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Appropriateness of the Presentations
In evaluating the two research papers presented for this assignment, it will involve determining the appropriateness of the papers, the literature review presented in the papers, the methods employed, the quality of the data analysis, along with readability, relevance and the contribution each paper makes towards the question at hand: is privatization the best solution in Nigeria?
Owolabi akre from the runel usiness School in the UK argues that in the process of rescheduling its debt (which was $30 billion owned to Western creditors as of 2002) with the International Finance Corporation (IFC), Nigeria's problem was hijacked by the IFC in its contentious -- and much criticized -- "structural adjustment programs" (akre). asically akre is attacking the Nigerian government and basing his arguments on scholarly points he makes throughout his 62-page paper.
To wit, akre is opposed to privatization of publicly owned enterprises. He uses…
World Health Organization. 2010. Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). Retrieved December 11, 2012, from http://www.who.int .
Privatization of Prison
Privatization of the prisons stands out as an objective by the government to change or extend its obligation in running prisons. Change in this operation calls for state policy changes where the government contracts private operators in elements relating to construction, design and security of prisons. In some states, some private companies undertake full ownership of the prisons inviting the government to evaluate the facility and offer to contract them to provide services in prison administration for a fee. The private prison operators set up the facility as a factor to fetch economic gain through the provision of the services (Brakel, 2002).
To be considered as a private company providing services in prison management, willing operators compete for the contract through submission of tender. The states evaluate the facilities and capability of the willing companies and offer contracts specifying the terms of service and the length…
Bowman, G.W., Simon, H., & Paul, S. (2009). Privatizing the United States Justice System: Police, Adjudication, and Corrections Services from the Private Sector. . Jefferson, NC:: McFarland & Company, Inc.
Brakel, S.J. (2002). Prison Management, Private Enterprise Style: The Inmates' Evaluation. New England Journal of Criminal and Civil Confinement, 14(175), 175-244.
Committee, W.S.J.L.A. a. R. (1996). Washington State Joint Legislative Audit and Review Committee. Legislative Budget Committee, State of Washington Department of Corrections. Privatization Feasibility Study, Report 96-2. Olympia, WA: Legislative Budget Committee., 96-2
Cunningham, D. (2003). Public Strategies for Private Prisons. Paper presented at the Private Prison Workshop held January 29 -- 30, 1999, at the Institute on Criminal Justice, University of Minnesota Law School.
Privatization has been an issue if much debate during this presidential election. In particular, privatization as it relates to social security reform has been the primary focus. The purpose of this discussion is the provide arguments for privatization and against privatization. The discussion will also cite situations and examples both in America and abroad as to why or why not privatization is a good idea, and why it may or may not work. Let us begin our discussion by defining privatization.
Privatization is defined as the altering of a public enterprise into a private enterprise (Scott). According to a book entitled Privatization and Economic Performance, Privatization is designed to "improve industry performance by increasing the role of market forces." (ishop et al.) In many cases, privatization comes about after there is a problem in maintaining the financing of the public enterprise. Such is the case with the issue of social…
The Problems with Privatization. EPI Policy Brief. http://www.epinet.org/Issueguides/socialsecurity/policybriefs/privatization.pdf www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=65156628
Bishop, Matthew, John Kay, and Colin Mayer, eds. Privatization and Economic Performance. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Johnson, Robin A. And Norman Walzer, eds. Local Government Innovation: Issues and Trends in Privatization and Managed Competition. Westport, CT: Quorum Books, 2000.
Privatization of Healthcare Services in China Since 1980s
Empirical Analysis related to Primary level Changes
Data Presentation, Observations and Analysis
Obstacles faced by Private Clinics
China opened its door to the outside world and introduced economic reforms in 1980 with a shift from a controlled central economy to an open and market oriented economy. This project takes on the task of investigating the Chinese privatization of healthcare sector with special emphasis on private clinics and the role they play in overall healthcare industry. Driven by need of times this rapid evolution of private sector influenced the whole industry and gave birth to many problems occurring at both rural and urban areas. The thesis also gives a comparison of services and performance of players in the healthcare industry with focus on practices exercised in urban areas with further inquiry in to level of services provided by…
Baru, R.V. 1989. Medicine as business. Economic and Political Weekly, 24(11), pp. 565-566. (Public / Private Mix)
Bloom et al. 2009. Lessons from the Chinese approach to health system development.
Blumenthal D, Hsiao W. 2005. Privatization and its discontents -- the evolving Chinese Health Care System. N Engl J. Med; 353: 1165 -- 70.
China National Health Economics Institute. 2003. China national health accounts report 2003. Beijing: China National Health Economics Institute.
Privatization is a process that is frequently met in countries with developed market competition. It is used by governments in order to transfer some of the state owned assets or services to private investors. The process of privatization has its advantages and its disadvantages.
In my opinion the process of privatization should be viewed from extreme points-of-view. In other words, we should not view privatization as either good or bad. I think some business sectors should be privatized (Investopedia, 2013). This is the case of the telecommunications industry. If such industries are privatized, numerous providers and sellers will enter the market. The increased competition in such industries determines lower prices and more options for buyers. However, other sectors, like healthcare should not be privatized. This is because in such cases the government would not have any control on healthcare. Social security issues must be managed by the state.
1. Privatization a Good Thing? Absolutely (2013). Financial Post. Retrieved October 28, 2013 from http://www.financialpost.com/scripts/story.html?id=7a9f44e7-cc79-4189-8efc-6b9278a81be4&k=63137.
2. Kirby, H. (2013). Privatization: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. The Guardian. Retrieved October 28, 2013 from http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2013/apr/12/privatisation-good-bad-ugly .
3. Ravitch, D. (2013). Mitch McConnell Explains Why Privatization is Good for You. Retrieved October 28, 2013 from http://dianeravitch.net/2013/07/30/mitch-mcconnell-explains-why-privatization-is-good-for-you/ .
4. Weizsacker, E. et al. (2005). Limits to Privatization: How to Avoid too Much of a Good Thing. Retrieved October 28, 2013 from http://www.polsoz.fu-berlin.de/polwiss/forschung/international/atasp/publikationen/2_monografien_sammelbaende/96/index.html .
Privatization of prisons has become an important consideration for the governments of all the developed countries including the United States, United Kingdom and Canada. The one major reason for this consideration is that the prisons are becoming overcrowded and therefore their management by the state is becoming difficult. Moreover, the involvement of the private sector also has the potential to decrease the economic burden that the management and running of the prisons has on the budget of the government. However, it should be noted that privatization of prisons should be discussed from the perspective of all the stakeholders involved in the matter and the rewards and risks should be discussed from the perspective of all these stakeholders. In this paper we shall discuss how the prisons can be managed in a better way and how all the stakeholders involved would get affected when the prisons are going to be privatized.…
Chang, Cindy. North Louisiana family is a major force in the state's vast prison industry. The Times-Picayune.2012.
DiNapoli, Thomas P. Office of the State Comptroller. Controlling Risk Without Gimmicks: New York's Infrastructure Crisis and Public-Private Partnerships. 2011.
Kish, Richard J. & Lipton, Amy F. DO PRIVATE PRISONS REALLY OFFER
Savings Compared With Their Public Counterparts? Institute of Economic Affairs. Published by Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2013.
This study seeks to examine and detemine the ole of the govenment agencies in the situation of Nigeian telecommunications limited which is on the vege of collapse. The company has geat infastuctue and the maket has a lot of oppotunities that can sustain seveal playes yet it has been unable to sustain itself and has instead incued debts amounting to millions of dollas. The pupose of this eseach is to exploe if pivatization of Nigeian telecommunications (NITEL) would o can facilitate the county to tiumph ove these difficulties. Findings fom the study eveals that the issues affecting the company ae many including its lack of pofit, in ability to pay its staff and othe debts.
The ecent deegulation of the mobile phone maket in Nigeia has led to the entants of new playes in the telecommunication maket. The maket was pedominantly dominated by the govenment owned NITEL though…
references to certain historical dimensions. Following on, the research methodology and the findings will be discussed, which precedes the conclusions and final remarks.
