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New Leading Cause of Accidental Death

Words: 3509 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7176824

Prescription Drug Abuse

The overall point of conversation when speaking of prescription drugs in the public and political sphere has usually focused on cost and/or ease of access among all Americans. The overall points of conversation relating to drug has often centered on drugs like heroin, cocaine, crack and marijuana. However, as time and trends have shifted, the primary focus of both overall topics has centered on the use and abuse of prescription drugs, usually certain classes of drugs such as sedatives, opiates and anti-anxiety drugs. Common drugs focused on include Xanax, any narcotic-based painkiller such as Oxycontin and sedatives or muscle relaxers such as Valium and Soma. While prescription drugs are very important to have at the ready, the likelihood and propensity towards abuse of the drugs and other legal behavior is significant and this is even true among people who obtain the drugs legally at the onset.

Analysis…… [Read More]

References

Doyon, S., Klein-Schwartz, W., Anderson, B.A., & Welsh, C. (2013). A Novel Approach

to Informing the Public about the Risks of Overdose and Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications. American Journal on Addictions, 22(2), 108-112.

doi:10.1111/j.1521-0391.2013.00305.x

Garcia, A.M. (2013). State Laws Regulating Prescribing of Controlled Substances:
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Med Omeprazole Is a Proton-Pump

Words: 578 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 11816824

Prescription antifungal or antiyeast medications may also interfere with the action of omeprazole and should not be taken concurrently with it.

Plain Language:

Omeprazole is a drug primarily used to treat the symptoms of heartburn and acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when stomach acid shoots up into the esophagus, the tube connecting the throat to the stomach.

Although it is a prescription-only medication in many places, it is also sold over-the-counter in some countries. The drug is usually administered in a time-release tablet form, although some patients might prefer the powdered version because the tablets cannot be chewed.

Omeprazole is not an antacid (like olaids or Tums) and works on an entirely different principle. Unlike antacids, omeprazole is not taken to relieve symptoms of heartburn immediately. It is a drug that addresses the root cause of heartburn and acid reflux, and must be taken regularly for it to be effective.…… [Read More]

References

"Omeprazole." (2011). PubMed. Retrieved online:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0000936/
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Drug Abuse Economically Alcohol Consumption Causes Injuries

Words: 1265 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10008471

Drug Abuse Economically

Alcohol consumption causes injuries, deaths and other problems in the society. In order to reduce the problem economists must understand it, and know the economic burden or effects it causes. Economists approach the problem using costs and further put it in real numbers. Economists use assumptions to simplify their work, and focus on what that really matters. They make rational decisions based on reason, and encourage them to act using that reason and not based on facts. They think at the margin while isolating variables; thus the notion that economists can be said to act rationally based on in their own interest.

Economic Approach

Different factors should be considered when looking at alcohol consumption. Economists should use statistics to know the rate of alcohol consumption, and the increasing alcohol consumption rates. Many people tend to believe alcohol myths, which are unrealistic and misleading. Believing and acting on…… [Read More]

References

Korgen, K.W., White, J.M. And White, S.K. (2008). Sociologists In Action. Atlanta: Pine Forge Press.

Lipsey, R.H. And Harbury, C. (1992). First Principles of Economics. New York: Oxford.

Managerial Economics. FK Publications.
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Reform Strategies

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92088108

health management systems designed to serve public needs during disasters and emergencies, two are discussed here: Emergency rescription Assistance rogram (EA) and state social media platforms. Each system addresses a different aspect of health management during disasters and emergencies. The EA is a highly formalized system -- as it must be since it deals with prescription drugs and equipment -- yet, the rigidity of the system may limit its effectiveness or, minimally, its responsiveness early in an emergency or disaster. The state's social media platforms have limited utility if electrical supplies are interrupted during a disaster. Even though the systems may depend on servers that are located out of harms way, the individuals who are impacted by a disaster may not be able to access the state's social media sites.

Introduction

The two approaches to emergency management discussed in this paper address two very different aspects of emergency preparedness and…… [Read More]

Planning. In 2006, the United States Army took planning steps to move away from a de facto demand-driven process of force generation that left the forces, in the words of Army Chief of Staff General George Casey, "out of balance" ("Stand To!," 2010). The demand for forces in the protracted conflicts in Afghanistan and Iran was met without conscription -- a first time circumstance for military campaigns of such length. Forces were readied and supplied rapidly, but with great fiscal, organizational, and personal cost, stress, and inefficiencies. This new force generation plan that was designed to address these dynamics and problems is called Army Force Generation (ARFOGEN).

ARFOGEN is the model and the process used to achieve the progressive levels of readiness with recurring periods of availability as both active and reserve component units progress through three distinct force pools: RESET: Train/Ready; and Available."

Leading. Army leadership is defined by the privilege to command which "is exercised by virtue of office and the special assignment of members of the United Sates Armed Forces holding military grade who are eligible to exercise command" ("Army Command Policy," 2010, p. 1). Responsibility and authority are the key elements of command. Further, "formal authority for command is derived from the policies, procedures, and precedents presented in chapters 1 through 3" ("Army Command Policy," 2010, p. 1). The regulations of
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Pharma Parallel Trade

Words: 1456 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7055403

Healthcare

Making Prescription Drugs Affordable?

Parallel Trade and the Pharmaceutical Industry

The skyrocketing cost of prescription drugs remains one of the most contentious issues in America. In this presidential election year, especially, politicians are continually debating ways to make life-saving drugs more affordable. Alone in the world, the United States prohibits the free importation of prescription medications from abroad. Yet, as is so often pointed out by those in favor of changing the law, such drugs are nearly always much less expensive in foreign countries - even medicines that are actually manufactured by American corporations. Of central importance in the argument is the precise rationale for current pricing levels. The pharmaceutical companies and their allies claim that high prices are necessary to finance the continuing innovation of American medicine. Foreign nations, they say, artificially control drug costs, thereby depriving corporations of the sizeable funds required for new research. New medications…… [Read More]

References

Barry, Patricia. "States in Revolt Look to Canada for Rx Drugs: States Defy Federal Laws, Industry on Drug Purchases." AARP Bulletin Online. AARP, November 2003. URL:  http://www.aarp.org/bulletin/prescription/Articles/a2003-11-05-states_revolt.html .

