Privatization Essays (Examples)

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Governmental Services Privatized

Words: 758 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8532034

Privatization of Governmental Services

Privatization of government services

There has been a growing trend towards the privatization of governmental services in the world today. Privatization of government services refers to the handing over of public functions to companies that are privately owned. This paper will examine some of the benefits and detriments of privatization. I will give my position on the topic and give reasons why I take this position.

Benefits of privatization

The privatization of government services is beneficial in various ways. The government is not capable of providing all services to all its citizens. This is because the government might lack some expertise that is necessary to perform different functions. Most of the private companies have all the relevant expertise required to effectively provide various services to the public. This means privatization of government services will provide an opportunity to private companies to use their resources and tools in order to effectively provide services to the public. These are particularly services that the government can not provide due to the required expertise (Nichols, 2010).

Private companies are also quite productive hence reducing the costs incurred by the government. Through privatization, the government makes savings on the services they…… [Read More]


Nichols, R. (2010). The Pros and Cons of Privatizing Government Functions. Retrieved September, 25 2014 from
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South Africa Is the Economic

Words: 1969 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60686368

Almost a third of the government's total revenue emanate from indirect taxes, mainly from value-added taxes (Brand South Africa, Niekerk).

3. privatization -- this process was viewed to create a robust flow of business opportunities in the next many years at a range of 100-150 billion South African Rands (PGI 2012). This is equivalent to U.S.$12-20 billion. There will be estimated and sustained business acquisition opportunities in agribusiness, agriculture and fisheries; hotels, restaurants, resorts and tourism; mining and mineral extraction; forestry, logging and wood products; electricity generation and power reticulation; manufacturing; road and rail transportation; telecommunications and information technology; financial services; and water, waste water and water management. Transactions are likely to be in the form of complete or partial sales, concessions or public-private partnerships (PGI).

4. trade and trade finance and investment -- the Department of Trade and Industry

formulated the trade policy, which the Cabinet adopted in July 2010 (Brand South Africa 2012, Niekerk 2012). The policy framework promotes the development of higher value-added labor-absorbing production. As a complement, the Department formulated strategies for export development and promotion and investment promotion and facilitation. On top of these, it set up a single integrated facilitation center and formed a…… [Read More]


Brand South Africa. South Africa: Economy Overview. Big Media Publisher, 2012.

Retrieved on October 22, 2012 from

-. Government in South Africa, 2012. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from 

CIA. South Africa. The World Fact Book: Central Intelligence Agency, 2012.
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Department Defense Inspector General Office U S Defense

Words: 1438 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75456185

Department Defense Inspector General Office

U.S Defense Inspector general

The United States office of Department of Defense Inspector General has been inexistence since 1982 as a result of the amendment of the inspector general act of 1978 (John, 2011). It is responsible for conducting, monitoring, supervising and initiating evaluation and audits the programs and operations related to the department of defense. It also has the duty to provide leadership and coordinate and recommend policies for the processes that are designed to support and grow the economy and the administration effectiveness. Also, it helps detect and prevent abuse and fraud in the programs initiated. The inspector general is the chief advisor of the congress and secretary of defense.

The Agency and Unions

The act providing for the establishment of the office of inspector general cuts across all the departmental operations and the programs thereof. The key responsibilities of the office of the inspector general are to carry out audits and investigations regarding the activities undertaken by the union or office (United States, 2006). In executing this duty, the inspector general includes the management of the union and employees of the same so as to ensure a thorough audit is done to…… [Read More]


United States. (2006). Department of Defense Inspector General's management accountability review of the Boeing KC-767A tanker program: Hearing before the Committee on Armed

Services, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, first session, June 7, 2005.

Washington: U.S.G.P.O.

John, R.C. (2011). White house and department of defense announce strategies to promote cybersecurity, including strengthening norms affecting internet security. The American
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Ethics Corporate Governance and Company Social Responsibility

Words: 1917 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67756532

Ethics, Corporate Governance and Company Social Responsibility

OCED state-owned enterprises and Privatized companies

In the past few decades, emerging economies have launched ambitious plans to privatize their state owned enterprises (SOEs). The volume of privatization in emerging economies has increased from $8 billion in 1990 to about $65 billion in 1997 (Dharwadkar, George, & Brandes, 2000). In privatization, ownership is transferred from the state to new private and public owners, which may include management, employees, local individuals, institutions, and foreign investors, with the state also retaining a certain percentage of ownership after privatization. The new diversified ownership structure after privatization makes corporate governance an important issue in emerging economies (Rajagopalan and Zhang, 2008).

