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Healthcare for Pregnant Women Comparison: U.S., Switzerland and Canada
A Comparison of Healthcare Options Pregnant Women in United States, Canada and Switzerland
The healthcare systems in Western societies do not assume that a woman requires health information; however, collectively, it has become well recognized that good information is necessary to a pregnant woman, and that understanding the stages of pregnancy, labor, and delivery is important to good perinatal care (Crook, 1995). This paper provides a comparison of the healthcare options available to pregnant women according to their income and insurance resources in the United States, Canada and Switzerland. A comparison of the respective healthcare systems for these nations will be provided in the summary, and a critique of the United States healthcare system will be provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Healthcare Options -- United States. The U.S. spends a larger percentage of its GDP on healthcare than does…
Barnes, D. (January 10, 2002). Group Fights 'Enormous' Problem of Teen Pregnancy. The Washington Times, 8.
Benoit, C., Carroll, D. & Millar, A. (2002). But Is It Good for Non-Urban Women's Health?
Regionalizing Maternity Care Services in British Columbia. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 39(4), 373.
Collins, C. & Williams, D.R. (1995). U.S. Socioeconomic and Racial Differences in Health:
Nurse Case Management for Pregnant Women Experiencing or at isk for Abuse," by Curry et al.
The research article chosen to critique is titled, "Nurse Case Management for Pregnant Women Experiencing or at isk for Abuse." This title accurately reflects the topic of the research study. The topic of the study is very specific and narrow. It would not be of broad interest to many nurses. However, the issue of having significant individual impacts on participants in a study that are not measured by the measures of outcomes utilized in the study would be of broad interest to researchers trying to design a study or nurses trying to apply the findings. It would be nice if this aspect of the study was also indicated in the title to broaden the number of readers who would find this article of interest. However, this article is of interest to me because I…
Curry, M.A., Durham, L., Bullock, L., Bloom, T., Davis, J. (2006). Nurse case management for pregnant women experiencing or at risk for abuse. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 35(2), 181-192.
Villar, J, Farnot, U., Barros, F, Victora, C., Langer, A., Beliza, J. (1992). A randomized trial of psychosocial support during high-risk pregnancies. New England Journal of Medicine, 174, 760-767.
OPIC: Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnancy
State the patient's chief complaint, reason for visit and/or the problem for which you are providing follow-up.
The client is a married, 28-year-old Asian woman who is 37 weeks pregnant. This is her second pregnancy and her first child is alive and living at home with both parents and she has no history of miscarriage. The client's chief complaint concerns her increasing problems with urination.
All symptoms related to the problem are described using the following cue descriptive categories:
Precipitating/alleviating factors (including prescribed and/or self-remedies and their effect on the problem).
The client presents with complaints of a constant need to urinate that causes a burning sensation. The client reports drinking cranberry juice in an effort to alleviate these symptoms but no other self remedies. The client denies tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug use.
Besides a burning sensation when urinating, the…
Delzell, J. E. & Lefevre, M. L. (2000, February 1). Urinary tract infections during pregnancy. American Family Physician, 61(3), 713-720.
Ectopic pregnancy symptoms. (2016). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Society for Women's Health esearch
Survey Design: Society for Women's Health esearch
The research study conducted by the Society for Women's Health esearch (2008) entitled "Surveys of adult U.S. women and doctors gauge perceptions about depression through hormonal transitions" is not designed to determine if it is actually safe for women to take medication for depression during pregnancy and immediately after pregnancy but rather if most adult women believe that doing so is actually dangerous versus physicians with specialized knowledge. While the extent to which women are willing to seek out and accept treatment from a physician if they were pregnant and suffering from depression might be a valuable subject area for research, the survey also asked a number of other questions, such as what the respondents thought were the symptoms of depression; if they believed women suffered more from depression than males; and if they believed women were more…
Surveys of adult U.S. women and doctors gauge perceptions about depression through hormonal transitions. (2008). Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web//http://www.womenshealthresearch.org/site/DocServer/DepressionSurveyAnalysis
Good nutrition and healthy lifestyle are important to a better quality of life, but both can be crucial during pregnancy. Inspection of the research indicates that sound nutritional practices during pregnancy have always been considered important in the development of the unborn child Allen, 2005). However, good maternal nutrition may also be an important factor in the development of the fetus before the mother becomes pregnant and the effects of maternal nutrition on the fetus may extend well beyond childhood into adulthood (Barker, 1992).
Obviously the use of alcohol and certain drugs is not recommended during pregnancy. The consequences of alcohol and drug use during pregnancy have been well-documented and need not be discussed here (e.g., Streissguth, Barr, & Martin, 1984). With respect to pre-pregnancy plans, the National Institute of Health suggests three things that should be undertaken before a woman becomes pregnant: (1) both prospective parents should have physical…
Allen, L.H. (2005). Multiple micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation: An overview. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81(supplement), 1206S-1212S.
Barker, D.J.P., (Ed.) (1992). Fetal and infant origins of adult disease. London: British Medical Journal Books.
Godfrey, K.M & Barker, D.J.P. (2000). Fetal nutrition and adult disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71 (5), 1344-1352.
Institute of Medicine. (1990) Nutrition during pregnancy. Washington DC: National
Though successful treatment programs do exist, without the proper and adequate personal support systems for the individual women with substance abuse histories relapse is highly indicated (Goler et al. 2008; Dowdell et al. 2009). Nursing practice must take this factor into account when prescribing and providing care and seeking out methods for the long-term health and wellness of pregnant and post-pregnant patients.
Changes to Nursing Practice
Current research suggests that the most effective manner in which nursing practice can be altered to combat and/or mitigate the effects of substance abuse during pregnancy is through early detection of abuse through effective screening processes (Neushotz & Fitzpatrick 2008; Cox et al. 2007; Goler et al. 2008). Substance abuse screening is an obvious first step in the treatment of substance abuse issues, and often the identification and acknowledgement with the patient of the substance abuse problem presents a major step forward in the…
Cox, S.; Johnson, C.; Mekle, S.; Jamieson, D. & Posner, S. (2007). "Trends in rates of hospitalization with a diagnosis of substance abuse among reproductive-age women, 1998 to 2003." Women's health issues 17, pp. 75-83.
Dowdell, J.; Fenwick, J.; Bartu, A. & Sharp, J. (2009). "Midwives' description of the postnatal experiences of women who use illicit substances: A descriptive study." Midwifery 25, pp. 295-306.
Goler, N.; Armstrong, M., Taillac, C. & Osejo, V. (2008). "Successful substance abuse treatment program for pregnant women delivers new model of care." Journal of midwifery & women's health 53(6), pp. 567-8.
Neushotz, L. & Fitzpatrick, J. (2008). "Improving substance abuse screening and intervention in a primary care clinic." Archives of psychiatry nursing 22(2), pp. 78-86.
World-ank-assisted Women-in-Development project for Ethiopia proposes to socially and economically help vulnerable women participate and benefit from its increasingly expanding economy and opportunities in the private sector. It hopes to raise the standard of living of these women and contribute to alleviating poverty. On the whole, addressing all the constraints to the effective and realistic implementation of the National Policy on Women and forming grassroots women's organization would work towards building women's capability. This would then enable them to effectively verbalize their situation, aspirations and problems or sentiments about their economic, social and civic rights.
1. C (2006). Rural Ethiopian Women Are Most Abused. C.com. http://news.lbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6040180.htm
2. Gopal, G. (1998). Women in Ethiopia. The Women's Affair Office. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: the World ank. http://www.ethioembassy.org.uk/fact%20file/a-z/women-1.htm
3. U.S. Department of State. (2006). Ethiopia. AFROL Gender Profiles: Central Intelligence Agency. http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm
US Department of State, "Ethiopia," Central Intelligence Agency, http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm…
1. BBC (2006). Rural Ethiopian Women Are Most Abused. BBC.com. http://news.lbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6040180.htm
2. Gopal, G. (1998). Women in Ethiopia. The Women's Affair Office. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: the World Bank. http://www.ethioembassy.org.uk/fact%20file/a-z/women-1.htm
3. U.S. Department of State. (2006). Ethiopia. AFROL Gender Profiles: Central Intelligence Agency. http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm
US Department of State, "Ethiopia," Central Intelligence Agency, http://www.afrol.com/Categories/Women/profiles/ethiopia_women.htm
Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help?