Statement of William K. Hubbard, Associate Commissioner for Policy and Planning, U.S. Food and Drug Administration before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 14 July 2004.

Would Prescription Drug Importation Reduce U.S. Drug Spending?" A Series of Issue Summaries from the Congressional Budget Office. 29 April 2004.

Patricia Barry, "States in Revolt Look to Canada for Rx Drugs: States Defy Federal Laws, Industry on Drug Purchases," AARP Bulletin Online, AARP, November 2003. URL:
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Drug Profile

Words: 1740 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26459243

Drug Profile

Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…… [Read More]

References

Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from:  http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf 

Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.

Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.
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Direct to Consumer Dtc Advertising

Words: 535 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 98497588



It is also important to identify to what extent such advertisements play on human emotions to evoke positive purchase decisions. Other ethical issues would include the extent to which such DTC advertising encourages consumers to circumvent the physician-patient relationship. In other words, to the extent that such DTC advertising encourages "drug-shopping" behaviors among healthcare consumers is likely the extent to which such advertising could be regarded as unethical.

Most sick people are scared, many are in pain, and some of them may grasp at any claims from marketers concerning a potential cure. Conversely, denying these very same healthcare consumers with as much information about the current choices that are available to them also appears to be unethical, assuming that the targeted populations are in a position to make informed decisions.

3.

What are the costs and benefits of marketing prescription drugs directly to physicians?

The costs of marketing prescription drugs…… [Read More]

References

Advertising prescription drugs. (n.d.). Decision point, 335.
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Pharmacist In This Case the Pharmacist

Words: 1583 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 11882532



eflection

A reflection on the case shows me that ethical and moral guidelines must be instilled in pharmacy as a profession. It is therefore necessary for the pharmacies to collaborate with other key stakeholders in ensuring that proper guidelines are put in place together with polices aimed at ensuring an ethical and moral pharmaceutical practice. Case esolution Model (CM) (Brincat & Wike,1999) is therefore an important model since it has taken me through all the necessary steps that can allow me to effective conclude this case amicably.

eferences

World Health Organization (2001). The ole of the Pharmacist in Self-Care and Self-Medication.Available online at http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/whozip32e/whozip32e.pdf

Brincat, C.,Wike, vs (1999). Morality and the Professional Life: Values at Work. Pearson; 1st ed.

Passmore P, Kailis SG (1994).In pursuit of rational drug use and effective drug management: clinical and public health pharmacy viewpoint. Asia Pac J. Public Health. 1994;7(4):236-41.

outledge, PA., O'Mahony, MS., WoodhouseKW…… [Read More]

References

World Health Organization (2001). The Role of the Pharmacist in Self-Care and Self-Medication.Available online at  http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/whozip32e/whozip32e.pdf 

Brincat, C.,Wike, vs (1999). Morality and the Professional Life: Values at Work. Pearson; 1st ed.

Passmore PR, Kailis SG (1994).In pursuit of rational drug use and effective drug management: clinical and public health pharmacy viewpoint. Asia Pac J. Public Health. 1994;7(4):236-41.

Routledge, PA., O'Mahony, MS., WoodhouseKW (2003).Adverse drug reactions in elderly patients. Br J. Clin Pharmacol. 2004 February; 57(2): 121 -- 126. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01875.x PMCID: PMC1884428
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Solutions for the Alcohol Abuse Problem From

Words: 1091 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34552515

solutions for the alcohol abuse problem from economists' point-of-view. The second section of the paper addresses the situation of prescription drugs and how they can affect the demand and supply of other products and services. The paper continues with a section that explains the relationship between supply modification and elasticity of demand, and between demand modifications and elasticity of supply. There is also a section that discusses increasing-costs industries. Another section of the paper address the conditions required for competitive markets to be economically efficient.

There are several solutions that economists can offer when addressing the alcohol abuse problem. In this case, the problem is regarded as a negative externalities situation of the production and consumption of alcohol. The assumption in this case is that alcohol abuse is a negative externality because of its consequences, like drunk driving and the effects on consumers' health and on relationship with other individuals.…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Adam, G. (2009). Economic Theory: Supply and Demand. Retrieved January 31, 2012 from  http://www.science20.com/gerhard_adam/blog/economic_theory_%E2%80%93_supply_and_demand .

2. Perfect Competition (2011). Investopedia. Retrieved February 1, 2012 from  http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/perfectcompetition.asp .

3. Hall, R. & Lierberman, M. (2007). Economics: Principles and Applications. Cengage Learning. Retrieved February 1, 2012 from  http://books.google.ro/books?id=whLWKYNy0UoC&pg=PA220&dq=perfect+competition&hl=ro# .
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Clayton Christensen Teamed Up With Jerome Grossman

Words: 1580 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 79788938

Clayton Chistensen teamed up with Jeome Gossman, and Jason Hwang, both medical doctos, to bing a thooughly eseached insight into a disuptive solution fo efficient value-added health cae in "The Innovato's Pesciption." He peviously wote the vanguad book on innovation called "The Innovato's Dilemma." Chistensen and his team display the enables of disuption with the use of cuent technology. They also explain how diffeent facets of the Ameican healthcae system should be disupted, to esult in cheape, moe effective healthcae fo evey citizen. They include the business model fo idyllic hospitals, the individual physician model, how to cae fo those who have chonic disease, the eimbusement system, education fo medical pofessionals, and the development of phamaceuticals and medical devices. These authos cast a wide net and cove all bases when it comes to the floundeing healthcae system in the United States. They also discuss thei plan to make it bette.…… [Read More]

references and reasoning.