On the one hand, the new ownership structure creates the traditional principal agency problem whereby self-interested executives aim to maximize their private interests rather than the owners' interests. To address this problem, it is necessary to design effective incentive mechanisms to align management interests with owners' interests and/or to design effective control mechanisms to regulate management behaviors. On the other hand, the new ownership structure can also create principal -- principal agency problems that are unique to emerging markets. In these unique agency contexts, large or majority…… [Read More]


Aman, H. And Nguyen, P. (2008). Do stock prices re-ect the corporate governance quality of Japanese "rms" Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 22(4), 647 -- 662.

Buchanan, J. And Deakin, S. (2007). Japan's paradoxical response to the new "Global Standard" in corporate governance. Accessed on October 12, 2011 from

Dharwadkar, R., George, G., & Brandes, P. (2000). Privatization in emerging economies: An agency theory perspective. Academy of Management Review, 25(3), 650-669.

Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs. (2005). Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises: OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises. Accessed on October 14, 2011 from:
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Browne and S Keeley What

Words: 2535 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53355021

Among these statements include:

1. "We must oppose this action now, or we do a disservice to our members and will regret it later."

2. "I had lunch the other day with a group of members, and everyone was in agreement that if you opposed this measure, they would vote for you…. This will set the stage for your re-election next year at the end of your present term." The lace of threat of a negative consequence for the decision maker is also palpable in this statement, as it appeals to self-preservation.

3. "I speak for truth and common sense…" is also a shot at arguing based on the fallacy of glittering generality.

While statistics are used to support the arguments, questionable authority on the matter are used such as the case of the brother-in-law, who has not demonstrated as an expert on the issue at hand, and Wikipedia, which is a helpful tool but whose contents are not an entirely credible source of value-free information. Lastly, the fallacy of red herring is committed as in the statement: "If the Governor wants to save money, she should abandon that wasteful convention center project, and leave our Union alone."

7. How…… [Read More]


Browne, M. And S. Keeley. (2007). Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking. NJ: Prentice Hall.

O' Connor, B. (2004). A Brief history of anti-Americanism: From cultural criticism to terrorism. Australasian Journal of American Studies, 77-92.

Hollander, P. (2002). The Politics of Envy. The New Criterion. Retrieved from

Taibl, P. (1997). Outsourcing and privatization of defense infrastructure. Business Executives for National Security.
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Outsourcing Corrections Facilities

Words: 1966 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65070197

industrialized nation in the world has a higher percentage of its population residing in its prison than the United States (Liptak). This fact has witnessed a corresponding increase in the cost of housing and caring for the incarcerated which has correspondingly raised the public concerns for these costs. This combination has spurred conversation relative to how to address both issues and one of the methods suggested is the possible privatization of the corrections system.

The advantages and disadvantages of privatization have been debated for years and many view privatization as new and unique method for managing the corrections system; however, privatization has a long history in the United States (Perrone). Private management of prisons has been attempted at several points in America's history but was actually abandoned during the early years of the twentieth century. One of the primary reasons for its being abandoned was the Convict Leasing System that was used in several Southern states during years following the Civil War (White). The Convict Leasing System involved the leasing of prisoners to serve as laborers on plantations, mines, railroads, and logging operations in order to provide inexpensive labor but also to relieve the involved states from having to care…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Liptak, Adam. "U.S. prison population dwarfs that of other nations." New York Times 23 April 2008: A1.

Morris, John C. "Government and Market Pathologies of Privatization: The Case of Prison Privatization." Politics & Policy (2007): 318-341.

Nicholson-Crotty, Sean. "The Politics and Adminstration of Privatization: Contracting Out for Corrections Management in the United States." Policy Studies Journal (2004): 41-57.

Perrone, Dina. "Comparing the Quality of Confinement and Cost-Effectiveness of Public vs. Private Prisons: What We Know, Why We Do Not Know More, and Where to Go From Here." The Prison Journal (2003): 301-322.
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Argentina Crisis the Argentine Crisis

Words: 2673 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56315423

S. dollars.

Although the plan had its share of supporters, it failed to be implemented because of the lack of political support. As a consequence, Rodriguez Saa resigned, and was followed by Eduardo Duhalde.

