Filter Results By:

Reset Filters

We have over 247 essays for "Prenatal Care"

View Full Essay

Prenatal Nutrition There Is in

Words: 1642 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46867631

These programs include the service of a registered dietician. (Monti, 2006) These and other programs and research adds to the insight and knowledge about prenatal nutrition that offer a valuable resource and knowledge base for the professional nurse.

eferences www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77033875

Brody, N. (1995). Beyond Family Influences. Psychological Inquiry, 6(2), 142-145. etrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77033875

Dolby V. (1998) Practice good prenatal nutrition, for baby's sake. Better Nutrition,

Eriksson J.G., Forsen T., Tuomilehto J, Winter P.D., Osmond C. And Barker D.

J.P. (1999) Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ, 318, 427-431.

McCollister, B. (2001) the Social Necessity of Nurturance. Humanist, 61 (1).

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023613182

Mead, M.N. (2007). You Are What Your Mother Ate. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(10), 492+. etrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023613182

Monti, Davorka (2003) Not so Common Nutrition Exercises for Your Childhood

Education Classes. International Journal…… [Read More]

References www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77033875

Brody, N. (1995). Beyond Family Influences. Psychological Inquiry, 6(2), 142-145. Retrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77033875 

Dolby V. (1998) Practice good prenatal nutrition, for baby's sake. Better Nutrition,

Eriksson J.G., Forsen T., Tuomilehto J, Winter P.D., Osmond C. And Barker D.

J.P. (1999) Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ, 318, 427-431.
View Full Essay

Prenatal Testing

Words: 1180 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4779731

Prenatal Testing

For many people, prenatal testing has opened many opportunities to treat potential illnesses and to save lives. Administering tests that involve visualization, ultrasounds and amniocentesis allow physicians and parents to identify illnesses and disabilities in children even before birth. More advanced surgical techniques have been used to treat babies even before they are born.

Many others, however, have expressed concern over the ethical implications of prenatal testing. hile the treatment of diseases is a noble cause, many ethicists worry that prenatal testing will lead to a de facto form of eugenics. In these cases, prenatal testing could be used to screen out mild disabilities and other non-life threatening conditions.

This paper looks at the social implications of prenatal testing, with a particular emphasis on the definitions of disability and preferred genetic makeup. The first part is a look at the reasons why parents avail of prenatal testing techniques.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, Garland E. "Is a New Eugenics Afoot?" Science. 2001. Proquest Database.

Anderson, Gwen. "Nondirectiveness in Prenatal Genetics: Patients Read Between the Lines." Nursing Ethics. 1999: 126-129.

Genetic Testing and Screening." Bioethics for Students: Issues in Medicine, Animal Rights, and the Environment. 4 vols. Macmillan, 1999. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. 2004 http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC

Suter, Sonia Mateu. "The routinization of prenatal testing." American Journal of Law and Medicine. Boston: 2002. Proquest Database.
View Full Essay

Prenatal Maternal Stress and Prematurity A Prospective

Words: 578 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15367221

Prenatal Maternal Stress and Prematurity: A Prospective Study

of Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Women

Medical risks only predict one half to two thirds of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Even though elevated levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine reduces bloodflow and oxygen to the fetus, which may inhibit fetal growth and precipitate labor, studies that have explored stress factors related to low birthweight and premature delivery have found mixed. Researchers Lobel, Dunkel-Schetter, and Scrimshaw (1992) pursued the relationship between stress and adverse pregnancy outcomes in greater detail in their study of disadvantaged women. They looked at stress more holistically than previous studies and found stronger relationships.

The first major difference between this and previous studies was that Lobel et al. integrated biomedical data and psychosocial data, as opposed to just one or the other. They also looked at the relationship between weeks of gestation and birthweight, which many researchers overlooked. These researchers' operationalization of the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Prenatal Genetics Tay Sachs Diagnosis

Words: 1788 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57435054

Moreover, some genetic testing is inaccurate, creating the possibility of false positives and false negatives.

The second problem with genetic testing is that it can provide information about diseases where there is no treatment or intervention. This is the case for Tay-Sachs. There is no way to prevent the disease, which is fatal in children. However, unlike some other genetic disorders, the baby is born healthy and begins to deteriorate sometime after birth. Does knowing that the child will develop the disorder help the family, when prenatal screening does nothing to help treat the child?

The third problem with genetic testing is that it may lead people to make undesired choices. Abortion rates for children with genetic diseases are higher than those rates for children without those diseases. Abortion is a major moral issue in the United States. Does a process that might increase the likelihood that a mother will…… [Read More]

References

National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke (2007, Feb. 14). NINDS Tay-Sachs

Disease Information Page. Retrieved from  http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/taysachs/taysachs.htm 

National Tay-Sachs & Allied Diseases. (2011). Tay Sachs Disease. Retrieved from  http://www.ntsad.org/index.php/tay-sachs 

Sheth, K. (2010, Nov. 17). Tay-Sachs disease. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from PubMed
View Full Essay

Healthcare for Runaway Adolescents Teenagers

Words: 2119 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35760527

sufficient health care for runaway teenagers is a topic of grave concern to most in the medical and social professions, both nationally and in the state of California. With limited treatment options, higher risks of STD's, HIV, and other diseases, improper prenatal care, and a lack of community care options, runaway teens receive grossly inadequate health care. This paper will address those concerns, specifically in the state of California, as well as offering possible solutions to the problem, and will examine the role of the registered nurse in the solutions presented.

It is important to note that the life of a runaway teenager is filled with health risks and danger. Marie and Cheri are just one example. They were 13 when they ran away from home in an attempt to escape a drug addicted father who sexually abused them. With only $200 between them, their food supply and housing was…… [Read More]

References

Advanced Practice Registered Nurses Council. (2004). Information on APRNs. APRNs. Retrieved from Advanced Practice Registered Nurses Council on March 03, 2003. Web site: http://www.scnurses.org/A_P_Council/aprns.asp

American Civil Liberties Union. (May 14, 2003). Letter to the House Urging Opposition to the Musgrave Amendment to HR 1925, the Runaway, Homeless, and Missing Children Protection Act. Retrieved from American Civil Liberties Union website on March 3, 2004. Web Site:  http://www.aclu.org/news/NewsPrint.cfm?ID=12643&c=225 

California Board of Registered Nurses. (Fall, 2003). What is the RN Scope of Practice? The BRN Report, 15(2), 7-9.

California Office of the Attorney General. (2002). 2002 Reports of Missing Children by County. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Justice.
View Full Essay

Healthcare Issue in Culturally Diverse Situation

Words: 2191 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 90191911

Healthcare Case Study Schuylkill County, PA

County Overview - Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania is located in the heart of the anthracite Coal region of Pennsylvania where the Schuylkill iver originates. Pottsville is the county seat, and the county showed a population of just under 150,000 as of 2010 with a density of 190 persons per square mile. The total area of the county is 782 square miles, almost all land, less than 1/2 a per cent water. The county's history, likely due to large coal deposits, focused on the railroad and industrialization (Schuylkill Chamber of Commerce, 2011).

The county experienced the high point of its population during the 1920s and 1930s, and has been losing people ever since, most between 1950 and 1970, with about a 1-2% population loss since the turn of the century. This is likely due to the lack of appropriate jobs and opportunities within the county. Schuylkill…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

County Health Statistics - Healthcare 2010. (2009, March). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of Health: http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt-in_hi_groupoperator_1=or&in_hi_req_objtype=18&in_hi_req_objtype=17&in_hi_req_objtype=512&in_hi_req_objtype=514&in_hi_req_objtype=43&in_hi_req_objtype=1&in_hi_req_apps=7&in_hi_req_page=10&in_ra_topoperator=or&

Comprehensive Plan. (2010, March). Retrieved from City of Pottsville, PA:  http://www.city.pottsville.pa.us/html/cp1.htm 

Election Statistics. (2010, June). Retrieved from Pennsylvania Department of State:  http://www.dos.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/running_for_office/12704 

Schuylkill County. (2010, June). Retrieved from Sperling's Best Places USA:  http://www.bestplaces.net/economy/county/pennsylvania/schuylkill
View Full Essay

To What Extent Can Nurses Deliver Evidence-Based Care

Words: 6819 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32324751

nurses deliver evidence-Based care?