If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view. Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help (for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action).
ut what are the exact principles of affirmative action: let us take a look at them and analyze them. Title VI, section…
"Access, equity and diversity, American association for affirmative action," Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://www.affirmativeaction.org/resources.html
Anderson, TH. The pursuit of fairness: a history of affirmative action, Oxford University Press, 2005
"Affirmative action" in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/
"Affirmative action- pros and cons, the origins of, legal treatment of, political and social debates, the future" in Encyclopedia. Jrank. Org., Retrieved October 25, 2010 from http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5916/Affirmative-Action.html
Not only was it cost effective but the study also reported that offenders who were treated in the community setting were 43% less likely to reoffend compared to the prison population clearly suggesting the effectiveness of community-based sentences. [Amanda Noblet, 2008, pg 27]
The criminal justice system is clearly unprepared and ill equipped to manage the unique needs of women in prison. There is clearly a need for a specific focus on Mental illness, sexual violence and drug abuse, reproductive health and other issues that are very relevant to the incarcerated female population. Clearly our female correctional facilities are under resourced and over crowded and overcrowded prisons are not ideal for reformation but instead create more problems. Since majority of women prisoners are incarcerated for minor drug related offenses and property crimes, a more liberal and effective reformative approach should be pursued. Community based alternative sentencing programs should be…
1) the Sentencing Project, (2007), 'Women in the Criminal Justice System: Briefing Sheets', retrieved April 25th 2010, from, http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/womenincj_total.pdf
2) Amanda Noblet, (2008), ' Women in Prison: A Review of Current Female Prison System: Future Directions and Alternatives',, retrieved April 25th 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Noblet%20-%20Women%20in%20Prison.pdf
3) Nancy Kurshan, 'Women and imprisonment in U.S.', retrieved April 25th 2010, from, http://www.prisonactivist.org/archive/women/women-and-imprisonment.html
4) Barbara Owen, 2010, ' Women in Prison', retrieved April 25th 2010 http://www.drugpolicy.org/communities/women/womeninpriso/
" (International Conference on Population and Development ICPD) (ibid)
However the meaning of reproductive right extends into other areas. For example, this includes the right to non-discrimination based on sex/gender and the right to privacy as well as the right to information. The issue of the reproductive rights for women becomes problematic and often fraught with controversy when it is applied to those infected with the HIV virus. This dilemma has far-reaching implications for the millions of women with HIV throughout the world.
3.2. Different perspectives
The different views on the subject of reproductive rights range from the more conservative view that all reproductive rights should be denied in Women with HIV to more perceptive views that links the denial of reproductive rights to other human rights issues. For example, one view from a survey conducted by the International Community of Women Living with HIV / AIDS (ICW) states that,…
Albury, R.M. (1999). Beyond the Slogans. St. Leonards, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Almond, B., & Ulanowsky, C. (1990). HIV and Pregnancy. The Hastings Center Report, 20(2), 16+. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Amaro, H., & Raj, a. (2000). On the Margin: Power and Women's HIV Risk Reduction Strategies. 723. Retrieved June 15, 2005, from Questia database,
Having a baby is a dream that many families have. Women in particular are associated with the idea and "dream" of having a child but men are pretty excited about it to when it comes, albeit also nervous. However, there is a danger when it comes to waiting too long before starting a family in terms of age. Whether it is career concerns, finding the right, the delaying of the marriage or what have you, there are multiple reasons that are common in today's society whereby women put off having families. An unfortunate byproduct of this pattern is that the risk of birth defects is much higher with children born of women over the age of 35. This report shall explore the precise and specific reasons that these birth defects why it is more common for women beyond the line stated in this proposal. Even with the increasing…
oman and Islam
Islamic religion has its established guiding teachings and principles that ensure its followers submit totally to the will of Allah for all the adherents. In effect, Islamic religion recognizes the fact that people and things around them affect their survival irrespective of their age, community, families, and the nation. The quality of life of the Muslims invariably affects the existence of the Islamic nations and religion as a whole. Muslim women are highly vulnerable to various health problems due to the strict religious ideation of most of the conditions that affect them. Islamic women as most of the women from other contemporary communities face numerous health challenges, including reproductive health problems such as increased cases of maternal death, destitution, poor access to maternal health services, and social violation of their human rights. As such, the health challenges make it necessary for the adoption of policies that recognize…
Agnew, Vijay. Racialized Migrant Women in Canada: Essays on Health, Violence, and Equity. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009. Print
Aswad, Barbara C, and Bilge? Barbara. Family and Gender among American Muslims: Issues Facing Middle Eastern Immigrants and Their Descendants. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996. Print
Atighetchi, Dariusch. Islamic Bioethics: Problems and Perspectives. New York? Springer, 2007. Internet resource.
Cortese, Delia, and Calderini Simonetta. Women and the Fatimids in the World of Islam. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Univ. Press, 2006. Print.
Despite representing half of the human population, until very recently women were not afforded the same rights and freedoms as men. Furthermore, in much of the world today women remain marginalized, disenfranchised, and disempowered, and even women in the United States continue to face undue discrimination, whether in the workplace, at home, or in popular culture. However, this should not be taken as a disregarding of the hard-fought accomplishments of women since 1865, because over the course of intervening years, women have managed to gain a number of important rights and advantages. In particular, after spending the nineteenth century largely isolated within the domestic sphere, over the course of the twentieth century women won the right to vote, the right to equal pay and housing, and freedom over their own bodies in the form of birth control. By examining the history of these important developments, one is able…
Adams, C. (2003). Women's suffrage: A primary source history of the women's rights movement in america. New York: Rosen Publishing Group.
Chen, L.Y., & Kleiner, B.H. (1998). New developments concerning the equal pay act.
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 17(1), 13-20.
Gordon, L. (2002). The moral property of women: A history of birth control politics in america.
Women have, for a long time, been expected to fulfill certain roles. These roles varied through the ages but have remained rooted in their main objective, to have women raise children and assist and serve their husbands (Vishwanathan, 1994, p. 34). Women are seen as the ones who stay home, tend the hearth, and raise the young while men are the ones that earn the money, own the property, and control the household. In literature, women are depicted often as fulfilling these stereotypical roles and also rebelling against them. Karen Van Der Zee's "A Secret Sorrow" and Gail Godwin's "A Sorrowful Woman" are two works of literature that demonstrate the lives of women who belonged to a society that required them to conform to their selected role. Both narratives establish the anticipated place of women in society, but do so from dissimilar perspectives. "A Secret Sorrow" has a female character…
Foster, C.D., Siegel, M.A., & Jacobs, N.R. (1988). Women's changing role (1988 ed.). Wylie, Tex.: Information Aids.
Meyer, M. (2002). The Bedford introduction to literature: reading, thinking, writing (6th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Vishwanathan, M. (1994). Women & society. Jaipur: Printwell.
But sometimes the victims themselves are afraid to voice their grievances in the public because speaking up entails shame, ostracization, and even extra-judicial killings. The victims can express their grievances in public "only at certain times and in certain ways" because their rights are infringed on social and cultural levels (Dewey).
The fact that cultural and traditional beliefs and attitudes contribute to violations of women's rights in a systematic manner can be observed by reading literature on the practice of dowry. Many Indian legal and philosophical thinkers use relativistic terms to contest the notion that the practice contributes to the abuse of women. They contest the notion because they argue the concept of human rights is a estern notion, sometimes disregarding cultural variations and sensibilities of the Indian nation (Gupta). The general critique of the concept of human rights as a western notion may be valid in some matters, but…
Dewey, Susan. "Dear Dr. Kothari': Sexuality, Violence Against Women, and the Parallel Public Sphere in India." American Ethnologist, 36/1 (2009): 124-139.
