Privatization Essays (Examples)

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Governmental Services Privatized

Words: 758 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8532034

Privatization of Governmental Services

Privatization of government services

There has been a growing trend towards the privatization of governmental services in the world today. Privatization of government services refers to the handing over of public functions to companies that are privately owned. This paper will examine some of the benefits and detriments of privatization. I will give my position on the topic and give reasons why I take this position.

Benefits of privatization

The privatization of government services is beneficial in various ways. The government is not capable of providing all services to all its citizens. This is because the government might lack some expertise that is necessary to perform different functions. Most of the private companies have all the relevant expertise required to effectively provide various services to the public. This means privatization of government services will provide an opportunity to private companies to use their resources and tools…… [Read More]


Nichols, R. (2010). The Pros and Cons of Privatizing Government Functions. Retrieved September, 25 2014 from
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Ethics Corporate Governance and Company Social Responsibility

Words: 1917 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67756532

Ethics, Corporate Governance and Company Social esponsibility

OCED state-owned enterprises and Privatized companies

In the past few decades, emerging economies have launched ambitious plans to privatize their state owned enterprises (SOEs). The volume of privatization in emerging economies has increased from $8 billion in 1990 to about $65 billion in 1997 (Dharwadkar, George, & Brandes, 2000). In privatization, ownership is transferred from the state to new private and public owners, which may include management, employees, local individuals, institutions, and foreign investors, with the state also retaining a certain percentage of ownership after privatization. The new diversified ownership structure after privatization makes corporate governance an important issue in emerging economies (ajagopalan and Zhang, 2008).

On the one hand, the new ownership structure creates the traditional principal agency problem whereby self-interested executives aim to maximize their private interests rather than the owners' interests. To address this problem, it is necessary to design…… [Read More]


Aman, H. And Nguyen, P. (2008). Do stock prices re-ect the corporate governance quality of Japanese "rms" Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 22(4), 647 -- 662.

Buchanan, J. And Deakin, S. (2007). Japan's paradoxical response to the new "Global Standard" in corporate governance. Accessed on October 12, 2011 from

Dharwadkar, R., George, G., & Brandes, P. (2000). Privatization in emerging economies: An agency theory perspective. Academy of Management Review, 25(3), 650-669.

Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs. (2005). Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises: OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises. Accessed on October 14, 2011 from:
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Browne and S Keeley What

Words: 2535 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53355021

Among these statements include:

1. "We must oppose this action now, or we do a disservice to our members and will regret it later."

2. "I had lunch the other day with a group of members, and everyone was in agreement that if you opposed this measure, they would vote for you…. This will set the stage for your re-election next year at the end of your present term." The lace of threat of a negative consequence for the decision maker is also palpable in this statement, as it appeals to self-preservation.

3. "I speak for truth and common sense…" is also a shot at arguing based on the fallacy of glittering generality.

While statistics are used to support the arguments, questionable authority on the matter are used such as the case of the brother-in-law, who has not demonstrated as an expert on the issue at hand, and Wikipedia, which…… [Read More]


Browne, M. And S. Keeley. (2007). Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to Critical Thinking. NJ: Prentice Hall.

O' Connor, B. (2004). A Brief history of anti-Americanism: From cultural criticism to terrorism. Australasian Journal of American Studies, 77-92.

Hollander, P. (2002). The Politics of Envy. The New Criterion. Retrieved from

Taibl, P. (1997). Outsourcing and privatization of defense infrastructure. Business Executives for National Security.
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Outsourcing Corrections Facilities

Words: 1966 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65070197

industrialized nation in the world has a higher percentage of its population residing in its prison than the United States (Liptak). This fact has witnessed a corresponding increase in the cost of housing and caring for the incarcerated which has correspondingly raised the public concerns for these costs. This combination has spurred conversation relative to how to address both issues and one of the methods suggested is the possible privatization of the corrections system.

The advantages and disadvantages of privatization have been debated for years and many view privatization as new and unique method for managing the corrections system; however, privatization has a long history in the United States (Perrone). Private management of prisons has been attempted at several points in America's history but was actually abandoned during the early years of the twentieth century. One of the primary reasons for its being abandoned was the Convict Leasing System that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Liptak, Adam. "U.S. prison population dwarfs that of other nations." New York Times 23 April 2008: A1.

Morris, John C. "Government and Market Pathologies of Privatization: The Case of Prison Privatization." Politics & Policy (2007): 318-341.

Nicholson-Crotty, Sean. "The Politics and Adminstration of Privatization: Contracting Out for Corrections Management in the United States." Policy Studies Journal (2004): 41-57.