Define main ideas within the title supported from the literature

Nurse instructors confront many hurdles in the present healthcare environment. Educational methods, philosophies, and the content of curricula is required to reviewed to cater to the requirements of the professional nurses who would practice in the coming millennium. (Kessenich; Guyatt; DiCenso, 25) Evidence-based practice or EBP has currently emerged to be a remarkable attribute in nursing literature along with a key impetus in restructuring nursing practice. (Elizabeth; Pyle, 64) Evidence-Based Nursing or EBN is the strategy by which the nurses formulate clinical conclusions applying the best available research evidence, their clinical skill and patient prioritization. (Evidence-Based Nursing: University of Minnesota) It could be narrated as the meticulous, unequivocal and judicious application of the current best evidences in formulating decisions about the care of individual patients. When clinicians formulate health care conclusions for a population or group…… [Read More]

References

Asking Clinical Questions: Introduction. Retrieved from http://www.poems.msu.edu/InfoMastery/Questions/Questions.htm Accessed on 18 June, 2005

Beyers, Marjorie. About Evidence-Based Nursing Practice. Nursing Management. October, 1999. Vol: 11; No: 1; pp: 103-105

Code of professional Conduct. Retrieved from  http://www.nmc-uk.org/nmc/main/publications/reqForPre-regNursing.pdf  Accessed on 17 June, 2005

Cronenwett, L. Research, Practice and Policy: Issues in Evidence-Based Care. Journal of Issues in Nursing. February 19, 2002. Vol: 7; No.2; pp: 57-61
View Full Essay

Federal Government Healthcare Programs the

Words: 1664 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74783782

The problems facing Medicare recipients and the federal government almost seem to be overwhelming. There are proponents of a plan to privatize Social Security and health insurance, placing the onus on the individual to pay for his own health care through savings specifically for this. Some others would have the program go through the private HMOs who have, in the past, contained the costs of care by having primary care physicians manage a patient's care and purposely keeps the costs of care down.

As with Medicaid, the recipients of Medicare would have difficulty obtaining health care without this program. The recipients would most likely have no other health insurance. The trend being what it is, a lot of individuals retiring today are fortunate to have pensions from their companies, much less health benefits. ithout a national health insurance plan, like Medicare, those individuals would have to pay for health care…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kay, Joseph. "Bush Plans renewed Assault on Medicaid." World Socialist Website. 8 Feb. 2005.

13 Aug. 2005.  http://www.wsws.org/articles/2005/feb2005/medi-f08.shtml .

Kay, Joseph. "U.S.: States, Federal Government Prepare Massive Medicaid Cuts." World

Socialist Website. 11 May 2005.  http://www.wsws.org/articles/2005/may2005/medi-m11.shtml .
View Full Essay

American Health Care Health Care

Words: 1164 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69372570

Days earlier, Democratic Senator Pat Moynihan said pretty much the same on Meet the Press.

Yet the public continued to demand changes. The changes they eventually got are still to be seen, as to their level of effectiveness. Changes that many see as temporary and not far reaching enough, such as when any sort of national health care plan was squashed by the stakeholders, fearing loss of revenue and convincing the public of the potential loss of availability for lifesaving care and difficult decisions that would bar many from demanding it the system instead created such things as a highly complicated and entirely privatized Medicare D. drug benefit, more than ten years after the debate had begun. The collective agenda of the stakeholders, was first to defend the system as it stood, which was not allowed by the public or the media, and then to make small changes that kept…… [Read More]

References

Cauchi, R. (2004, July/August). What's the Benefit? A New Federal Medicare Drug Plan Stimulates Independent Actions and New Ideas, but What's the Future Role for States?. State Legislatures, 30, 28.

The Health Care Crisis. (2007, March 18). The Washington Times, p. B04.

Mckenzie, N.F. (1994, February 28). The Real Health Care Crisis. The Nation, 258, 266+.

Nancy F. Mckenzie, "The Real Health Care Crisis," the Nation, 28 February 1994.
View Full Essay

Challenges in Healthcare

Words: 902 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46703249

Healthcare Crisis

Health insurance has gone up over the past two years as a result of a nationwide increase .insurance companies have the tendency of settling only a percentage of a patient's bill. The truth of the matter is patients are not the only people who suffer due to this crisis the doctors too fall victims as mots of them opt to close down since they are underpaid by the insurance companies as well as being forced to pay the yearly premiums for malpractice .physicians are taken as the ones who are at fault for the ongoing healthcare crisis. This is true to some extent but they are not the bones to blame entirely as there are many parties involved in this issue. First of all when we look at the money involved we can say that this crisis is the fault of insurance companies since they are out there…… [Read More]

References

Sharfstein J. Fontanarosa P. & Bauchner H.(2010). Critical Issues in U.S. Health Care

Health Care on the Edge. Retrieved March 14, 2014 from  http://www.commed.vcu.edu/IntroPH/Introduction/2014/criticvalissues.pdf 

Lipthrott, D.(2004). Who is to blame for the healthcare crisis? Retrieved March 14, 2014 from http://www.ethicalhealthpartnerships.org/whoistoblame.html
View Full Essay

Culturally Sensitive Care Caring for a Pregnant

Words: 2639 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57135340

Culturally Sensitive Care: Caring for a Pregnant Woman who is a Lesbian

Description

I may have helped care for a number of pregnant lesbians, because I have certainly cared for unmarried mothers, but may not have been aware of that they were bisexual or lesbians. What the literature has revealed is that many lesbians remain concerned about divulging sexual orientation to their healthcare professionals, including their gynecologists, so that sexual orientation may not been known for many patients. However, I know that I have been involved in the care of at least one pregnant lesbian. The patient, who I will call Leslie, was a 37-year-old woman who was pregnant for the second time. Her first pregnancy was when she was 15 and she placed that child for adoption. Leslie was in a committed relationship with her "wife" (our state did not recognize homosexual marriage, so they were not legally married)…… [Read More]

References

Diamant, A.L., Wold, C., Spritzer, K., & Gelberg, L. (2000). Health behaviors, health status, and access to and use of health care: A population-based study of lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women. Arch. Fam. Med., 9(10), 1043-51.

McManus, A.J., Hunter, L.P., & Renn, H. (2006). Lesbian experiences and needs during childbirth: Guidance for health care providers. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Neonatal. Nurs., 35(1): 13-23.

McNair, R.P. (2003). Lesbian health inequalities: A cultural minority issue for health professionals. Med. J. Aust., 178(12), 643-5.

Moegelin, L., Nisson, B., & Helstrom, L. (2010). Reproductive health in lesbian and bisexual women in Sweden. Acta. Ostet. Gynecol. Scand., 89(2), 205-9.
View Full Essay

Improving health care for Native Americans

Words: 812 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48933237

Underserved Populations

One of the most underserved populations in America with respect to health care is Native Americans. This community has a higher burden of illness, injury and premature death, and the health care needs of this population are seldom part of policy discussions because of its relatively small population (Katz, 2004). More are uninsured than most other groups as well, which creates problems with respect to access to care. Katz (2004) notes that almost half of low-income Native Americans are uninsured (prior to the ACA), and that over half of this group has incomes more than 200% below the poverty line, the impact of lack of access is widespread.

From a structure level, the US government has responsibility for providing health care to members of federally recognized tribes, and this is carried out by the Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS is known to be chronically underfunded – in…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Healthcare Systems Across the World

Words: 2794 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67937246



Access and Availability

The biggest problem in terms of access to healthcare is in rural areas. Our investigation found that there are very few if any rural clinics or healthcare facilities.

Access to healthcare is also limited to those that can afford insurance or qualify for Medicare or Medicaid. The unemployed and the poor are at a major disadvantage when it comes to gaining access to healthcare. The location of healthcare facilities is limited to the larger municipalities.

Accountability

The entity that is responsible for the healthcare system is the United States Government. In addition, Puerto ico has a governor and a cabinet in place to ensure that the appropriate laws are carried out. The entity that makes laws concerning healthcare is outside of the country but the entity that enforces these laws is inside the country. Services are evaluated by state run entities and agencies of the United States…… [Read More]

References

The World Factbook -- Puerto Rico. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from;  http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/rq.html#People 

Puerto Rico: Estimated Number of Persons Living with AIDS at the End of 2002. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from;  http://www.statehealthfacts.kff.org/cgi-bin/healthfacts.cgi?action=profile&area=Puerto+Rico&category=HIV%2fAIDS&subcategory=Persons+Living+with+AIDS&topic=All+Ages 

HIV / AIDS Among Hispanics. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from;  http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/PUBS/Facts/hispanic.pdf 

Puerto Rico: Total Number of Adults with Diagnosed Diabetes, 2002. Retrieved November 8, 2004 from;
View Full Essay

Health Care Crisis Fact or Fiction

Words: 5227 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23538485

reputed "health crisis" currently facing Americans. The author explores several aspects of the health care crisis and analyzes the validity of those claims. The author presents an argument that there really is not a health care crisis and it is a fallacy. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

Why do People Believe the Crisis is eal?