Duggal, Ravi. "The Political Economy of Abortion in India: Cost and Expenditure Patterns." Reproductive Health Matters, 12/24 (Nov. 2004): 130-137.
Grewal, Indu and Kishore, J. "Female Foeticide in India." International Humanist and Ethical Union. 1 May 2004. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
Gupta, Nidhi. "Women's Human Rights and the Practice of Dowry in India." Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 48 (2003): 85-123. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
Stocker, deaf since birth, admittedly attempted to compensate for her disability, her imperfection, through the relentless pursuit of achieving perfection physically and athletically, and even when she excelled, Stocker confesses, for a long time she remained emotionally tortured by disability for which no amount of body shaping or athletic skill in sports could change that disability (2001, p. 154). Stocker's struggle with her self-image, her identity and hers sexuality were in large part shaped by her disability.
While it is not an attempt here to disparage Stocker, or to belittle the significance of her disability; Stocker is a woman who suffered her hearing impairment from birth. Stocker suffered emotionally as a result of her disability, struggled with it for most of her life in the ways in which it impacted her self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. So, might not a woman who acquired a disability at that point her life when…
Barker-Benfield, G.J. (2000). The Horrors of the Half-Known Life: Male Attitudes toward Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Routledge. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The women whose husbands did serve the pro-Union cause (often Republicans) did not necessarily take over the farm work and other "male tasks" on the farm. Instead, the work was done with the "same kind of neighborhood and extended-kin support" that was in use prior to the Civil ar (Rodgers, 112).
Also, many soldiers wrote letters home "…virtually micromanaging their farms from the front," Rodgers continues (113). ives received a "steady flow of letters" with specific advice not only on how to run the farm, but on "how their children were to behave and be taught," Rodgers explained (113). And moreover, male farm laborers were available to harvest crops, and the women either paid them to harvest the wheat, or she gave them "a percentage of the crop" (Rodgers, 113). As for urban women in Indiana during the Civil ar, Rodgers explains that letters between wives and soldiers showed "gossip…
Brown, Alexis Girardin. "The Women Left Behind: Transformation of the Southern Belle,
1840-1880." The Historian. 62.4 (2000): 759-779.
Rodgers, Thomas E. "Hoosier Women and the Civil War Home Front." Indiana Magazine of History, 97.2 (2001): 105-128.
Walker, Henry. "Power, Sex, and Gender Roles: The Transformation of an Alabama Planter
Women of the South During the Civil War
Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War. (New York: Vintage Books, 1997).
Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War is a book about women in the South during the Civil War. The broader issue of this book is how women can empower themselves even in the face of hardship and - although the word is strong - the oppressions that society puts on them.
The preface to Faust's book contains a quote which Faust attributes to her mother:
I am sure that the origins of this book lie somewhere in that youthful experience, and in the continued confrontations with my mother, until the very eve of her death, when I was 19, about the requirements of what she usually called femininity. It's a man's world, sweetie, and the sooner you…
139). When she is "taken for a man," she is "not fat," because of the different gendered social norms related to body size (Bergman, 2009, p. 139). Thinness is also a type of privilege, as is external or socially acceptable beauty. Beauty ideals and norms are also tied in with race, culture, and class. Economic class and social class often determine access to healthy food, which is why low-income people are more likely to be obese and have related problems. Although generally, African-American women have healthier body images than white women, white cultural hegemony has started to infiltrate black culture, especially in what iley (n.d.) calls "bourgeois black families," (p. 358). iley's (n.d.) experiences reveal the interconnectedness, or intersectionality, between race, class, and gender. Just as it is important to recognize different gendered identities for women from different cultural backgrounds, it is also important to acknowledge that not all women…
A, Ijeoma. (n.d.). Because you're a girl.
Bergman, S.B. (2009). Part-time fatso. In The Fat Studies Reader. Eds. Ester Rosenblum and Sandra Solvay. NYU Press.
Douglas, S. (2010). Enlightened sexism.
"Examples of Institutional Heterosexism." Appendix 9H
Yet, one should take into account a cetain pat of the statement, egading the status of the victims. The expession "low net woth people" must not, by any chance and even if it's the case of citing an authoity, appea in an aticle. No matte the status and the position of a peson in the society's hieachy, life is the most valuable good one has and has the same impotance fo all pees.
In geneal, the aticle can eceive a positive eview. It is objective and the case is clealy exposed, it does not contain ielevant pieces of infomation and it does not insist on mino details. The lack of desciption fo potagonists leads to ceating no peconceptions. Futhemoe, media does not oughly exploit the stoy. One can not assume thee is sensitiveness in naating the case, but as mentioned befoe, the aticle elies on objectiveness. Howeve, the only aspect…
references for including some details and avoiding others is what leads to misperceptions and created social attitudes towards a case or a category of people.
Moreover, this type of approach emphasizes not the violent act that has occurred and whose victim was a helpless, undefended woman, but the image of a woman offering sex in exchange of a home. One should ask, first of all, what were the reasons of the respective woman that made her resort to such a solution. The same case, with the same protagonists can be analyzed from different perspectives and the guilty person would appear differently, in accord to what is mentioned about her and what is avoided.
In terms of cited source, the article uses statements from people involved in the community and local service, which one can consider a positive aspect, as people who can share from their day-to-day experience from a community are not only interested in talking, but can offer important information both for the media and for the local inhabitants.
As a conclusion, the article offers the exact model of a case which emphasizes not the offence itself, but the character's background, managing to place the responsibility almost exclusively on the victim. Moreover, details about the aggressor are not even mentioned. The only statement regarding consists in reminding the existence of a precedent in these type of cases, a robber and a killer who used to find his victims through advertisements.
What one must know is that, in contrast to this article, crimes that occur must be analyzed from all points-of-view and one must look for the context as a whole. Not the fact the above-mentioned woman rejoined the advertisement is relevant for the case, but the reasons which stood behind her choice. Only by finding correlations among all factors, one can contribute to the improvement of crimes' statistics, as he can learn how to prevent.
Review and critique of a current article relating to women's biology
How Emergency Contraception Works to Prevent Pregnancy
Emergency contraceptives are drugs used to prevent pregnancy after women indulges in unprotected sex. There is a slight difference between birth control methods and use of contraceptives in preventing unplanned pregnancy. It is significant for women and men to learn and choose the appropriate method that guarantees their well-being. Use of contraceptives prevent fertilization of the ovum, while as birth control pills prevents pregnancy, and includes use of contraceptives such as, IUDs, sterilization, and abortion. This article reviews the health effects of various emergency contraceptives on female reproductive functions. The author argues that limited knowledge about Emergency contraceptive contributes to its overuse or its underuse and enhanced knowledge could trigger development of new ways, maximize use of current methods and increase acceptability of emergency contraceptives (Berger, 2012).
Review of the…
Ries, N.M. & Tigerstrom, B. (2010). Roadblocks to laws for healthy eating and activity,"
Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 182, no. 7, pp. 687 -- 692
omen's Rights Movement In The 1970s
In A People's History of the United States, Zinn begins his narrative of the liberation of women with the women's suffrage movement of the early twentieth century. However, according to Zinn, even after women were granted their vote, their identity was still largely measured by their success in living up to the idealized role models of wife and mother till the overt feminist movement of the late 1960s. Till then, the only time that women were allowed to break the traditional stereotype mold of femininity and domesticity was during periods such as war, civil strife or extreme economic conditions (Zinn, 503-6).
Zinn, in his account, gives a detailed description of the events that occurred in the 1960s. omen of all ages took active part in the civil rights movement of the sixties, which in a sense laid the ground for women collectively voicing their…
Friedan, Betty. "The Feminine Mystique." New York: Dell, 1974.