Conclusion

As the assignment was the introduction of 50 pages only, I can't say whether I think it's the answer, however, in studying their work and clearly supports merits in changing the health care industry, I do believe that the government could play an important role in speeding up the process of disruption that Christensen outlines in his book…although I need to investigate a bit more such profound ideas and innovations that are out there facing our current health care status.

In looking forward, a product or a service that is the result of a disruption has the following of a whole new generation of patients, who may find the product or service to be more beneficial than the existing.

If there is anything right on point, or a "crystal ball" so to speak, this book may be it. It thoroughly explains in detail what a revamped American health care delivery system will be like on the horizon. Better quality, more affordability and accessibility for all citizens is the goal and this book lays it out in precise detail. The authors include; a respected Harvard Business School professor, a medical doctor who also was the Director of Health Care Delivery Policy Program at Harvard Kennedy School, and another doctor and graduate of the MBA program at Harvard Business School. They are some of the most credentialed scholars who have more than adequately demonstrated the path to health care reform, and specified why a nationalized system will hinder the innovation necessary to enhance our health care system. This is a must read for anyone who aspires to work in the health care industry in the future. It can help guide young professionals by giving a well thought out analysis of what a new health care system may look like.
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Drug Monograph for Serious Infections

Words: 1394 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46553583

Vancomycin should be given for at least 60 minutes. The initial dosage for pediatrics with renal impairment is not less than 15 mg/kg per day or 15 times the GF in mL/min. Premature infants should have longer dosing intervals. PO administration should be 40 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. The maximum is 2,000 mg/day, which may be diluted in 1 oz of water or administered through an NG tube (PD).

Contraindications

Vancomycin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to vancomycin (Drug.com, 2012). Commercially prepared frozen Vancomycyn Hydrochloride injections in 5% dextrose may also be contraindicated to those with known allergic reaction to corn or corn products (Drug.com).

Drug-Drug Interactions

The patient should inform the doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and non-prescription or herbal products currently used (Medicine Net, 2012; Levinson, 2012). Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, other antibiotics, and live bacterial vaccines are special mentions. If treatment requires…… [Read More]

Reference: PDR Network LLC.

Retrieved on April 20, 2012 from  http://www.pdr.net/drugpages/concisemonograph.aspx?concise=688
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Direct to Consumer Advertising History of Drug

Words: 16271 Length: 59 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71118969

Direct to Consumer Advertising

HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING

THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN

CREATING DEMAND

DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING

CAUSE F DEATH

PRFIT

UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS

LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS

LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC

RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS

In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.

Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]

On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.

Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.

In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems.  http://www.recalleddrugs.com
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Forbes Magazine Entitled In the Pill Box

Words: 801 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41569186

Forbes Magazine entitled, "In the Pill Box" discusses Walgreen's Drugstore and the challenge that it faces from Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBM). The article begins by informing the reader of the astronomical growth of the Walgreen's company. The author explains that the company's stock has risen by 3,000% in the past 20 years and that the store plans to have over 7,000 stores by 2010. (Lambert) The article also asserts that the same-store sales increased by 9% in fiscal 2003. (Lambert)

The author contends that although the company is extremely success, there is a threat on the horizon. This threat comes in the form of Pharmacy Benefit Managers who show health organizations and employers how to make prescriptions drugs more cost effective. The article explains that PBM's often encourage these organizations to persuade patients to get long-term prescriptions through the mail instead of going to a pharmacy. Mail order pharmaceuticals are…… [Read More]

At the other end of the debate there are consumers who like to order their prescriptions through the mail. Some consumers do this even if it is not mandated by their insurance providers. In many cases consumers just find it more convenient to order prescriptions through the mail. In any case, the PBM's and the drugstores will continue to quarrel over which method is less expensive.

In my own opinion, it seems that Walgreen's should not have the right or ability to blacklist customers because of the decisions that are made by their healthcare providers. In many cases people are in dire need of receiving their medication and may not have time to ride around to different pharmacies just to get a prescription fulfilled. It is apparent to me that all Walgreen's is concerned with is its bottom line and they are willing to sacrifice the health of customers just to prove a point to PBM's. The fact of the matter is that consumers have a right to purchase prescriptions in any way that they see fit. Some people prefer going to a traditional pharmacists, while other prefer for the prescriptions to be brought to their homes. Walgreen's has to be careful not to ignore the needs and desires of consumers in the quest for greater profits.

Lambert, Emily. 2004. "In The Pill Box." Forbes Magazine
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The Significance of Statistical Thinking in Healthcare

Words: 1295 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21798585

Map of Prescription Filling at an HMO and SIPOC for Problem Analysis (Bertrand

Filling prescriptions and the estimated time each activity takes consist of four steps in most pharmacies (Bertrand, 2012). The first is entering the prescription when received from two to 10 minutes. It may be longer according to the duration of the billing process and the ease or complicatedness of the prescription. The second is filling the medication, which takes from three to 15 minutes or longer, depending on the type of prescription and its storage or if it has to be reconstituted or compounded. The third is checking it, which can take between three and 10 minutes. The pharmacist makes sure it is the correct prescription, the dose, the interactions and the genuineness of the prescription. The duration depends on the prescription and the patient's history and profile. And the fourth is the release of the prescription.…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Banerjee, D. (2016). SIPOC: beyond process mapping. ISixSigma. Retrieved on January 30,

2016 from  http://www.isixsigma.com/tools-templates/sipoc-copis/sipoc-beyond-process-mapping/ 

Bertrand, M. (2012). How are medications filled in a pharmacy? Hub Pages: Hub Pges, Inc.

