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Prescription, Nonprescription and Herbal Medicines
Prescription, Non-prescription and Herbal Medications: Exploring Interactions in the Geriatric Population
Geriatric medicine, generally referred to as just "geriatrics" is a branch of internal medicine and health care that focuses primarily on the diagnoses, prevention, care and treatment of disease and disability in elderly patients. Elderly patients involve those senior members of the population that develop a disability, or are suffering from a disease that is a resultant of old age or is a prompt symptom of old age. Geriatrics commonly involves treatment of these old age symptoms and disabilities such as deteriorated memory, immobility, impaired vision and hearing etc. Geriatrics, in modern times, is quite advanced. Specialized services such as psycho-geriatrics, where expert psychologists focus on treating old age related depression, memory loss and other psychological conditions that occur in the elderly population, along with development of physical therapy centers whose prime focus is…… [Read More]
Prescription Drug Comparison
The rate at which Americans consume prescription or over-the-counter pharmaceuticals has increased significantly during the last two decades, and today "the number of prescriptions filled each year increased by 39% between 1999 and 2009 & #8230; while the average American fills 12 prescriptions each year" (ice, 2012). I have selected a total of five medications commonly found throughout the typical home, and recorded the route of transmission for each substance. In addition, the various side effects experienced after taking each of these drugs are described in detail.
oute of Transmission: When presented with headache symptoms or other localized pain issues, two disintegrating tablets each containing 200mg of ibuprofen, are ingested orally along with water. While ibuprofen is available in a number of brand names, including Advil and Motrin, I happen to take a generic version of the drug for the sake of practicality.
Side Effects: During…… [Read More]
Prescription, OTC and Herbal emedies in Canada
More and more consumers are becomes wise to the ways of medicine, and seeking methods of self-medicating and treating acute or chronic ailments with as little hassle as possible. There are several therapies available to patients suffering from physical ailments, including prescription drugs, OTC and herbal medications. Each of these medications is treated differently by the Canadian government, and regulated in a slightly different manner.
Though all of these medications may potentially be taken safely, they can also cause a variety of symptoms and side effects if taken incorrectly. Thus it is critical that consumers educate themselves to as great an extent as possible to ensure that the medicine options they take are safe given their personal medical history. An overview of each of these different therapies is provided below, as well as legislation governing their disbursement and use.
Prescription, OTC and Herbal…… [Read More]
In a study by Shah, Aslam and Avery (2001) of approximately 38,000 prescriptions by 23 doctors, there were a number of errors including: 715 or 25% no directions; 510 or 18% prescribed item not mentioned (usually on repeat prescription); 321 or 11%, directions incomplete, illegible or written "as directed"; 306 or 11%, more than one month's supply given on separate repeat prescriptions without patients request; 260 or 9%, strength missing where a product existed in various strengths, and no guidance available in the BNF; 8% or 229, the prescribed quantity was not clearly written, missing or too large; and 5% or 132, prescriber's signature missing. Another 100 errors were due to prescribing medicines no longer available, incorrect medicine because handwriting, no date or wrong strength.
Given that this is the digital age, it seems that prescriptions can be easily "written" by computer or some form of electronics, and indeed that…… [Read More]
Prescription Drug Use Research
Pradel, V., Delga, C., Rouby, F., Micallef, J. nd Lapeyre-Mestre, M. (2010). ssessment of buse Potential of Benzodiazepines from a Prescription Database Using 'Doctor Shopping' as an Indicator. CNS Drugs, 24(7), 611-620.
This study involved assessing the potential for abuse of several benzodiazepines using so called doctor shopping and to recommend that a "doctor shopping indicator" statistic can be useful in reducing prevalence of prescription drug over-use.
McCabe, S.E., West, B.T., Morales, M., Cranford, J.., Boyd, C.J. (2008). Does early onset of non-medical use of prescription drugs predict subsequent prescription drug abuse and dependence? Results from a national study. ddiction, 102, pgs. 1920 -- 1930 doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02015.x
This study examined the associations between early onset of non-medical use of prescription drugs and the development of prescription drug abuse and dependence in the United States. Research participants comprised a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of civilian non-institutionalized adults aged…… [Read More]
Health care [...] prescription compliance among the homeless. Health care for the homeless is perhaps one of the biggest challenges for the healthcare professional. The homeless in America face many problems, and healthcare is only one of them. It is difficult for most homeless people to fill and use prescription drugs for health problems for a number of reasons, from cost to the ability to self-administer drugs they may not understand or want. The problems of homeless noncompliance with prescription medications must be addressed to avoid a crisis in homeless health care.
Most homeless people do not have health care coverage, and so even basic prescription medications for health problems may be out of their reach. If they do attempt to receive health care at all it is usually through a county facility such as a clinic or a free clinic. If their conditions require prescription drugs, often they cannot…… [Read More]
The United Nations predicts that by 2050, the world's population will exceed 9 billion people. Discuss the consequences of population growth on the world's resources (include environmental and health factors such as food, water, air, access to medicine). Why is the world's population growing so fast? And how is technology contributing to this rapid growth?