Perrone, Dina. "Comparing the Quality of Confinement and Cost-Effectiveness of Public vs. Private Prisons: What We Know, Why We Do Not Know More, and Where to Go From Here." The Prison Journal (2003): 301-322.
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Argentina Crisis the Argentine Crisis

Words: 2673 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56315423

S. dollars.

Although the plan had its share of supporters, it failed to be implemented because of the lack of political support. As a consequence, odriguez Saa resigned, and was followed by Eduardo Duhalde.

Factors Contributing to the Crisis

The crisis that affected Argentina was due to a combination of factors. Also, some of the factors that determined the crisis have their roots in the previous decades, increasing their effects and combining them with the effects of newer events that were not efficiently managed.

One of the most important causes that determined the crisis is represented by the political factor. The military dictatorship that ruled the country decades before the crisis has had its significant negative impact on Argentina's economic, social, and political evolution. The public management system developed and implemented by the dictatorship has taken the country off track of a country's normal evolution towards economic development in accordance…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Argentina (2009). Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Retrieved November 17, 2009 from publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html.

2. Lischinsky, B. (2003). The Puzzle of Argentina's Debt Problem: Virtual Dollar Creation? FONDAD. Retrieved November 18, 2009 from .

3. Alonso, V. (2004). Ten Years of Privatization Made Argentina's Crisis Worse. Albion Monitor. Retrieved November 18, 2009 from .

4. Evans, L. (2003). The Crisis in Argentina. UCLA International Institute. Retrieved November 18, 2009 from
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Criminal Justice Ethics in Criminal

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 942770

Of course, other significant capacities and abilities, including emotion directive skills and compassion toward oneself and other people are also essential to conquer routine patterns developed to handle with unwanted experiences and emotions (Hopper, 2011).

Being aware of one's surroundings not only physical but emotional as well can help a person to live a very healthy life. It is important in one's personal life to be mindful of their physical surroundings so that they can protect themselves from harm. If one just goes around unaware of what is going on around them they will for sure end up in a situation that is not where they want to be. It is also important to be mindful of one's emotional surroundings so that one does not become out of touch with reality and thus find themselves in situations that they don't belong.

In one's professional life it is also important to…… [Read More]


Hopper, Jim. (2011). Mindfulness and Kindness Inner Sources of Freedom and Happiness.

Retrieved from 

What is the privatization of probation and parole services? (2010). Retrieved from
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Financial Markets in Their Seminal 1989 Work

Words: 1835 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7273689

Financial Markets

In their seminal 1989 work, Kopcke and Rosengren posed the question "are the distinctions between debt and equity disappearing?" They noted several challenges to the historical distinction between the two, including new instruments that combined elements of each (e.g. preferred shares, warrants, mezzanine financing) and an increased use in derivative securities. They noted that debt instruments were beginning to incorporate equity-like features, in response to market demand for such innovative forms of financing. The authors also note that in the U.S. At least the tax code and regulatory environment was not keeping up with the changes, contributing to the proliferation of hybrid securities. On closer examination, however, none of these changes indicates a fundamental change in the nature of debt or the nature of equity, simply a change in market preferences. Hybrids have not eliminated or even materially altered debt or equity, they have simply offered the market…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Damodar, A. (no date). Chapter 7: Capital structure: Overview of the financing decision. Stern School of Management. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from 

Grout, P., Jenkins, A. & Zalewska, A. (2001). Privatisation of utilities and the asset value problem. CMPO Working Paper Series No. 01/41. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from

Hawkins, N. (2010). Privatization revisited. Adam Smith Research Trust. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from

Kopcke, R. & Rosengren, E. (1989). Are the distinctions between debt and equity disappearing? An overview. Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from
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Managing Out the Public Sector in the Community Australia

Words: 1879 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2106732

Managing Out -- the Public Sector in the Community

Two major economic positions have dominated the public sector for more than a decade. One side believes that the government should take primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens, while the other contends that greater reliance on the private sector is the method by which an economy can be more effectively managed. The first idea has largely been gleaned from the works of Keynes. He was an economist who believed that government intervention was required to maintain a stable economy and that the state was better equipped to be the central figure in economic management because it has a duty to the citizens which the private sector does not (Pressman, 2011). The counter to this politically liberal position is that of Frederich Hayek. He believed that free markets were the best regulators of the economy ( Griffiths, 2007) and that…… [Read More]


Bhatti, Y., Olsen, A.L., & Pedersen, L.H. (2009). The effects of administrative professionals on contracting out. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 22(1), 121-137.

Broughton, C., & Chalmers, J. (2001). Reconsidering the revolution? Australian public sector administration in 2000. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 60(1), 81-88.

Caldwell, B. (2011). Hayek on socialism and on the welfare state: A comment on Farrant and McPhail's "Does F.A. Hayek's Road to Serfdom deserve to make a comeback?" Challenge, 54(1), 82-97.