Retrieved on January 30, 2016 from  http://hubpages.com/health/How-are-Medications-Filled-in-a-Pharmacy
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Wal-Mart's Strategy the Discount Retailing

Words: 2016 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22899280

However, one of the many ways Wal-Mart has been able to cut costs is by not having large stores of items in back rooms at each of their stores. Instead, the organization has used technology to remain customer focused.

By innovating the use of sharing sales data, via computer, with their major suppliers, Wal-Mart has been able to keep key items in stock, without having to stockpile them. When an item is rung up at the cash register, this information is sent to a data warehouse that then facilitates reordering from that particular supplier ("Wal-Mart Story"). Add this product availability to the fact that Wal-Mart offers such a wide variety of items, and services from: financial services to beauticians to optometry to automotive care, and one can easily see how the company has added convenience to its strategies of success.

Wal-Mart's most recent convenience strategy also comes in the form…… [Read More]

References

Dollar Prescription Drug Program. No date. Wal-Mart. December 2, 2007  http://www.walmartfacts.com/FactSheets/4_Dollar_Prescription_Drug_Program_Phase_2.pdf .

Economic Opportunities. No date. Wal-Mart. December 2, 2007  http://www.walmartfacts.com/FactSheets/Economic_Opportunities.pdf .

Site to Store Program. No date. Wal-Mart. December 2, 2007  http://www.walmartfacts.com/FactSheets/Site_to_Store_Program.pdf .

Wal-Mart Story. 24 Aug 2007. Wal-Mart. December 2, 2007  http://www.walmartfacts.com/content/default.aspx?id=1 .
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Glaxowellcome Introducing a Second Migraine

Words: 544 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 49089004

True that the existence of both which is intended for a similar use, operation or treatment might cause confusion and a question on which is a better product. In this case the replacement of Imigran with the new medication Naramig was the best choice among the other 4 options. With this decision it only proves to its customers, hospitals and patients that the new drug is an improved medication for migraines. As it was noted in this article:

The results showed that the replacement strategy met Glaxo U.K. expectations.

Naramig proved to be effective for migraine headaches in the majority of patients.

4. How should GlaxoWellcome position Amerge in the United States?

Considering several factors which are primarily different from UK, the U.S. market is broader in terms of population and territory. Difference in health care system is also a factor to be considered. In my opinion, the alternative positioning…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Net doctor Co.UK

Article on Imigran

 http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/100001324.html 

Tiscali Lifestyle Naramig
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Third Class of Drugs

Words: 1359 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95152683

Third Class Of Drugs

In the United States, all pharmaceutical products: from Advil to Zoloft, are sold either as over-the-counter remedies or as prescription drugs. Over-the-counter remedies like Advil, aspirin, and Tylenol, can be purchased by any consumer at any store that chooses to sell them. Therefore, an eight-year-old can go into a convenience store and buy a bottle of aspirin. On the other hand, if an eighty-year-old man wanted to try Viagra, he would need to consult a physician and retrieve a prescription, and from there he would need to buy the drug from a licensed pharmacist. The two-class division evolved from a series of acts and resolutions passed in conjunction with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The most significant landmark in the creation of a specific prescription-only class of drugs was the Durham-Humphrey Amendment, passed in 1951. The Amendment, which revised a 1938 congressional act called the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chan, Kwai-Cheung "Value of a Pharmacist-Controlled Class Has Yet to be Demonstrated." U.S. General Accounting Office. Aug 1995. Online at <  http://www.gao.gov/archive/1995/pe95012.pdf >.

Hoffman, William. "The Pharmacist as Statesman." The Doric Column. 3 April 2001. Online at <  http://mbbnet.umn.edu/doric/humphrey.html >.

Hoffman, William. "Indispensable." Reprinted with permission from Minnesota Medicine, August 1995. Online at <  http://mbbnet.umn.edu/hoff/hoff_pharm.html >.

Labbe, Carl R. "Do We Need a Third Class of Drugs?" The Phar Side: ASU Pharmacy Newsletter. Issue 26. Online at <  http://www.asu.edu/health/pharside%2026.htm >.
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Nursing Theory Framework

Words: 2702 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33960538

Nursing Theory Framework

Attachment Theory

ecognizing Addiction through Attachment Theory

Affect egulation and Addiction

Handling Addiction as an Attachment Disorder

The First Phase of Therapy

Concepts

Autonomy

Beneficence

Nonmaleficence

Nursing Theory Framework

The misappropriation of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health issue. Using a nursing theory framework, the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens is reviewed. Equal in variety to manifestations of addiction are sundry psychological theories that attempt to explain and treat the problem. Hardy (2011) was able to look into four traditional models for recognizing alcoholism (social learning theory, tension reduction theory, personality theory, and interactional theory,) in addition to five theoretical models that were developing at the time of their writing.

An approach to treating and understanding addiction that has created a huge amount of research in current decades, and which displays big promise for effective…… [Read More]

References

Caplan, J.P. (2012). Neuropsychiatric effects of prescription drug abuse. Neuropsychology Review, 17(3), 363-80.

Elkashef, A.M. (2012). Prevention and treatment of addiction. Psychiatric Times, 16-18.

Fischer, B.P. (n.d.). Assessing the prevalence of nonmedical prescription opioid use in the general canadian population: Methodological issues and questions. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55(9), 606-9.

Flores, P.J. (2012). Group psychotherapy and neuro-plasticity: An attachment theory perspective. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 60(4), 546-70.
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Jerry Mccall Dr Williams Office Assistant Licensed

Words: 1180 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90709200

Jerry McCall Dr. Williams Office Assistant

Licensed Practical Nurses and Medical Assistants: Legal and Ethical Implications

According to recent reports from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, medical assistants and licensed practical nurses (LPN) are two of the fastest growing jobs in the country (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010). In an effort to save costs, the demand for these professionals is increasing in both in-hospital and outpatient settings. The licenses and registrations, however, remain unstandardized; while LPNs are required to receive a license, some medical assistants receive a one or two-year degree and still others are only trained on the job. The responsibilities and restrictions of the profession are likewise only loosely regulated and vary between states. This has both ethical and legal implications for patient care. The following case scenario illustrates these ramifications and discusses the appropriate course of action for medical assistants working in a clinical setting.