There are several major reasons for population growth being what it is. As described by an article on the Yale University website, there are three main ones. Those would be tackling of infectious disease in many countries, improvement in public health overall and improved production and distribution of food. When it comes to food production, just one example of how well food production is done now would be that grain has increased in volume from 631 million tons to about 1.65 billion tones just from 1950 to 1984 alone. This is a factor of…… [Read More]
Perception of Drug Companies
The author of this response has been asked to respond to several questions that pertain to the pharmaceutical industry. In order, those questions will be what practice, factor or event has been most damaging to the public perception of the pharmaceutical industry, what practice, factor or event has been most enhancing of the public perception of the pharmaceutical industry and what would be the most effective day for the medical product industry to improve its public image. While drugs are most certainly life-saving and life-sustaining, there are also some major problems that are present and thus must be dealt with.
While it is easy to point to the recent "pharma bro" brouhaha with Turing Pharmaceuticals and drug pricing overall, most people have coverage and what Turing did is not really that common in terms of frequency and the amount of companies that devolve into the practices…… [Read More]
Addiction of Teenagers to Prescription Drugs
Addiction of teenage prescription drugs
The problem of addiction of teenagers to prescription drugs has been on rise in modern days. It is estimated that daily in the United States 2,500 youth abuse prescription drugs. This is not only a problem in the United States, but it also affects teenagers in Europe, South Asia, and Southern Africa. Over 15 million people have reported abusing prescription drugs globally. This is higher than those who reported abusing heroin, cocaine, and hallucinogens. A 2007 survey carried out in the United States in 2007 indicated that in one month 6% of 17 to 25-year-olds and 3.3% of 12 to 17-year-olds had abused prescription drugs. This might seem like a low number, but considering that this only happened in one month you can imagine how prevalent the rates would be in one year. A survey conducted in 2012 found…… [Read More]
ecommended Pricing Strategies:
As a pharmaceutical benefit manager, I have several primary stakeholders to whom I am responsible. These include: my organization, the employer as my client, the employees of the client as plan participants, the pharmacists dispensing the medications, and the pharmaceutical manufacturers and/or distributors. My job is to develop a plan that is profitable for my organization. I must also develop a plan that is cost-effective for the employer. The employees of the client must find the plan valuable and beneficial in the maintenance of their healthcare. The pharmacists must be compensated fairly for their time, and the pharmaceutical manufacturers and/or distributors must be able to make a profit in an increasingly competitive, rapidly changing industry. Developing a pricing strategy to meet these competing stakeholder needs is challenging and will require looking at each employer's unique pharmaceutical needs to determine the best pricing plan possible.
The MAC pricing…… [Read More]
The FDA also, amongst others, has recommended that clinical trials used to support advertising claims be approved by the FDA and to institute stiff fines against those found gaily of deceptive tactics. (Turning Medicine Into Snake Oil...) There is little doubt from the research that pharmaceutical companies have to be made more accountable for their products and advertising promises.
Borden Anne. Vioxx Stroke isk could last for Years. 2007. etrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.lawyersandsettlements.com/articles/00888/vioxx-stroke-risk.html
Deceptive Prescription Drug Marketing Tactics 'Common and Dangerous'. 2006.
etrieved June 1,2007, at http://www.uspirg.org/newsroom/health-care/health-care-news/deceptive-prescription-drug-marketing-tactics-common-and-dangerous
Introduction to the Health Care Industry: Health Expenditures and Services in the U.S. etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.plunkettresearch.com/HealthCare/HealthCareTrends/tabid/294/Default.aspx
O'Connor K. x for prescription drugs. etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.oconnorhealthanalyst.com/pgs/rx.html
Oxycontin Manufacturer Agrees to Plead Guilty and Pay Fine of $600,000,000.
etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://tyler.injuryboard.com/defective-products/oxycontin-manufacturer-agrees-to-plead-guilty-and-pay-fine-of-600000000.php?googleid=8636
Prescription Meds Changing Health Care. etrieved June 1, 2007, from Spending http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=60788…… [Read More]
The Act creates a positive balance between government interests to save money and the interests of Medicare recipients to receive a wide range of drugs for their specific needs. The current ban on government negotiations with pharmaceutical companies serves to protect Medicate recipients by using the positives of the free market, such as the experience and purchasing power of PBMs. hile there are serious potential problems with this approach, such as the potential for fraud between pharmaceutical companies and private interests, overall the ban on government negotiations with pharmaceutical companies provides a good balance between recipient and government interests.
American Legislative Exchange Council. Prescription Drugs. 19 October 2005. http://www.alec.org/2/4/talking-points/7.html
Barry, Patricia. New Salvos in the Prescription Drug ars: Class action suits are exposing schemes that gouge consumers. AARP Bulletin, January 2005.
19 October 2005. http://www.aarp.org/bulletin/prescription/a2005-01-06-salvos.html
Dealey, Sam. Drug Dealings: Democrats had it right before. National Review Online, May…… [Read More]
Teen Drug Abuse - Prescription or Not
Differences between nonalcoholic offspring of alcoholics (family history positive, FHP) and matched offspring of nonalcoholics (family history negative, FHN) have been identified on a variety of behavioral, cognitive, and neurological measures. Compared to FHN teens, FHP adolescents and young adults demonstrate more disturbed school careers, impulsivity, rebelliousness, and nonconformity (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006); poorer neuropsychological performance (Worden & Slater, 2009); and significantly lower amplitude in P300 brain waves, which are believed to measure selective attention (Cicero, et al. 2005). Further, following ingestion of alcohol, sons of alcoholics report less body sway and less subjective intoxication (Grant, et al., 2005), higher levels of flushing (McBride, 2011), and decreased P300 amplitudes when performing difficult tasks (Foster, et al., 2009).