Factors Contributing to the Crisis

The crisis that affected Argentina was due to a combination of factors. Also, some of the factors that determined the crisis have their roots in the previous decades, increasing their effects and combining them with the effects of newer events that were not efficiently managed.

One of the most important causes that determined the crisis is represented by the political factor. The military dictatorship that ruled the country decades before the crisis has had its significant negative impact on Argentina's economic, social, and political evolution. The public management system developed and implemented by the dictatorship has taken the country off track of a country's normal evolution towards economic development in accordance with the development of democratic countries.

The effects of the dictatorship were not counteracted even by the democratic system that followed. The country's political situation was characterized by a line of governments that failed to implement efficient measures, creating an unstable political and social environment.

These governments only succeeded at…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Argentina (2009). Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Retrieved November 17, 2009 from .

2. Lischinsky, B. (2003). The Puzzle of Argentina's Debt Problem: Virtual Dollar Creation? FONDAD. Retrieved November 18, 2009 from

3. Alonso, V. (2004). Ten Years of Privatization Made Argentina's Crisis Worse. Albion Monitor. Retrieved November 18, 2009 from

4. Evans, L. (2003). The Crisis in Argentina. UCLA International Institute. Retrieved November 18, 2009 from
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Criminal Justice Ethics in Criminal

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 942770

Of course, other significant capacities and abilities, including emotion directive skills and compassion toward oneself and other people are also essential to conquer routine patterns developed to handle with unwanted experiences and emotions (Hopper, 2011).

Being aware of one's surroundings not only physical but emotional as well can help a person to live a very healthy life. It is important in one's personal life to be mindful of their physical surroundings so that they can protect themselves from harm. If one just goes around unaware of what is going on around them they will for sure end up in a situation that is not where they want to be. It is also important to be mindful of one's emotional surroundings so that one does not become out of touch with reality and thus find themselves in situations that they don't belong.

In one's professional life it is also important to be mindful of one's surroundings so that they always know what is going on and how they fit into what is happening at the time. It is always a good idea in work environment to be aware of who is around you at all times so that you don't say…… [Read More]


Hopper, Jim. (2011). Mindfulness and Kindness Inner Sources of Freedom and Happiness.

Retrieved from 

What is the privatization of probation and parole services? (2010). Retrieved from
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Financial Markets in Their Seminal 1989 Work

Words: 1835 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7273689

Financial Markets

In their seminal 1989 work, Kopcke and Rosengren posed the question "are the distinctions between debt and equity disappearing?" They noted several challenges to the historical distinction between the two, including new instruments that combined elements of each (e.g. preferred shares, warrants, mezzanine financing) and an increased use in derivative securities. They noted that debt instruments were beginning to incorporate equity-like features, in response to market demand for such innovative forms of financing. The authors also note that in the U.S. At least the tax code and regulatory environment was not keeping up with the changes, contributing to the proliferation of hybrid securities. On closer examination, however, none of these changes indicates a fundamental change in the nature of debt or the nature of equity, simply a change in market preferences. Hybrids have not eliminated or even materially altered debt or equity, they have simply offered the market alternatives.

Damodar (n.d.) notes that there has always been a continuum between debt and equity. While the two are clearly different at the ends of the continuum (common stock and bonds), securities that lie in the middle of the continuum have always contained elements of each. Preferred shares and convertible…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Damodar, A. (no date). Chapter 7: Capital structure: Overview of the financing decision. Stern School of Management. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from 

Grout, P., Jenkins, A. & Zalewska, A. (2001). Privatisation of utilities and the asset value problem. CMPO Working Paper Series No. 01/41. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from

Hawkins, N. (2010). Privatization revisited. Adam Smith Research Trust. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from

Kopcke, R. & Rosengren, E. (1989). Are the distinctions between debt and equity disappearing? An overview. Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from
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Managing Out the Public Sector in the Community Australia

Words: 1879 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2106732

Managing Out -- the Public Sector in the Community

Two major economic positions have dominated the public sector for more than a decade. One side believes that the government should take primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens, while the other contends that greater reliance on the private sector is the method by which an economy can be more effectively managed. The first idea has largely been gleaned from the works of Keynes. He was an economist who believed that government intervention was required to maintain a stable economy and that the state was better equipped to be the central figure in economic management because it has a duty to the citizens which the private sector does not (Pressman, 2011). The counter to this politically liberal position is that of Frederich Hayek. He believed that free markets were the best regulators of the economy ( Griffiths, 2007) and that the welfare state leads to totalitarianism on the part of the government (Caldwell, 2011).