What Evidence is There That it is Not eal?

What are some of the things giving the appearance it is...shortage of students etc.

What are some of the ideas that can help the problem?

For several years now Americans have been inundated with information about the health care crisis. News channels cover the crisis and pipe it into living rooms. Magazines publish articles about the causes and history of the health care crisis and politicians use the health care crisis to sell their platform and garner votes. It seems that everywhere…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

There. (U.S. health care crisis and crime problem)

St. Louis Journalism Review; May 1, 1994; Blumenthal, H.T.

Health Care Crisis Is Not a Misnomer

Newsday; November 30, 2002; Robert Reno
View Full Essay

Amish Health Care the Problem

Words: 997 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81644491



The proposed health care program for the Amish would include, providing doctors that would travel to the Amish community for home visits.

Another aspect of the program would be to offer an advanced medical education to some of the Amish young people in order to establish local medical treatment centers managed and maintained by these same Amish individuals.

One of the health issues that might be more appropriately addressed by these local centers is the issue of non-appropriate advise being circulated among pregnant Amish women who, according to Miller, "often seek prenatal care from lay practitioners and female relatives" (pg. 163). One of the reasons behind such action is likely that they have no professional medical workers to seek such advice from. The closeness of their community provides them some sense of security but it is always nice to have professionals close at hand in case of any trouble. Miller's…… [Read More]

References

GP home visits have become a thing of the past; (2005) GP: General Practitioner, pg. 8, at:  http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=5&hid=7&sid=7113e851-f236-4cac-a2fe-31e694570035%40sessionmgr9&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPXVpZCxjb29raWUsaXAsdXJsJmxvZ2lucGFnZT1Mb2dpbi5hc3Amc2l0ZT1laG9zdC1saXZlJnNjb3BlPXNpdGU%3d#db=heh&AN=16830214 . accessed May 3, 2009

Miller, K.; Yost, B.; Flaherty, S.; Hillemeier, M.M.; Chase, G.A.; Weisman, C.S.; Dyer, A.M.; (2007) Health status, health conditions, and health behaviors among women: Results from the central Pennsylvania women's health study; Women's Health Issues, Vol. 17, pp. 162-171
View Full Essay

Understanding how Medicaid'services have improved healthcare

Words: 4133 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64629307

educe Medicaid Program Costs and Enhance Utilization and the Quality of Care Through Medicaid Managed Care

Medicaid is a type of health insurance provided and funded by the federal government and states to provide coverage to all Americans who are eligible low-income adults, children, elderly adults, pregnant women, and individuals with disabilities. Managed Care is a health care delivery system that was organized to manage cost and quality. The use of managed care in Medicaid is to deliver Medicaid health benefits and additional services through contracted arrangements that are between state Medicaid agencies and managed care organizations. By contracting with different types of managed care organizations, states can reduce Medicaid program costs and better manage the use of health services as well as enhance health care quality (Medicaid.gov).

Medicaid Managed Care is a federal government sponsored medical care system designed to deliver quality care and to reduce cost of health…… [Read More]

References

Ae-Sook, K., & Jennings, E. (2012). The evolution of an innovation: Variations in Medicaid managed care program extensiveness. Journal of Health Politics, Policy & Law, 37(5), 815-849. doi:10.1215/03616878-1672727

Bisgaier, J., & Rhodes, K. (2011). Auditing Access to Specialty Care for Children with Public Insurance. The New England Journal of Medicine, 364(24).

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, (2013). Policy basics: Introduction to Medicaid. Retrieved from  http://www.cbpp.org/cms/index.cfm?fa=view&id=2223 

Charlson, M.E., Wells, M.T., Balavenkatesh, K., Dunn, V., & Michelen, W. (2014). Medicaid. managed care: How to target efforts to reduce costs. BMC Health Services Research, 14(1), 16-31. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-14-46
View Full Essay

healthcare transcultural and the amish community

Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64275498

A largely insular community since their initial settlement in the United States, the Amish community presents unique challenges for healthcare workers. The Amish eschew modern technology, including many of the tools and techniques used in modern medicine. In fact, the Amish community also forbids higher education (Adams & Leverland, 1986). Misconceptions and misunderstandings about the Amish further complicate healthcare decisions and relationships between healthcare providers and Amish patients. For example, it is commonly assumed that the Amish “lack the preventive practices of immunizations and prenatal care,” (Adams & Leverland, 1986, p. 58). While the rates of immunizations are relatively low among the Amish, the Amish church does not forbid immunization (Adams & Leverland, 1986). The Amish also have a keen interest in disease prevention, health education, and lifestyle choices that prevent health problems (Talpos, 2016). Although Amish attitudes towards health, wellness, and the healthcare system may be at odds with…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Gypsy Roma Healthcare in the United States Today a Culture Sensitivity Issue

Words: 4402 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27826360

Gypsies, otherwise known as Roma, came to the Americas with the very earliest settlers. Throughout the course of the past 500 years, the Roma, their preferred name, have held on to their traditions and practices. Historical written record says that the Portugese exported Gypsies to South America. According to legend, the Portugese did the same thing in what is now South Carolina, long before the English came to settle the area.

The long tradition of Gypsies in the United States is almost as interesting as the origination of Gypsises as a people. Gypsies originated in India over 1000 years ago, migrating to Europe in the Middle Ages. No one knows for sure how or why they began to wander the globe as they have. Today, there are more than twelve million Roma located in many countries around the world. ecause the Romani are almost never included on official census counts,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cheverly, MD; Gypsy Lore Society, 1994.

Patrin timeline of Romani History" http://www.geocities.com/Paris/5121/timeline.htm

Bunce, C. "Travelers are the Unhelathiest People in Britain." British Medical

Journal. 19 October 1996
View Full Essay

Prenatal Support Programs to Help

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28067807

Often, many at-risk parents have fewer social networks, and this can help contribute to child abuse after the child is born. Creating social networks, as well as a safe environment for parents to ask questions and gain knowledge should be the goal of any good prenatal support group.

In addition, many prenatal support programs include or consist of home visitation by either a qualified nurse or social worker (or both), that discuss parenting techniques and challenges, while monitoring the health of the new infant and the mother. These home visitation programs have been proven to help reduce child abuse. One study notes, "For mothers, long-term effects of home visitation include fewer subsequent pregnancies, decreased use of welfare, and fewer verified incidents of child abuse and neglect" (Hammond-atzlaff, and Fulton 435). Thus, the home visitation programs, whether a family is at-risk or not, can help reduce and prevent child abuse, and…… [Read More]

References

Editors. "Child Abuse Prevention Tips." PreventChildAbuse.org. 2007. 30 April 2008. http://member.preventchildabuse.org/site/DocServer/an_approach_to_prevention.pdf?docID=121

Hammond-Ratzlaff, Amy, and Arlene Fulton. "Knowledge Gained by Mothers Enrolled in a Home Visitation Program." Adolescence 36.143 (2001): 435+.
View Full Essay

Healthcare Rationing

Words: 1065 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35531353

Ethical Analysis of Healthcare Rationing

The topic of health care rationing has been the subject of debate in the U.S. The last few years as government expenditures on health care have far exceeded budgeted levels. Central to the concern is the ethical issue over whether it is better if fewer Americans profit with a greater amount of health resource allocation or if the majority benefit to a lesser degree for an equity in health care benefits. In the essay, "We've Got To Ration Health Care," (author unknown) the position is taken that America would fare better to follow the course of health care action seen in other western countries, where it is considered better to ration medical procedures to the extent that a system provides "the highest possible level of basic health care that can be delivered to all the people." With the growing concern over health care rationing, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cook, D & M. Giacomini. 1999. "The Sound of Silence: Rationing Resources for Critically Ill

Patients." Critical Care. 3: R1-R3.

Devettere, RJ. 1993, Feb. "Clinical Ethics and Happiness." Journal of Medical Philosophy.