Not all individuals with a family history of alcohol dependence become alcohol and/or drug abusers, however, and genetics alone cannot account for…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to review the legal and ethical considerations in play given the test case scenario surrounding Pharmacare and Compcare. As is quickly apparent while reading the case study, the company engaged in a long and extensive list of ethical and/or legal violations as a means to maximize profit and minimize the legal and other red tape that seems to bother them even though it is there for a very good reason. The ethical issues involved will be touched upon and analyzed. There will also be an exploration and analysis of direct-to-consumer marketing of drugs, whether John is the "investor" of AD23, the arguments about John being a whistleblower and the associated protections he would have if he is and examples of intellectual property theft that have occurred in the last two years or so. While bad things do incidentally happen and…… [Read More]
.....prescription process can incur high costs in the healthcare industry due to poor risk management. Lack of continued assessment, technological upgrades, and information sessions can lead to an increased rate of data entry errors. Data entry errors may result in patient deaths, and lawsuits that lessen the financial success of any hospital/clinic. However, there is opportunity to reduce data entry errors in order to minimize negative outcomes related to prescription errors and patient satisfaction. The recommendation for minimizing negative outcomes is to incorporate a cloud service that allows for integration of existing electronic prescription records, allowing optimization of prescriptions from doctor/nurse to pharmacy to patient, thus minimizing potential data entry error. The impact the cloud service application can have on healthcare can be great. Costs may be reduced and legal ramifications from human error can be avoided by exemplifying the risk management essentials of assessment, technological upgrades, and training.
Part…… [Read More]
Direct to Consumer Advertising
According to a report by the United States General Accounting Office, "spending on direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs has tripled in recent years," (Collins et al. p. 4). Consequently, spending on prescription drugs has also risen. Although the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the content of prescription drug advertisements under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), many critics of direct-to-consumer (DTC) promotion of prescription drugs contend that the advertisements can be misleading or even dangerous. Spending on DTC drug ads can also cut into costs that could be channeled into research and development, which is another reason why many consumer groups express concern over the proliferation of DTC ads for pharmaceuticals. The FDA changed their stance somewhat regarding DTC ads for prescription drugs in 1999, which is why DTC ads for pharmaceuticals have become commonplace, most notably on television (Palumbo and…… [Read More]
History of Direct to Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs in the U.S.
Imagine this: you are at home watching television one evening after work. As you casually flip through the channels searching for something interesting to watch, you notice a multitude of advertisements for prescription drug products. This form of advertisement is known as direct-to-consumer advertising, and is now well-known to practically all American households. One needs only to watch virtually any commercial television program or to browse through any consumer-directed magazine to view advertisements for a variety of prescription drugs. In regard to broadcast media, this is a relatively new phenomenon because, for many years, pharmaceutical manufacturers had to follow certain requirements. These requirements consisted of the inclusion of a substantial amount of material about the drug product's side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness.
Recent changes in 1999 under the guidance of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) altered the…… [Read More]
Health Care -- Statistical Thinking in Health Care
The HMO pharmacy is inaccurately filling prescriptions. Prescribers blame pharmacy assistants, the assistants blame pharmacists and pharmacists blame prescribers. Analysis of their system show points ripe for change in order to improve accuracy. In addition, there are multiple measures that can be applied to substantially enhance the quality of the HMO pharmacy's work.
Process Map & SIPOC Analysis
Process Map of Prescription Filling Process
Process Map of Prescription Filling Process
Prescriber determines patient needs medication
Prescriber selects medication type
Prescriber selects medication dosage
Prescriber hand-writes prescription
Prescription delivered to pharmacy
Prescription entered into pharmacy computer system by pharmacy assistant
Pharmacist selects medication
Pharmacist measures medication
Pharmacist counsels patient about prescription
Medication delivered to patient
SIPOC Analysis of Business Process
SIPOC Analysis of Business Process
Determines need for medication
Determines type of medication
Determines…… [Read More]
Article 1: McCauley, J.L., Back, S.E. & Brady, K.T. (2013). Pilot of a brief, web-based educational intervention targeting safe storage and disposal of prescription opioids. Addictive Behaviors 38(2013): 2230-2235.
In this article, McCauley, Back & Brady (2013) report on the results of an open pilot trial focusing on increasing patient knowledge of safe use of prescription opioids. Participants were 62 outpatients at a chronic pain management clinic or dental clinic who were prescribed opioids. All participants received informed consent and then completed the Script Safety intervention, which is an online information service containing information specific to the medication each participant was taking. Telephone interviews were conducted one week and one month following the intervention to assess knowledge retention and comprehension, misuse behaviors, and overall satisfaction. Results showed that satisfaction rates were high, knowledge comprehension and retention rates were also high, and that some self-reported misuse behaviors had decreased at the…… [Read More]
CVS Case Study
Analyze the firm's performance relative to each item in the "Cycle of Capablity." Identify appropriate areas for improvement.
"Well, we can't have 67 solutions for the 67 problems indentified."
CVS has a difficult environment in which it must operate -- literally people's lives may be on the line. Some drug-to-drug interactions can have serious consequences for their consumers. Furthermore, customers typically do not like to wait long for their prescriptions to be filled. Therefore, CVS's fulfillment must be flawless and efficient. The company was losing customers because they were having significant services problems. For example, during an eight hour shift, 40% of customers voiced a complaint and approximately 16% of customers had some problem with their pickup. One of the biggest challenges was to conduct the insurance check and data entry that slowed the fulfillment process.