Rossi, Alice. "The Feminist Papers." New York: Columbia University Press,
Zinn, Howard. "Surprises." A People's History of the United States.
Beatie did not accept biological determinism as the means by which to do gender. On the other hand, Beatie transcends gender altogether. By rejecting and then changing his genitalia and physique, Thomas Beatie passed through his life as a male and was legally and socially identified as such. He married a woman and most of the people he interacted with treated Beatie like they would any other man. When Beatie chose to become pregnant, he further stretched the boundaries between male and female. Beatie both subverts and ascribes to traditional gender roles and norms. Pregnancy is a female domain; had Beatie been born with male reproductive organs he would not have been able to experience childbirth. He and his wife would have been forced to adopt a child or choose a surrogate mother. Yet the fact that Beatie states, "I see myself as my own surrogate" shows that a male…
Beatie, T. (2008). Labor of love. The Advocate. Mar 26, 2008. Retrieved April 11, 2009 from http://www.advocate.com/exclusive_detail_ektid52947.asp?page=2
Lorber, J. "Night to his day": The social construction of gender.
West, C. & Zimmerman, DH Doing gender.
Ultimately Judith Shakespeare, (like Hedda Gabler) according to Virginia oolf, would have very likely taken her own life (1382). Although life today is still far from perfect for many women in many areas of the world, and while some women (in various poorer parts of Africa, Latin America, and Asia, for example) face many of the same attitudes and obstacles Judith Shakespeare would have faced, women in the United States, Europe, and many other areas today are infinitely freer than Virginia oolf's Judith Shakespeare would have been to pursue artistic (or other careers); support themselves while doing so; and to avoid unwanted pregnancies and childbirths.
Henrik Ibsen, Kate Chopin, and Virginia oolf, all writing in either the late 19th or early 20th centuries, all depict, within the works I have discussed, various strictures and limitations on the lives and aspirations of women during those times. For today's women, there are…
Chopin, Kate. "A Pair of Silk Stockings." Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia
Library. December 13, 2004. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2id=ChoSilk sgm&images=images/moden... html>. 4 pages.
Ibsen, Henrik. Hedda Gabler. Henrik Ibsen: Four Major Plays. Ed. John Grube. New York:
Airmont, 1966. 153-221.
The Navy also established institutions to particularly cater for women wishing to enter the service. It recruited women into the Navy Women's eserve, which was known as
Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES), in 1942. More than 80,000 such women served the military in occupations relating to communications, intelligence, supply, medicine and administration. The Marine Corps Women's eserve was created in 1943. Women in this establishment held jobs such as clerks, cooks, mechanics, and drivers. An increasing number of women served in these positions, among others in nursing and the Coast Guard -- there were more than 400,000 American military women serving both in the United States and overseas during the Second World War. Although many of these women served close to combat stations, the work of the majority involved non-combat duties.
After the World Wars
The Korean War
When the Korean Conflict broke out in 1950, President…
Norris, Michelle. Roles for Women in U.S. Army Expand. NPR, Oct. 1, 2007. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14869648
Women in Military Service for America Memorial Foundation, Inc. Highlights of Military Women. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.womensmemorial.org/Education/timeline.html
Women in the U.S. Army. Generations of Women Moving History Forward. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.army.mil/women/index.html
hen their state of denial lifts, they are often wracked with remorse for what they've done.
The final circumstance that Resnick lists is uncommon but not unheard of among mothers who kill their children: spousal revenge. Though this is rare among women, one recent case that highlights it is the case of an Ontario mother, Elaine Campione, who drowned her two daughters in the bathtub, allegedly to keep her ex-husband from getting custody and to inflict intense suffering upon him. She even made a video only minutes after the murders, asking her ex-husband if he was "happy now" (CTV News 2010).
ith all of these circumstances potentially leading parents, especially mothers, to murder their children, legal prosecution and defense of these cases can be difficult -- at times, heart-wrenching. In the cases of mothers who have killed their children, the great majority of the defenses center around pleas of insanity.…
Child Abuse Prevention Network. http://child-abuse.com/ . Accessed 1 February 2011.
Jones, a. (2009) Women Who Kill. New York: The Feminist Press of the City College of New York.
Meyer, C., Oberman, M. And White, K. (2001). Mothers Who Kill Their Children. New York: NYU Press.
National Council for the Prosecution of Child Abuse. http://www.ndaa.org/ncpca_home.html . Accessed 1 February 2011.
On the other hand, it is quite likely moreover that these statues were fertility statues for given the circumstances of the times when due to policies uncertainties as well as situations of health and socio-economic difficulties, death of women during childbirth was rampant, as well as miscarriage and other pre and post natal incidents common. Primitive people, before the days of scientific and empirical resigning, turned to nature as their explanatory factor. The word was unpredictable and frightening; the forces of nature, in the shape of gods and other powerful figures, all-omnipotent and the precursors of positive and negative events. Possibly, as means to escape from their fears and uncertainties and as instruments of achieving their desires, humans sculpted their supplications in tangible form, and abstract wishes, therefore, took the form of carvings.
It is in this way that the word 'fetish' comes from the Latin word 'factitious' meaning 'not…
Gardner, Art through the Ages, 1991
Stokstad, M. Art History
Culturally Sensitive Care: Caring for a Pregnant Woman who is a Lesbian
I may have helped care for a number of pregnant lesbians, because I have certainly cared for unmarried mothers, but may not have been aware of that they were bisexual or lesbians. What the literature has revealed is that many lesbians remain concerned about divulging sexual orientation to their healthcare professionals, including their gynecologists, so that sexual orientation may not been known for many patients. However, I know that I have been involved in the care of at least one pregnant lesbian. The patient, who I will call Leslie, was a 37-year-old woman who was pregnant for the second time. Her first pregnancy was when she was 15 and she placed that child for adoption. Leslie was in a committed relationship with her "wife" (our state did not recognize homosexual marriage, so they were not legally married)…
Diamant, A.L., Wold, C., Spritzer, K., & Gelberg, L. (2000). Health behaviors, health status, and access to and use of health care: A population-based study of lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women. Arch. Fam. Med., 9(10), 1043-51.
McManus, A.J., Hunter, L.P., & Renn, H. (2006). Lesbian experiences and needs during childbirth: Guidance for health care providers. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Neonatal. Nurs., 35(1): 13-23.
McNair, R.P. (2003). Lesbian health inequalities: A cultural minority issue for health professionals. Med. J. Aust., 178(12), 643-5.
Moegelin, L., Nisson, B., & Helstrom, L. (2010). Reproductive health in lesbian and bisexual women in Sweden. Acta. Ostet. Gynecol. Scand., 89(2), 205-9.
Drugs and Pregnancy
The habit of taking drugs continually well into the pregnancy stages of a woman has been associated with several effects that the drugs may have on the fetus. There have been several arguments posited by various groups depending on their standpoint about the issue of drug abuse and pregnancy. There have also been attempts, as seen in this session, to classify the drugs into those that do not arm the fetus and those that can in some way hurt the fetus. Having gone through the entire course and getting exposed to numerous materials, there is one thing that stands out clear and I came to understand with insurmountable evidence, the fetus is adversely affected by the drugs that the mother takes. This is true bearing that the fetus depends on the mother for entirely everything for its survival.
The central issues identified during the entire session include…
Reuter (1994).Setting priorities: budget and program choices for drug control. The University of Chicago Legal Forum, pp. 14S 173.
National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2011). Drug Abuse among Pregnant Women in the U.S.
Retrieved June 2, 2013 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/prenatal-exposure-to-drugs-abuse
After a literature review of existing studies on the subject, "we have clear indications that breast-feeding helps prevent an extra incident of gastrointestinal illness in some kids -- an unpleasant few days of diarrhea or vomiting, but rarely life-threatening in developed countries" noted Hana osin in a controversial article in The Atlantic (osin 2009). Despite graphic public advertisements that link breast-feeding with putting a child at great medical risk, the evidence is less certain than one might assume. Although breast-feeding has been credited with everything from improving babies' IQs to preventing obesity, the ability to prevent these conditions with breast-feeding remains uncertain, particularly when women's economic status is taken into consideration when evaluating the studies (osin 2009).