The position of Hayek has engendered much discussion over the past couple of decades in countries where socialism has been the government bastion since the Second World war, and several reasons exist for this change in…… [Read More]


Bhatti, Y., Olsen, A.L., & Pedersen, L.H. (2009). The effects of administrative professionals on contracting out. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 22(1), 121-137.

Broughton, C., & Chalmers, J. (2001). Reconsidering the revolution? Australian public sector administration in 2000. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 60(1), 81-88.

Caldwell, B. (2011). Hayek on socialism and on the welfare state: A comment on Farrant and McPhail's "Does F.A. Hayek's Road to Serfdom deserve to make a comeback?" Challenge, 54(1), 82-97.

Davis, G., & Wood, T. (1998). Is there a future for contracting in the Australian public sector? Australian Journal of Public Administration, 57(4), 85-97.
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UK Healthcare

Words: 9250 Length: 36 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11726267

UK Healthcare

Within this section of Chapter One, a historical perspective of NHS will be provided. This discussion will identify problem areas that have emerged in relation to NHS with an attempt made to address the manner in which such problems have historically influenced reform efforts.

With the passage and associated provisions of the NHS Act of 1946, NHS was implemented in the UK in 1948. The NHS Act of 1946 served as the means by which a pattern of health service finance and provision was established in the UK following World War II (Baggot, 1998). According to Baggot, on the basis of the Act, the principle of collective responsibility by the state for the establishment of a comprehensive health service system was introduced, allowing for the planned use of services by the entire population at no cost. It was also intended that equality of access to services would be incorporated within NHS as a consequence of the availability of health services at no charge.

When implemented in 1948, the main characteristics of the NHS were:

Tripartite division: Central Government - Regional Authorities - Local


The Minister of Health was made personally responsible to Parliament for the provision of…… [Read More]


Baggott, R. (1998). Health and Health Care in Britain. London, Macmillan,

Barlow, M. (1998). The Fight of My Life. Toronto: Harper Collins

BMA Central Consultants and Specialists Committee (1990). Guidance on Clinical

Directorates London: BMA.
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Infrastructure Is the Foundation of a Healthy

Words: 1513 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60389951

Infrastructure is the foundation of a healthy economy and an equitable society. The World Bank's Policy Research Report on Reforming Infrastructure: Privatization, Regulation, and Competition evaluates infrastructure issues in several major sectors: telecommunications, electricity, transportation, and water. Within these infrastructural areas, the report addresses topics related to privatization, state ownership, competition, and regulation. Finally, the report incorporates social and economic concerns into proposed policy reforms. Both privatization and state control of infrastructures present problems that can be addressed with wise and research-based reform.

Chapter One of the World Bank Policy Research Report on Reforming Infrastructure focuses on network utilities. Not limited to telecommunications alone, a networking infrastructure entails all that is necessary for businesses to compete in the global marketplace. Economic development depends on the creation and maintenance of an effective, reliable, and accessible network infrastructure.

Network infrastructure is a "natural target for government intervention" and yet is "difficult to regulate in the public interest,"(p. 30). Problems inhibiting perfect competition within the realm of the network infrastructure include the large sunk costs and the extensive economies of scale that network infrastructures entail. Both of these issues, large sunk costs and extensive economies of scale, create an environment that stifles competition…… [Read More]

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Organization Behavior Economic Business Policy

Words: 2511 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38238921

Both these techniques have an inverse relationship with each other. If the Government chooses to make its operations more efficient, it will be able to utilize the same level of capacity efficiently and increase the level of production. On the other hand, it can make more investments to increase the capacity so that the current and projected demand can be met effectively (Landskroner 2001).

The best way to manage the demand and capacity is to get the maximum output from the minimum amount of inputs. But if the Government increases the capacity and does not bring efficiency in its operations, a significant portion of its available capacity will go in vein. Similarly, if it wants to control the level of demand in the market, it will have to introduce new alternative products for the consumers so that they switch to those products. However, this step requires a considerable time and financial resources from the federal budget (Lipczynski, Wilson, & Goddard 2005).