Utilizing the service issues identified in Exhibit #2, please construct a…… [Read More]
Knowledge of the program's existence within a state can also hopefully act as a deterrent for an addicted 'doctor-shopper.'
Article Relevance: Doctors are growing increasingly cautious about prescribing pain medication. This is unfortunate, given the fact that not treating pain can be equally dangerous as over-treating pain. States' lack of sharing of information in the name of state's rights and patient privacy is interfering with doctors' abilities to provide appropriate care. Currently, 41 states have used federal funding to monitor and share information about the use of prescription drugs across state lines. Doctors in non-participating states, however, can still use other states' data about patients when making decisions about prescribing drugs. Doctors all states should consult records if they have any question about a patient's honesty: this can either flag a potential addict, or set their mind at ease when they write a prescription for a patient who says that…… [Read More]
Prescription Drug Abuse
The overall point of conversation when speaking of prescription drugs in the public and political sphere has usually focused on cost and/or ease of access among all Americans. The overall points of conversation relating to drug has often centered on drugs like heroin, cocaine, crack and marijuana. However, as time and trends have shifted, the primary focus of both overall topics has centered on the use and abuse of prescription drugs, usually certain classes of drugs such as sedatives, opiates and anti-anxiety drugs. Common drugs focused on include Xanax, any narcotic-based painkiller such as Oxycontin and sedatives or muscle relaxers such as Valium and Soma. While prescription drugs are very important to have at the ready, the likelihood and propensity towards abuse of the drugs and other legal behavior is significant and this is even true among people who obtain the drugs legally at the onset.
Analysis…… [Read More]
Prescription antifungal or antiyeast medications may also interfere with the action of omeprazole and should not be taken concurrently with it.
Omeprazole is a drug primarily used to treat the symptoms of heartburn and acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when stomach acid shoots up into the esophagus, the tube connecting the throat to the stomach.
Although it is a prescription-only medication in many places, it is also sold over-the-counter in some countries. The drug is usually administered in a time-release tablet form, although some patients might prefer the powdered version because the tablets cannot be chewed.
Omeprazole is not an antacid (like olaids or Tums) and works on an entirely different principle. Unlike antacids, omeprazole is not taken to relieve symptoms of heartburn immediately. It is a drug that addresses the root cause of heartburn and acid reflux, and must be taken regularly for it to be effective.…… [Read More]
health management systems designed to serve public needs during disasters and emergencies, two are discussed here: Emergency rescription Assistance rogram (EA) and state social media platforms. Each system addresses a different aspect of health management during disasters and emergencies. The EA is a highly formalized system -- as it must be since it deals with prescription drugs and equipment -- yet, the rigidity of the system may limit its effectiveness or, minimally, its responsiveness early in an emergency or disaster. The state's social media platforms have limited utility if electrical supplies are interrupted during a disaster. Even though the systems may depend on servers that are located out of harms way, the individuals who are impacted by a disaster may not be able to access the state's social media sites.
The two approaches to emergency management discussed in this paper address two very different aspects of emergency preparedness and…… [Read More]
Making Prescription Drugs Affordable?
Parallel Trade and the Pharmaceutical Industry
The skyrocketing cost of prescription drugs remains one of the most contentious issues in America. In this presidential election year, especially, politicians are continually debating ways to make life-saving drugs more affordable. Alone in the world, the United States prohibits the free importation of prescription medications from abroad. Yet, as is so often pointed out by those in favor of changing the law, such drugs are nearly always much less expensive in foreign countries - even medicines that are actually manufactured by American corporations. Of central importance in the argument is the precise rationale for current pricing levels. The pharmaceutical companies and their allies claim that high prices are necessary to finance the continuing innovation of American medicine. Foreign nations, they say, artificially control drug costs, thereby depriving corporations of the sizeable funds required for new research. New medications…… [Read More]
Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…… [Read More]
It is also important to identify to what extent such advertisements play on human emotions to evoke positive purchase decisions. Other ethical issues would include the extent to which such DTC advertising encourages consumers to circumvent the physician-patient relationship. In other words, to the extent that such DTC advertising encourages "drug-shopping" behaviors among healthcare consumers is likely the extent to which such advertising could be regarded as unethical.
Most sick people are scared, many are in pain, and some of them may grasp at any claims from marketers concerning a potential cure. Conversely, denying these very same healthcare consumers with as much information about the current choices that are available to them also appears to be unethical, assuming that the targeted populations are in a position to make informed decisions.
What are the costs and benefits of marketing prescription drugs directly to physicians?
The costs of marketing prescription drugs…… [Read More]
A reflection on the case shows me that ethical and moral guidelines must be instilled in pharmacy as a profession. It is therefore necessary for the pharmacies to collaborate with other key stakeholders in ensuring that proper guidelines are put in place together with polices aimed at ensuring an ethical and moral pharmaceutical practice. Case esolution Model (CM) (Brincat & Wike,1999) is therefore an important model since it has taken me through all the necessary steps that can allow me to effective conclude this case amicably.
World Health Organization (2001). The ole of the Pharmacist in Self-Care and Self-Medication.Available online at http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/whozip32e/whozip32e.pdf
Brincat, C.,Wike, vs (1999). Morality and the Professional Life: Values at Work. Pearson; 1st ed.