Davis, G., & Wood, T. (1998). Is there a future for contracting in the Australian public sector? Australian Journal of Public Administration, 57(4), 85-97.
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UK Healthcare

Words: 9250 Length: 36 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11726267

UK Healthcare

Within this section of Chapter One, a historical perspective of NHS will be provided. This discussion will identify problem areas that have emerged in relation to NHS with an attempt made to address the manner in which such problems have historically influenced reform efforts.

With the passage and associated provisions of the NHS Act of 1946, NHS was implemented in the UK in 1948. The NHS Act of 1946 served as the means by which a pattern of health service finance and provision was established in the UK following World War II (Baggot, 1998). According to Baggot, on the basis of the Act, the principle of collective responsibility by the state for the establishment of a comprehensive health service system was introduced, allowing for the planned use of services by the entire population at no cost. It was also intended that equality of access to services would be…… [Read More]


Baggott, R. (1998). Health and Health Care in Britain. London, Macmillan,

Barlow, M. (1998). The Fight of My Life. Toronto: Harper Collins

BMA Central Consultants and Specialists Committee (1990). Guidance on Clinical

Directorates London: BMA.
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Infrastructure Is the Foundation of a Healthy

Words: 1513 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60389951

Infrastructure is the foundation of a healthy economy and an equitable society. The World Bank's Policy Research Report on Reforming Infrastructure: Privatization, Regulation, and Competition evaluates infrastructure issues in several major sectors: telecommunications, electricity, transportation, and water. Within these infrastructural areas, the report addresses topics related to privatization, state ownership, competition, and regulation. Finally, the report incorporates social and economic concerns into proposed policy reforms. Both privatization and state control of infrastructures present problems that can be addressed with wise and research-based reform.

Chapter One of the World Bank Policy Research Report on Reforming Infrastructure focuses on network utilities. Not limited to telecommunications alone, a networking infrastructure entails all that is necessary for businesses to compete in the global marketplace. Economic development depends on the creation and maintenance of an effective, reliable, and accessible network infrastructure.

Network infrastructure is a "natural target for government intervention" and yet is "difficult to…… [Read More]

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Organization Behavior Economic Business Policy

Words: 2511 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38238921

Both these techniques have an inverse relationship with each other. If the Government chooses to make its operations more efficient, it will be able to utilize the same level of capacity efficiently and increase the level of production. On the other hand, it can make more investments to increase the capacity so that the current and projected demand can be met effectively (Landskroner 2001).

The best way to manage the demand and capacity is to get the maximum output from the minimum amount of inputs. But if the Government increases the capacity and does not bring efficiency in its operations, a significant portion of its available capacity will go in vein. Similarly, if it wants to control the level of demand in the market, it will have to introduce new alternative products for the consumers so that they switch to those products. However, this step requires a considerable time and…… [Read More]


Connolly, S., & Munro a., 1999, Economics of the Public Sector. Harlow: Pearson Education

Graham, L., 2008, Internal controls: guidance for private, government, and nonprofit entities. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons

Hull, M., 2012, Network Utility Economics: A Basic Text. U.K: John Wiley

Landskroner, R.A., 2001, the nonprofit manager's resource directory. 2nd Edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons
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Crisis Humanity Has Not Yet

Words: 1271 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34864277

e. An amount that is about 1% of GDP) to ensure that the current PAYGO system is solvent for the next 75 years. Thus, 10 trillion dollars problem is not as large and scary if we start acting today to fix the current system).

It is totally manageable."

ut the official plan is somewhat different. ush's administration is trying to introduce private account systems where a fraction of payroll tax will be transferred to private accounts and managed by the future retirees themselves, thus, giving them chance to invest this money into stocks, which have proven to give on average higher rates of return than the Treasury ills which generate rather moderate income.

The opponents of this idea state that this is just a shell-game, where no capital is accumulated and investments are not increased. The overall national capital is not increased, but this plan will cause enormous transactions costs…… [Read More]


1) Kinnan, Chris Trustees Report: Social Security Collapse Quickening, 2004 available on web:

2) Allen, Mike Semantics shape social security debate, Article the Washington Post. Washington, D.C. Jan 23, a. 04

3) Roubini, Nouriel Social Security Privatization as the Mother of All Con-Man Smoke-and-Mirrors Shell-Games, available on web:
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Public Opinion Polling and Social

Words: 2064 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28296505

Understanding the essential importance of rights, the republican decision would not want to deprive either group of their naturally endowed rights, and would, therefore, consider the opinion of both when making the decision. In this scenario, the president must look at the results of both polls and the circumstances that would make them unreliable, considering all of these things carefully before making a decision. urther, as a trustee, the president would understand that the future of social security is immensely important for those who are under the age of 65, as when they reach the age of retirement, there will be little left to help them with their cost of living expenses. urther, having access to greater research than the public, the president understands the true problems in the system and the expenses that would be too great for the individual to pay if social security were to fail. Thus,…… [Read More]

Finally, the president can also make the elitist decision and consider only the opinion of those who are well-informed. Because determining who exactly is well informed and their opinions would be a difficult and less than democratic task, the president must act as a trustee, considering his or her own information instead of the information of the so-called elites.