Devettere, RJ. 2000. Practical Decision Making in Health Care Ethics: Cases and Concepts, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
View Full Essay

U S Healthcare Reform Since the

Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32392542



Effects on Current Position

With "The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act," many healthcare professionals are affected (Democratic Policy Committee, n.d.). Nationwide, hospitals are scrambling to buy hospitals in an effort to control costs. Doctors are leaving small private practices. Large insurance companies are becoming more dominant as smaller ones disappear because they cannot stay competitive (New York Times, 2011). Furthermore, epublicans denounced the law as an intrusion by the government that would prompt employers to eliminate jobs, create an unsustainable entitlement program, saddle states and the federal government with unmanageable costs, and interfere with the doctor-patient relationship. As a result, the law would exacerbate the steep rise in the cost of medical services, thus affecting the elimination of many healthcare positions. Ironically, less healthcare professionals will ensue, but an increase in patient care will be needed, as a result in more people becoming insured.

Challenges & Opportunities

Moreover, many…… [Read More]

References

Democratic Policy Committee. (n.d.). The patient protection and affordable care act. Retrieved from  http://dpc.senate.gov/healthreformbill/healthbill04.pdf 

The New York Times. (21 Dec 2011). Healthcare reform. Retrieved from  http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/health/diseasesconditionsandhealthtopics/health_insurance_and_managed_care/health_care_reform/index.html
View Full Essay

Healthcare -- Equity of Access

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33435562

It means they have an equal opportunity to receive contraception, prenatal counseling and services, post-natal services for mother and child, preventative healthcare services, vaccinations, and dentistry services, from earliest childhood and through their lives into their elderly years when they require more medical services to remain healthy and active. To the extent everyone in a given community or society has the same relative access to healthcare services and to the extent those services received are of comparable quality, healthcare access could be described as being equitable. On the other hand, to the extent everyone in a given community or society does not have the same relative access to healthcare services and to the extent those services received are not of comparable quality, healthcare access could be describes as being inequitable (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009).

Healthcare Equity in the Contemporary United States

Unfortunately healthcare access in the U.S. is not equitable…… [Read More]

References

Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking Press: New York.

Reid T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer

Health Care. New York: Penguin Books.
View Full Essay

Healthcare in Finland Norway or Sweden or Switzerland

Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45622070

Healthcare in Sweden

The healthcare system in Sweden is used as one of the model systems in the world. hen Johan Hjertoqvist from the Timbro Policy Group spoke before the Montreal Economic Institute in 2002, he said, "...you refuse to accept the consumer as an equal partner, you still look upon the client, the patient, as an inferior partner in the relation" and "you deny the need for good working condition when it comes to the staff, etc." (http://www.iedm.org/conference5_en.html).Moreover, he stressed the need to move interests and priorities away from the processes and production organization to "the quality of the outcome for the consumer" (http://www.iedm.org/conference5_en.html).Quality seems to be synonymous with healthcare in Sweden.

Two important characteristics of the Swedish healthcare system are that it is "decentralized and it is run on democratic principles" (http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf).All residents of Sweden are covered by the national health insurance system which covers medical care, pharmaceuticals,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fact Sheets on Sweden: The Health Care System in Sweden. Swedish Institute. May 1999.  http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf .(accessed 06-27-2003).

Gennser, Margit. "Sweden's Health Care System." http://oldfraser.lexi.net/publications/books/health_reform/sweden.html.

A accessed 06-27-2003).

Hadenius, Stig; Lindgren, Ann. "Sweden: On Sweden Health care." Countries of the World. January 01, 1991.
View Full Essay

Kangaroo Care and Premature Babies

Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 20586324

Kangaroo Care and Premature Babies

Kangaroo care entails holding a full term infant or premature so that there is a skin-to-skin contact between the newborn and the individual holding it. Individuals practice kangaroo care for premature infants for approximately two to three hours every day over a certain period. This takes place during early infancy, and the parent holds the baby against her bare chest. Medically stable babies can receive kangaroo care for up to any period since there is no maximum duration for them (Feldman et al., 2002).

Most parents may keep their babies in their arms for hours each day. According to research carried out, kangaroo care is essential as close bodily contact between the infant and the mother helps to stabilize the heartbeat, breathing and temperature of the premature infant. This is crucial as premature babies always have problems in harmonizing their heart and breathing rate. Mothers…… [Read More]

References

Aucott, S., Donohue, K., Atkins, E., & Marilee, C (2002). Neurodevelopmental Care In The

Nicu, 8, 298 -- 308.

Dodd, L. (2003). Effects of kangaroo care in preterm infants,

Feldman, R., Weller, A., Sirota, L., & Eidelman, A. (2002). Skin-to-Skin Contact (Kangaroo Care) Promotes Self-Regulation in Premature Infants: Sleep -- Wake Cyclicity, Arousal Modulation, and Sustained Exploration, Vol. 38 (2), 194 -- 207.
View Full Essay

Economics Virginia Public Health Care

Words: 1727 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 45882938

Expenditures on health care has been mounting faster than the economy for many years, representing a challenge not only for the government's health insurance programs, but also for the private sector. As health care expenditures consume a larger share of the nation's economic output, Virginians along with all Americans will be faced with progressively harder choices to make (the Long-Term Outlook for Health Care Spending, n.d.).

orks Cited

"About Your Benefits." 2010, viewed 14 February 2011, from

"Benefits Descriptions." 2010, viewed 14 February 2011, from

"Current Inflation Rates: 2000-2011." 2010, viewed 14 February 2011, from

"Eligibility, Enrollment and Plan Choices." 2010, viewed 14 February 2011, from

"Five health insurers raise rates in Virginia."2010, viewed 14 February 2011, from

Martin, Keith L. 2010, "Virginia passes budget cutting Medicaid, other health services," viewed

14 February 2011, from < http://ifawebnews.com/2010/03/15/virginia-passes-budget-cutting-medicaid-other-health-services/>

"Monthly Premiums for Non-Medicare Eligible Retiree Group." 2010, viewed 14 February 2011,



Martin,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"About Your Benefits." 2010, viewed 14 February 2011, from

"Benefits Descriptions." 2010, viewed 14 February 2011, from

"Current Inflation Rates: 2000-2011." 2010, viewed 14 February 2011, from

"Eligibility, Enrollment and Plan Choices." 2010, viewed 14 February 2011, from
View Full Essay

Physicians Agree That Managed Care Is Not

Words: 1344 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92475383

physicians agree that managed care is not doing the job it was originally created to do. Although reform efforts have not worked in the past, many doctors believe now is the time to revisit reform to combat the lack of health care access to a growing number of Americans, escalating costs, and deteriorating quality. This paper explores the evolution of managed care, and its problems and possible solutions from the viewpoint of two organizations representing the interests of physicians.

In 1993, President Clinton introduced a plan for regulated health care reform in response to escalating costs and the growing ranks of the uninsured. From 1970 until the time of the reform proposal, health care spending had increased from $74.4 billion to $752 billion annually. The Clinton proposal was met with huge opposition from the "medical industrial complex" comprised of insurance firms, pharmaceutical companies, hospital suppliers and medical device companies and…… [Read More]

Bibliography better-quality alterantive; single-payer national health system reform. Retrieved on February

3, 2003 Physicians For A National Health Program Web Site:  http://www.pnhp.org/publications/archives/000015.php  national health program for the United States: a physician's proposal. Retrieved on February 3, 2003 Physicians For A National Health Program Web Site:  http://www.pnhp.org/publications/archives/000016.php 

Caplan, A. (2000, December 21, 2000) In 2000, managed care our no. 1 health crisis, Retrieved on February 3, 2003 from MSNBC News Web Site:  http://www.msnbc.com/news/671464.asp 

Healthcare crisis: managed care. Retrieved February 3, 2002 from PBS Web site:  http://www.pbs.org/healthcarecrisis/managedcare.html 

Position paper on universal access to health care and health system reform. Retrieved on February 3, 2003 from American Medical Women's Association Web Site:  http://www.amwa-doc.org/publications/Position_Papers/univesal_access.htm
View Full Essay

Abortion After Prenatal Testing Methods of Prenatal

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88174952

Abortion After Prenatal Testing

Methods of Prenatal Diagnosis

There are four methods of prenatal diagnosis that is available to women. The first and most commonly known is ultrasonography, colloquially referred to as "ultrasound." A picture of the fetus is developed through the implementation of sound waves. Ultrasound is used to identify abnormalities that are physically apparent such as deformed limbs, defective chest, and heart. During the fourteenth to sixteenth week of the pregnancy, neural tube defects can also be detected (Cassidy & Gentles, 2002). There are other uses such as detecting multiple fetuses and measuring fetal growth.