Passmore P, Kailis SG (1994).In pursuit of rational drug use and effective drug management: clinical and public health pharmacy viewpoint. Asia Pac J. Public Health. 1994;7(4):236-41.
outledge, PA., O'Mahony, MS., WoodhouseKW…… [Read More]
solutions for the alcohol abuse problem from economists' point-of-view. The second section of the paper addresses the situation of prescription drugs and how they can affect the demand and supply of other products and services. The paper continues with a section that explains the relationship between supply modification and elasticity of demand, and between demand modifications and elasticity of supply. There is also a section that discusses increasing-costs industries. Another section of the paper address the conditions required for competitive markets to be economically efficient.
There are several solutions that economists can offer when addressing the alcohol abuse problem. In this case, the problem is regarded as a negative externalities situation of the production and consumption of alcohol. The assumption in this case is that alcohol abuse is a negative externality because of its consequences, like drunk driving and the effects on consumers' health and on relationship with other individuals.…… [Read More]
Clayton Chistensen teamed up with Jeome Gossman, and Jason Hwang, both medical doctos, to bing a thooughly eseached insight into a disuptive solution fo efficient value-added health cae in "The Innovato's Pesciption." He peviously wote the vanguad book on innovation called "The Innovato's Dilemma." Chistensen and his team display the enables of disuption with the use of cuent technology. They also explain how diffeent facets of the Ameican healthcae system should be disupted, to esult in cheape, moe effective healthcae fo evey citizen. They include the business model fo idyllic hospitals, the individual physician model, how to cae fo those who have chonic disease, the eimbusement system, education fo medical pofessionals, and the development of phamaceuticals and medical devices. These authos cast a wide net and cove all bases when it comes to the floundeing healthcae system in the United States. They also discuss thei plan to make it bette.…… [Read More]
Vancomycin should be given for at least 60 minutes. The initial dosage for pediatrics with renal impairment is not less than 15 mg/kg per day or 15 times the GF in mL/min. Premature infants should have longer dosing intervals. PO administration should be 40 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. The maximum is 2,000 mg/day, which may be diluted in 1 oz of water or administered through an NG tube (PD).
Vancomycin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to vancomycin (Drug.com, 2012). Commercially prepared frozen Vancomycyn Hydrochloride injections in 5% dextrose may also be contraindicated to those with known allergic reaction to corn or corn products (Drug.com).
The patient should inform the doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and non-prescription or herbal products currently used (Medicine Net, 2012; Levinson, 2012). Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, other antibiotics, and live bacterial vaccines are special mentions. If treatment requires…… [Read More]
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…… [Read More]
Map of Prescription Filling at an HMO and SIPOC for Problem Analysis (Bertrand
Filling prescriptions and the estimated time each activity takes consist of four steps in most pharmacies (Bertrand, 2012). The first is entering the prescription when received from two to 10 minutes. It may be longer according to the duration of the billing process and the ease or complicatedness of the prescription. The second is filling the medication, which takes from three to 15 minutes or longer, depending on the type of prescription and its storage or if it has to be reconstituted or compounded. The third is checking it, which can take between three and 10 minutes. The pharmacist makes sure it is the correct prescription, the dose, the interactions and the genuineness of the prescription. The duration depends on the prescription and the patient's history and profile. And the fourth is the release of the prescription.…… [Read More]
Forbes Magazine entitled, "In the Pill Box" discusses Walgreen's Drugstore and the challenge that it faces from Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBM). The article begins by informing the reader of the astronomical growth of the Walgreen's company. The author explains that the company's stock has risen by 3,000% in the past 20 years and that the store plans to have over 7,000 stores by 2010. (Lambert) The article also asserts that the same-store sales increased by 9% in fiscal 2003. (Lambert)
The author contends that although the company is extremely success, there is a threat on the horizon. This threat comes in the form of Pharmacy Benefit Managers who show health organizations and employers how to make prescriptions drugs more cost effective. The article explains that PBM's often encourage these organizations to persuade patients to get long-term prescriptions through the mail instead of going to a pharmacy. Mail order pharmaceuticals are…… [Read More]
However, one of the many ways Wal-Mart has been able to cut costs is by not having large stores of items in back rooms at each of their stores. Instead, the organization has used technology to remain customer focused.
By innovating the use of sharing sales data, via computer, with their major suppliers, Wal-Mart has been able to keep key items in stock, without having to stockpile them. When an item is rung up at the cash register, this information is sent to a data warehouse that then facilitates reordering from that particular supplier ("Wal-Mart Story"). Add this product availability to the fact that Wal-Mart offers such a wide variety of items, and services from: financial services to beauticians to optometry to automotive care, and one can easily see how the company has added convenience to its strategies of success.
Wal-Mart's most recent convenience strategy also comes in the form…… [Read More]
True that the existence of both which is intended for a similar use, operation or treatment might cause confusion and a question on which is a better product. In this case the replacement of Imigran with the new medication Naramig was the best choice among the other 4 options. With this decision it only proves to its customers, hospitals and patients that the new drug is an improved medication for migraines. As it was noted in this article:
The results showed that the replacement strategy met Glaxo U.K. expectations.
Naramig proved to be effective for migraine headaches in the majority of patients.