Thus, it is the republican decision that is the most accurate in this situation. It is important for the president to consider both views, those of the majority and the minority, while comparing those views to the president's vision for the country in the future. When this is done, the president must make the decision to uphold bill, not because of public opinion polling, but because of the country's needs. Of course if the majority had been in favor of keeping the system the way it is currently, the president would have had to weigh this information with his or her decision. Still, the minority's rights are not completely violated, as the president must inform them, particularly because the privatization will most likely not occur for them, but for the younger generations who want it. It is the trustee's obligation to protect these people from the problems associated with a failed social security system. Without social security, it is the young people who will not be able to afford to pay for their medication, which may lead to both disability and death. Further, these young people may know that without social security, they will not be able to retire. Because of the vast degree of social security problems and the extreme circumstances that the majority will face if the bill is vetoed, it must be upheld.

Thus, public opinion polling is an inaccurate measure that results in humorous gaffs like that shared between Truman and Dewey in 1948. While they are vastly inaccurate, they still give a representation of the public view. Still, they cannot be used, solely, to make decisions regarding to public policy, as the public is vastly uninformed and often discounts the opinion of the minority.
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Social Security a Proposal to Change the

Words: 1246 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35245392

Social Security

A proposal to change the program

educing Benefits: This can be done in various ways. Monthly benefits can be reduced by minimizing cost of living adjustments or by minimizing the primary insurance amount (PIA) for a certain average indexed monthly earnings (AIME). Other proposals include targeting reductions towards high-income retirees. Benefits can also be reduced by increasing the retirement age or imposing full taxes on social security benefits. These benefit reduction proposals are some of the simplest and cheapest to implement. If future clients expect lower benefits, they are expected to save more or work longer; all of which will have a positive effect on the economy (Midgley, 2006).

Complete privatization: one of the radical proposals is to erase the social security system and encourage individuals to save in their accounts held by private investment companies. Owners of accounts will have great discretion over their decision of investment…… [Read More]


Brown, J., Liebman, J., & Wise, D. (2009). Social Security Policy in a Changing Environment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Cross, T.E. (2010). Social security: Capital markets & educational issues associated with individual accounts. S.l.: Diane Pub Co.

Midgley, J. (2006). Challenges to social security: An international exploration. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Auburn House.
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Criminal Justice Service Contracts With

Words: 1233 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41762333

However, in order to establish a private facility the consent of state legislature is required. Once a state makes the decision for allowing establishment of a private for-profit prison then corporations are asked to participate in bidding by submitting their proposals. The highest bidder offering better services is awarded the contract. Many states attach certain conditions such as maintenance and provision of educational and rehabilitation services before actually awarding the contract. After awarding the contract government exercises the right of monitoring and accountability by means of thorough inspections, interviews, observations, hearings, and meetings. For example, in the state of Florida there is a legal requirement that such prison facilities can be inspected at least once annually. Some argue that annual and semi-annual inspections are not enough and full-time government monitoring is required but this too may have issues of costs and corruption. To counter this some private firms have taken…… [Read More]


Campbell, A., Coyle, A., & Neufeld, R. (2003). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization & Human Rights. Clarity Press. Atlanta.

Gandy, J. & Hurl, L. (1987). Private Sector Involvement in Prison Industries: Options and Issues. Canadian Journal of Criminology. Volume: 29. Issue: 2.
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Performance Measurement

Words: 1217 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93654495

Quality Performance Measurement

Public Evaluation Program

In this paper, we are going to be conducting a literature review of public evaluation programs. During the process, there is a focus on misunderstanding the needs of stakeholders and the programs / reforms. Together, these elements will illustrate the overall scope of what is taking place and the long-term effects it is having on everyone.

Misunderstanding the Needs of the Public

One of the biggest challenges with any public performance evaluation is the misuse of data. This is problematic, as officials believe they are effectively delivering a variety of services for a fraction of the costs. Yet, in reality, the lack of competition invites bloated salaries and inefficiency. Administrators will try to correct the situation, through looking at a variety of sources to understand what is happen. They are unable, to gain greater insights, as politics and changing attitudes influence the outcome of…… [Read More]


Cheezum, R. (2013). Building Community Capacity. Journal of Community Practice, 21 (3), 228 -- 247.

Rondileni, D. (2003). Reinventing Government for the 21st Century. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.