Cultural biases against trusting a woman to actively make choices about how they will be mothers may have more to do with the censure of women who choose to discount so-called common wisdom…
Baram, Marcus. (2006). Moms-to-be get mixed message about drinking. ABC News.
Retrieved June 30, 2011 at http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=2654849&page=1
Hanley, J.J. (2002). Refrigerator mothers. PBS: POV. Retrieved June 30, 2011 at http://www.pbs.org/pov/refrigeratormothers/interview.php
Italy launches cocktail glass poster. (2011). The Telegraph. Retrieved June 30, 2011 at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/italy/7764241/Italy-launches-foetus-in-cocktail-glass-poster-to-stop-women-drinking.html
Tese women endured extreme ardsips in order to fulfill teir roles. Tey often ad to live in almost starvation level circumstances, since most of te food ad to be given to te battle ready individuals. Often tey would toil for ours to find food, dig roots, and oter metods to see te fruits of teir labor be provided te figting men. Tey endured te malnutrition as well as miserable living conditions in order to provide sustenance for te group. Many times tey even endured cildbearing under inospitable surroundings (Soto, 44). As nurses, tey ealed te wounded and endured te contamination of dangerous diseases as well as nursed back to ealt many of te fallen men during te Revolution. Many of tem suffered severe infections and diseases as a result of contact wit te sick, many primary records reveal tat anywere from ten to twenty percent of te soldaderas contracted serious…
http://www.mexconnect.com/MEX/austin/revolution.html [Online] 1996.
Tuck, Jim. Poncho Villa and John Reed: Two Faces of Romantic Revolution. Tucson, Arizona. The University of Arizona Press, 1984.
Resendez-Fuentes, Andres. "Battleground Women: Soldaderas and Female Soldiers in the Mexican Revolution." Americas: A Quarterly Review of Inter-American Cultural History. 1995. 52(4): 525-553.
When a woman cannot get pregnant or can get pregnant but cannot keep the baby to term, the reasons for this can very a lot. The author of this report found a website that describes the reasons and the details behind them. This report will briefly describe the process that must generally happen and what can get in the way along the way. Quite often, it is a problem of ovulation and the egg of the woman getting to where it needs to go. However, there are other reasons why infertility may exist. While it may be fairly easy to generalize, there is more than one possible explanation in all cases until something is proven or at least presumed.
Infertility Explanation for Women
There are four general things that must happen for a woman to get pregnant and a lot of them involve a man to one degree…
Women's Health. (2015). Infertility fact sheet | womenshealth.gov. Womenshealth.gov. Retrieved 6 May
2015, from https://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/infertility.html
Depression in Young and Older Women
Recent research reveals that about one percent of the general population suffers from manic-depression and five percent suffers from major depression during their lives (Simonds, 2001, p. 86). However, the incidence for depression in women is twice as high or more; as many as one in five American women has a history of depression during her lifetime.
Due to the various social and medical problems presented by increasing numbers of women who suffer from depression, this topic is of utmost importance in today's society.
This paper will examine the causes and effects of depression in both young and older women; examine existing medical research for both groups; identify major differences in depression for young and older women; and present a conclusive analysis of observations.
To determine what the causes of depression are in young and older women, and to differentiate between the two groups,…
Blumenthal, Susan. (Fall, 1996). Gender Differences in Depression. The Decade of the Brain, NAMI, Volume VII, Issue 3.
Boyles, Salynn. (February 14, 2002). Older Women Have Tough Time With Depression. WebMD Medical News.
Merschino, Diane. (July 2002). Depression in Young Women. Women's College Hospital Foundation.
National Institute of Mental Health. (October, 1999). Depression: What Every Woman Should Know. NIMH Publication No. 95-3871.
It has been recognized that breastfeeding constitutes the best source of infant nourishment, functioning as nutrition as well as the "living fluid" imbued with a complex blend of enzymes, hormones, and antibodies, unique to the mother and her infant. Baby formula is unable to replicate the above essential substances. As breastfeeding is recognized as the superior mode of feeding infants, it must be protected, promoted and supported even among working mothers, after they return to their jobs. The WHO (World Health Organization) recommendation is that babies ought to be given nothing but breast milk until six months of age, with some amount of breastfeeding to be continued, at least till they reach two years of age (Deirdre Desmond & Sarah Meaney, 2016).
Breastfeeding at the Workplace
Breastfeeding rates in a majority of industrialized nations are generally below the desired levels. For instance, the 2002 U.S. estimate is that roughly seven…
Using a multidisciplinary team approach in order to treat a 14-year-old pregnant teenager who smokes a pack of cigarettes a day would involve using various services. These would include nurse practitioners, registered nurses, social workers, nutritionists along with other support staff. Using this approach would help address the challenges that young pregnant teenagers may face, both physically and socially. Through group discussions and interactions with other teens, young women and their partners empower and educate one another as they progress from pregnancy into parenting (Shetty, 2009).
This would require an approach that would involve midwives, nurses; community-based young people's services and targeted youth support services. The basis of the program would be to help the teenager to quit smoking in order to improve her overall health and that of her unborn child's. It should offer advice and support on childcare, parenting and health-related topics. An intervention program should be set…
American Academy of Pediatrics: Care of Adolescent Parents and Their Children. (2001).
Pediatrics, 107(2), 429-434.
Shetty, Anisha. (2009). Adolescent Update: The Teen Pregnancy Center. Retrieved September 8,
2009, from Children's Hospital St. Louis Web site:
recoding a pregnant mother-Based case study. thai primegravida multpara.
This essay is about a process recording for a pregnant mother. Process recording is a written record of an interaction with a client. Pregnant mothers are in danger of any disease but there most alarming gestational diseases; these include hypertension, cardiac disease, anemia, diabetes, hyperemis gravidarum and many more. In this essay am only going to dwell in gestational hypertension.
This is a process recording of a case study of a pregnant mother. Mrs. B is a 16 years old primigravida at 30 weeks gestation and has attended the antenatal clinic three times. All finding were within the normal range until her last visit 1 week ago when her blood pressure was 130/90mmHg.On urinalysis there was no proteinuria. The fetal heart sounds were normal, the fetus was active and uterine size was consistent with dates. She has come to clinic today,…
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. National Guideline Clearinghouse. Available at http://www.guideline.gov/summary/summary.aspx?doc_id=9338 . Retrieved on 11/02/2011
Benson M.D.( 1989) Obstetrician Pearls,.Philadelphia:F.A Davis.
[Best Evidence] Hedderson MM, Ferrara A (.2008) High blood pressure before and during early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. Dec 31(12)
Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al. (.2003) The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA. 289(19):2560-72.
CAEFS takes the position that women with mental health problems do not belong in prisons and that the treatment, support and assistance they need should be provided to them in the community, rather than in prison.