4. How should GlaxoWellcome position Amerge in the United States?
Considering several factors which are primarily different from UK, the U.S. market is broader in terms of population and territory. Difference in health care system is also a factor to be considered. In my opinion, the alternative positioning…… [Read More]
Third Class Of Drugs
In the United States, all pharmaceutical products: from Advil to Zoloft, are sold either as over-the-counter remedies or as prescription drugs. Over-the-counter remedies like Advil, aspirin, and Tylenol, can be purchased by any consumer at any store that chooses to sell them. Therefore, an eight-year-old can go into a convenience store and buy a bottle of aspirin. On the other hand, if an eighty-year-old man wanted to try Viagra, he would need to consult a physician and retrieve a prescription, and from there he would need to buy the drug from a licensed pharmacist. The two-class division evolved from a series of acts and resolutions passed in conjunction with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The most significant landmark in the creation of a specific prescription-only class of drugs was the Durham-Humphrey Amendment, passed in 1951. The Amendment, which revised a 1938 congressional act called the…… [Read More]
Nursing Theory Framework
ecognizing Addiction through Attachment Theory
Affect egulation and Addiction
Handling Addiction as an Attachment Disorder
The First Phase of Therapy
Nursing Theory Framework
The misappropriation of prescription drugs by teens in the United States is a growing public health issue. Using a nursing theory framework, the scope of the problem of prescription drug use among teens is reviewed. Equal in variety to manifestations of addiction are sundry psychological theories that attempt to explain and treat the problem. Hardy (2011) was able to look into four traditional models for recognizing alcoholism (social learning theory, tension reduction theory, personality theory, and interactional theory,) in addition to five theoretical models that were developing at the time of their writing.
An approach to treating and understanding addiction that has created a huge amount of research in current decades, and which displays big promise for effective…… [Read More]
Jerry McCall Dr. Williams Office Assistant
Licensed Practical Nurses and Medical Assistants: Legal and Ethical Implications
According to recent reports from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, medical assistants and licensed practical nurses (LPN) are two of the fastest growing jobs in the country (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2010). In an effort to save costs, the demand for these professionals is increasing in both in-hospital and outpatient settings. The licenses and registrations, however, remain unstandardized; while LPNs are required to receive a license, some medical assistants receive a one or two-year degree and still others are only trained on the job. The responsibilities and restrictions of the profession are likewise only loosely regulated and vary between states. This has both ethical and legal implications for patient care. The following case scenario illustrates these ramifications and discusses the appropriate course of action for medical assistants working in a clinical setting.
The…… [Read More]
Economics of Alchohol Abuse
Alcohol for consumption is not a necessary food item, but for some has become a standard part of adult culture. Increasing the level of alcohol consumption, however, moves from an economic paradigm to a social issue due to the ancillary health and behavioral effects from alcohol abuse. In turn, this becomes part of economics in that it requires fiscal resources to treat societal issues caused by alcoholism: domestic abuse, crime, traffic or driving issues, etc. The economic effects of alcohol are undebatable, and are pervasive in the overt and covert areas of the economy (short- and long-term) (Fogarty, 2006).
In the economic sphere of political and social policy, alcohol, like tobacco and gambling, are considered a "sin" tax that is ostensibly designed to reduce transactions for issues society considers dangerous or undesirable. However, when it comes to alcohol, many see that this type of a sumptuary…… [Read More]
S. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the 1938 Act (grandfathered in, as it were). (Dunn 1938)
The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" (one in need of prior approval to market), as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling." FDCA § 201(p) (1). The manufacturers set out to establish then, that anything GRAS/GRAE therefore was not a new drug, and needed no FDA blessing.
Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before 1938. To make matters worse, between 1938 and 1962, the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…… [Read More]
The structure of yetta is similar to that of GLP-1 and performs the same functions. oth promote decreased appetite (Wilson).
Dr. Wysham was an observer at a study conducted on 20 Rockwood diabetic patients who were taking conventional diabetic medication for their uncontrolled blood sugar (Wilson 2005). She was not informed about their glucose levels for several months after the tests began. About two-thirds of the respondents were given different injectible doses of yetta to incorporate into their medication plan, while the rest were given placebos. All of them were instructed and trained to do the injections at certain times twice daily for a month. Then they were subjected to a physical exam. Dr. Wysham closely monitored their liver, kidney, blood counts, and other functions. She observed that the patients consistently lose weight while taking yetta. The average respondent-patient lost 15 pounds in the duration of the study, 5 lost…… [Read More]
Consumers have the right to determine if the drugs are safe, which they often do because regulations in Canada pertaining to safety and drug tampering are just as strict as similar rules in the U.S. All 18 Canadian sites investigated by the General Accounting Office, wrote the journal Community Action in 2004, required consumers to supply a physician-written prescription before filling orders. That was the case for five of 29 U.S. pharmacies; no other foreign pharmacies did. Thus, consumers have the right to choice, and to find the best bargain, just as they might in any other commodity. (Bast, 2005) Viewed as such, importation is just another form of free trade and a "beneficial outcome of changing technology, free trade, and globalization. Free trade benefits everyone, and governments ought not cave in to special pleading by interest groups seeking to avoid competition or limit consumer choice."(Bast, 2004) Opponents counter that…… [Read More]
Ethics Case Study: Medical Law and Ethics
Jerry McCall is Dr. William's office assistant. He has received professional training as both a medical assistant and an LPN. He is handling all of the phone calls at the office while the receptionist is at lunch. During this period of time, a patient calls and says he must have a prescription refill for Valium, an antidepressant medication, called in right away to his pharmacy, since he is leaving for the airport in thirty minutes. The patient notes that Dr. Williams is a personal friend and always gives him a small supply of Valium when he has to fly. No one except Jerry is in the office at this time.