The…… [Read More]

References:

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition, Medical Assistants, on the Internet at  http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos164.htm  (visited October 17, 2011).

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition, Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses, on the Internet at  http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos102.htm  (visited October 17, 2011).

Couch, C., Minchella, K., Walker, R., Watson N. Occupational Analysis of the CMA (AAMA). (2008). American Association of Medical Assistants, 2007-2008. Available from  http://www.aama-ntl.org/resources/library/OA.pdf .

Ferrell, C.W., Aspy, C.B., Mold, J.W. (2006). Management of Prescription Refills in Primary Care: An Oklahoma Physicians Resource/Research Network (OKPRN) Study. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 19, 1, 31-38.
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Economics of Alchohol Abuse Alcohol for Consumption

Words: 1853 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61366901

Economics of Alchohol Abuse

Alcohol for consumption is not a necessary food item, but for some has become a standard part of adult culture. Increasing the level of alcohol consumption, however, moves from an economic paradigm to a social issue due to the ancillary health and behavioral effects from alcohol abuse. In turn, this becomes part of economics in that it requires fiscal resources to treat societal issues caused by alcoholism: domestic abuse, crime, traffic or driving issues, etc. The economic effects of alcohol are undebatable, and are pervasive in the overt and covert areas of the economy (short- and long-term) (Fogarty, 2006).

In the economic sphere of political and social policy, alcohol, like tobacco and gambling, are considered a "sin" tax that is ostensibly designed to reduce transactions for issues society considers dangerous or undesirable. However, when it comes to alcohol, many see that this type of a sumptuary…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ensuring Solutions to Alcohol Problems. (2011). Ensuring Solutions. Retrieved from:  http://www.ensuringsolutions.org/ 

Profit-Maximization in the Long Run. (2010). Welker'sWikinomics. Retrieved from: http://welkerswikinomics.wetpaint.com/page/Profit-Maximization+in+the+Long-run

Tobacco, Alcohol Industries Reject New Sin Tax Bill. (February 22, 2012). ABS/CBN News. Com. Retrieved from:  http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/business/02/22/12/tobacco-alcohol-industries-reject-new-sin-tax-bill 

Avorn, J. (2004). Powerful Medicines: The Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Prescription Drugs. New York: Random House.
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Food and Drug Law in

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77408681

S. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the 1938 Act (grandfathered in, as it were). (Dunn 1938)

The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" (one in need of prior approval to market), as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling." FDCA § 201(p) (1). The manufacturers set out to establish then, that anything GRAS/GRAE therefore was not a new drug, and needed no FDA blessing.

Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before 1938. To make matters worse, between 1938 and 1962, the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…… [Read More]

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Label Drug Use Useless Costly

Words: 3084 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33447573

The structure of yetta is similar to that of GLP-1 and performs the same functions. oth promote decreased appetite (Wilson).

Dr. Wysham was an observer at a study conducted on 20 Rockwood diabetic patients who were taking conventional diabetic medication for their uncontrolled blood sugar (Wilson 2005). She was not informed about their glucose levels for several months after the tests began. About two-thirds of the respondents were given different injectible doses of yetta to incorporate into their medication plan, while the rest were given placebos. All of them were instructed and trained to do the injections at certain times twice daily for a month. Then they were subjected to a physical exam. Dr. Wysham closely monitored their liver, kidney, blood counts, and other functions. She observed that the patients consistently lose weight while taking yetta. The average respondent-patient lost 15 pounds in the duration of the study, 5 lost…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Business Editors (2005). Understand the impact of regulatory reform and raised drug

Safety awareness on off-label drug use. 2 pages. Business Wire: Gale Group

2007). Januvia approved in the European Union for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. 4 pages.

2007). Late breaking data released at ADA showed that the investigational use of Januvia and Metformin as initial combination therapy provided significant glucose lowering efficacy over 54 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes. 8
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Consumers to Import Drugs From

Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16568506

Consumers have the right to determine if the drugs are safe, which they often do because regulations in Canada pertaining to safety and drug tampering are just as strict as similar rules in the U.S. All 18 Canadian sites investigated by the General Accounting Office, wrote the journal Community Action in 2004, required consumers to supply a physician-written prescription before filling orders. That was the case for five of 29 U.S. pharmacies; no other foreign pharmacies did. Thus, consumers have the right to choice, and to find the best bargain, just as they might in any other commodity. (Bast, 2005) Viewed as such, importation is just another form of free trade and a "beneficial outcome of changing technology, free trade, and globalization. Free trade benefits everyone, and governments ought not cave in to special pleading by interest groups seeking to avoid competition or limit consumer choice."(Bast, 2004) Opponents counter that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Colabrese, Inez. "Online Pharmacies." CBS News Report. Broadcast Basler, Barbara (2006) "U.S. Steps Back on Drug Seizures." 2006 AARP Bulletin.

Bast, Joseph. "The Pros and Cons of Importing Drugs from Canada." April 19, 2004.

The Heartland Institute Special Report.

Canadian internet pharmacies have strict standards, U.S. auditors reports." (25 Jul 2005)
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Ethics Case Study Medical Law and Ethics

Words: 1239 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 95526411

Ethics Case Study: Medical Law and Ethics

Jerry McCall is Dr. William's office assistant. He has received professional training as both a medical assistant and an LPN. He is handling all of the phone calls at the office while the receptionist is at lunch. During this period of time, a patient calls and says he must have a prescription refill for Valium, an antidepressant medication, called in right away to his pharmacy, since he is leaving for the airport in thirty minutes. The patient notes that Dr. Williams is a personal friend and always gives him a small supply of Valium when he has to fly. No one except Jerry is in the office at this time.