The above statement clearly outlines central problem areas that should be the focus of investigation. As this study and others emphasize, women who enter prison with mental issues and problems require intensive support. However, this is at present not the case and many women prisoners who suffer from mental problems are not afforded the necessary support and adequate intensive therapy. Some critics also suggest that alternatives be investigated for women with mental issues. "... The public need for the appearance of retribution may deter government from considering alternatives to sentencing persons with mental disabilities to imprisonment." www.elizabethfry.ca/submissn/dawn/17.htm" (ibid)
Another factor which relates to mental and psychological issues is that women experience stress…
Bilchik, Shay, Cyntha Seymour, and Kristen Kreisher. "Parents in Prison." Corrections Today Dec. 2001: 108+. Questia. 17 Feb. 2005 http://www.questia.com /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
In the article "Pregnancy & Treatment," Linda L.M. Worley, past medical director of UAMS Arkansas CAES: Center for Addiction, esearch, Education and Services, and Curtis Lowery (2005), maternal fetal medicine expert, report that a number of medical and child welfare groups, including the American Medical Association, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Nurses Association, and the March of Dimes, conclude that threatening to arrest pregnant women who drink alcohol beverages will not help them quit drinking. "ather, it will frighten them away from prenatal care and discourage them from speaking honestly to health care providers who may be able to help" (Worley & Lowery, 2005, ¶ 2). Worley and Lowery (2005) recommend that instead of imprisoning pregnant mothers, drug treatment "works and is much less expensive than imprisoning" them. When pregnant mothers are imprisoned, the state may not only incur delivery charges…
Cave, E. (2004). The mother of all crimes: Human rights, criminalization, and the child born alive. Hants, England: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Chudler, E.H. (2008). Alcohol and the brain. Neuroscience for Kids. Retrieved October 27,
2009 from http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/alco.html
Denny, C.H., Tsai, J., Floyd, R.L. & Green, P.P. (2009). Alcohol use among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age - United States, 1991-2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. U.S. Center for Disease Control. Retrieved October 27, 2009
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
Homeopathic Remedies for Pregnant Women
Before delving into the use of homeopathic remedies by pregnant women, it is instructive to review the report published in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Center explains that there is "inadequate evidence" that medications (some of them homeopathic) offered on 25 Internet sites are safe. Some of them present "fetal risks," the CDC reports. For example, 43% of the 103 components listed as "safe" on those 25 Internet sites, the research standards used by the CDC could not verify that indeed, those 103 components are safe (Peters, et al., 2013). Hence, it behooves pregnant women to use great care and reach out for good medical resources when using homeopathic remedies.
The First Trimester
Doctor Jennifer Worden is a general practitioner in the UK, and a member of the British Homeopathic Association (BHA). She explains that during the first few weeks of…
Aortic dissection is a disease of the wall of the aorta in which the aortic blood bursts into the muscular layer of the great artery, thus forming a blood filled channel along the planes of the muscularis layer. This false lumen can re-rupture back into the true lumen, through a second distal intimal tear, creating a biluminal or double barrelled aorta. Due to weakened walls, there is threat of rupture into the surrounding tissue with fatal consequences. (Boon, , Colledge, Walker, & Hunter, 2010)
The pathophysiology behind the condition is often a spontaneous or iatrogenic tear in the intima. However, in about five to ten percent of patients, these tears are absent. An intimal tear can occur anywhere along the aorta, although a vast majority of tears are found within ten centimeters of the aortic valve. The dissection may extend towards the heart, affecting the coronary arteries, or it may…
Duranki. (n.d.). Type an aortic dissection - the silent killer. Retrieved from http://duranki.hubpages.com/hub/Beware-High-Blood-Pressure-It-will-Kill-You -- You-Wont-See-It-Coming
Erbel, R., Alfonso, F., Boileau, C., & Dirsch, O. (2001). Diagnosis and management of aortic dissection*.European Heart Journal, 22(18), 1642-1681. Retrieved from http://www.escardio.org/guidelines-surveys/esc-guidelines/GuidelinesDocuments/guidelines-aortic-dissection-FT.pdf
Multum, C. (2012, Feburary 12). Morphine injection. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/morphine-injection.html
Nicholas A. Boon, Nicki R. Colledge, Brian R. Walker, John A.A. Hunter.(2010). Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine . India, Elsevier.
What they found was that religiosity played a significant role in predicting the level of religious stigma, which led to beliefs that HIV/ADIS might be a curse or punishment from God (Muturi & an, 2010). This leads to the conclusion that faith-based organizations could play an important role in HIV / AIDS prevention and treatment in the community.
Anyone familiar with HIV research is aware of the high correlation between drug using populations and HIV infection, because addicts engage in practices like needle sharing and are more likely to engage in unprotected sex with unknown partners. Therefore, one would expect that HIV prevalence would be higher among African-American women in detoxification than in other groups given that the prevalence is higher in the regular population. What they found was that whites and Hispanics had higher levels of total HIV risk scores and risky injection use scores than African-Americans (Wu et…
Hendree, E.J., Berkman, N.D., Kline, T.L., Ellerson, R.M., Browne, F.A., Poulton, W.,
Wechsberg, W. (2011). Int J. Pediatr: 389285. doi:10.1155/2011/389285
Inungu, J., Lewis, a., Mustafa, Y., Wood, J., O'Brien, S., & Verdun, D. (2011). HIV testing among adolescents and youth in the United States: Update from the 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Open AIDS J, 5, 80-85. doi:10.2174/1874613601105010080
Muturi, N., & an, S. (2010). HIV / AIDS stigma and religiosity among African-American women. J Health Commun., 15(4), 388-401.
In those days prior to 2003, TADOC gave recruits nut-and-bolt basics, then sent the new Soldiers to their units where the real training started....nTo achieve "Soldier" status, recruits now spend 21 days in the field during basic training. The training focus has changed dramatically from what was primarily a standards, discipline and soldierization process to one of intensive combat skills. (Leipold, 2009)nHowever, such changes have tended to come about without any sort controlled, rigorous study. There is nothing wrong about changes that come from within and that grow organically out of the requirements of an organization. However, a controlled experiment offers certain key advantages because it can cast off old attitudes and biases.nI have already described the control group in this experiment. The three experimental groups add different elements to the equation. The first of these experimental groups is actually one that I predict will reduce the overall fitness of…
References\nEvans, M. (2005). Women pay painful price for equal military training. The Times, retrieved 9 February 2010 from http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article434024.ece .\nhttp://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100121052640AAZ1xPL \nhttp://www.military.com/military-fitness/fitness-test-prep/physical-fitness-test-anxiety \nLeipold, J. (2009). Not your father\'s basic, anymore, retrieved 8 February 2010 from \nhttp://usmilitary.about.com/od/armyjoin/a/newarmybasic.-u5p.htm.\nO\'Reilly, K. (1981). Dick and Jane in basic training. Newsweek. \nhttp://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,953209-\n2,00.html#ixzz0fYEyTybe \nRichards, T. (n.d.) What is comprehensive cognitive-behavioral therapy? \nRetrieved 10 \nFebruary 2010 from \nhttp://www.socialanxietyinstitute.org/ccbtherapy.html.\nSegura, L. (2009). Veterans Decry Institutional Sexism in Military, retrieved 11 February 2010 \nfrom http://www.alternet.org/reproductivejustice/79877/ .
Women in the Old Testament
The Bible never says that women are evil, sexually wanton or inferior to men; instead, it says a lot of good things regarding women. In the Old Testament / Hebrew Scriptures, most women are described as enterprising, resourceful, intelligent as well as, courageous. However, there are some many stories in the Old Testament that involve demeaning treatment of certain women. For instance, women were restricted to roles of no authority as well as, not allowed to testify in court. In summary, this paper will discuss on the depiction of Women in the Old Testament using two sources; Bible Harper Collins Study Bible and the Encountering Ancient Voices by Corrine Carvalho.
In Leviticus 12:1-5, a woman who gives birth to a boy is considered to be ritually unclean for 7 days. However, if the woman gives birth to a girl, the mother is unclean for 14…
Carvalho, C. (2006). Encountering Ancient Voices. A Guide to Reading the Old Testament Second Edition. Retrieved September 24, 2014, from http://www.anselmacademic.org/Excerpts/EncounteringAncientVoicessampler.pdf
Willis, M. (1995). The Role of Women As Revealed In the Old Testament. The Role of Women As Revealed In the Old Testament. Retrieved September 24, 2014, from http://www.truthmagazine.com/archives/volume39/GOT039034.html
Identify the Disease
Graves' disease is a disorder of the immune system that results in too many thyroid hormones being produced, a situation that is called hyperthyroidism. Thyroid hormones impact many different body functions, so the " ... signs and symptoms" that are linked to Graves' disease cannot easily be zeroed in on specifically (Mayo Clinic). Anyone can be stricken with Graves' disease but it is far more common among women who haven't reached the age of 40 yet. To summarize, Graves' is actually caused by a "malfunction of disease-fighting immune system," which is, too many thyroid hormones are being produced.