The second method is Maternal Serum Alpha Fetoprotein Screening (MSAFP). Its primary purpose is to detect neural tube defects by measuring the alpha fetoprotein levels in the women's blood. High levels of alpha fetoprotein can indicate neural tube defects in the fetus. This exam is typically administered during the fifteenth to seventeenth week…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cassidy, E., & Gentles, I.J. (2002). Abortion after Prenatal Testing. Women's health after abortion: the medical and psychological evidence (pp. 155-174). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: deVeber Institute for Bioethics and Social Research.

Yashon, R.K., & Cummings, M.R. (2012). Changes in Chromosome Number. Human genetics and society (2nd ed., p. 56). Australia: Brooks/Cole.
View Full Essay

Healthcare for Women Health Care

Words: 1442 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29507577

As a woman enters her geriatric years, many unique problems are also faced. Her post-menopausal period leaves a woman with increased risk of osteoporosis, and hormone-replacement therapy may need to be considered or dismissed depending upon the needs and wellness of the individual women. Additionally, increased risk for obesity begins nearly at the adolescent period, when women's hormone loads change and often activity of childhood decreases. The incidence of obesity and overweight among women perpetually increases with every year of life. ("Overweight, Obesity Threaten U.S.," 2002, p. 8)Obesity and overweight, as one of the most significant conditions associated with several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, increased risk of stroke and hypertension should be developed as a lifespan issue, as the needs of intervention and prevention change as women age and go through various stages of life.

While women have functional characteristics that require specialized health care,…… [Read More]

References

Blackwell, Daria, 2002. Women in the Healthcare Industry Reaching for the Top. Medical Marketing & Media, Dec2002, Vol. 37 Issue 12, p44, 8p.

Fleming, Carl, 2004. Healthcare Access: Conflicts of Interest Presented by Managed Care Icu Bedside Rationing and Their Impact on Minorities and Women. Georgetown Journal of Gender & the Law, Spring2004, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p663-676.

Heyman, B., & Henriksen, M. (2001). Risk, Age and Pregnancy: A Case Study of Prenatal Genetic Screening and Testing / . New York: Palgrave.

Lueck, T.L., & Chang, H. (2002). Tribune's 'WomanNews' Gives Voice to Women's Issues. Newspaper Research Journal, 23(1), 59.
View Full Essay

Reproductive Risk Prenatal Diagnosis Selective Abortion

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 79077541

CVS available?

Passing judgment on the reasons that women choose to have CVS is unwise under all circumstances. According to the belief systems of some individuals, all abortion is morally wrong and the use of CVS merely encourages sex-selective abortion or aborting fetuses because the resulting child is more likely to have genetic diseases associated with one gender (such as hemophilia in males). But once the principle is established that women have a right to choose to have an abortion, it is not the medical profession's right to decide what is a 'good' reason or a 'bad' reason to have an abortion, so long as the center is in compliance with the law regarding fetal viability.

The same is true regarding the availability of CVS, given that the center's view of abortion rights seems to be clearly tied to its policy. The center presumably does not take a position on…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

obesity childhood prenatal conclusion

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37407603

Conclusion

Obesity has become a global epidemic, “a complex condition, one with serious social and psychological dimensions, that affects virtually all age and socioeconomic groups and threatens to overwhelm both developed and developing countries,” (WHO, 2018). Because many, if not most, cases of obesity can be prevented and the resulting health problems mitigated, it is important to raise awareness and have a comprehensive public health intervention plan. This research contributes to the growing body of evidence on the importance of public health interventions and especially for preventative care.

Health literacy and other preventative methods can be applied in culturally appropriate ways to tackle the problem of obesity. To be culturally appropriate, public health interventions also need to take into account variables like gender, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic class: all of which have an influence on how health information is communicated but also on diet and lifestyle norms.

An integrated model…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

State Involvement in Healthcare

Words: 1640 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22131679

History Of State Involvement in the Delivery of Health Care

Eugenics

Eugenics is the belief and practice that involves the improvement of genetic quality of the human population.it is a science that deals with influences that are able to bring an improvement in inborn qualities of race also with those that develop them to their utmost advantage. There is a considerable difference between goodness in various qualities and in the entire character as a whole. The character largely depends on the proportion that exists between these quantities whose balance can be greatly influenced by education. This is a social philosophy that advocates for the improvement of the human genetic traits by promoting higher reproduction of people that posses' desired traits also termed as positive eugenics and reducing the reproduction of people that posse's undesired ort less desired traits which is negative eugenics. Therefore Eugenics is a social movement that is…… [Read More]

Norrgard, K.(2008). Human Testing, the Eugenics Movement, and IRBs. Retrieved May 6,2014 from  http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/human-testing-the-eugenics-movement-and-irbs-724 

Galton, F.(2009).Eugenics: its definition, scope, and aims. Retrieved May 6,2014 from  http://galton.org/essays/1900-1911/galton-1904-am-journ-soc-eugenics-scope-aims.htm 

Bergman, J.(2000). A Brief History of the Eugenics Movement . Retrieved May 6, 2014 from  http://users.adam.com.au/bstett/BEugenics72Bergman73Potter77.htm
View Full Essay

Moral Development and Gender Care Theories

Words: 1596 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93496749

MOAL DEVELOPMENT & GENDE CAE |

Moral Development and Gender Care Theories

Moral Development

Moral development in humans occurs naturally together with physical, social and mental development. Individually as well as in social settings, mankind evolves a developed moral character and conscience in spite of numerous social and psychological barriers, which temporarily retard or disturb the process. In axiology, concepts of moral development give rise to feelings of being an active and developing entity. Through potential self-realization or perfection, a grand innate legacy is inherited, to be fulfilled in one's individual character and via the community, revealing one's unseen but tremendous intrinsic value (Fieser & Dowden, 2016).

Kohlberg's Six Stages of Moral Development

Crain (2015) holds that the child development scholar and moral philosopher, Lawrence Kohlberg, noted that kids progress across distinct moral development stages similar to the way they progress across cognitive development stages (defined by Piaget). Kohlberg observed…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Crain, W. C. (2015). KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT. Theories of Development, 118-136. Retrieved from  http://www.cs.umb.edu/ 

Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Care Ethics. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/ 

Fieser, J., & Dowden, B. (2016). Moral Development. Retrieved October 19, 2016, from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/moraldev/ 

Hetherington, M. E., & Parke, R. D. (2003). Gender Roles and Gender Differences. In M. E. Parke, Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: Mcgraw-Hill Global Education.
View Full Essay

Nursing Health Care

Words: 1258 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19535658

Winston Churchill once remarked that, "There is no finer investment for any community than putting milk into babies." In a similar vein, Karen Howard, the Director of Policy and Government Affairs, is a strong supporter of Nurse-Family Partnership and its programs. The Nurse-Family Partnership is a preventive effort to target first time at risk young mothers and to provide them with home visits by qualified nurses. This effort begins at early pregnancy and helps guides them rough this difficult period until their infant is two years old. Karen Howard is a strong believer that this program not only benefits mother and child but society as a whole as it reduces cost to the healthcare system and allows nurses to take direct efforts to help patients.

The concept of the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) emerged from the work of Professor David Olds and in particular three large randomized trials he conducted starting…… [Read More]

References:

Olds. 2006. The Nurse-Family Partnership: An Evidence-Based Preventive Intervention. Infant Mental Health Journal, 27(1).

Olds, Hill, O'Brien, Racine and Moritz. 2003. Taking Preventive Intervention to Scale: The Nurse-Family Partnership. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice.

O'Brien. 2005. Translating a Research Intervention into Community Practice: The Nurse Family Partnership. Journal of Primary Prevention, 26(3).

Karoly, L.A., Kilburn, M.R., Cannon, J.S. Early Childhood Interventions: Proven Results,
View Full Essay

Nursing in an Attempt to

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62722043

Another service the clinic should provide involves remote access. For example, the clinic should assess the feasibility of home visits by doctors and nurses. egular phone calls to clients or potential clients would also help encourage pregnant women to avail themselves of the clinic's services. The clinic should also establish a solid Web site that allows women to access information from home and possibly, interact in a live chat with staff.

2. What incentives would you provide to keep them coming to the clinic before and after they give birth? Why did you choose to use this as an incentive?

Incentives will help clients trust the clinic and seek care as a matter of course. Free or discounted services would be a good incentive in any community regardless of demographic. Financial incentives would also entail working with insurance providers to make sure that preventative care is a priority.