Does Jerry's Medical Training Qualify Him to efill the Order?

While Jerry's medical training qualifies him to receive a prescription order and transcribe it accurately for other nurses or physicians to implement or…… [Read More]

References

Lloyd, H. (2010). Workers' compensation: a brief history. Florida Department of Financial Services. Web. Retrieved from:  http://www.myfloridacfo.com/wc/history.html  on 1 November 2011.

Minnesota Board of Nursing. (2010). Nurses and prescribing. Web. Retrieved from:

 http://www.state.mn.us/mn/externalDocs/Nursing/NURSES_AND_PRESCRIBING_090904125323_Prescribing%20FAQ2.pdf  on 1 November 2011.

Nowicki, M. And Summers, J. (2004). Reducing your credibility liability. Healthcare Financial Management, 58.4: pp. 94-97. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
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Drug Culture Final the Second

Words: 1767 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88370120

Brick and Cutter's Way can be categorized as both thrillers and films noir due to the fact that the narratives of these films revolve around an investigation into the mysterious deaths of young women at the hands of power-hungry men. While the investigation in Brick is fueled by a desire to expose a drug trafficking ring at a high school, thus making drugs a central issue, drugs in Cutter's Way are not a factor that contributed to the deaths of the individuals Cutter was looking into. However, that is not to say that drugs to not play a major role, as Cutter is heavily addicted to alcohol, which causes him to be discredited despite the fact that he is able to solve not only the crime at hand, but also reveal why his father was targeted by the same murderer years before.

On the other hand, Cabin in the Woods,…… [Read More]

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Prescribing Psychotropic Medications to Minors it Is

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 2130456

Prescribing Psychotropic Medications to Minors

It is every parent's worst nightmare: the drugs intended to cure a child kill him or her instead. Since the development of drugs like Prozac and Paxil, drugs classified as SSIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) have been increasingly used to address depression in patients that otherwise would have been treated with talk therapy alone. This is true of adolescents as well as adults, given that SSIs were once thought to have fewer side effects when compared with older types of antidepressants (Antidepressant medications for children and adolescents: Information for parents and caregivers, 2013, NIMH). Since the development of SSIs, the increase in psychotropic drug prescriptions has increased so rapidly that it is estimated that 1 in 5 of all Americans are on some form of psychotropic medication at any one time (Smith 2012:36). However, SSI use in adolescents and young adults has become specifically linked…… [Read More]

References

Antidepressant medications for children and adolescents: Information for parents and caregivers.

(2013). NIMH. Retrieved from  http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/child-and-adolescent-mental-health/antidepressant-medications-for-children-and-adolescents-information-for-parents-and-caregivers.shtml 

Boodman, S, (2012). Off-label use of risky antipsychotic drugs raises concerns. Kaiser Health News. Retrieved from:

 http://www.kaiserhealthnews.org/stories/2012/march/13/off-label-use-of-risky-antipsychotic-drugs.aspx
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Teens Becoming Generation RX

Words: 346 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73968301

Generation 'Rx'

When one thinks of teens and drugs, illegal substances such as marijuana and cocaine immediately come to mind. However, the real culprits aren't the drug pushers in the school yards; it's the medicine cabinets in their own homes. A national study has revealed that today's teens are more likely to have abused a prescription painkiller to get high than they are to have experimented with a variety of illegal drugs; 'Generation Rx' has arrived. Although this fact is initially surprising, when one reviews the reasons why teens turn to marijuana, one can easily see why prescription drugs have become even more popular.

The reasons teens use marijuana, repeated below, are even truer for prescription drugs.

Parents don't discuss the danger of drugs with their children.

Teens are left with less adult supervision because of societal changes.

Young people have more access now than they had ever had before.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Teens becoming 'Generation Rx'" CNN 22 Apr. 2005. Available:

http://www.cnn.com/2005/HEALTH/parenting/04/21/drug.survey.ap/(Accessed 24 Apr. 2005).

Use Of Drugs Among Teens And The Reasons Why They Use It." Available:

http://www.casacanada.com/drug3.html (Accessed 24 Apr. 2005).
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Positive Factors

Words: 901 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6996811

Positive Philosophy in Law

Thomas Aquinas and Hans Kelsen held that the law enforced by human courts is indeed a positive law. Legal philosophers have since come up with a flurry of arguments claiming that positive law must have its source and content. These philosophers were and are of contention that the court's core mandate should be that of harmonizing heterogeneous sources of law into a coherent body of law for ease of administration of justice. Sources of law can be drawn from the ancient oman law, legislation, custom, precedent and equity, raw materials processed by courts into genuine law, statutes, precedents, and opinions of experts. With regard to content, law should be enforced to administer justice (Murphy, 2005).

This paper seeks to list some factors that a judge in a state's criminal court system would consider before sentencing burglary/theft offenders, people suspected to have committed aggravated battery, or those…… [Read More]

References

Lahey, B.B., Moffitt, T.E. & Caspi, A. (2003). Causes of Conduct Disorder and Juvenile

Delinquency. New York: Guilford Press.

Murphy, J.B. (2005). The philosophy of positive law: foundations of jurisprudence. New Haven

Conn.: Yale University Press
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Human Resources Companies That Pursue

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42374131

The act contains a prescription drug entitlement. This is accomplished by providing subsidies for employers to convince them not to eliminate prescription drug benefits for retired workers. Further subsidies were made to prescription drugs for Medicare beneficiaries. Extra money was given to rural hospitals. The act also provided for a trial of partly-privatized Medicare.

Another result of the act was the creation of health savings accounts for workers. These replace company-run health reimbursement arrangements, and the HSAs offer advantages over flexible spending accounts, especially because the former rolls over where the latter does not. This part of the act was designed to replace the Medical Savings Account system. Lastly, there were internal changes such as with respect to the way claims are processed.