Background of study
The modern system of providing services to citizen requires that movements transform their operations from the traditional approach which is guided by bureaucracy and political inclination to a more business approach that is guided by market trends. Since the end of NITEL's monopoly of the government has realized the need to involve other players in the running of the company. Privatization of government owned entities is one of the objectives of the Nigeria's telecommunications policy. Nigeria is one of the fastest growing telecommunications market in the world. Most of the major players continue to experience the growth from exploiting the opportunities presented by the large untapped Nigerian market (Ulrich & Lehrmann, 2008).
NITEL has been
Watts (2003) reported about the need to establish a public-private jail system, wherein both the government and private sectors will oversee the management of jails, specifically in the case of cities and counties in the Southwest region. The report, however, also relayed the problem that may arise when such a practice will be enacted more prevalently. There is a possibility that because a partnership is forged between the private and public sectors, accountability would solely still rest on the government, with the construction and establishment of facilities committed only initially by the private sector. This means that over time, private contractors, after earning its profits from the contract, could possibly "disappear" and leave management and service provision duties to the government again, resulting to an ineffective partnership and a more inefficient jail management system (14).
Williamson (2003) echoed Watts's concerns in the eventual development of a partnership between private contractors…
Watts, J. (2003). "New Mexico Town finds the formula for a public-private jail." The Bond Buyer.
Williamson, R. (2003). "Overcrowded jail market puts counties at risk, experts say." The Bond Buyer.
Privatization in Nigeria
The objective of this chapter is to present background to the research on Privatization and Organizational Performance in Nigeria, research problems research questions, purpose of the study and research proposition. Furthermore, the significance of the problem and justification for the study are also presented alongside with methodology approach. The literature was well reviewed so as to identify gaps and a discussion on the theoretical framework was also looked into. Finally, the finding and discussion came alongside with the conclusion.
There is a natural cycle that takes place in a developing country. It begins with revolution and starts a journey through poverty. From there, the country rebuilds and redefines itself. Some countries make decisions that ultimately reroute the overall economic course to one of success while others make decisions that keep the country in poverty and allow others to prey on the resources and citizens. In most cases,…
Research question2: What are the ways to ensure that the Nigerian Government's monopolistic controls are ineffective on the private sectors initiatives?
According to Cooper and Schindler (2003), a statement about observable phenomena or concept; that may be judged as true or false is known as proposition. Researchers use propositions to affirm their anticipated study results However, a proposition is more qualitative and at a top level than a hypothesis. Since the research is not testing a hypothesis, the research takes in an exploratory research with the objective to propose a framework based on the literature review
Privatization is the use of the private sector in government management and delivery of public services. Contracting out services predates the Constitution. In fact, in the early nineteenth century, some "inherently" governmental functions such as tax collection, mail delivery, and spying were performed by private contractors. Throughout the twentieth century, the government has continued to rely on contractors.
The Clinton administration, under the 1998 Federal Activities Reform Act, required federal agencies to identify jobs considered commercial in nature that could be contracted out to the private sector. As a result of the agencies findings, the white house office of management and udget instructed all federal agencies to open identified positions to competition with the private sector. Recently, the ush administration has identified as many as 850,000 federal jobs that could be performed by the private sector.
Does privatization affect you? Privatization is important because it helps the government achieve savings,…
Megginson, William. 2000. "Privatization."(effects and management of sale of state-owned enterprises). Foreign Policy. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1181/2000_Spring/61640247/p1/article.jhtml?term=Privatization+of+the+federal+government
Terms Related to Privatization Activities and processes. 1997. The General Accounting Office.
Wing, Eric. 2003. "Defense Contractors." Washington Business Journal. published January 3,2003.
Privatization -- a Comparison of Two Studies
A Comparison of Two Studies
The author of this paper is asked to offer a review and analysis of two major studies that both pertain to corporate privatization. The author is asked to break down the analysis into eight major categories. Those areas, in order, are epistemology (how relevant/correct the method is for the study relative to what is being studied), the associated literature reviews, the methods employed overall, the data analysis underpinning the results for each study, the interpretation of the results for each study, the overall readability of each study's summary, the relevance of the conclusions reached, and the contribution of the research to the overall body of knowledge as parlayed by the two studies.
The overall approach of the Craig/Amernic study is to focus on the senior management discourse of companies that take the privatization route. The study…
Craig, R. & Amernic, J. (2008). A Privatization Success Story: Accounting & Narriative
Expression over Time. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal. 21 (8),
Yonnedi, E. (2010). Privatization, Organizational Change & Performance: Evidence
Privatization of Social Security
A number of things have been happening to give Americans the idea that the social security system in this country is about to collapse.
For one, with rising affluence, birth rates fall. This would not be a problem except that advances in medicine and better preventative care is also extending the American lifespan. Formerly, there were very few senior citizens as a fraction of the American population; a lot of people lived to see their 65th birthday, fewer lived to 75, and hardly any into their 90s. Now, however, the proportions are upside down; very few people are being born and those who are living much longer. The pyramid is becoming inverted.
This spells trouble for Social Security because it means that in the long run there are going to be fewer and fewer people paying into the Social Security system and more and more receiving…
1. Britt, Robert Roy. "End of Oil Could Fuel 'End of Civilization As We Know It.'" LiveScience 2004 (Dec. 14, 2004) http://www.livescience.com/environment/end_oil_041214.html
2. Huntley, Helen "Money Panel dubious on Social Security plan" St. Petersburg Times 11 Dec. 2004: http://www.sptimes.com/2004/12/11/Business/Money_Panel_dubious_o.shtml
3. Rosenbaum, David E. "Do It Yourself Social Security: Many Blanks Left to Fill In" New York Times 12 Dec. 2004: 4.
The highway system is an important part of the infrastructure that gives America a competitive advantage. Anything that threatens the highway system in the United States is a threat to the competitive advantage of America. These threats include a lack of funding. hen one considers the current situation from this perspective, the importance of finding a solution to the problem of how to fund the highway system becomes one of the most important topics that the government faces.
The need for finding is obvious. e have already mentioned the possibility of raising taxes as a means to fund the necessary maintenance and expansion. However, the government is reluctant to take this route for fear of public repercussions. Raising taxes in the amounts needed could lead to devastating economic impacts. This is not the answer for obvious reasons.
The original highway system of the United States was built by private enterprise.…
Bary, a. "Toll-Road Salek:Paying Up." Barron's; May 8, 2006; vol. 86, no. 19. p. 17.
Boarnet, M., DiMento, J., and Macey, G. "Tolll-Highway Finance in California: Lessons from Orange County." 2002. Policy Research Program. California Policy Research Center. University of California. pp. 1-76.
Cooper, C. "History of the U.S. Highway System." 1996. www.gbcnet.com/ushighways/history.html. Accessed 24 http://www.gbcnet.com/ushighways/history.html . Accessed 24 April, 2007.
Engel, E., Fischer, R. And Galetovic, a. "A New Approach to Private Roads. "
privatization of Air Traffic Control
in the U.S.
Non-profit privatization of ATC
Industry experts position on privatizing the U.S. ATC
Improvement in safety and regulation
New Public Management Orientation in the U.S. Air Traffic Control
Technology up gradation and budgetary constraints
State-owned enterprises (SOEs) are organizations owned and operated by governments. There is a growing consensus amongst economists and governments that governments should not operate commercial organizations as it hampers the efficiency and productivity of the respective enterprise. There is an increased debate within the U.S. And other developed countries in favor of privatizing SOEs. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is one of the most important agencies of the U.S. Department of Transportation. FAA has four lines of business that includes:
Airports planning and development
Air Traffic Organization (ATO)
Aviation Safety (AVS)
Commercial Space Transportation (AST)
ATO's main role is air traffic control (ATC). Of late, there is a growing debate…
Bachman. (2013). Talks on Private Air-Traffic Control Turn Serious in U.S. Bloomberg News. Retrieved from: http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-09-23/should-the-u-dot-s-dot-get-out-of-the-air-traffic-control-business
Beardsley. (2013). Strike by French Air Traffic Controllers Ends. NPR. Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/2013/06/13/191226119/french-air-traffic-controllers-strike-disrupts-flights
Dillingham, G.L. (2005). Air Traffic Control: Preliminary observations on Commercialized Air Navigation Service Providers. United States Government Accountability Office. Retrieved from: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d05542t.pdf
Goetz, A.R. (2002). Deregulation, competition, and antitrust implications in the U.S. airline industry. Journal of Transport Geography, 10(1), 1-19.