The Mayo Clinic provides a list of signs and symptoms that a person may have Graves' disease. Some of the signs associated with Graves' disease include: being irritable or anxious; a fine tremor in hands or fingers; sensitive to heat and increased perspiration; losing weight though eating…
Acton, A.Q. (2013). Graves' Disease: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional. Atlanta,
Bahn, R.S. (2015). Graves' Disease: A Comprehensive Guide for Clinicians. New York:
She is the daughter of Alice Walker, who wrote the Color Purple. She took her mother's maiden name at the age of 18. Rebecca graduated cum laude from Yale University in 1993, and moved on to co-found the Third Wave Foundation. She is considered to be one of the founding leaders of third-wave feminism. In addition to her contributing editorship for Ms. Magazine, Walker's work has also been published by Harper's, Essence, Glamour, Interview, Buddhadharma, Vibe, Child, and Mademoiselle magazines. Her relationship with her mother has been strained because of various public indictments the younger Walker made against her. Nevertheless, some believe that Rebecca might not have been as famous or powerful today without her ties to the illustrious Alice Walker.
Jennifer Baumgardner is a prominent voice for women and girls. She works as a writer, speaker and activist. During 1993-1997, she worked as the youngest editor at Ms. Magazine,…
2. Sociocultural needs. The study by Gibson and Myers examined the relationships among social coping resources, growth-fostering relationships, and infertility stress in 83 women who participated in fertility treatments at urban medical clinics. The findings of their study suggest that both social coping resources and growth-fostering relationships contribute significantly to the variance in infertility stress, with infertility stress decreasing as social coping resources increase; these findings are congruent with the findings of earlier research on the positive effects of social coping on emotional health, particularly as they concern infertile women. In addition, Gibson and Myers found that partner support and family support contribute significantly to the prediction of the variance in infertility stress. "Based on these results," they say, "it is clear that family and partner supports are very important coping resources for women coping with infertility stress" (emphasis added) (p. 69).
3. Biological needs. While the psychosocial and sociocultural…
Atwood, J.D., & Dobkin, S. (1992). Storm clouds are coming: Ways to help reconstruct the crisis of infertility. Contemporary Family Therapy, 14, 385-403.
Daniluk, J.C. (2001). Reconstructing Their Lives: A Longitudinal, Qualitative Analysis of the Transition to Biological Childlessness for Infertile Couples. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 439.
Gibson, D.M., & Myers, J.E. (2002). The Effect of Social Coping Resources and Growth- Fostering Relationships on Infertility Stress in Women. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(1), 68.
Men and Women React Differently. (1993). USA Today, 122(2581), 14.
Woman in Fourth Month of Pregnancy
Exercise and Diet Plan
The client is in her late twenties and four months pregnant with her first child. She is concerned about maintaining muscle tone and flexibility so that she can have her baby naturally. She does not express any concerns about managing her weight gain during her pregnancy and, indeed, she is tall and proportionately streamlined. However, she confesses to never having truly engaged in an exercise program since she graduated from college.
The considerations we have reviewed and the exercise regime that we have selected for her is outlined below.
A review of the client's history did not reveal any health concerns. Specifically, we discussed the following special conditions that could cause us to limit her exercise routine: heart problems, asthma or chronic lung problems, high blood pressure, muscle or joint problems, any persistent bleeding, and/or placental problems. Extreme weight problems…
Exercise and Motherhood. About.com. Retrieved http://adam.about.net/care/exercise/Exercise-and-motherhood.htm
Great Pregnancy Exercises. Baby Center Retrieved http://www.babycenter.com/0_great-pregnancy-exercise-stretching_588.bc?page=1
Prenatal Yoga -- Second Trimester. About.com Retrieved http://yoga.about.com/od/prenatalyoga/a/secondtrimester.htm
Essay: Provide a week sample exercise program for a healthy client in her 4th month of pregnancy who has never exercised before. Be sure to include frequency, intensity, name of exercise and what part of the body the movement is targeting. You may document this in paragraph format or include a graph/table.
personal recitation of faith and the struggles that come with it. The latter of those two starts on page nine of the book. One thing that jumps out is when the narrator presents to her father that she is a Christian. His reaction is so visceral and borderline violent so as to be appalling. He simply tries to scare his daughter but his reaction is jarring nonetheless. Her feelings about the matter are quite notable as well given that she conflates both his influence on her as it pertains to counteracting the Christian faith and that of Satan doing the same. There is then a shift back to the historical support or persecution (usually the latter) of Christians. Indeed, Christians (and Jews for that matter) have been persecuted a great deal over the years. There were other times where one might say that Christians were doing the persecuting (e.g. the…
Madigan, S. (1998). Mystics, visionaries, and prophets. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
Lawrence often compares the mechanistic world of industrialize Britain with the world of nature, and the fecundity and sexuality of the natural world is seen as distorted by the mechanistic world that has developed in this century. In such a comparison, Clifford is on the side of the industrial world, while Connie comes out on the side of the natural world. Yet, this is not what society wants women to be, and yet it is also the reason women were so restricted by society, because they were viewed as dangerous threats to the natural order because of their inherent sexuality.
In Lawrence's conception, living according to nature precludes the possibility of sin, though society may see the issue in a different light. hile one could apply this idea to Hester and Tess as well, their authors clearly do not view the issue in that way, though they do find their…
Benson, Larry D. The Riverside Chaucer. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1987.
Euripides. Ten Plays by Euripides. New York: Bantam, 1988.
Hardy, Thomas. Tess of the D'Urbervilles. London: Macmillan, 1953.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. Boston: Bedford Books, 1991.
Women occupy conflicted and ambiguous roles in Middle English and enaissance English literature. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, and Shakespeare's Twelfth Night all show how male authors in particular grappled with the role of women in an increasingly patriarchal society. Women feature prominently in each of these stories, even if their status and perceived morality is questionable. Each of these stories features women who have a fair degree of power, albeit expressed within the confines of a patriarchal social and political construct. What's more, the women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Canterbury Tales, and Twelfth Night create their own power; power is not "given" to them by self-serving benevolent men. In fact, women like Morgan Le Fay, Lady Bertilak, the Wife of Bath, and Viola all wield power effectively. Women and men occupy separate and distinct spheres, and each wields a different type…
Arkin, L. (1995). The role of women in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Retrieved online: http://msuweb.montclair.edu/~furrg/arkin.html
Chaucer, G. (1475). The Canterbury Tales. Retrieved online: http://www.canterburytales.org/
Shakespeare, W. (1601). Twelfth Night. Retrieved online: http://shakespeare.mit.edu/twelfth_night/full.html
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Retrieved online: http://www.yorku.ca/inpar/sggk_neilson.pdf
omen in India
Often referred to as the "motherland," the Indian subcontinent boasts millennia-old traditions and culture in which women are symbolically honored and revered. The Hindu pantheon, for instance, consists of a wide range of female deities; motherhood in India is a reverential undertaking. However, beneath this mythological and theoretical facade, women are systematically persecuted in India, denied equal access to the already impoverished health care, educational, and justice systems. Carol Coonrod's report on the status of women in India lists seven major areas of discrimination against women in India: malnutrition, poor health care, lack of education, overwork, being unskilled, blatant mistreatment, and legal powerlessness. However, the problems extend far beyond these categories alone. For example, female infanticide is not uncommon; nor is the practice of satee, either willing or coerced suicide by widows. The message these practices send are clear: women are not as worthy of being born…
Coonrod, Carol S. "Chronic Hunger and the Status of Women in India." June 1998.
Garg, Ashish. "Women in India and Human Rights." 10 Mar 2002. From BolojiClub.com.
Jones, Adam. "Case Study: Female Infanticide." Gendercide Watch.