This law is a good law. hile expensive for the federal government because of its prescription drug provisions, it introduced the HSA system, which represents an improvement…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Ellig, Bruce R. (2001). Strategies for gaining a powerful edge in the executive talent wars. McGraw Hill Professional. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from  http://books.google.com/books?id=hBPaskPAJUQC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=intrinsic+extrinsic+compensation&source=bl&ots=2u2mESAWlv&sig=cxUlTaJEdvUidA_Omlpt7lTfcuE&hl=en&ei=xxjUSYDwHOKPmAeSk8SxDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6#PPA4,M1 

Card, David & Krueger, Alan B. (1997). Myth and Measurement. Princeton University Press. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from  http://books.google.com/books?id=VDNI0Uy86J8C&printsec=frontcover
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Healthcare Policies Hospitals Should Not

Words: 2007 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78180326

In fact Congress should pass a bill that gives that prescription drug benefit to Medicare patients.

QUESTION NINE: In the United States, healthcare is so expensive that over 45 million people are without health insurance. It is a broken system, leaving out many people, especially children. Recently the executive branch vetoed a bill that would have provided health insurance to millions of middle and low-income children, indicating a lack of government concern for the well being of the population. Bush said it was too expensive, yet it's not too expensive to continue spending billions on an unpopular war in Iraq. Meanwhile, for the past 45 years, Canada has had a "government-funded, national healthcare system..." based on these five principles, according to www.medhunters.com.One, it is universally available to permanent residents; two, it is comprehensive; three, it is available regardless of income; four, it is "portable within and outside" Canada; and five,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2007). Fact Sheet: Nursing Shortages.

Retrieved Feb. 7, 2008, at  http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media/factsheets/nursingshortage.htm .

Duke, Elizabeth. (2004). Report to Congress. The Critical Care Workforce: A Study of the Supply and Demand for Critical Care Physicians. U.S. Department of Health & Human

Services / Health Resources & Services Administration. Retrieved Feb. 6, 2008, at http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/criticalcare/cc1.htm.
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Economics Suggest Economic Approach Suggest How an

Words: 1232 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50939499

Economics

Suggest Economic Approach

Suggest how an economist would approach the problem of alcohol abuse. Provide two (2) possible solutions to this problem. Include the four (4) elements of the economic way of thinking in your analysis.

Analyze how prescription drugs affect the demand and supply of other products and services in this country

Formulate a reason why the elasticity of demand is an important consideration when analyzing the impact of a shift in supply and why the elasticity of supply is an Important Consideration When Analyzing The Impact Of A Shift In Demand Include At Least One (1) Example In Each Scenario

Provide two (2) examples of increasing-cost industries in your state and propose why they would have a positively sloped supply curve.

Suggest how an economist would approach the problem of alcohol abuse. Provide two (2) possible solutions to this problem. Include the four (4) elements of the…… [Read More]

References

Basheda, G., Chupka, M.W., Fox-Penner, P., Pfeifenberger, J.P., & Schumache, A. (2006). Transmission Investment. In G. Basheda, M.W. Chupka, P. Fox-Penner, J.P. Pfeifenberger, & A. Schumache, Why Are Electricity Prices Increasing? (pp. 51-58). Washington: The Edison Foundation.

Gutenson, A., & Dean, P. (2011, April 26). Project Labor Agreement S. Retrieved January 30, 2012, from ABC Virginia Tells MWAA Phase 2 Metro Rail Construction Project Labor Agreement Scheme Will Increase Costs and Hurt Virginia's Construction Workforce:  http://thetruthaboutplas.com/2011/04/26/abc-virginia-tells-mwaa-phase-2-metro-rail-construction-project-labor-agreement-scheme-will-increase-costs-and-hurt-virginias-construction-workforce/ 

Lipsey, R.G., & Chrystal, K.A. (2007). Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Nursing Law

Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99901703

Nurse Practice Act or OC 4723, permits the OBN to create and enforce regulations and rules for practical nurses, registered nurses, certified nurse-midwives, dialysis technicians, certified registered nurse anethetists, certified nurse practitioners, and also community health works fall under the Act as of 2003. The board members made up of nurses and one consumer adminsters and enforces all provisions under NPA. The licensing and certification requirements of nurses in Ohio are as follows: first in order to get an APN certificate and work in Ohio as a nurse, one must have completed successfully a graduate degree in a nursing specialty, or anything related; Then one must take a national certification examm either in a specialty area within one of four general APN roles or as a generalist according to the Ohio Board of Nursing; Thirdly, one must apply for a certificate of authority or COA. This allows one to practice…… [Read More]

References

AANP,. (2014). Prescriptive Privilege. Retrieved 14 October 2014, from  http://www.aanp.org/images/documents/publications/prescriptiveprivilege.pdf  Accessed July 24, 2013

Ohiopa.com,. (2014). OAPA | LICENSURE AND PRESCRIPTIVE AUTHORITY. Retrieved 16 October 2014, from  http://www.ohiopa.com/aws/OAPA/pt/sp/stayinglegal 

OSU,. (2014). Ohio State's Wexner Medical Center, Ohio Valley Health Services Sign Affiliation Agreement. Retrieved 22 October 2014, from  http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/mediaroom/releases/Pages/OVMC-hospital-affiliation-agreement.aspx
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Gingko Biloba

Words: 2356 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30442773

Ginko Biloba

Gingko Biloba -- Part I

What are the author's general conclusions (summarized) on the effectiveness of Gingko Biloba as a cognitive enhancer?