Telecommunication Privatization in Nigeria
The Challenges of Telecommunication Privatization in Nigeria
In the 1990s, many multinational nongovernment agencies (such as: the IMF) encouraged the privatization of state owned entities in favor of privatization. The basic idea was to encourage these organizations to become more efficient, attract large amounts of working capital and to be more responsive to the needs of stakeholders. In Nigeria, this was touted as a solution for effectively dealing with inefficiencies impacting the telecommunications sector to include: corruption and the inability to modernize. This is having a positive impact on the telecommunications firms and consumers. Evidence of this can be seen with that fact that more people have access to these services and new technology (Anderian 2005) (Etieyibo 2011) (Dahlan 2009)
However, more improvement is needed in addressing critical problems. Most notably: effective strategies for leveling the playing field among carriers, better approaches for regulating the sector…
Anderian, A, 2005, 'Nigeria's Telecommunication Industry', Proceedings of the Sixth Engineering Conference, Port Harcourt, pp. 84 -- 93.
Chittoo, H, 2010, 'The Promises and Challenges of Privatization', Global Journal of Business Management and Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 171 -- 175.
Dahlan, A, 2009, The Critical Success Factors, PHD Thesis, Southern Cross University.
Etieyibo, E, 2011, The Ethics of Government Privatization in Nigeria. PHD Thesis, University of Alberta.
Content reflects advertising and investor revenues. What is being reported on, and the tone with which it is delivered, are not influenced by the public except in an indirect way: response to media advertisements. Advertisements that garner attention are generally those that coexist with content that attracts viewers, readers, or listeners.
Equitable access to the media is also restricted, especially access to new media because they depend on emerging technologies. Almost every American household has a television but even though computer ownership is greater in the United States than in most nations a large portion of the American public cannot afford a computer in the home. Social class -- which happens to be linked directly to race as well -- therefore determines access to new media. Because new media is the only real free outlet for non-traditional voices, the underprivileged are essentially denied access to information. Public opinion on political…
How Privatization of Water is Bad for the World
Water is a scarce resource, a fact that is becoming more evident as time goes on and pollution becomes more evident. There are many instances where privatization has been beneficial; bureaucratic red tape often makes policy making a headache for consumers, and some eagerly advocate for privatization of certain resources. Privatization often has advantages, but in many instances it also realizes many of the same disadvantages of many other political systems including customer complaints and scandals (Morris, 2006). When it comes to water, privatization can lead to the destruction of healthy drinking water, a lack of equitable access of drinking water, and a shortage of drinking water not just in third world countries, but in developed nations. Water is not a resource that can be privatized successfully; it is a resource that has to be standardized to be made…
Green, Colin "The lessons from the privatization of the wastewater and water industry in England and Wales" (December 2000) (paper presented to conference in Berlin on water privatization)
Hall, D. (1998) Restructuring and privatization in the public utilities, in L. De Luca (Ed.) Labour
and social dimensions of privatisation and restructuring Public utilities: water, gas and electricity, pp. 109-151 (Geneva, International Labour Office).
Hall, D. And Lobina E. (1999) "Public Sector Alternatives To Water Supply And Sewerage
Telecommunication Privatization in Nigeria
Definition of Privatization
Privatization is the process by which an entity is made privately owned thus the ownership is no more public. The debate of public and private goods and ownership is old. The privatization of goods and entities is considered quite more efficient the reason is that the private goods are owned by people that know that earnings will increase as more effort and struggle will be put. The aim of managing private goods is wealth and profit maximization thus these services are efficient but bear an expensive cost tag. On the other hand the state own or public goods that are created as through a process of nationalization, are less efficient yet still productive and are also cheap. The state offers public services to benefit its people thus these goods and services are cheap. But the people working in organization are working for salary…
1. Adediran, Y.A., and Usman A.U., (2005), "Nigeria's Telecommunication Industry in New Millennium, The Annual Engineering Conference Proceedings," The Annual Engineering Conference Proceedings. FUT Minna June 2005
2. Adegbemi, B.O., Onakoya1, A., Sheriffdeen, and Osoba, M.A., (2012), "Investment in Telecommunications Infrastructure and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Multivariate Approach," British Journal of Economics, Management & Trade, 2(4): 309-326, 2012
3. Crude, S., (2013), "PHCN Privatisation: Nigerians express hope for better days," Retrieved from: http://www.vanguardngr.com/2013/10/phcn-privatisation-nigerians-express-hope-better-days/
4. Daniel, M., (2013), "The Nigerian Economy In The 21st Century," Retrieved from:
Water Privatization in Bolivia: Assessment
Bolivia is one of the poorest countries on the continent of outh America. Under pressure from the World Bank, the water systems of several of Bolivia's poorest areas were put up for purchase by private investors. The privatization of water in Bolivia began in the latter 1990s, just a few years before the turn of the 21st century. The problem, the controversy, and the resistance continue into the 21st century with vigor. There have been uprisings by the local peoples, most recently in the area of Cochabamba, an area in which the water is owned by a private United tates investor, Bechtel. Institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have advocated the privatization of water to developing countries as a means to improve their financial standing for decades. These institutions make claim that their intentions behind such support or advocacy was…
Spronk, Susan. "Struggles against Accumulation by Dispossession in Bolivia: The Political Economy of Nature Resource." Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 34, No. 2, 31 -- 47, 2007.
Swyngedouw, Erik. "Dispossessing H20: The Contested Terrain of Water Privatization." Capitalism Nature Socialism, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2005.
Trawick, Paul. "Against the Privatization of Water: An Indigenous Model for Improving Existing Laws and Successfully Governing the Commons." World Development, Vol. 31, No. 6, 977 -- 996, 2003.
Aviation: Effect of Privatization on the Aviation Industry
The aviation industry is one of the fastest growing global industries - contributing large amounts to the nation's revenue kitty every year, while also facilitating tourism, international investment, world trade, and economic growth. The industry is, "therefore, central to the globalization taking place in many other industries" (Ochieng & Ahmed, 2014, p. 10). Being one of the most competitive, the industry pushes airlines to stay abreast with relevant developments and make radical changes to their structures if need be. The new trends that have been observed within the industry include airport and airline privatization, liberal bilateral agreements, aviation policy liberalization, and increased globalization - all of which revolve around deregulation. This text examines how these trends have affected the aviation industry, and in particular, how they affect the quality of service delivery and airline operational costs.
A Brief Overview
Privatization of state…
Eckel, C., Eckel, D. & Singal. V. (1997). Privatization and Efficiency: Industry Effects of the Sale of British Airways. Journal of Financial Economics, 43(2), 275-298.
Kinnamon, D. (2002). The Effect of Privatization on Industry Wages: A Study of Four Cases in Mexico. Stanford University. Retrieved 28 April 2014 from https://economics.stanford.edu/files/Theses/Theses_2002/Kinnamon.pdf
Morrison, S.A., Yorrow, G., Lawton-Smith, H., Yamauchi, H. & Murakami, H. (1995). International Comparison of Privatization and Deregulation among the U.S.A., the UK, and Japan. Economic Research Institute. Retrieved 28 April 2014 from http://www.esri.go.jp/jp/archive/bun/bun143/bun143a-e.pdf
Ochieng, M.D. & Ahmed, A.H. (2014). The Effect of Privatization on the Financial Performance of Kenya Airways. International Journal of Business and Commerce, 3(5), 10-26.
ater is necessary for life on the earth. Humans, animals, and all plant life require water in order to sustain existence. Looking for clean and drinkable sources of water has become difficult, especially in humid and dry areas such as the Middle East or in parts of Africa where water supplies have become contaminated. In the wake of these types of situations, a market has developed for the privatization of water sources. Large corporations are buying out sources of clean water and selling it again to people in need at a substantial profit. This term, privatization, can also refer to the taking over of water supplies for local areas by large conglomerates rather than public companies.
As in the privatization of other industries, the comodification of the water industry has its proponents and its critics. There are those who state that having privatized water companies allows for certain…
Ronald Bailey, "Water is a Human Right." Reason. 2005.
Emanuele Lobina & David Hall, "Problems with Private Water Concessions: a Review of Experience." 2003.
Philippe Marin, "Public-Private Partnerships for Urban Water Utilities." Trends and Policy
Options. 8. World Bank. (Washington, DC: International Bank for Reconstruction)
Furthermore, even the goal of preventing recidivism (and crime rates in general) conflict with the profit motive of any industry whose demand is measured by the numbers of criminals convicted and sentenced to terms of incarceration.