However, the…… [Read More]

References

Peck, J. & Alexander, K. (nd). Maternal, infant, and child health in rural areas. Retrieved Mar 9, 2009 at  http://srph.tamhsc.edu/centers/rhp2010/07Volume1MIC.htm
View Full Essay

Brockton Massachusetts Use of the Adaptation Model

Words: 2911 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 202784

Brockton, Massachusetts: Use of the Adaptation Model, Nursing Process and Guidelines for a Comprehensive Community Assessment

This work in writing will utilize the Adaptation Model, nursing process and guidelines to complete a community assessment, analyze gathered data for implications for health care, formulate a nursing diagnosis for the community, and incorporate findings into the nursing process and formulate a care plan for a specific community problem.

According to the Public Health Nursing: Leadership Guide and esource Manual" published by the Massachusetts Association of Public Health Nurses (2005) nurses employed in public health nursing are constantly conducting assessments of the community's needs and resources both those available to the individual and groups. Public health nurses are focused on organization and working with a diverse network in promoting ensuring and strengthening the well-being and health in the community with goals for high standards of health care for the population. Public health is…… [Read More]

References

Challenges and Successes in Addressing the Health Care Needs of Underserved Populations in Southeastern Massachusetts - Needs Assessment Conducted by AHEC: The Area Health Education Center of Massachusetts - A Program of Health Care of Southeastern Massachusetts, Inc. In partnership with JSI Research and Training Institute, Inc. 44 Farnsworth Street, Boston MA Jan 2005. Retrieved from:  http://www.healthimperatives.com/ahec/pdf/needs%20assessment%20AHEC%20of%20SEM.pdf
View Full Essay

Performance of the Company Annual Reports Statements

Words: 3293 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96968599

Performance of the Company

Annual reports

Statements of corporate goals

SWOT analysis of United Health Group

9A PESTEL Analysis

In this paper, we present a systematic analysis of the United Health Group through a SWOT and PESTEL analysis. The analysis is aimed at the identification of an internal problem within the company's environment and then prescribing a suitable solution to it. The identified problem is poor Ergonomics. This is then explored and then recommendations provided.

The creation of a better health care system has been one of the key drivers of change in the American social, economic and political reform agenda. Quality health care to al citizens has been a piped dream for many. In this paper we presents an analysis of the effectiveness of United Healthcare in the provision of quality health care. Our focus is on its environmental analysis with the aim of isolating the genesis of the…… [Read More]

References

Amick, B., Robertson, M., Moore, A, DeRango, K and Mendez, CC .The Impact of Two Ergonomic Interventions on Health and Productivity: A Quasi-Experimental Field Study

Amick III, BC, Robertson M, DeRango K, et a (2003) Effect of office ergonomics intervention on reducing musculoskeletal symptoms. Spine 2003;28:2706-2711.

Amick., B., Roberson, M., DeRango, K ., Palacios, N., Rooney, T and Bazzani, L (2002).The Health Consequences of an Office Ergonomics Training Coupled with an Ergonomically Designed Chair: Preliminary Results.Proceedings of the Conference WWDU 2002 World Wide Work - May 22-25, 2002 - Berchtesgaden pg 371-373

Bergqvist U.(1995) Visual display terminal work -- a perspective on long -- term changes and discomforts. Int J. Ind Ergon.;16:201 -- 9.
View Full Essay

Children With AIDS Population Demographics the Centers

Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15225793

Children with AIDS

Population Demographics

The Centers for Disease Control estimate there were 217 children with HIV below the age of 13, in 2010 in the 46 states. The report indicates that seventy-five percent of these were infected prenatal. By the end of 2009, approximately 10,834 people diagnosed with HIV at the age of 13 and below, were living with confidential, long-term name-based HIV reporting. Of the prenatal infections, 63% were from the African/Black community, 22% were Latino/Hispanics, and 13% were whites. The CDC estimates that the number of new children infected will increase by 30%. This is because the number of women giving birth in the U.S., with HIV increase at a rate of 30% in 2006. New York has the highest number of children with AIDS in any area of the U.S., as half of the children diagnosed with HIV / AIDS in the country reside in the…… [Read More]

References

Holmes, A.M., Ackerman, R.D., Zillich, A.J., Katz, B.P., Downs, S.M., & Inui, T.S. (2008). The Net Fiscal Impact of a Chronic Disease Management Program: Indiana Medicaid. Health Affairs, 27(3), 855-864.

Peters, V.B., M.D., Liu, K., Robinson, L., Dominguez, Kenneth L, M.D., M.P.H., Abrams, E.J., M.D., Gill, B.S., PhD., & Thomas, P.A., M.D. (2008). Trends in perinatal HIV prevention in New York City, 1994-2003. American Journal of Public Health, 98(10), 1857-64.

Schackman, B.R., Gebo, K.A., Walensky, R.P., Losina, E., Muccio, T., Sax, P.E., Weinstein, M.C., Seage, G.R. III, Moore, R.D., & Freedberg, K.A. (2006). The lifetime cost of current human immunodeficiency virus care in the United States. Medical Care, 44(11), 990-997.
View Full Essay

Nursing a Complete and Detailed

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84514892

Pain can be managed without the use of pharmaceutical interventions. Breathing techniques, massage, meditation, yoga, and other exercises can help with pain management and so can hypnosis. I learned that mothers also experience heartburn periodically, so they need to eat smaller, more frequent meals or ask their doctors for appropriate medical interventions.

Even those who are on their second or third births benefitted from the refresher course in labor and delivery, learning techniques of breathing and massage. Both the Lamaze and Bradley methods are helpful, although the latter provides a framework within which mothers concerned about their baby's exposure to chemicals and toxins can enjoy a natural childbirth. Another salient point that I learned from the participation was related to the signs of labor, which manifest differently for different patients. The key is to be aware of which signs are normal, and which may indicate a problem that requires immediate…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Counseling Be Mandatory for Teen

Words: 2439 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3126196



The study indicated that children born to teenagers aged below 15 are twice as likely to be an indicated case of child neglect or child abuse in the first five years of their lives as compared to the children who are born to mothers between the ages of 20 and 21 Fergusson & Woodward, 2000()

Another separate study found that the living standards and the situation at home for the teenage mothers was the most predictive variable for maltreatment of the children. Teenage mothers who are living with an adult are less likely to neglect or abuse their children as compared to those who are bringing up their children on their own.

Children of teenage mothers are at a higher risk of getting problems that affect regulation which includes both aggressive behavior and flattened affect. The children who are born to teenage mothers also suffer from poor cognitive development. This…… [Read More]

References

Adams, G., Sharon, a.-T., & Pittman, K. (1989). Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenthood: A Review of the Problem, Solutions, and Resources. Family Relations, 38(2), 223-229.

Adler, E.S., Bates, M., & Merdinger, J.M. (1985). Educational Policies and Programs for Teenage Parents and Pregnant Teenagers. Family Relations, 34(2), 183-187.

Anastasiow, N.J. (1987). Programs Developed in Response to Teen Pregnancies. Infant Mental Health Journal, 8(1), 65-75.

Brien, M.J., Loya, G.E., & Pepper, J.V. (2002). Teenage Childbearing and Cognitive Development. Journal of Population Economics, 15(3), 391-416.
View Full Essay

Ray Technology in Medicine How

Words: 1960 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94082880



Some sources also offer a different insight for the emergent increase in need of this technology. Bernike Pasveer follows the idea that it was because there was a need for efficient diagnosis methods (Pasveer, 1993, p89). It was only after the introduction of X-rays that there was a determination of the nature of tuberculosis. The need for an efficient method that disputed the myths was necessary, and that was achieved on the introduction of X-ray technology. This is supported by Andrew Warwick who claims that the reason why this technology is still significant was due to its diagnostic properties. However, Andrew differs from Bernike by instead using fractures as his example. Andrew explains the role of X-ray technology especially in Germany where the surgeons undertook this process to determine fractures and diagnose bone discrepancies (Warwick, 2005, p4). Incidentally, this is a role of the technology that is still in practice.…… [Read More]

References

Andrew Warwick (2005), X rays as evidence in German orthopedic surgery.

Anja Hiddinga (1992), X-ray technology in obstetrics: Measuring pelvis at the Yale School of Medicine, in J.V Pickstone ed.

Bernike Pasveer (1993), Depiction in medicine as a two way affair: X -- ray Pictures and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the early Twentieth century, in Ilana Lowy ed. (Pasveer,

1993, p89).
View Full Essay

Health Maintenance Organization Impact on

Words: 13949 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 80930377

" (AAF, nd)

The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)

One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…… [Read More]

Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians  http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html 

Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at:  http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512 

Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html
View Full Essay

Cuban Case Study Mrs Demetilla Hernandez a

Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 52134499

CUBAN CASE STUDY Mrs. Demetilla Hernandez a 63-year- Cuban woman seeks consultation Liberty health-maintenance organization (HMO) clinic weakness, lethargy, fatigue experienced 2 months. A week ago, cooking dinner daughter, Mariana's house, momentarily lost balance slipped kitchen floor.