According to the author, effects of Gingko on cognition are perplexing because of its dual actions as following. It's seen improving short-term memory but at the same time it impairs digit recall ability. It slows down mental decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease but has lower dose response curve than acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors. Gingko slows mental decline during dementia owing to its action as an anti-oxidant and ability to combat stress. This action is of short-term and isn't seen chronically. Gingko has more scores for improvement seen in patients when compared to acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors like Donepezil but has fewer efficacies than the later. Effects of Gingko are mainly attributable not to its direct action on improving memory but to its indirect action of improving attention…… [Read More]

References:

Mark A. McDaniel, Steven F. Maier, and Gilles O. Einstein. (2003) 'Brain-specific nutrients: A memory cure?' Nutrition, vol. 19, pp. 957-973

Paul E. Gold, Larry Cahill, and Gary L. Wenk. (2002) 'Gingko Biloba: A cognitive enhancer?' Psychological Science in Public Interest, vol. 3, May, pp. 2-10.
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Five Forces and Pharmaceuticals

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 50922434

Five Forces and Pharmaceutical Companies

Pharmaceutical Companies spends many years and millions of dollars developing new drugs. In order for these companies to be successful they must sell any successful drug at a high price to attempt to regain some of the cost of the drug. Once other companies replicate the drug the cost of the drug can be driven down with competition. Most people use their insurance companies to pay for their drugs, pharmaceutical benefits management (PBM). The pharmaceutical companies try to make deals with the PBM, by offering them lower prices so that they would pressure doctors into writing those prescriptions. Below is the five forces that drives the pharmaceutical industry.

Supplier Power is where the pharmaceutical company that is supplying the medication controls the power because of the volume of demand. The supplier power is defined by many different aspects of selling a specified drug. Usually once…… [Read More]

References

Higgins, M. (2006). Stricter gift ethics urged for doctors; study sees influence on diagnosis. The Washington Times.

Porter, M.E. (2010). Strategic management. Retrieved from  http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml
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Market Driven Management

Words: 25695 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32150042

Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.

It is the intention of this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.

Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web:  http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm 

Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
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Internet Revolution and Medicine

Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 2135312

ole of Informatics in Healthcare

The author of this report has been asked to find an electronic service or mechanism that is involved with the prescription of medications. The source will be identified and explained in terms of how it can be of benefit in a clinical setting. The types of information that it will provide will be listed but there will also be some limitations that need to be pointed out as well. The cost that will be associated with the service or product will be assessed and there will be an assessment as to whether that cost is reasonable and proper. The limitations related to the cost will be summarized as well. Whether or not the overall service or program is useful will be mentioned. While E-Prescribing cannot be used in all applications and situations, it is an idea that has emerged as common-sense and ready for extensive…… [Read More]

References

HRSA. (2015). What are some of the benefits of e-prescribing?. HRSA.gov. Retrieved 23 May 2015, from http://www.hrsa.gov/healthit/toolbox/HealthITAdoptiontoolbox

/ElectronicPrescribing/benefitsepres.html
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Drug Reimportation the Need for

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14738507

While it is definitely true that these companies spend a great deal of money on research and development, for which they certainly deserve and in fact need to be compensated (not to mention their right to make a profit, and the fact that profit potential is a major driver in innovation), the amount of profit and compensation that comes solely from the United States is inordinate when compared to that provided by other countries. Nearly half of all revenue going to pharmaceutical companies every year comes from United States' consumers (Sawkar, 2005). The argument that drug reimportation would damage companies' innovation and profit potentials implies that it is the United States' sole responsibility to provide funds for these goals; if reimportation were allowed then prices would even out, meaning other countries would start paying a fair share towards research and development costs while the United States would experience a savings.…… [Read More]

References

Choudhry, N.K., & Detsky, A.S. (2005). A perspective on U.S. drug reimportation. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(3). Retrieved from  http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/293/3/358 

Sawkar, M. (2005, March). High U.S. drug prices: Causes and cures. Paper presented for The Drug Reimportation Debate. Retrieved from www.sawkar.net/blog/high_drug_prices.doc

Wu, M.Y, Kennedy, J., Cohen, L.J., & Wang, C.C. (2009). Coverage of atypical antipsychotics among Medicare drug plans in the state of Washington: Changes between 2007 and 2008. Primary Care Companion Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 11 (6), 316- 321.
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Master in Quality & Safety

Words: 6426 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 5751190

This particular aspect is what most medical trainers miss when dealing with interns or newly appointed nurses. They found that oxygen use, if below the necessary requirement can be damaging, so can its overuse. In another study, it has been found that using oxygen below the prescribed level can instigate damage in the organs, respiratory structures and can be especially damaging for patients who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Danchin et al., 2009). Hence, the training and instructions that are given must follow be thorough enough to let the health caretakers realize that the monitoring is not merely a game of reading and recording, but it can have serious repercussions if handled carelessly.

Some of the common mistakes, which can be avoided through proper and accurate transference of instructions and training, occur in different medical circumstances. Sometimes nurses tend to miss the monitoring deadline. For instance, if a patient is…… [Read More]

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Human Resources What Balance of

Words: 2047 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60997792

Teams should be created that embrace a diversity of skills and workers from different areas of expertise, so there is no knowledge overlap, and thus less jockeying for position of who has the better qualifications within a certain field. If necessary, a clear leader should be established who understands the importance and the time table of the goal of the team. One problem with self-managed teams is that personality rather than goals can become the focus of team discussion. Because the goal is set externally, employees must become internally motivated to reach that goal. Having a clear leader selected beforehand, if the leader does indeed deserve his or her authority, may be a wise managerial move to limit grabs for power. If all members of the team are relatively similar in skills, however, giving the team more jurisdictions in selecting leadership roles might be considered.

The team must have a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Technical Terms Used in Project Portfolio Management." (2005). Glossary.

Lee Merkhofer Consulting. Retrieved 1 Feb 2008 at http://www.prioritysystem.com/glossary2b.html

Utility analysis: An overview." (2004, April). Vital Enterprises. Retrieved 1 Feb 2008 at  http://www.vitalentusa.com/learn/utility_analysis_overview.php#basic_assump