Sirianni, C. (2009). Investing in Democracy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Stipack, B. (1979). Citizen Satisfaction with Urban Services. Public Administration Review, 39 (1), 46 -- 52.
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Company or Organization Preferably the

Words: 5736 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77120086

The exponential growth of the Internet has also served as the catalyst for the growth of highly collaborative, interactive forums and platforms on which Delphi-like brainstorming can be accomplished (Decker, Wagner, Scholz, 2005). Conversely many of the external relationships companies have and that are essential to understanding how the strategic planning process will impact an organization lend themselves to quantification. An example of this level of quantification of external factors is the use of frameworks for evaluating the performance of supply chains over time, a process area that can be highly quantified through the use of maturity models and measurements of performance over time (Gilmour, 1999). Both of these extremes, qualitative data analysis through the use of techniques including writing of scenarios, brainstorming and the Delphi technique to the extremely quantitative, both require organizations to have a fairly high level of interprocess maturity and development to be able to manage…… [Read More]


Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.

Reinhold Decker, Ralf Wagner, Soren W. Scholz. (2005). An internet-based approach to environmental scanning in marketing planning. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 23(2/3), 189-199.

Qi Fei, David L. Olson. (2007). Web services composition strategy in enterprise systems. Human Systems Management, 26(1), 53.

B. Johansson, F. Sudzina. (2008). ERP systems and open source: an initial review and some implications for SMEs. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 21(6), 649-658.
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China Management as China's Economy

Words: 2298 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40260024

State Domination and Financial Markets

The Chinese government has characterized its involvement in economic development as "serving rather than supervising the private economy" since 2008 (Xinhua, 2009). ith this shift in focus a number of changes to Chinese management can be expected. The paternalistic approach will remain, as it is part of Chinese culture, but there will be further estern influences, particularly with respect to the desire outcomes of management behavior.

In their efforts to serve business, the Chinese government will inevitably work harder to attract foreign investment and to allow business to set the terms by which they can seek investors. This will shift the desired outcomes of management behavior towards those sought by a wider range of investors, both domestic and foreign. Asia Aluminum provides an example of this, as foreign investor outcry over the bond scandal forced the company to consider other options. Management at that point…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Gang, Fan. (2005). China is a Private Sector Economy. Business Week. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from

Zhu, Cherrie Jiuhua. (2005). Human Resource Management in China. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from

Green, Stephen. (2003). 'Two-thirds privatization': How China's listed companies are -- finally -- privatizing. Royal Institute of International Affairs. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from

Foley, John & Beales, Richard. (2009). A Hard Lesson for Foreign Investors in China. New York Times. Retrieved June 8, 2009 from
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Blue Gold

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17966555

Blue Gold

Blue is the new black, according to the filmmakers of Blue Gold. Blue Gold is a documentary about how water is becoming a scarce commodity, and that it will become the reason for wars in the future unless something critical is done about it on political, economic, and public policy levels. This is an important film, because the issues impact all persons on the planet. ich or poor, male or female, black, white, or brown, water is necessary to sustain life. Without water, human beings die. The problem is that water management issues are embroiled in serious entanglements. Water that should be used for drinking is diverted to use in big agribusiness sectors, which are themselves problematic for their inhumane and polluting practices. Similarly, water that should be used for drinking is being diverted for use in manufacturing sectors. While human beings do need both manufacturing and farming…… [Read More]


Bozzo, Sam. Blue Gold. Feature Film. Retrieved online:
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Airports Globalization Has Impacted the

Words: 1619 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35572058

They compete with each other for business, seek to build both aviation and non-aviation revenue streams and they must also deal with enhanced security requirements. This places significant pressure on the airport sector. The response within the sector has been twofold. Some airports have become privatized, which allows major airport operators to utilize their expertise across a range of markets. The other solution is the development of public airports that serve as branches of their governments, attracting passengers and investment to the region. Both types of airports have strong, multifaceted strategic mandates and are among the vanguard of modern air transportation.

orks Cited:

Babu, V., Batta, R. & Lin, L. (2004). Passenger grouping under constant threat probability in an airport security system. European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 168 (2) 633-644.

Barnard, B. (2010). Global air cargo revenue grows 40%. The Journal of Commerce. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Babu, V., Batta, R. & Lin, L. (2004). Passenger grouping under constant threat probability in an airport security system. European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 168 (2) 633-644.

Barnard, B. (2010). Global air cargo revenue grows 40%. The Journal of Commerce. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from

Cidell, J. (2004). Scales of airport expansion: Globalization, regionalization and local land use. Center for Transportation Studies. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from

Frost & Sullivan. (2010). 16th APSA International Conference Airport Security Market Overview. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from
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Entrpreneurial at One Point or

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34267761

The disadvantage relies however in a reduced stability of the job, as the private company, unlike the state, can go out of business. A final disadvantage of a private company is that it loses its impartiality and follows its own agenda; the advantage however materializes in increased levels of profitability (Blurtit, 2007).