Prison privatization has increased in the last few decades in the U.S. Its proponents believe that privatizing prisons will reduce the financial strain on government authorities in connection with maintaining correctional services. Critics are extremely wary of any transition to for-profit business models in the realm of corrections, primarily because of the tremendous potential for inherent conflicts of interests. Ultimately, the best approach might be a hybrid format where private entities supplement government authorities, but subject to appropriate legislative guidelines and oversight mechanisms sufficient to ensure that industry standards and integrity are not compromised the way they might be under unrestricted privatization policies.
Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002). Environmental Corrections:…
Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002). Environmental Corrections: A New Paradigm for Effective Probation and Parole Supervision. Federal Probation, Vol. 66, No. 28.
Dershowitz, a.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Gaines, L.K., Kaune, M., Miller, R.L. (2006). Criminal Justice in Action: The Core.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
The development of private airports assists the government to use the limited resources in improving other domains including health services, social services and other services provided by the government. In France, privatization is also encouraged to effectively manage airports and to provide health and social services to its people.
Airport privatization has been promoted all over the world. In United States, the pending FAA reauthorization to privatize airports can help in generating revenues and at the same time, allowing the government to use limited resources on improving health and social services. Furthermore, privatization would assist in improving and managing operations and improving the overall structure of the organization.
Clifford Winston, Gines de us, (2008). Aviation Infrastructure Performance: A Study in Comparative Political Economy. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Craig, Eleanor (2006). "The Benefits and Costs of Airport Privatization." In Privatizing Transportation Systems, ed. Simon Hakim, et. al, 87-97.…
Clifford Winston, Gines de Rus, (2008). Aviation Infrastructure Performance: A Study in Comparative Political Economy. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Craig, Eleanor (2006). "The Benefits and Costs of Airport Privatization." In Privatizing Transportation Systems, ed. Simon Hakim, et. al, 87-97. Westport, CT: Prager Publishers.
De Neufville, Richard (2009). Airport Privatization: Issues for the United States. Technology and Policy Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
De Wit, Japp (2006). "Privatisation and Regulation of Amsterdam Airport," in Forsyth, Peter., ed. The Economic Regulation of Airports. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited.
One of them is represented by the inability of the system to satisfy the necessities of the people in need of financial assistance. Take the simple case of the retired Americans, who live on social security. Their income -- in the context in which it is limited to social security -- is not sufficient to ensure a decent life style. In other words, the system is unable to adequately support the individuals, and these need to also ensure their pension funds from other sources.
"To have a comfortable retirement, Americans need much more than just Social Security. They also need private pensions, savings and investments" (Federal Citizen Information Center, 2005).
The current social securities system is complex and inefficient and, as the editors at How Stuff Works point out, it is no longer applicable in the current context of the dynamic and modern day society. This is explained through two…
Boskin, M.J., Break, G.F., The crisis in social security: problems and prospects, Transaction Publishers, 1977, ISBN 0917616162
Mishra, B.N., Dynamics of social security administration, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., 1993, ISBN 8170418321
Sacks, A., Social security explained, CCH Incorporated, 2004, ISBN 0808010719
Social security: understanding the benefits, Federal Citizen Information Center, 2005, http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/fed_prog/ssundben/ssundben.pdf last accessed on October 11, 2010
Surgeons in Canada report that, for heart patients, the danger of dying on the waiting list now exceeds the danger of dying on the operating table. Emergency rooms there are so overcrowded that patients awaiting treatment frequently line the corridors. Not only is there a long wait for care, but care is frequently denied to patients who prognosis is poor. In ritain kidney dialysis is generally denied patients over the age of 55. At least 1,500 ritons die each year because of lack of dialysis.
Countries with national health care systems also lag far behind the U.S. In the availability of modern medical technology. In Canada, high-technology medicine is virtually unavailable. In addition to being biased against new medical technologies, national health care systems generally discriminate against nontraditional practitioners, such as naturopaths and chiropractors.
It is true that Canada spends only about nine percent of its GDP on health care,…
Financing National Health Insurance." (2003, February 4). Available:
http://www.pnhp.org/nhibill/nhi_financing.html (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).
Health Care Policy Issues. Sept. 2004. Available:
http://www.newsbatch.com/healthcare.htm (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).
Social Security Privatization is a Bad Idea
It is possible to use a Toulmin-based argument structure to help explain why privatizing Social Security would negatively impact both the results as well as the effectiveness of the program itself. Using this structure, the argument is broken down into six separate sub-headings as it is discussed further.
Social Security should be left in the hands of the U.S. Government and not be privatized.
There is much proof that privatizing Social Security would lead to a less effective and efficient system. This social safety net program was originally based on the idea that people would claim their benefits at the age of 62 after working and contributing to the resource pool their entire lives. In the 1930's, when Social Security was first implemented, not as many people lived long enough to claim their benefits or didn't live long enough to claim…
Fehr, Hans, Christian Habermann, and Fabian Kindermann. "Social security with rational and hyperbolic consumers." Review of Economic Dynamics 11.4 (2008): 884-903.
Shipman, William. "Slippery Social Security Slope." Washington Times, March
Corporate Criminal Justice
The following study is a critical analysis of four articles or book passages relevant to the study of criminal justice in a corporate context. Each essay or book excerpt will be analyzed in turn and in the context that each has a significant intellectual contribution to make to the contemporary study of corporate criminal justice. hile this is a relatively new specialization within the corporate and criminal justice fields, it is nevertheless a very important one. The IRS indicates that crime has recently been categorized in terms of motivation, not in terms of the victim (Internal Revenue Service). This means that greed has become an enormous criminal category, one that must consider the excesses of white-collar crime. Additionally, there is the matter of corporate security and management of asset securities. For corporations, this means achieving a delicate balance between complying with the law, relying on federal law…
Dalton, Daniel R. Security Management: Business Strategies for Success. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann. 1-37.
Internal Revenue Services. Financial Investigations: A Financial Approach to Detecting and Resolving Crimes. INSERT REMAINING CITATION INFORMATION.
Keller, Kimberley S. "Securing Security Expert Testimony: Overcoming the Daubert Challenge to Reach the Witness Stand." Security Journal 17.3 (2004): 21-29.
McCrie, Robert. "Three Centuries of Criminal Justice Privatization in the United States." Police. Ed. EDITORS. PLACE OF PUBLICATION: PUBLISHER, DATE. 12-26.
Privatization of prisons
Privatization of prisons is referred as a way of taking over the existing public amenities or facilities by the private operators, building of new operations and additional prisons by for profit prison sectors. Private prisons are more safe, efficient and effective compared to the public sector prisons. This is because; the public sector prisons are wasteful in terms of money that is spent more than the available money. Privatized prisons tend to run more cost effectively as well as efficiently if it happens to meet the budget (Cheung, 2004). When there is a good budget in the private companies, they more often than not make sure that the necessary changes run within the set budget, however the public sector only prints more money and that is the reason as to why the private prisons are more safe and effective.
esearch shows that privatized prisons in…
Cheung, A., (2004). Prison Privatization and the Use of Incarceration. The Sentencing Project. Retrieved February 9, 2013, http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/inc_prisonprivatization.pdf
Smith, A. (2012). Private vs. Public Facilities, Is it cost effective and safe? Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://www.corrections.com/news/article/30903-private-vs.-public-facilities-is-it-cost-effective-and-safe -
Public Management Review
This report also has some flow/formatting issues. There is a clear title at the top of the first page and then the apparent abstract (it is not labeled as such) starts on the bottom of that same page and spills onto the second. The abstract is in single space and then there is the introduction directly below the abstract and there is an abrupt shift to double-spaced format. The disjointed citation and formatting continues with the introduction taking up the entire first page except for the very top and bottom with the only citation to be found coming at the bottom with three citations slammed together. Unless those three sources all said the same exact thing as it pertains to what is in that first paragraph, that is not remotely close to being scholarly citation. it's not plagiarism but it's not neat, either. The apparent title to…
Most application of economic policy is done on either the national, supranational or subnational scales. Seldom is economic policy enacted on the non-national scale. Yet, there is the question of whether there is benefit to applying economic doctrine to space exploration. There is a corollary, in Antarctica, where various nations have signed a treaty committing to scientific activity only on that continent, and not economic activity. Yet, realistically, with space the horse is well out of the barn. Nations all over the world have launched satellites, thus far, and the more powerful nations have engaged in a broader scope of scientific exploration. Yet, the question still exists, as to whether any economic system should be applied to space, space exploration and the terrorities that exist in space. And if so, what should that economic system look like? This paper will start to explore this concept in more detail, from…
Privatization of Governmental Services
Privatization of government services
There has been a growing trend towards the privatization of governmental services in the world today. Privatization of government services refers to the handing over of public functions to companies that are privately owned. This paper will examine some of the benefits and detriments of privatization. I will give my position on the topic and give reasons why I take this position.