Does Jerry's Medical Training Qualify Him to efill the Order?
While Jerry's medical training qualifies him to receive a prescription order and transcribe it accurately for other nurses or physicians to implement or…… [Read More]
Brick and Cutter's Way can be categorized as both thrillers and films noir due to the fact that the narratives of these films revolve around an investigation into the mysterious deaths of young women at the hands of power-hungry men. While the investigation in Brick is fueled by a desire to expose a drug trafficking ring at a high school, thus making drugs a central issue, drugs in Cutter's Way are not a factor that contributed to the deaths of the individuals Cutter was looking into. However, that is not to say that drugs to not play a major role, as Cutter is heavily addicted to alcohol, which causes him to be discredited despite the fact that he is able to solve not only the crime at hand, but also reveal why his father was targeted by the same murderer years before.
On the other hand, Cabin in the Woods,…… [Read More]
Prescribing Psychotropic Medications to Minors
It is every parent's worst nightmare: the drugs intended to cure a child kill him or her instead. Since the development of drugs like Prozac and Paxil, drugs classified as SSIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) have been increasingly used to address depression in patients that otherwise would have been treated with talk therapy alone. This is true of adolescents as well as adults, given that SSIs were once thought to have fewer side effects when compared with older types of antidepressants (Antidepressant medications for children and adolescents: Information for parents and caregivers, 2013, NIMH). Since the development of SSIs, the increase in psychotropic drug prescriptions has increased so rapidly that it is estimated that 1 in 5 of all Americans are on some form of psychotropic medication at any one time (Smith 2012:36). However, SSI use in adolescents and young adults has become specifically linked…… [Read More]
When one thinks of teens and drugs, illegal substances such as marijuana and cocaine immediately come to mind. However, the real culprits aren't the drug pushers in the school yards; it's the medicine cabinets in their own homes. A national study has revealed that today's teens are more likely to have abused a prescription painkiller to get high than they are to have experimented with a variety of illegal drugs; 'Generation Rx' has arrived. Although this fact is initially surprising, when one reviews the reasons why teens turn to marijuana, one can easily see why prescription drugs have become even more popular.
The reasons teens use marijuana, repeated below, are even truer for prescription drugs.
Parents don't discuss the danger of drugs with their children.
Teens are left with less adult supervision because of societal changes.
Young people have more access now than they had ever had before.…… [Read More]
Positive Philosophy in Law
Thomas Aquinas and Hans Kelsen held that the law enforced by human courts is indeed a positive law. Legal philosophers have since come up with a flurry of arguments claiming that positive law must have its source and content. These philosophers were and are of contention that the court's core mandate should be that of harmonizing heterogeneous sources of law into a coherent body of law for ease of administration of justice. Sources of law can be drawn from the ancient oman law, legislation, custom, precedent and equity, raw materials processed by courts into genuine law, statutes, precedents, and opinions of experts. With regard to content, law should be enforced to administer justice (Murphy, 2005).
This paper seeks to list some factors that a judge in a state's criminal court system would consider before sentencing burglary/theft offenders, people suspected to have committed aggravated battery, or those…… [Read More]
The act contains a prescription drug entitlement. This is accomplished by providing subsidies for employers to convince them not to eliminate prescription drug benefits for retired workers. Further subsidies were made to prescription drugs for Medicare beneficiaries. Extra money was given to rural hospitals. The act also provided for a trial of partly-privatized Medicare.
Another result of the act was the creation of health savings accounts for workers. These replace company-run health reimbursement arrangements, and the HSAs offer advantages over flexible spending accounts, especially because the former rolls over where the latter does not. This part of the act was designed to replace the Medical Savings Account system. Lastly, there were internal changes such as with respect to the way claims are processed.
This law is a good law. hile expensive for the federal government because of its prescription drug provisions, it introduced the HSA system, which represents an improvement…… [Read More]
In fact Congress should pass a bill that gives that prescription drug benefit to Medicare patients.
QUESTION NINE: In the United States, healthcare is so expensive that over 45 million people are without health insurance. It is a broken system, leaving out many people, especially children. Recently the executive branch vetoed a bill that would have provided health insurance to millions of middle and low-income children, indicating a lack of government concern for the well being of the population. Bush said it was too expensive, yet it's not too expensive to continue spending billions on an unpopular war in Iraq. Meanwhile, for the past 45 years, Canada has had a "government-funded, national healthcare system..." based on these five principles, according to www.medhunters.com.One, it is universally available to permanent residents; two, it is comprehensive; three, it is available regardless of income; four, it is "portable within and outside" Canada; and five,…… [Read More]
Suggest Economic Approach
Suggest how an economist would approach the problem of alcohol abuse. Provide two (2) possible solutions to this problem. Include the four (4) elements of the economic way of thinking in your analysis.
Analyze how prescription drugs affect the demand and supply of other products and services in this country
Formulate a reason why the elasticity of demand is an important consideration when analyzing the impact of a shift in supply and why the elasticity of supply is an Important Consideration When Analyzing The Impact Of A Shift In Demand Include At Least One (1) Example In Each Scenario
Provide two (2) examples of increasing-cost industries in your state and propose why they would have a positively sloped supply curve.