The nature of for profit or not for profit organization has constituted a matter of debate for years now and even more so today, when more and more NPOs change their status into for profit entities. The reasons behind this decision are based on the advantages that for profit organizations offer. The most prominent one, and the main generator of the modification, is that they allow stakeholders to take part in the distribution of the profits and as such register financial gains, whilst NPOs force the earnings to remain integrant for future projects. Also, businesses can issue equity…… [Read More]


Fritz, J., 2009, How Does a Nonprofit Differ from a Business?, last accessed on May 27, 2009

Tracy, B., November 21, 2005, Seven Keys to Growing Your Business, Entrepreneur

2007, What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Privatization-Blurtit, last accessed on May 27, 2009
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China and the WTO -

Words: 1024 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20959796

This was another blow for the local markets as the SOEs formed the crux of all Chinese businesses. The privatization of this sector was initiated in 1995 when the government kept the big profit-making SOEs and discarded the smaller SOEs, yet the government was forced to hand over the market share that these big SOEs had after joining WTO and eventually hand the complete control of the SOEs to the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC) to distribute and allocate the shares which resulted in a dramatic drop of the total SOEs form 118,000 (1995) to 34,000 (current). This figure still includes some of the biggest and the core industries like those of energy, basic necessities, cement, etc. And there are many Chinese analysts who still believe that the role of the SOEs and the state can never be completely eliminated.

One of the main criticisms that the Chinese…… [Read More]


Richard H.K. Vietor, Julia Galef. China and the WTO: What Price Membership? 2006.

Oi, J., Bebenek, C. And Spar, D.L. China: Building "Capitalism with Socialist Characteristics." 2006.
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Blackwater the Private Contractor Dilemma

Words: 3059 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67030567

Vermont's Junior Senator, Bernard Sanders introduced to the Senate the Stop Outsourcing Security Act S. 2398. The Stop Outsourcing Security Act will help solve the lack of oversight of contractors in Iraq by requiring that by June 2008, "the President shall submit to each specified congressional committee a report on the status of planning for the transition away from the use of private contractors for mission critical or emergency essential functions by January 1, 2009, in all conflict zones in which Congress has authorized the use of force" (s 2398). This bill will examine contractor activities and ensure that renewals will only happen if the president certifies that contractors have undergone background checks and are clear of any crimes that could lead to additional problems with their work in the future. It will also allow congress to have access to information of private military companies including, the number of persons…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Addicott, Jeffrey F. "Contractors on the "Battlefield": Providing Adequate Protection, Anti-Terrorism Training, and Personnel Recovery for Civilian Contractors Accompanying the Military in Combat and Contingency Operations." Houston Journal of International Law 28.2 (2006): 323. Questia. 16 July 2008

Broder, John M. "Report critical of guard firm; Blackwater sought to cover up Iraq shootings, study finds." 3 October 2007: 4. Lexis Nexis 13 June 2008.

Greenwald, Robert "Iraq for Sale" (Documentary Film) 2005 Information Website: 

Krugman, Paul. "Hired Gun Fetish." The New York Times. A29. 28 September 2007. Proquest. 5 July 2008.
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Private Military Companies Iraq Illustrate a Trend

Words: 3262 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96504220

private military companies Iraq illustrate a trend warfare? -No, Historical reasons great empires employed a large number mercenaries.-What reasons, -Type firms, divided types- type spear

Private military companies

Today's society is more challenging and dynamic than it has ever been. And this trend is manifested within the military sector as well. Here, the employees in the division have to be better motivated in order to risk their lives and this motivation has to be complex, and include both financial and non-financial incentives. While the major non-financial incentive would be the sense of fighting to protect one's country, the financial incentive has to be substantial and significantly larger than that of any other category of employees.

The modern day army then integrates technologic developments to improve the nature and outcome of its operations. It as such strives to answer the more and more complex demands of the contemporaneous society and, in…… [Read More]


Adebajo, A., Sriram, C.L., 2000, Messiahs or mercenaries? The future of international private military services, International Peacekeeping, Vol. 7, No. 4

Avant, D., 2006, Private military companies and the future of war, Foreign Policy Research Institute, last accessed on May 27, 2011

Beutel, M.D., 2005, Private military companies: their emergence, importance and a call for global regulation, Northwich University, last accessed on May 27, 2011

Carafano, J.J., 2008, Private sector, public wars: contractors in combat-- Afghanistan, Iraq, and future conflicts, Greenwood Publishing, ISBN 0275994783
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Social Welfare Policy

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92080395

absolute measure" of poverty is not an accurate measure of policy in the United States. The "absolute measure" is based on the threshold below which any family is unable to meet basic needs for living, or those having not enough income for food, shelter and clothing. The thresholds are generally based on the economy food plan, since it was determined that families spend one third of their after tax income on food, or are adjusted based on changes to the Consumer Price Index. However, this method is not realistic in terms of modern society. The "absolute method" does not account for income such as food stamps, school lunches, or public housing, nor does it account for income expenses such as taxes, child support payments, medical costs, health insurance premiums, or child care. The model for poverty in the United States should be adapted to account for disposable income, and use…… [Read More]