Benefits of privatization
The privatization of government services is beneficial in various ways. The government is not capable of providing all services to all its citizens. This is because the government might lack some expertise that is necessary to perform different functions. Most of the private companies have all the relevant expertise required to effectively provide various services to the public. This means privatization of government services will provide an opportunity to private companies to use their resources and tools…
Nichols, R. (2010). The Pros and Cons of Privatizing Government Functions. Retrieved September, 25 2014 from http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CDsQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Flocalgovinstitute.org%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2FThe%2520Pros%2520and%2520Cons%2520of%2520Privatizing%2520Government%2520Functions.pdf&ei=7OIjVJumLKmaygPu3IHADA&usg=AFQjCNEBDTshrG_MEXhjuSCHLiiwi1Oc8A&sig2=hjHGdDUwune24w4QEeRuYg
Ethics, Corporate Governance and Company Social esponsibility
OCED state-owned enterprises and Privatized companies
In the past few decades, emerging economies have launched ambitious plans to privatize their state owned enterprises (SOEs). The volume of privatization in emerging economies has increased from $8 billion in 1990 to about $65 billion in 1997 (Dharwadkar, George, & Brandes, 2000). In privatization, ownership is transferred from the state to new private and public owners, which may include management, employees, local individuals, institutions, and foreign investors, with the state also retaining a certain percentage of ownership after privatization. The new diversified ownership structure after privatization makes corporate governance an important issue in emerging economies (ajagopalan and Zhang, 2008).
On the one hand, the new ownership structure creates the traditional principal agency problem whereby self-interested executives aim to maximize their private interests rather than the owners' interests. To address this problem, it is necessary to design…
Aman, H. And Nguyen, P. (2008). Do stock prices re-ect the corporate governance quality of Japanese "rms" Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 22(4), 647 -- 662.
Buchanan, J. And Deakin, S. (2007). Japan's paradoxical response to the new "Global Standard" in corporate governance. Accessed on October 12, 2011 from http://ssrn.com/abstract=1013286
Dharwadkar, R., George, G., & Brandes, P. (2000). Privatization in emerging economies: An agency theory perspective. Academy of Management Review, 25(3), 650-669.
Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs. (2005). Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises: OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises. Accessed on October 14, 2011 from: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/46/51/34803211.pdf
Among these statements include:
1. "We must oppose this action now, or we do a disservice to our members and will regret it later."
2. "I had lunch the other day with a group of members, and everyone was in agreement that if you opposed this measure, they would vote for you…. This will set the stage for your re-election next year at the end of your present term." The lace of threat of a negative consequence for the decision maker is also palpable in this statement, as it appeals to self-preservation.
3. "I speak for truth and common sense…" is also a shot at arguing based on the fallacy of glittering generality.
While statistics are used to support the arguments, questionable authority on the matter are used such as the case of the brother-in-law, who has not demonstrated as an expert on the issue at hand, and Wikipedia, which…
Browne, M. And S. Keeley. (2007). Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking. NJ: Prentice Hall.
O' Connor, B. (2004). A Brief history of anti-Americanism: From cultural criticism to terrorism. Australasian Journal of American Studies, 77-92.
Hollander, P. (2002). The Politics of Envy. The New Criterion. Retrieved from http://www.newcriterion.com/articles.cfm/the-politics-of-envy-1868.
Taibl, P. (1997). Outsourcing and privatization of defense infrastructure. Business Executives for National Security.
industrialized nation in the world has a higher percentage of its population residing in its prison than the United States (Liptak). This fact has witnessed a corresponding increase in the cost of housing and caring for the incarcerated which has correspondingly raised the public concerns for these costs. This combination has spurred conversation relative to how to address both issues and one of the methods suggested is the possible privatization of the corrections system.
The advantages and disadvantages of privatization have been debated for years and many view privatization as new and unique method for managing the corrections system; however, privatization has a long history in the United States (Perrone). Private management of prisons has been attempted at several points in America's history but was actually abandoned during the early years of the twentieth century. One of the primary reasons for its being abandoned was the Convict Leasing System that…
Liptak, Adam. "U.S. prison population dwarfs that of other nations." New York Times 23 April 2008: A1.
Morris, John C. "Government and Market Pathologies of Privatization: The Case of Prison Privatization." Politics & Policy (2007): 318-341.
Nicholson-Crotty, Sean. "The Politics and Adminstration of Privatization: Contracting Out for Corrections Management in the United States." Policy Studies Journal (2004): 41-57.
Perrone, Dina. "Comparing the Quality of Confinement and Cost-Effectiveness of Public vs. Private Prisons: What We Know, Why We Do Not Know More, and Where to Go From Here." The Prison Journal (2003): 301-322.
Managing Out -- the Public Sector in the Community
Two major economic positions have dominated the public sector for more than a decade. One side believes that the government should take primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens, while the other contends that greater reliance on the private sector is the method by which an economy can be more effectively managed. The first idea has largely been gleaned from the works of Keynes. He was an economist who believed that government intervention was required to maintain a stable economy and that the state was better equipped to be the central figure in economic management because it has a duty to the citizens which the private sector does not (Pressman, 2011). The counter to this politically liberal position is that of Frederich Hayek. He believed that free markets were the best regulators of the economy ( Griffiths, 2007) and that…
Bhatti, Y., Olsen, A.L., & Pedersen, L.H. (2009). The effects of administrative professionals on contracting out. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 22(1), 121-137.
Broughton, C., & Chalmers, J. (2001). Reconsidering the revolution? Australian public sector administration in 2000. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 60(1), 81-88.
Caldwell, B. (2011). Hayek on socialism and on the welfare state: A comment on Farrant and McPhail's "Does F.A. Hayek's Road to Serfdom deserve to make a comeback?" Challenge, 54(1), 82-97.
Davis, G., & Wood, T. (1998). Is there a future for contracting in the Australian public sector? Australian Journal of Public Administration, 57(4), 85-97.
Within this section of Chapter One, a historical perspective of NHS will be provided. This discussion will identify problem areas that have emerged in relation to NHS with an attempt made to address the manner in which such problems have historically influenced reform efforts.
With the passage and associated provisions of the NHS Act of 1946, NHS was implemented in the UK in 1948. The NHS Act of 1946 served as the means by which a pattern of health service finance and provision was established in the UK following World War II (Baggot, 1998). According to Baggot, on the basis of the Act, the principle of collective responsibility by the state for the establishment of a comprehensive health service system was introduced, allowing for the planned use of services by the entire population at no cost. It was also intended that equality of access to services would be…
Baggott, R. (1998). Health and Health Care in Britain. London, Macmillan,
Barlow, M. (1998). The Fight of My Life. Toronto: Harper Collins
BMA Central Consultants and Specialists Committee (1990). Guidance on Clinical
Directorates London: BMA.
Infrastructure is the foundation of a healthy economy and an equitable society. The World Bank's Policy Research Report on Reforming Infrastructure: Privatization, Regulation, and Competition evaluates infrastructure issues in several major sectors: telecommunications, electricity, transportation, and water. Within these infrastructural areas, the report addresses topics related to privatization, state ownership, competition, and regulation. Finally, the report incorporates social and economic concerns into proposed policy reforms. Both privatization and state control of infrastructures present problems that can be addressed with wise and research-based reform.
Chapter One of the World Bank Policy Research Report on Reforming Infrastructure focuses on network utilities. Not limited to telecommunications alone, a networking infrastructure entails all that is necessary for businesses to compete in the global marketplace. Economic development depends on the creation and maintenance of an effective, reliable, and accessible network infrastructure.