The Government can manage its capacity in an effective and efficient manner if it forecasts the demand for each product and plan its production according to that projected demand. It will not only save the Government's expenditures which it…… [Read More]


Connolly, S., & Munro a., 1999, Economics of the Public Sector. Harlow: Pearson Education

Graham, L., 2008, Internal controls: guidance for private, government, and nonprofit entities. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons

Hull, M., 2012, Network Utility Economics: A Basic Text. U.K: John Wiley

Landskroner, R.A., 2001, the nonprofit manager's resource directory. 2nd Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons
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Public Sector Accountability in the

Words: 1700 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19101070

Retrieved at Accessed on 30 May, 2005

Pearson Des. 2000. "Contemporary Issues in Public Sector Accountability: New Challenges for Accountability." 22 January. Retrieved at Accessed on 30 May, 2005

Setting the Course: Integrating Conformance with Performance." 2000. September, 7. Retrieved at on 30 May, 2005

Sozzani, Joseph "Privatization in the United States and Australia: A Comparative Analysis of the Modern Movement in Corrections." Retrieved at Accessed on 30 May, 2005

S.Rpt.103-358 Governmental Affairs Committee" 1994. August, 23. Retrieved at Accessed on 30 May, 2005

The Audit Office Today." Retrieved at Accessed on 30 May, 2005

Vouched for and Carried to Account: A History of the Western Australian Audit Office 1829-2004." Retrieved at Accessed on 30 May, 2005

Wongchanglaw, Somphon. 2002. "Strengthening Public Scrutiny and Government Accountability Reformation." Retrieved at Accessed on 30 May, 2005… [Read More]


Heeks, Richard. 1998. "Information Systems for Public Sector Management: Defining Accountability." Institute for Development Policy and Management. July. Retrieved at Accessed on 30 May, 2005

Lamond, Jeff. "Transparency and Ethical Governance: Promoting Accountability in Australia" Australian Public Service Commission. Retrieved at . Accessed on 30 May, 2005

Pearson Des. 2000. "Contemporary Issues in Public Sector Accountability: New Challenges for Accountability." 22 January. Retrieved at Accessed on 30 May, 2005

Setting the Course: Integrating Conformance with Performance." 2000. September, 7. Retrieved at on 30 May, 2005
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Public Opinion Polling and Social

Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28296505

Understanding the essential importance of rights, the republican decision would not want to deprive either group of their naturally endowed rights, and would, therefore, consider the opinion of both when making the decision. In this scenario, the president must look at the results of both polls and the circumstances that would make them unreliable, considering all of these things carefully before making a decision. Further, as a trustee, the president would understand that the future of social security is immensely important for those who are under the age of 65, as when they reach the age of retirement, there will be little left to help them with their cost of living expenses. Further, having access to greater research than the public, the president understands the true problems in the system and the expenses that would be too great for the individual to pay if social security were to fail. Thus, acting as a trustee, the president must make the republican decision to sign the bill into law. Although the public opinion poll showing the majority opinion is a factor in his or her decision, he or she also uses the role of the trustee to make the decision that is…… [Read More]

Finally, the president can also make the elitist decision and consider only the opinion of those who are well-informed. Because determining who exactly is well informed and their opinions would be a difficult and less than democratic task, the president must act as a trustee, considering his or her own information instead of the information of the so-called elites.

Thus, it is the republican decision that is the most accurate in this situation. It is important for the president to consider both views, those of the majority and the minority, while comparing those views to the president's vision for the country in the future. When this is done, the president must make the decision to uphold bill, not because of public opinion polling, but because of the country's needs. Of course if the majority had been in favor of keeping the system the way it is currently, the president would have had to weigh this information with his or her decision. Still, the minority's rights are not completely violated, as the president must inform them, particularly because the privatization will most likely not occur for them, but for the younger generations who want it. It is the trustee's obligation to protect these people from the problems associated with a failed social security system. Without social security, it is the young people who will not be able to afford to pay for their medication, which may lead to both disability and death. Further, these young people may know that without social security, they will not be able to retire. Because of the vast degree of social security problems and the extreme circumstances that the majority will face if the bill is vetoed, it must be upheld.