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Business Ethics in Chapter 8

Words: 1367 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72556737

In the long run, Machan & Chesher's argument makes sense -- care for the health and safety of company employees and see the company grow more profitable! Care for one's own health and one will be a better employee! However, management does not always take the long-term vision that, 'if I allow my employee to take a day off for the flu, he or she will be more productive upon his or her return, and not infect other employees.' Employees may be told to come in to the office when they are sick or else they will be fired. Thus, they risk their own health or the health of others, to make a quick return on the corporation's investment in an employee. Also, an adolescent or even a twenty-year-old on his or her first job may have a sense of invincibility, and do imprudent things, like speed to deliver pizzas,…… [Read More]

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Private Security in Project One

Words: 1714 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93055016

These devices can help to ensure customer violence is limited. Additionally, by investing in interpersonal training and dispute resolution courses for employees, companies can help to control coworker violence. Furthermore, the use of EAP (Employee Assistance Programs) for frustrated workers can help to provide some outlet for frustrations, further eliminating the possible problems (Hagan, 2004). Through polite, direct, proper communication, most acts of interpersonal workplace violence can be avoided.


ASIS. (2001). Certification. ASIS International. etrieved September 26, 2007 from ASIS International. Website:

Chapter 498 Oregon Laws. (2001). [Online] etrieved July 10, 2007 from the Oregon State Legislature database. Website:

Cole, D. (2002, September) Trading liberty for security after September 11. FPIF Policy eport. etrieved 8 July, 2007 at

Collins, P.A., icks, T.A., Van Meter, C.W. (2000). Chapter 8: Crime and the threat environment. Principles of security and crime prevention, 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.

Friedman.…… [Read More]


ASIS. (2001). Certification. ASIS International. Retrieved September 26, 2007 from ASIS International. Website:

Chapter 498 Oregon Laws. (2001). [Online] Retrieved July 10, 2007 from the Oregon State Legislature database. Website:

Cole, D. (2002, September) Trading liberty for security after September 11. FPIF Policy Report. Retrieved 8 July, 2007 at

Collins, P.A., Ricks, T.A., Van Meter, C.W. (2000). Chapter 8: Crime and the threat environment. Principles of security and crime prevention, 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
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Public Budgeting There Have Been

Words: 828 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32139250

This demographic understands how investment markets work and is likely to make the smart and responsible choices with these investment funds to ensure that they have a good retirement.

The demographic that is least likely to benefit from such a plan is the demographic at the lower end of the income scale, blue collar workers with less education, minorities, new immigrants, and rural people. These demographics are generally less wealthy to begin with, so they rely more on the Social Security benefits than the demographic that benefits most from having a defined contribution plan for Social Security.

A partially-privatized social security system therefore primarily benefits the type of consumer that is in the best position not to need Social Security at all. Such consumers can use their knowledge of financial markets to enhance their wealth or better protect it. Consumers that are less likely to benefit, having little knowledge of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Ohlemacher, S. (2012). Social security adds to budget deficit. Huffington Post. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from 

Hiltzik, M. (2012). Proposal to privatize Social Security rears its ugly head. LA Times. Retrieved November 28, 2012 from
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Government Ethics

Words: 1944 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64672022


Criminal justice is an inherently ethical profession. The judiciary ostensibly crafts laws that reflect the ethical sensibilities and social norms of the society, which are often embedded in the American Constitution. The role of the criminal justice system is to ensure that local, state, and federal laws are applied and enforced in a manner consistent with constitutional and regional codes. Issues like the equal protection clause are also ethical matters. The core objective of the criminal justice system is built on ethical responsibility: the ethical responsibility of the system to its main stakeholders, which is the American people.

However, there are also ancillary ethical issues associated with criminal justice that are not codified. Such issues are often linked with ambiguities and philosophical complexities. Applying criminal justice ethics entails sensitivity and awareness to prevailing political and social climates. Among the most pressing ethical issues in criminal justice include those related…… [Read More]


American Civil Liberties Union (2012). Racial profiling. Retrieved online:

Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. Sage.

Block, W.E. & Obioha, V. (2012). War on black men: Arguments for the legalization of drugs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 106-120.