CUBAN CASE STUDY

As a health-care provider, what are the typical Cuban communication patterns you need to be aware of in dealing with Mrs. Hernandez?

Latino families are often multigenerational in their composition. As the grandmother, Mrs. Hernandez assumes control over the family meals. This is a very important part of her identity. ather than communicating directly, food is love and emotions and feelings are communicated through food.

Q2. Describe the traditional Cuban food patterns. How would you assist Mrs. Hernandez

in developing a plan for a 1500-calorie diet and regular exercise?

People who have grown up in poor, food-insecure settings often develop patterns of eating high-calorie, high-carbohydrate comfort foods and many Latino…… [Read More]

References

Ortiz, B. (et al. 2007). Complementary and alternative medicine use among Hispanics in the United States. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 41(6):994-1004.

Dura-Vila, Gloria, and Matthew Hodes. (2011). Cross-cultural study of idioms of distress among

Spanish nationals and Hispanic-American migrants: susto, nervios and ataque de nervios. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 1-11. Retrieved:  http://www-ncbi-nlm-gov.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/pubmed/22270268 .
View Full Essay

Community Health Statistics for Caddo Parish Louisiana

Words: 2397 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13049820

Community Health Statistics for Caddo Parish, Louisiana

Description of Caddo Parish, Louisiana

With about a quarter of a million residents, Caddo Parish, Louisiana is a fairly older community with almost two-thirds of its population aged 25 years or older. Most of the residents of Caddo Parish (82.3%) are high school graduate or higher and 22.3% have a bachelor's degree or higher compared to the national averages of 84.6% and 27.5%, respectively. There are slightly more females than males in Caddo Parish, and median family incomes are slightly lower than the national average at $48,522; per capita income is also slightly less than the national average at $22,323. There are also slightly more whites than blacks (50.3% compared to 46.4%, respectively) in Caddo Parish. ecent relevant statistical data for these and other areas of interest are presented below.

Table

Biophysical Considerations: Caddo Parish

Population Size

Census

Pop.

5,282

8,884

68.2%

12,140…… [Read More]

References

About the Parish of Caddo. (2011). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://

www.caddo.org/about.cfm/.

Annual report. (2007, 2010). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://www.caddo.

org/pdfs/.
View Full Essay

Program Development the Program That

Words: 1895 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7602836

So, in those regards the curriculum is slowly catching up with the times. Personally, I would like to see additions such as a playing of the movie, "The Business of Being Born" at one of the sessions or as homework.

The second way that the curriculum should change within the next three years is to begin allowing more nurses to become certified teachers. Currently, it is easier for a parent to become a coach than it is for a nurse. The reason, according to Bradley, is that the parents have direct experience, whereas nurses only have book-related experience. In fact, Bradley does offer the option for nurses to become a teacher, but additional reading and exam requirements must be met.

Personally, I find it to be in the best interest of Bradley to offer their curriculum with open arms to nurses for one simple reason: the more nurses who know…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Halfon, Saul (2010). Encountering Birth: Negotiating Expertise, Networks, and My STS Self. Science as Culture, 19(1), 61-77.

Hathaway, Marjie; et al. (2007). The Bradley Method Student Workbook. American Academy of Husband Coached Childbirth.

Lake, Rikki (2008). The Business of Being Born. Barranca Productions.

Lieberman, Adrienne (1992). Easing Labor Pain: The Complete Guide to a More Comfortable and Rewarding Birth. The Harvard Common Press, Boston.
View Full Essay

Mothers Killing Their Babies First

Words: 2566 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 3236577



Methods of Killing

The methods of committing neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide are as diverse as the women who commit the tragic crime. According to ouge-Maillart, Jousset, Gaudin, Bouju, and Penneau (2005), strangulation, head trauma, drowning, and suffocation were the four most frequent methods of filicide. However, in these researchers' study, some mothers used what they deem to be 'more active' methods. Five children died after being struck by their mothers' fists. Two women in the study used a firearm to shoot their children. Two died after being hit with a heavy object, by their mother -- one a monkey wrench the other a stone. One woman slit her 13-year-old's throat. In one case, a 3-year-old boy died by defenestration -- being thrown out of the window. Lastly, a 10-month-old died of starvation and dehydration, after being deprived of food and water for 10 days.

Krischer, Stone, Sevecke, and Steinmeyer's (2007)…… [Read More]

References

Atwood, T. (Feb 2008). Comment: National Council for Adoption's response to the Texas Safe Haven Study. Child Maltreatment, 13(1). pp. 96-97.

Craig, M. (Feb 2004). Perinatal risk factors for neonaticide and infant homicide. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 97. pp. 57-61.

Friedman, S., Horwitz, S., & Resnick, P. (2005) Child murder by mothers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162. pp. 1578-1587.

Kauppi, A. Kumpulainen, K. Vanamo, T. Merikanto, J and Karkola K. (2008)Maternal depression and filicide. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 11. pp. 201-206.
View Full Essay

Health Threats in Turkey One

Words: 1390 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93689756

" ("Let My Baby Live..." NP) Other messages of the campaign were to stress the need to avoid high risk pregnancy, prior to age 18 or after age 35 and to stagger pregnancies by two years to help the maternal body recover and be strong enough to care for the developing infant and go through labor successfully. The campaign, promoting these ideas states that it has been successful in reaching its goals, and has currently reached 66% of the population in the regions where the campaign was launched. ("Let My Baby Live..." NP) There is not mention as to whether the campaign will end, or be expanded to a broader audience in Turkey.

Turkey's example program could serve as a template for other health issues that need to be expressed to the public in Turkey and in other nations with challenged health care delivery infrastructures and limited public knowledge of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brennan, Teresa. Globalization and Its Terrors. London: Routledge, 2003.

Kaul, Chandrika, and Valerie Tomaselli-Moschovitis, eds. Statistical Handbook on Poverty in the Developing World. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1999.

Weiker, Walter F. The Modernization of Turkey: From Ataturk to the Present Day. New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1981.

E-Health Project in Turkey" International Telecommunications Network Website Retrieved November 15, 2007 at http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/e-strategies/e-applications/Turkey_E-health/index.html
View Full Essay

Disclosure This Report Represents a

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23957910

As oversight staffing budgets are reduced and redundancy is addressed, many states will follow Pennsylvania's lead.

Concept Discussion

In our current setting, healthcare organizations are legislatively driven to follow strict disclosure polices in order to shield patient related and other protected data yet still these facilities and staff will be required to provide superior customer service. Thus, the information age has strained governmental legislation bolstering individual patient's privacy. "In the past decade, we have undergone a dramatic transformation in the way we shop, bank, and go about our daily business -- changes that have resulted in an unprecedented proliferation of records and data." (Soloye)

This vast amount of information that has been created or has suddenly become available now requires all new regulations regarding disclosure of medical information. The nursing profession has obviously been affected.

For example, nursing staffs often must get written permission to disclose, discuss or review a…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Government Aid to Undocumented Workers

Words: 2126 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85828414



Currently children and families who are in this country illegally are entitled to the following programs.

Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) nutrition program: Agency workers do not ask for a client's immigration status"(Benefits, 2006).

Outpatient medical care: Only at clinics designated as federally qualified health centers - those helping needy communities - where clients receive medical care if they demonstrate financial need "(Benefits, 2006).

Prenatal care: Only at federally qualified health centers"(Benefits, 2006).

Emergency medical care: Paid by Medicaid if patient shows financial need"(Benefits, 2006).

Labor and delivery care in hospitals: Paid by Medicaid if patient shows financial need (Benefits, 2006)."

Immunizations: Health departments and clinics generally do not ask for immigration status. They prefer to vaccinate as many people as possible to prevent disease outbreaks (Benefits, 2006)."

Business license: The state does not ask for proof of immigration status.

