who were fit to become a part of the system of higher education and those who were not.
Dewey was a Midwesterner. He strongly believed in the democratic need for education. He advocated the end of entrance exams as necessary to enter…
University of Michigan: School of Education. "Thought and Action: John Dewey -- School Accreditation's Club." 2004. UMSOE Website. 24 November 2004. http://www.soe.umich.edu/dewey/schoolmasters/index.html
Self-esteem and self-efficacy are issues that are of primary importance. These are affected by a number of environmental factors, including immediate family, but also the environment in which a person moves, as well as the wider social environment.
Contextualism was promoted in 1942 by S.C. Pepper, and was previously known as "pragmatism." This term was often used in the work of Charles S. Peirce, William James, Henri
ergson, John Dewey, and George Herbert Mead (Morris, 1997). In psychological development, contextualism suggests the influence of a broad number of categories, beginning with the immediate family, and broadening to the peer group, society, and global environment. ehavior is therefore to be seen in the context not only of immediate family and peer influence, but also in the context of broader society.
According to Morris (1997), Pepper's use of the term "contextualism" first occurred during 1932, where he referred to John Dewey's…
Blunden, Andy. (2001, February). "The Vygotsky School." Spirit, Money and Modernity Seminar. http://home.mira.net/~andy/seminars/chat.htm
Blunden, Andy (1997). "Vygotsky and the Dialectical Method."
Domitrovich, Celene E. (2001, April). "Parenting practices and child social adjustment: Multiple pathways of influence" In Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. Wayne State University Press
Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
" Regan was able to discourage Congress' previous prohibitions for aid to UNITA and instead launched into the covert plan to leverage American weight on the side fighting the Marxist supporters. The Soviet Union reacted quickly; Cuban expeditionary forces were sent to the region in their satellite guerilla's aid and, in the bloody fight between ethnic groups in Angola, the larger Soviet-American conflict played out.
In 1987, the struggle came to a head. The United States assumed its supportive role for UNITA as reason preside over the tripartite negotiation that would end the civil war. At the bargaining table were also Cuban and South African forces, reaffirming the battle as one led by other issues more than directed by the cause of Angolan success. Cuba agreed to leave Angola, ultimately, but South Africa also agreed to relinquish its control over Namibia. Twenty years earlier, Marxist South-West Africa eople's Organization launched…
Perceptions of Che Guevera
PERCEPTIONS OF CHE GUEVARA
Che Guevara was born as Ernesto Guevara de la Serna in 1928 to a middle-class family (Castaneda 1998, 3). He was Argentinean by birth but was later awarded with an honorary Cuban citizenship in recognition of his contribution towards the armed struggle in the Cuban revolution. Studying to become a doctor, Guevara became influenced by Marxist ideals and teachings upon a motorbike trip across South America at the age of twenty-four where he observed the exploitation and deprivation of the poor people under capitalism (Castaneda 1998, 50). He became a champion of the class struggle against capitalism on an international level. He joined Fidel Castro in 1955 in overthrowing the Cuban government of atista. Subsequently, he became an important figure in Cuban diplomacy and a vocal critic of the United States and the Soviet Union. Later on he helped revolutionary groups…
Anderson, Jon, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Grove Press
Castaneda, Jorge, G. 2008. Companero: The Life and Death of Che Guevara. Bloomsbury Publishing
Harris, Richard, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Biography. ABC-CLIO
Salmon, Gary, P. 1990. The Defeat of Che Guevara: Military Response to Guerrilla Challenge in Bolivia. Greenwood Publishing Group
Soon U.S. invasion Afghanistan 2001, Bush administration developed a plan holding interrogating prisoners
Niday, I.A. (2008). "The War against Terror as War against the Constitution." Canadian Review of American Studies, 38(1), 101-117.
There are a number of essential elements that make up the article written by Jackson A. Niday, "The War against Terror as War against the Constitution." The principle point of this article is to explore the question of whether or not the civil rights of Yaser Esam Hamdi, who was a United States and Saudia Arabian citizen detained at Guantanamo Bay during 2002 after being captured in Afghanistan in the initial stages of the War on Terror, were violated. While seeking to answer this question, the author examines the 2004 Supreme Court lawsuit Hamdi v. Rumsfield in which legal counsel on behalf of Hamdi alleged that his rights were violated as a U.S. citizen -- particularly his right…
One of the fundamental questions I have after thoroughly reading this article is a point that was made in the abstract and was not quite sufficiently explained in the rest of the body of the paper. Specifically, it has to do with the legal philosophy known as pragmatism. I do not understand what this concept is and could not find a sufficient explanation in the remainder of the paper. I would like to know why the author claims that pragmatism was forsaken for "judicial and constitutional coherency" (Niday, 2008, p. 101).
An examination of a number of sources regarding various facets of the domestic and foreign policy propagated by the U.S. government unequivocally reveals that there is a definite incongruence with the values of liberty and justice that is reserved for conventional U.S. citizens, and that which is reserved for people from other parts of the globe. Quite simply, many of the notions that the U.S. contends to champion and preserve for its own people, it directly violates for the citizens in other parts of the world.