Mijar, Nayan. "Progress and Problems of Women in India." 10 Mar 2002. From BolojiClub.com.
They were not content to merely 'talk the talk', but were bound and determined to 'walk the walk' as well. They ended their declaration of independence by stating they would "circulate tracts, petition the State and national legislatures, and endeavor to enlist the pulpit and press on our behalf. We hope this Convention will be followed by a series of Conventions embracing every part of the country" (Sochen, 1974, p. 127).
Not surprisingly, some people took these women seriously and others did not. Men were especially prone to making snide remarks about how only barren, lonely and 'misfit' women attended this convention. They essentially implied that if these women were able to land a husband and have some kids, they would stop this 'nonsense' (Sochen, 1974). But it was not nonsense. In fact, most of it made perfect sense. And as much as anti-feminists wanted the women's movement to just…
DuBois, E.C. & Dumenil, L. (2005) Through women's eyes: An American history with documents, Boston/New York: Beford/St. Martins.
Hurner, S. (2006, July) Discursive identity formation of suffrage women: reframing the "cult of true womanhood" through song, Western Journal of Communication, 70, 234-261
Kramarae, C. & Spender, D. (2000) Routledge international encyclopedia of women: Global women's issues and knowledge Vol. 1, New York: Routledge.
Leach, W. (1980) True love and perfect union: The feminist reform of sex and society
Maxine Hong Kingston's short story "No Name oman" approaches the silencing of women and the potential for their expression in younger generations through the story of the narrator's unnamed, possibly fictional aunt. In particular, the story highlights the way in which women can actually work to reinforce the social standards which keep them silenced and relatively powerless, because the narrator's mother uses the story of the nameless aunt in order to scare the narrator into hewing more closely to cultural norms. However, the narrator is critical enough to see through this ideological imposition, and works to undermine not only her mother's method of control through fear but also the underlying societal assumptions which motivates her mother in the first place. By examining the motivations of the narrator's mother in conjunction with the critical perspective of the narrator, one is able to see how breaking the silence of women's voices…
Kingston, Maxine Hong. The Woman Warrior. Vintage International Ed. New York: Random
Manchin, Linda. Ed. Women ageing: changing identities, challenging myths. New York:
Routledge, 2000. Print.
oman Hollering Creek
The real-life oman Hollering Creek is a small waterway located in Central Texas. It is supposed that the name is a loose translation of the Spanish La Llorana or "weeping woman." This is a folktale of the area wherein a woman drowns her children in order to be with the man that she loves and yet he rejects her. Distraught over all she has lost, the woman (most ofthen called Maria) kills herself. At the gates, the woman is not allowed to go through them because she is without her children. Unable to enter Heaven, the weeping woman is forced to haunt the living world, searching everywhere for her children, for she will not be allowed access to Heaven until she locates them. Sandra Cisneros short story "oman Hollering Creek" is based upon this ancient legend. The story is about a young woman named Cle-filas. She is…
Cisneros, Sandra (1991), Woman Hollering Creek and Other Stories, New York: Random House
So, we see that women are committing to their partners even if they are older than their male companions, even if they rarely get married to them, they enter and stay in a stabile relationship. We have every reason to believe that women are in it mainly for the psychological comfort. But what about the men? Young men can date women of any age, given the fact that youth is one of the most powerful arousal-factors for all species of mammals. it's slightly unlikely for a younger man to stay in a common-law relationship with an older woman, as it usually happens in an average age-discrepant couple (Boyd&Li, 2003), just for one reason: sex, money, influence, etc. But the subject is open to debate.
How does society reacts to age-discrepant unions? Until now, not quite well. The significant difference in age for a couple, whether it's a young woman with…
Boyd, M., Li, a. (2003). May-December: Canadians in Age-Discrepant Relationships. Canadian Social Trend Statistics Canada Catalogue, No.11-008, 29-34.
Darroch, J., Landry, D., Oslak, S. (1999). Age Differences Between Sexual Partners in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, 31(4), 160-167.
Yellow oman Story: Linda Hogan's
"Aunt Moon's Young Man"
Native American literature recounts legends which have meaning for the people for thousands of years. Like stories told around the campfires of any early culture, the telling of tales kept the culture relevant through their maintenance of the group's shared history. Among those tales are the "Yellow oman" stories of "the Keres of Laguna and the Acoma Pueblos in New Mexico" (Allen 226). These stories were about unconventional women who often did not accept traditional roles. Sometimes "she lives with her grandmother at the edge of the village, for example, or she is in some way atypical, maybe a woman who refuses to marry, one who is known for some particular special talent, or one who is very quick-witted and resourceful" (Allen 226). The tales continue in the writings of modern authors such as Linda Hogan whose short story "Aunt Moon's…
Allen, Paula Gunn. " Kochinnenako: The Figure of 'Yellow Woman.'" The Sacred Hoop: Recovering the feminine in American Indian Traditions. Boston: Beacon, 1992.
Hogan, Linda. "Aunt Moon's Young Man." 1991. Rpt. In Purdy and Rupert, eds. 266-81.
If we look at one of the absolutes, such as abortion in cultures in which choice is at least generally available about reproductive options abortion is at least relatively unstigmatized and access to it is legal and there are no significant economic barriers, a woman may still have religious or ethical or emotional reasons why she would perceive abortion negatively.
A woman, for example, who has suffered through a number of miscarriages of wanted pregnancies may find herself for various reasons unable or unwilling to carry a pregnancy to term. In such a case, having an abortion may be the right choice for that woman but may still be very painful.
In general, the ways in which sexuality and fertility shapes a woman's relationship with self -- as well as with family and the larger community -- is largely determined by the degree of choice that she has over having…
Hooks, B. (2000). Feminist theory: From margin to center (2nd ed.). Brooklyn, NY: South End Press.
Kesselman, a., McNair, L.D., & Schniedewind, N. (2008). Women images and realities: A multicultural anthology (4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
After the Norman Conquest, however, women did not own any property after marriage, which made it more common for women to be given away to the richest, not the best husbands, as their families would keep their gifts.
Also, in contrast to the Norman ideal that a new bride became part of her husband's household and fell solely under his control, an Anglo-Saxon woman remained under the protection of her kin even after marriage if she was wronged, and women and men could both begin divorce proceedings. During the Norman era, women had no property rights after they were married, and everything they owned passed into their husband's authority, as did any independence they had previously enjoyed as legal persons. This was confirmed in ecclesiastical doctrine as well as the law of the land, giving a moral authority to the subjugation of women. Even the language referring to people changed…
Man's View of a ife
The woman's role seems to be changing with globalization. The men feel that the roles have interchanged with women becoming the bread winners while their men stay at home baby-sitting. This has been debated for a long time with women holding serious conferences like in Beijing to determine their role in the families as well as in the communities. From creation, the woman was to stay at home taking care of the children and other chores while the man went out to labor for the family. hen man was created, he was given the role of taking care of his wife and children. On the other side, the woman would bear children; take care of them and the husband. ith time, this was to change.
The man's expectation of a good wife is a caregiver whose work is to not only bear, but take care…
Green, Robert T., and Isabella C.M. Cunningham. "Feminine Role Perception And Family Purchasing Decisions." Journal Of Marketing Research (JMR) 12.3 2012: 325- 332. Business Source Complete.
This journal talks of how the women roles have changed mostly due to the men behavior. It compares different family decision matters under different conditions of female role perception. It compares the different modern and traditional family roles especially with age and income categories.
Kohen, Janet A. "Housewives, Breadwinners, Mothers And Family Heads: The Changing Family Roles Of Women." Advances In Consumer Research 8.1 (2012): 576- 579. Business Source Complete
Kohen talks on the delayed ages in marriage causing the changing roles for women. He feels that the decreased fertilities and higher employment rates, with increased family headships has caused a major change in women's attitude and their roles in the families. The chapters review that recent research findings have shown women's definition of their family role being able to their personal goals.