Network infrastructure is a "natural target for government intervention" and yet is "difficult to…
Both these techniques have an inverse relationship with each other. If the Government chooses to make its operations more efficient, it will be able to utilize the same level of capacity efficiently and increase the level of production. On the other hand, it can make more investments to increase the capacity so that the current and projected demand can be met effectively (Landskroner 2001).
The best way to manage the demand and capacity is to get the maximum output from the minimum amount of inputs. But if the Government increases the capacity and does not bring efficiency in its operations, a significant portion of its available capacity will go in vein. Similarly, if it wants to control the level of demand in the market, it will have to introduce new alternative products for the consumers so that they switch to those products. However, this step requires a considerable time and…
Connolly, S., & Munro a., 1999, Economics of the Public Sector. Harlow: Pearson Education
Graham, L., 2008, Internal controls: guidance for private, government, and nonprofit entities. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons
Hull, M., 2012, Network Utility Economics: A Basic Text. U.K: John Wiley
Landskroner, R.A., 2001, the nonprofit manager's resource directory. 2nd Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons
e. An amount that is about 1% of GDP) to ensure that the current PAYGO system is solvent for the next 75 years. Thus, 10 trillion dollars problem is not as large and scary if we start acting today to fix the current system).
It is totally manageable."
ut the official plan is somewhat different. ush's administration is trying to introduce private account systems where a fraction of payroll tax will be transferred to private accounts and managed by the future retirees themselves, thus, giving them chance to invest this money into stocks, which have proven to give on average higher rates of return than the Treasury ills which generate rather moderate income.
The opponents of this idea state that this is just a shell-game, where no capital is accumulated and investments are not increased. The overall national capital is not increased, but this plan will cause enormous transactions costs…
1) Kinnan, Chris Trustees Report: Social Security Collapse Quickening, 2004 available on web: http://www.cse.org/processor/printer_press.php?press_id=780
2) Allen, Mike Semantics shape social security debate, Article the Washington Post. Washington, D.C. Jan 23, 2005.pg. a. 04
3) Roubini, Nouriel Social Security Privatization as the Mother of All Con-Man Smoke-and-Mirrors Shell-Games, available on web: http://www.roubiniglobal.com/archives/2004/11/social_security_1.html
The Federal Security Service (FSB) will monitor the law's enforcement. If it finds that foreigners have been buying up shares in strategic enterprises via front firms, the Russian government will have the right to protest against such purchase in court. (Quoted by Anderson, 2008, 57)
If the FSB garners authority to monitor all cash flows and transactions allegedly in order to protect Russia from foreign control, implications could extend to Russia, seizing foreign-owned private property. The economic future does not look too propitious for foreign investors.
Most ominously, as Anderson (2008) points out, it is no longer the private company that will sell itself, but Russia that will now serve as its marketing agent. What this implies is that promotion of the firm will now transfer to promotion of the state, creating a potentially conflictual situation for the West where Russia will attempt to maximize its show of national power…
A proposal to change the program
educing Benefits: This can be done in various ways. Monthly benefits can be reduced by minimizing cost of living adjustments or by minimizing the primary insurance amount (PIA) for a certain average indexed monthly earnings (AIME). Other proposals include targeting reductions towards high-income retirees. Benefits can also be reduced by increasing the retirement age or imposing full taxes on social security benefits. These benefit reduction proposals are some of the simplest and cheapest to implement. If future clients expect lower benefits, they are expected to save more or work longer; all of which will have a positive effect on the economy (Midgley, 2006).
Complete privatization: one of the radical proposals is to erase the social security system and encourage individuals to save in their accounts held by private investment companies. Owners of accounts will have great discretion over their decision of investment…
Brown, J., Liebman, J., & Wise, D. (2009). Social Security Policy in a Changing Environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cross, T.E. (2010). Social security: Capital markets & educational issues associated with individual accounts. S.l.: Diane Pub Co.
Midgley, J. (2006). Challenges to social security: An international exploration. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Auburn House.
However, in order to establish a private facility the consent of state legislature is required. Once a state makes the decision for allowing establishment of a private for-profit prison then corporations are asked to participate in bidding by submitting their proposals. The highest bidder offering better services is awarded the contract. Many states attach certain conditions such as maintenance and provision of educational and rehabilitation services before actually awarding the contract. After awarding the contract government exercises the right of monitoring and accountability by means of thorough inspections, interviews, observations, hearings, and meetings. For example, in the state of Florida there is a legal requirement that such prison facilities can be inspected at least once annually. Some argue that annual and semi-annual inspections are not enough and full-time government monitoring is required but this too may have issues of costs and corruption. To counter this some private firms have taken…
Campbell, A., Coyle, A., & Neufeld, R. (2003). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization & Human Rights. Clarity Press. Atlanta.
Gandy, J. & Hurl, L. (1987). Private Sector Involvement in Prison Industries: Options and Issues. Canadian Journal of Criminology. Volume: 29. Issue: 2.
Quality Performance Measurement
Public Evaluation Program
In this paper, we are going to be conducting a literature review of public evaluation programs. During the process, there is a focus on misunderstanding the needs of stakeholders and the programs / reforms. Together, these elements will illustrate the overall scope of what is taking place and the long-term effects it is having on everyone.
Misunderstanding the Needs of the Public
One of the biggest challenges with any public performance evaluation is the misuse of data. This is problematic, as officials believe they are effectively delivering a variety of services for a fraction of the costs. Yet, in reality, the lack of competition invites bloated salaries and inefficiency. Administrators will try to correct the situation, through looking at a variety of sources to understand what is happen. They are unable, to gain greater insights, as politics and changing attitudes influence the outcome of…
Cheezum, R. (2013). Building Community Capacity. Journal of Community Practice, 21 (3), 228 -- 247.
Rondileni, D. (2003). Reinventing Government for the 21st Century. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.
Sirianni, C. (2009). Investing in Democracy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Stipack, B. (1979). Citizen Satisfaction with Urban Services. Public Administration Review, 39 (1), 46 -- 52.
The exponential growth of the Internet has also served as the catalyst for the growth of highly collaborative, interactive forums and platforms on which Delphi-like brainstorming can be accomplished (Decker, Wagner, Scholz, 2005). Conversely many of the external relationships companies have and that are essential to understanding how the strategic planning process will impact an organization lend themselves to quantification. An example of this level of quantification of external factors is the use of frameworks for evaluating the performance of supply chains over time, a process area that can be highly quantified through the use of maturity models and measurements of performance over time (Gilmour, 1999). Both of these extremes, qualitative data analysis through the use of techniques including writing of scenarios, brainstorming and the Delphi technique to the extremely quantitative, both require organizations to have a fairly high level of interprocess maturity and development to be able to manage…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Reinhold Decker, Ralf Wagner, Soren W. Scholz. (2005). An internet-based approach to environmental scanning in marketing planning. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 23(2/3), 189-199.
Qi Fei, David L. Olson. (2007). Web services composition strategy in enterprise systems. Human Systems Management, 26(1), 53.
B. Johansson, F. Sudzina. (2008). ERP systems and open source: an initial review and some implications for SMEs. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 21(6), 649-658.
State Domination and Financial Markets
The Chinese government has characterized its involvement in economic development as "serving rather than supervising the private economy" since 2008 (Xinhua, 2009). ith this shift in focus a number of changes to Chinese management can be expected. The paternalistic approach will remain, as it is part of Chinese culture, but there will be further estern influences, particularly with respect to the desire outcomes of management behavior.