Thus, public opinion polling is an inaccurate measure that results in humorous gaffs like that shared between Truman and Dewey in 1948. While they are vastly inaccurate, they still give a representation of the public view. Still, they cannot be used, solely, to make decisions regarding to public policy, as the public is vastly uninformed and often discounts the opinion of the minority.
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Criminal Justice Service Contracts With

Words: 1233 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41762333

However, in order to establish a private facility the consent of state legislature is required. Once a state makes the decision for allowing establishment of a private for-profit prison then corporations are asked to participate in bidding by submitting their proposals. The highest bidder offering better services is awarded the contract. Many states attach certain conditions such as maintenance and provision of educational and rehabilitation services before actually awarding the contract. After awarding the contract government exercises the right of monitoring and accountability by means of thorough inspections, interviews, observations, hearings, and meetings. For example, in the state of Florida there is a legal requirement that such prison facilities can be inspected at least once annually. Some argue that annual and semi-annual inspections are not enough and full-time government monitoring is required but this too may have issues of costs and corruption. To counter this some private firms have taken the point-of-view of accreditation by American Correctional Association (ACA). Still, a fool proof formula for monitoring and checking is not there and cases of human rights related issues have also surfaced over the years concerning treatment of prisoners in private facilities.

Other Considerations

Those who advocate and go against private…… [Read More]


Campbell, A., Coyle, A., & Neufeld, R. (2003). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization & Human Rights. Clarity Press. Atlanta.

Gandy, J. & Hurl, L. (1987). Private Sector Involvement in Prison Industries: Options and Issues. Canadian Journal of Criminology. Volume: 29. Issue: 2.
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Anti-Capitalist & Anti-War Groups on

Words: 1819 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3039039

Neoliberalism is both an ideology and philosophy which believes that "human welfare is best promoted by economic growth, which in turn is best enabled by reducing the interference of governments in the private sector. Neo-liberals also support measures that enable trade and finance to have unrestricted movement across national borders. These policies attempt to 'roll back' the state and the role of government, and leave decisions about allocation, production and distribution in the economy to the global market thereby excluding or limiting government measures that restrict or redistribute the wealth of individuals" (faxed material3, par. 18).

These ideas were materialized through the policies of liberalization, privatization, and deregulation.

Liberalization, or trade liberalization to be more exact, is of course at the heart of free trade. This policy acts towards the removal of government restrictions on goods that are imported and exported. It also refers to the liberalization of financial capital. Privatization, on the other hand, refers to the selling of government-owned institutions or state assets, which unfortunately is equated to the contracting out of public services to the hands of the private individuals. Lastly, is the policy of deregulation -- this policy works against political inferences or intervention of market…… [Read More]


Faxed material 1

Faxed material 2

Faxed material 3

George Mason University Website (2009). Marxist Origins of Communism, II. Retrieved from on March
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Corrections Current Trends Innovations and

Words: 3072 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52475571


To date, there has been a great deal of reluctance to adopt a harm reduction approach in the United States for two fundamental reasons:

The first reason stems from the argument that if harm were reduced for users the result would be an increase in the prevalence of drug use and, therefore, increased harm to society in terms of health care costs and violent crime. Those taking this position present as supporting evidence the fact that improved automobile safety features have led to increased speeding by drivers. In addition, it has been suggested that because drug users are risk takers to begin with, they may increase use or risky behavior to compensate for the harm reduction assumptions that substance use is part of the human condition.

The second reason is based on concerns about "sending the wrong message." If harm reduction were implemented, it might be interpreted as condoning drug use. The fear is that harm reduction would lead to new users and undermine efforts to engage current users in trying to achieve abstinence (Brocato & Wagner, 2003).

Future Trends and Innovations in Privatization, Parole and Probation, Community Corrections and Overcrowding.

In a market economy, privatizing governmental operation just…… [Read More]


About CCA. (2008). Corrections Corporation of America. [Online]. Available:

Brocato, J. & Wagner, E.F. (2003). Harm reduction: A social work practice model and social justice agenda. Health and Social Work, 28(2), 117.

Camp, S.D. And Daggett, D.M. (2005). Evaluation of the Taft Demonstration Project: Performance of a private-sector prison and the BOP. Federal Bureau of Prisons. [Online]. Available:

CCA. (2008). Corrections Corp. Of America (CXW). [Online]. Available: .