Suggest how an economist would approach the problem of alcohol abuse. Provide two (2) possible solutions to this problem. Include the four (4) elements of the…… [Read More]
Nurse Practice Act or OC 4723, permits the OBN to create and enforce regulations and rules for practical nurses, registered nurses, certified nurse-midwives, dialysis technicians, certified registered nurse anethetists, certified nurse practitioners, and also community health works fall under the Act as of 2003. The board members made up of nurses and one consumer adminsters and enforces all provisions under NPA. The licensing and certification requirements of nurses in Ohio are as follows: first in order to get an APN certificate and work in Ohio as a nurse, one must have completed successfully a graduate degree in a nursing specialty, or anything related; Then one must take a national certification examm either in a specialty area within one of four general APN roles or as a generalist according to the Ohio Board of Nursing; Thirdly, one must apply for a certificate of authority or COA. This allows one to practice…… [Read More]
Gingko Biloba -- Part I
What are the author's general conclusions (summarized) on the effectiveness of Gingko Biloba as a cognitive enhancer?
According to the author, effects of Gingko on cognition are perplexing because of its dual actions as following. It's seen improving short-term memory but at the same time it impairs digit recall ability. It slows down mental decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease but has lower dose response curve than acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors. Gingko slows mental decline during dementia owing to its action as an anti-oxidant and ability to combat stress. This action is of short-term and isn't seen chronically. Gingko has more scores for improvement seen in patients when compared to acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors like Donepezil but has fewer efficacies than the later. Effects of Gingko are mainly attributable not to its direct action on improving memory but to its indirect action of improving attention…… [Read More]
Five Forces and Pharmaceutical Companies
Pharmaceutical Companies spends many years and millions of dollars developing new drugs. In order for these companies to be successful they must sell any successful drug at a high price to attempt to regain some of the cost of the drug. Once other companies replicate the drug the cost of the drug can be driven down with competition. Most people use their insurance companies to pay for their drugs, pharmaceutical benefits management (PBM). The pharmaceutical companies try to make deals with the PBM, by offering them lower prices so that they would pressure doctors into writing those prescriptions. Below is the five forces that drives the pharmaceutical industry.
Supplier Power is where the pharmaceutical company that is supplying the medication controls the power because of the volume of demand. The supplier power is defined by many different aspects of selling a specified drug. Usually once…… [Read More]
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…… [Read More]
ole of Informatics in Healthcare
The author of this report has been asked to find an electronic service or mechanism that is involved with the prescription of medications. The source will be identified and explained in terms of how it can be of benefit in a clinical setting. The types of information that it will provide will be listed but there will also be some limitations that need to be pointed out as well. The cost that will be associated with the service or product will be assessed and there will be an assessment as to whether that cost is reasonable and proper. The limitations related to the cost will be summarized as well. Whether or not the overall service or program is useful will be mentioned. While E-Prescribing cannot be used in all applications and situations, it is an idea that has emerged as common-sense and ready for extensive…… [Read More]
While it is definitely true that these companies spend a great deal of money on research and development, for which they certainly deserve and in fact need to be compensated (not to mention their right to make a profit, and the fact that profit potential is a major driver in innovation), the amount of profit and compensation that comes solely from the United States is inordinate when compared to that provided by other countries. Nearly half of all revenue going to pharmaceutical companies every year comes from United States' consumers (Sawkar, 2005). The argument that drug reimportation would damage companies' innovation and profit potentials implies that it is the United States' sole responsibility to provide funds for these goals; if reimportation were allowed then prices would even out, meaning other countries would start paying a fair share towards research and development costs while the United States would experience a savings.…… [Read More]
This particular aspect is what most medical trainers miss when dealing with interns or newly appointed nurses. They found that oxygen use, if below the necessary requirement can be damaging, so can its overuse. In another study, it has been found that using oxygen below the prescribed level can instigate damage in the organs, respiratory structures and can be especially damaging for patients who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Danchin et al., 2009). Hence, the training and instructions that are given must follow be thorough enough to let the health caretakers realize that the monitoring is not merely a game of reading and recording, but it can have serious repercussions if handled carelessly.
Some of the common mistakes, which can be avoided through proper and accurate transference of instructions and training, occur in different medical circumstances. Sometimes nurses tend to miss the monitoring deadline. For instance, if a patient is…… [Read More]
Teams should be created that embrace a diversity of skills and workers from different areas of expertise, so there is no knowledge overlap, and thus less jockeying for position of who has the better qualifications within a certain field. If necessary, a clear leader should be established who understands the importance and the time table of the goal of the team. One problem with self-managed teams is that personality rather than goals can become the focus of team discussion. Because the goal is set externally, employees must become internally motivated to reach that goal. Having a clear leader selected beforehand, if the leader does indeed deserve his or her authority, may be a wise managerial move to limit grabs for power. If all members of the team are relatively similar in skills, however, giving the team more jurisdictions in selecting leadership roles might be considered.
The team must have a…… [Read More]
Resolving the Higher Prescriptive Drug Cost Problem
Resolving beneficiary or medical consumer issues with respect to the rapidly rising costs of drugs is a heated issue I government and in every American's living room. Not only are those living in assisted living facilities but also parents with children and the increased number of retiring baby boomers are being financially affected in significant ways. In addition those Americans without proper insurance coverage are beset with problems of being able to obtain needed medications whatsoever. As healthcare costs continue to rise many Americans are finding healthcare coverage less affordable. Besides increasing the national deficit increased healthcare costs are taking a significantly larger portion of government spending away from other programs that need money badly. Without a doubt, strategies are badly needed to moderate growing healthcare costs and these strategies must not only come from the government but also from the consumer, pharmaceutical…… [Read More]