Public defender: equired by the U.S. Constitution for those charged…… [Read More]

References

____. Benefits off-limits to illegals Undocumented can get only limited range of taxpayer-funded services." Denver Rocky Mountain News (2006)

Brinkley, John. "ILLEGAL IMMIGRANT NUMBERS UP STATE'S UNDOCUMENTED POPULATION GREW BY 28.6% FROM 1992-96" Denver Rocky Mountain News (2007)

Cohn, Dvera. "Report Details Growth in Illegal Migration; Undocumented Immigrants Outnumbered Legal Ones From 2000 to 2004, Study Says." The Washington Post; (2005)

Fears, Darryl. "For Illegal Immigrants, Some Aid Is Too Risky; Fears Abound as Government Won't Promise Immunity From Deportation." The Washington Post; (2005)
View Full Essay

Abbott Laboratories Abbot Laboratories Overview

Words: 694 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11584772

Abbott Laboratories is also a major supplier of hand-held point-of-care diagnostics and blood glucose monitoring devices that enable health care professionals and patients manage a wide range of disorders (Abbot.com, 2011).

Current Challenges and Problems

On May 26, 2011, the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute terminated a clinical trial of Abbot Laboratories' cholesterol drug Niaspan a full year and a half earlier than scheduled (Loftus, 2011). That decision was based on specific concerns over data indicating that Niaspan failed to reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes in connection with its combination with statin drugs. That study also suggested that Niaspan could be a potential factor in the unexplained increase in ischemic-stroke rates among study participants. Last year, Abbott generated Niaspan sales totaling $927 million and had projected sales in excess of $1 billion this year. According to industry analysts, the early cessation of the government study…… [Read More]

References

Abbott.com. (2011). About Abbott. Accessed 4 July 2011 from:

 http://www.abbott.com/global/url/content/en_US/10:10/general_content/General_Content00004.htm 

Loftus, P. "Prescriptions for Abbott's Niaspan off after Negative Study." (28 June 2011).

Accessed 4 July 2011 from the Wall Street Journal public website at:
View Full Essay

Oklahoma Health Oklahoma's Health Two

Words: 880 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37267746

educing obesity is seen as the primary goal of these efforts, but part of combating obesity is engaging in more active lifestyles and thus the educational efforts Oklahoma is planning will address both identified risk factors for diabetes. Strategies outlined that will assist in achieving the objective of reduced obesity other than through an increase in the availability and effectiveness of education include working for better policy development and implementation that directly encourages more healthy choices and behaviors, a better integration of various local programs and resources available throughout the state, and ensuring that evidence-based practices are used in medicine.

4)

The State of the State report notes that infant mortality is higher in Oklahoma than in the rest of the country, with a lack of adequate prenatal care being a contributing factor in this issue. Healthy People 2020 addresses this issue in calling for a greater awareness of infant…… [Read More]

References

Healthy People 2020. (2011). Accessed 8 October 2011.  http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx 

Oklahoma State of State Report. (2011). Accessed 8 October 2011.  http://www.ok.gov/health/ pub/boh/state/index.html" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
View Full Essay

Genetic Counseling Dealing With Its

Words: 2480 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92171465

"Accurate descriptions of sex chromosome differences are critical, the decisions potentially regrettable, and the long-term outcomes devastating if a termination is based on the misinformation," that the patient later discovers to be misinformation for instance, "that any of these conditions is comparable to Down's Syndrome" (Biesecker r 2001:2) Conversely, it is also important not to minimize the odds of a potentially fatal genetic condition like Tay Sachs disease.

Providers are obliged to obtain useful up-to-date information and to ensure parents have adequate opportunity to consider their decision with the help of an experienced healthcare provider, preferably in medical genetics, and if necessary, a counselor who is attuned to the cultural assumptions and needs of the couple's population group, and religious beliefs. Certain populations might have a different view and understanding of the real difficulty of raising a child suffering from a heritable disorder, or even the concept of heritability of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, Schuette & Uhlmann. (Eds.) (1998). A guide to genetic counseling.

Beery, Theresa a & Kerry a. Schooner. (Nov 2004). "Family History: The First Genetic

Screen." Nurse Practioner. Retrieved 23 Jun 2007 at  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3958/is_200411/ai_n9469874/pg_5 

Biesecker, Barbara. (24 Feb 2001). "Prenatal diagnoses of sex chromosome conditions:
View Full Essay

Foster Children

Words: 8637 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87113745

Foster Children/Foster Care

Issues of a Foster Child

Child Abuse

Families and Children Served through Foster Care

The Policy Framework

This thesis reviews foster care in the United States: the reasons why children fall into the category of children who need to be taken out of their families and placed in care, the numerous emotional and psychological responses of children in foster care, and the psychological and emotional care that is given to children that are placed in foster care. The numerous laws covering foster care institutions and the policies they implement regarding the treatment of children in their care are also discussed. An extensive list of references is also given at the end of the thesis.

Introduction

Everyday more children are born into this world. Yet everyday there is a mother or a father who child is placed in a foster care facility, for many different reasons. Children are…… [Read More]

References

Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997. PL. 105-89.

Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980. P.L. 96-272.

Alan Guttmacher Institute. (1994). Sex and America's teenager. New York: Author.

American Academy of Pediatrics. (1999). Planning for children whose parents are dying
View Full Essay

Supreme Court of U S Has

Words: 1974 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25155642



From the study of treatment for mothers on crack, 50 experts in drug dependency as well as 150 addicted women identify components which they believe are important in the treatment of women effectively. Some of the features that they had identified that are always not present within the current programs are: comprehensive health care such as family planning, prenatal as well as prevention of HIV; service for children such as play therapy, day care, parental training and developmental monitoring of a child; an advocacy role such as contact with protective services of a child as well as welfare; and appropriate staffing such as non-confrontational, female staffing as well as cultural and racial sensitive.

As evident in the finding of the study, there is preference within experts and women for a program that combines medical, drug treatment and therapeutic services for the child and the mother, job training and education, long-term…… [Read More]

Reference

MacGi-egor, (1989). Cocaine and prenatal Outcome. Obstetrics and Gyllecology.

Murphy. S.. & Rosenbaum. M., (1999). Pregnant women on drugs: Combating Stereotype.. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.

Reuter, (1994). Setting Priorities: Budget and Program Choices for Drug Control. Reprint h-om Toward a Rational Drug Policy. The University of' Chicago Legal Forum,1994, pp. 14S 173.

Weisdorf, T. Parran. TV., Graham, A. & Snyder, C., (1999). Comparison of pregnancy-specific Interventions to a Traditional treatment Program for Cocaine-addicted Pregnant Women. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment,1999, pp 16(1), 39-45.
View Full Essay

Substance Abuse During Pregnancy PSA

Words: 765 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 80081643

The bill includes no provisions for other types of expanded access to prenatal and post-natal care for impoverished women, or expanded funding for drug treatment of pregnant women outside of prisons. It seems like a convenient way to test the constitutionality of Roe v. Wade, as if the bill is contested, the issue of legal abortion will certainly arise in the appellate courts, perhaps even in the Supreme Court. But even if abortion does not become the primary focus of the bills proponents and opponents, the bill also raises the troubling civil rights issue of special litigation that penalizes substance-abusing women who can become pregnant more than women who cannot, or men.

I understand that some members of the hospital staff are hopeful that the bill will enable some women to enter drug treatment more easily. However, as no additional funding for such treatment is provided in the bill, it…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Women and Children Research and

Words: 1196 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75923162

Finally, WIC is the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (ohio.gov, 2011). WIC offers programs to ensure adequate nutrition for low-income women and infants, during and after pregnancy (ohio.gov, 2011). WIC also offers referrals for "prenatal and pediatric" health care through Medicaid (ohio.gov, 2011

Identify the philosophical attitudes and perspectives that have led to either the support or lack of understanding for and marginalizing of this group.

Women have faced many challenges that do not generally apply to men, including violence and abuse, low relative wages, unequal opportunities in the workplace, insufficient prenatal and general health care, and a lack of emotional and financial support for single-parenting. Progress along these lines has sometimes been slow due to discriminatory attitudes against: women in general (sexism, or objectification leads to abuse), women in the workplace, women who have children when unmarried, birth control and abortion, and low-income women.

In…… [Read More]

References

Antonopoulos, R. (2010). Social Protection for Woman. UN Chronicle, 47 (1), 22+.

Bortz, a. (1980). Historical Development of the Social Security Act. Retrieved 03-04, 2011, from ssa.gov:  http://www.ssa.gov/history/bortz.html 

Hanratty, M. (1994). Social Welfare Programs for Women and Children. In R. Blank, Social Protection vs. Economic Flexibility: Is There a Trade-off? (pp. 301-332). Chicago: Univ of Chicago Press.

ohio.gov. (2011). Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Retrieved 03-04, 2011, from odh.ohio.gov:  http://www.odh.ohio.gov/odhprograms/ns/wicn/wic1.aspx