In their efforts to serve business, the Chinese government will inevitably work harder to attract foreign investment and to allow business to set the terms by which they can seek investors. This will shift the desired outcomes of management behavior towards those sought by a wider range of investors, both domestic and foreign. Asia Aluminum provides an example of this, as foreign investor outcry over the bond scandal forced the company to consider other options. Management at that point…
Gang, Fan. (2005). China is a Private Sector Economy. Business Week. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_34/b3948478.htm
Zhu, Cherrie Jiuhua. (2005). Human Resource Management in China. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://books.google.com/books?id=mOBwfLzp7boC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=china+management+economic+reform&source=bl&ots=NRJMQ-pIY-&sig=rIgeR5smWqFufALsTdK5P8AHZxY&hl=en&ei=uHktSuLtHo6fsgb2m6meDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10
Green, Stephen. (2003). 'Two-thirds privatization': How China's listed companies are -- finally -- privatizing. Royal Institute of International Affairs. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://se1.isn.ch/serviceengine/FileContent?serviceID=ISN&fileid=0C55BCE1-85E3-F567-3F79-E6B47296364E&lng=en
Foley, John & Beales, Richard. (2009). A Hard Lesson for Foreign Investors in China. New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/02/business/worldbusiness/02iht-views03.1.20523651.html
Blue is the new black, according to the filmmakers of Blue Gold. Blue Gold is a documentary about how water is becoming a scarce commodity, and that it will become the reason for wars in the future unless something critical is done about it on political, economic, and public policy levels. This is an important film, because the issues impact all persons on the planet. ich or poor, male or female, black, white, or brown, water is necessary to sustain life. Without water, human beings die. The problem is that water management issues are embroiled in serious entanglements. Water that should be used for drinking is diverted to use in big agribusiness sectors, which are themselves problematic for their inhumane and polluting practices. Similarly, water that should be used for drinking is being diverted for use in manufacturing sectors. While human beings do need both manufacturing and farming…
Bozzo, Sam. Blue Gold. Feature Film. Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B1a3tjqQiBI
They compete with each other for business, seek to build both aviation and non-aviation revenue streams and they must also deal with enhanced security requirements. This places significant pressure on the airport sector. The response within the sector has been twofold. Some airports have become privatized, which allows major airport operators to utilize their expertise across a range of markets. The other solution is the development of public airports that serve as branches of their governments, attracting passengers and investment to the region. Both types of airports have strong, multifaceted strategic mandates and are among the vanguard of modern air transportation.
Babu, V., Batta, R. & Lin, L. (2004). Passenger grouping under constant threat probability in an airport security system. European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 168 (2) 633-644.
Barnard, B. (2010). Global air cargo revenue grows 40%. The Journal of Commerce. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.joc.com/air-expedited/global-air-cargo-revenue-grows-40-percent…
Babu, V., Batta, R. & Lin, L. (2004). Passenger grouping under constant threat probability in an airport security system. European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 168 (2) 633-644.
Barnard, B. (2010). Global air cargo revenue grows 40%. The Journal of Commerce. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.joc.com/air-expedited/global-air-cargo-revenue-grows-40-percent
Cidell, J. (2004). Scales of airport expansion: Globalization, regionalization and local land use. Center for Transportation Studies. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.cts.umn.edu/pdf/CTS-04-01.pdf
Frost & Sullivan. (2010). 16th APSA International Conference Airport Security Market Overview. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.slideshare.net/tony.ridley/an-overview-of-the-airport-security-market
The disadvantage relies however in a reduced stability of the job, as the private company, unlike the state, can go out of business. A final disadvantage of a private company is that it loses its impartiality and follows its own agenda; the advantage however materializes in increased levels of profitability (Blurtit, 2007).
The nature of for profit or not for profit organization has constituted a matter of debate for years now and even more so today, when more and more NPOs change their status into for profit entities. The reasons behind this decision are based on the advantages that for profit organizations offer. The most prominent one, and the main generator of the modification, is that they allow stakeholders to take part in the distribution of the profits and as such register financial gains, whilst NPOs force the earnings to remain integrant for future projects. Also, businesses can issue equity…
Fritz, J., 2009, How Does a Nonprofit Differ from a Business? About.com, http://nonprofit.about.com/od/qathebasics/f/nopvspro.htm last accessed on May 27, 2009
Tracy, B., November 21, 2005, Seven Keys to Growing Your Business, Entrepreneur
2007, What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Privatization-Blurtit, http://www.blurtit.com/q197263.html last accessed on May 27, 2009
This was another blow for the local markets as the SOEs formed the crux of all Chinese businesses. The privatization of this sector was initiated in 1995 when the government kept the big profit-making SOEs and discarded the smaller SOEs, yet the government was forced to hand over the market share that these big SOEs had after joining WTO and eventually hand the complete control of the SOEs to the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC) to distribute and allocate the shares which resulted in a dramatic drop of the total SOEs form 118,000 (1995) to 34,000 (current). This figure still includes some of the biggest and the core industries like those of energy, basic necessities, cement, etc. And there are many Chinese analysts who still believe that the role of the SOEs and the state can never be completely eliminated.
One of the main criticisms that the Chinese…
Richard H.K. Vietor, Julia Galef. China and the WTO: What Price Membership? 2006.
Oi, J., Bebenek, C. And Spar, D.L. China: Building "Capitalism with Socialist Characteristics." 2006.
Vermont's Junior Senator, Bernard Sanders introduced to the Senate the Stop Outsourcing Security Act S. 2398. The Stop Outsourcing Security Act will help solve the lack of oversight of contractors in Iraq by requiring that by June 2008, "the President shall submit to each specified congressional committee a report on the status of planning for the transition away from the use of private contractors for mission critical or emergency essential functions by January 1, 2009, in all conflict zones in which Congress has authorized the use of force" (s 2398). This bill will examine contractor activities and ensure that renewals will only happen if the president certifies that contractors have undergone background checks and are clear of any crimes that could lead to additional problems with their work in the future. It will also allow congress to have access to information of private military companies including, the number of persons…
Addicott, Jeffrey F. "Contractors on the "Battlefield": Providing Adequate Protection, Anti-Terrorism Training, and Personnel Recovery for Civilian Contractors Accompanying the Military in Combat and Contingency Operations." Houston Journal of International Law 28.2 (2006): 323. Questia. 16 July 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015737160 .
Broder, John M. "Report critical of guard firm; Blackwater sought to cover up Iraq shootings, study finds." 3 October 2007: 4. Lexis Nexis 13 June 2008. http://www.lexisnexis.com/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview.do?docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T3963560559&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T3963560562&cisb=22_T3963560561&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=8357&docNo=5
Greenwald, Robert "Iraq for Sale" (Documentary Film) 2005 Information Website: http://iraqforsale.org/
Krugman, Paul. "Hired Gun Fetish." The New York Times. A29. 28 September 2007. Proquest. 5 July 2008. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1343375061&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1215612063&clientId=27893
private military companies Iraq illustrate a trend warfare? -No, Historical reasons great empires employed a large number mercenaries.-What reasons, -Type firms, divided types- type spear
Private military companies
Today's society is more challenging and dynamic than it has ever been. And this trend is manifested within the military sector as well. Here, the employees in the division have to be better motivated in order to risk their lives and this motivation has to be complex, and include both financial and non-financial incentives. While the major non-financial incentive would be the sense of fighting to protect one's country, the financial incentive has to be substantial and significantly larger than that of any other category of employees.
The modern day army then integrates technologic developments to improve the nature and outcome of its operations. It as such strives to answer the more and more complex demands of the contemporaneous society and, in…
Adebajo, A., Sriram, C.L., 2000, Messiahs or mercenaries? The future of international private military services, International Peacekeeping, Vol. 7, No. 4
Avant, D., 2006, Private military companies and the future of war, Foreign Policy Research Institute, http://www.fpri.org/enotes/200604.military.avant.privatemilitarycompanies.html last accessed on May 27, 2011
Beutel, M.D., 2005, Private military companies: their emergence, importance and a call for global regulation, Northwich University, http://princess.digitalfreaks.org/thesis/beutelmdthesis.pdf last accessed on May 27, 2011
Carafano, J.J., 2008, Private sector, public wars: contractors in combat-- Afghanistan, Iraq, and future conflicts, Greenwood Publishing, ISBN 0275994783
absolute measure" of poverty is not an accurate measure of policy in the United States. The "absolute measure" is based on the threshold below which any family is unable to meet basic needs for living, or those having not enough income for food, shelter and clothing. The thresholds are generally based on the economy food plan, since it was determined that families spend one third of their after tax income on food, or are adjusted based on changes to the Consumer Price Index. However, this method is not realistic in terms of modern society. The "absolute method" does not account for income such as food stamps, school lunches, or public housing, nor does it account for income expenses such as taxes, child support payments, medical costs, health insurance premiums, or child care. The model for poverty in the United States should be adapted to account for disposable income, and use…
In the long run, Machan & Chesher's argument makes sense -- care for the health and safety of company employees and see the company grow more profitable! Care for one's own health and one will be a better employee! However, management does not always take the long-term vision that, 'if I allow my employee to take a day off for the flu, he or she will be more productive upon his or her return, and not infect other employees.' Employees may be told to come in to the office when they are sick or else they will be fired. Thus, they risk their own health or the health of others, to make a quick return on the corporation's investment in an employee. Also, an adolescent or even a twenty-year-old on his or her first job may have a sense of invincibility, and do imprudent things, like speed to deliver pizzas,…
These devices can help to ensure customer violence is limited. Additionally, by investing in interpersonal training and dispute resolution courses for employees, companies can help to control coworker violence. Furthermore, the use of EAP (Employee Assistance Programs) for frustrated workers can help to provide some outlet for frustrations, further eliminating the possible problems (Hagan, 2004). Through polite, direct, proper communication, most acts of interpersonal workplace violence can be avoided.
ASIS. (2001). Certification. ASIS International. etrieved September 26, 2007 from ASIS International. Website: http://www.asisonline.org/certification/arp/certpromo.htm.
Chapter 498 Oregon Laws. (2001). [Online] etrieved July 10, 2007 from the Oregon State Legislature database. Website: http://www.leg.state.or.us/01orlaws/sess0400.dir/0498ses.html
Cole, D. (2002, September) Trading liberty for security after September 11. FPIF Policy eport. etrieved 8 July, 2007 at http://www.fpif.org/papers/post9-11.html.
Collins, P.A., icks, T.A., Van Meter, C.W. (2000). Chapter 8: Crime and the threat environment. Principles of security and crime prevention, 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
ASIS. (2001). Certification. ASIS International. Retrieved September 26, 2007 from ASIS International. Website: http://www.asisonline.org/certification/arp/certpromo.htm .
Chapter 498 Oregon Laws. (2001). [Online] Retrieved July 10, 2007 from the Oregon State Legislature database. Website: http://www.leg.state.or.us/01orlaws/sess0400.dir/0498ses.html
Cole, D. (2002, September) Trading liberty for security after September 11. FPIF Policy Report. Retrieved 8 July, 2007 at http://www.fpif.org/papers/post9-11.html .
Collins, P.A., Ricks, T.A., Van Meter, C.W. (2000). Chapter 8: Crime and the threat environment. Principles of security and crime prevention, 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
This demographic understands how investment markets work and is likely to make the smart and responsible choices with these investment funds to ensure that they have a good retirement.
The demographic that is least likely to benefit from such a plan is the demographic at the lower end of the income scale, blue collar workers with less education, minorities, new immigrants, and rural people. These demographics are generally less wealthy to begin with, so they rely more on the Social Security benefits than the demographic that benefits most from having a defined contribution plan for Social Security.
A partially-privatized social security system therefore primarily benefits the type of consumer that is in the best position not to need Social Security at all. Such consumers can use their knowledge of financial markets to enhance their wealth or better protect it. Consumers that are less likely to benefit, having little knowledge of…
Ohlemacher, S. (2012). Social security adds to budget deficit. Huffington Post. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/huff-wires/20120812/us-social-security-fact-check/
Hiltzik, M. (2012). Proposal to privatize Social Security rears its ugly head. LA Times. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from http://articles.latimes.com/2012/aug/21/business/la-fi-hiltzik-20120821
Criminal justice is an inherently ethical profession. The judiciary ostensibly crafts laws that reflect the ethical sensibilities and social norms of the society, which are often embedded in the American Constitution. The role of the criminal justice system is to ensure that local, state, and federal laws are applied and enforced in a manner consistent with constitutional and regional codes. Issues like the equal protection clause are also ethical matters. The core objective of the criminal justice system is built on ethical responsibility: the ethical responsibility of the system to its main stakeholders, which is the American people.
However, there are also ancillary ethical issues associated with criminal justice that are not codified. Such issues are often linked with ambiguities and philosophical complexities. Applying criminal justice ethics entails sensitivity and awareness to prevailing political and social climates. Among the most pressing ethical issues in criminal justice include those related…
American Civil Liberties Union (2012). Racial profiling. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/racial-profiling
Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. Sage.
Block, W.E. & Obioha, V. (2012). War on black men: Arguments for the legalization of drugs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 106-120.
Harfield, C. (2012). Police informers and professional ethics. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 73-95
Value of a BA Degree
The Value of BA Degrees
Would you say this statement is "True" or "False"? Too many people are going to college these days. Many experts in business say that the statement is true. People once thought that college degrees were the most important advantage that people could attain through their own efforts (uiz 2011). But the situation is changing. A look at employees and entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley underscores a more pessimistic and sobering view of college education (uiz 2011). People who work in technical jobs without the benefit of formal coursework in higher education can be free to follow their interests and creativity (uiz 2011). These new technology experts don't need to get locked into boring corporate jobs that pay well in order to pay off enormous student loan debt burdens (uiz 2011). The cost of higher education keeps rising and there are those…
Baum, Sandy and Kathleen Payea. "The Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals and Society." Trends in Higher Education Series, Revised Edition. 2005.
Edsall, Thomas. "The Reproduction of Privilege." The New York Times. 12 March 2012. < http://campaignstops.blogs.nytimes.com/ >
Hill, Kent, Dennis Hoffman, and Tom R. Rex. "The Value of Higher Education: Individual and Societal Benefits (With Special Consideration for the State of Arizona). Productivity and Prosperity Project (P3). October 2004. Tempe, Arizona: L. William Seidman Research Institute W.P. Carey School of Business Arizona State University? (2004).
Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment. Economic News Release, Bureau of Labor Statistics. United States Department of Labor. 2 November 2012.
Latin America's problems owe a great deal to a tradition of caudillism, personal politics and authoritarianism." It will also give definitions for eight terms associated with Latin American studies: caudillism, liberalism, The Export oom, Neocolonialism, Import Subsidizing Industrialization, ureaucratic Authoritarianism and Privatization.
Latin America currently faces many problems, with diverse causes and manifestations, for example, huge external debts, lack of development in infrastructure, low levels of education for children, and low levels of health care for the population (with concurrent high infant mortality rates and low age expectancies). Many authors (such as Juan Manuel de Rosas, author of Argentine Caudillo, John Reed, author of Insurgent Mexico, and Jacobo Timerman, author of Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number) have argued that Latin America's current problems stem from a period of history (the National period), following independence, during which caudillismo was popular, and personalistic politics and authoritarianism were the rule.…
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2002 DVD-edition for Macintosh.
Williamson, E. (1992). The Penguin History of Latin America.
government is under pressure to offer quality and affordable health care services to its citizens. Various reform efforts in the country have adopted various approaches with the aim of ensuring that health care system perform well. These strategies include competition in service delivery, downsizing, partnerships, performance indicator and measures, citizen participation privatization and competition. All these approaches have converged in emphasizing accountability as the prime aspect in improving system performance and implementing health reform (Ivanov & Blue, 2007).
The current debate on health systems and accountability reflects a number of factors. Notable is the dissatisfaction with the performance of the health system. In the United States, discontent and debates have focused on these same issues, accompanied by equitable distribution and availability of basic services, corruption, and lack of responsiveness and abuses of power. Citizens and policymakers always expect the health care providers to deliver responsibilities correctly and professionally…
Hinshaw, A.S., & Grady, P.A. (2011). Shaping health policy through nursing research. New York, NY: Springer.
In Mackenbach, J.P., & In McKee, M. (2013). Successes and failures of health policy in Europe: Four decades of divergent trends and converging challenges. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Ivanov, L.L., & Blue, C.L. (2007). Public health nursing: Leadership, policy, & practice. Australia: Delmar Cengage Delmar.
Warwick-Booth, L., Cross, R., & Lowcock, D. (2012). Contemporary health studies: An introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Hilsenrath, suggests that there are several inferences, which can be drawn from the growing view that poorly informed investors can make markets less efficient than suggested by the "free market" theories of the 1980s. According to the author, the first major implication is that behaviorist theories were now gaining wider acceptance in mainstream economics. Second, the fact that investors can be irrational implies that governments may have to re-evaluate issues such as market regulation and Social Security privatization. Third, if markets are sometimes inefficient, corporations would now have to rethink the way they judge management performance and compensation so that executives become less focused on stock price movements. Fourth, the fact that irrational investor behavior can lead markets astray does not, however, mean that the global emphasis on free markets and open economies will be reversed. For, all it really signifies is that the efficient market theory does not hold…
Hilsenrath, J. "As Two Economists Debate Markets, The Tide Shifts." The Wall Street
Journal. New York: October 18, 2004, p. A1.