Harfield, C. (2012). Police informers and professional ethics. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 73-95
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Is a Bachelor's Degree Worthwhile

Words: 2227 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65129185

Value of a BA Degree

The Value of BA Degrees

Would you say this statement is "True" or "False"? Too many people are going to college these days. Many experts in business say that the statement is true. People once thought that college degrees were the most important advantage that people could attain through their own efforts (uiz 2011). But the situation is changing. A look at employees and entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley underscores a more pessimistic and sobering view of college education (uiz 2011). People who work in technical jobs without the benefit of formal coursework in higher education can be free to follow their interests and creativity (uiz 2011). These new technology experts don't need to get locked into boring corporate jobs that pay well in order to pay off enormous student loan debt burdens (uiz 2011). The cost of higher education keeps rising and there are those…… [Read More]


Baum, Sandy and Kathleen Payea. "The Benefits of Higher Education for Individuals and Society." Trends in Higher Education Series, Revised Edition. 2005.

Edsall, Thomas. "The Reproduction of Privilege." The New York Times. 12 March 2012. < >

Hill, Kent, Dennis Hoffman, and Tom R. Rex. "The Value of Higher Education: Individual and Societal Benefits (With Special Consideration for the State of Arizona). Productivity and Prosperity Project (P3). October 2004. Tempe, Arizona: L. William Seidman Research Institute W.P. Carey School of Business Arizona State University? (2004).

Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment. Economic News Release, Bureau of Labor Statistics. United States Department of Labor. 2 November 2012.
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Latin America in the National Period

Words: 1493 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33223336

Latin America's problems owe a great deal to a tradition of caudillism, personal politics and authoritarianism." It will also give definitions for eight terms associated with Latin American studies: caudillism, liberalism, The Export oom, Neocolonialism, Import Subsidizing Industrialization, ureaucratic Authoritarianism and Privatization.

Latin America currently faces many problems, with diverse causes and manifestations, for example, huge external debts, lack of development in infrastructure, low levels of education for children, and low levels of health care for the population (with concurrent high infant mortality rates and low age expectancies). Many authors (such as Juan Manuel de Rosas, author of Argentine Caudillo, John Reed, author of Insurgent Mexico, and Jacobo Timerman, author of Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number) have argued that Latin America's current problems stem from a period of history (the National period), following independence, during which caudillismo was popular, and personalistic politics and authoritarianism were the rule.…… [Read More]


Encyclopedia Britannica. 2002 DVD-edition for Macintosh.

Williamson, E. (1992). The Penguin History of Latin America.
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Factors Influencing Health Policy

Words: 975 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7466768

Health Policy

government is under pressure to offer quality and affordable health care services to its citizens. Various reform efforts in the country have adopted various approaches with the aim of ensuring that health care system perform well. These strategies include competition in service delivery, downsizing, partnerships, performance indicator and measures, citizen participation privatization and competition. All these approaches have converged in emphasizing accountability as the prime aspect in improving system performance and implementing health reform (Ivanov & Blue, 2007).

The current debate on health systems and accountability reflects a number of factors. Notable is the dissatisfaction with the performance of the health system. In the United States, discontent and debates have focused on these same issues, accompanied by equitable distribution and availability of basic services, corruption, and lack of responsiveness and abuses of power. Citizens and policymakers always expect the health care providers to deliver responsibilities correctly and professionally…… [Read More]


Hinshaw, A.S., & Grady, P.A. (2011). Shaping health policy through nursing research. New York, NY: Springer.

In Mackenbach, J.P., & In McKee, M. (2013). Successes and failures of health policy in Europe: Four decades of divergent trends and converging challenges. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Ivanov, L.L., & Blue, C.L. (2007). Public health nursing: Leadership, policy, & practice. Australia: Delmar Cengage Delmar.

Warwick-Booth, L., Cross, R., & Lowcock, D. (2012). Contemporary health studies: An introduction. Cambridge: Polity Press.
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Venezuelan Banking Sector - Bbva

Words: 2819 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18074344

This would then imply an increased on-the-job satisfaction, generated by a reduction in stress and organizational pressure. The increased satisfaction on the job materializes in increased performances and an increased support in helping the bank reach its overall objectives.

Aside from the direct impacts upon the satisfaction of the customers, the benefits of introducing the newer technological advancements have also resulted in more efficient communications. This was available between company representatives and shareholders, customers, employees, as well as communities.

Future benefits of the investment are also likely to materialize in the following years. As such, the $95 million funds allocated to the modernization of BBVA Banco Provincial would increase the number of customers. It would also imply that the current customer base becomes more loyal, ensuring as such constant and reliable corporate incomes. More specifically, the investments in technology are expected to increase the sector of private loans by 27%…… [Read More]


Bakos, J.Y., Treacy, M.E., June 1986, Information Technology and Corporate Strategy: A Research Perspective, MIS Quarterly, pp. 107-119

Fuentes, H., Grifell-Tatje, E., Perelman, S., November 27, 2005, Product Specialization, Efficiency and Productivity Change in the Spanish Insurance Industry, Ecole de Gestion de'l Universite de Liege

March 11, 2008, Fitch Special Report: Venezuelan Banking Sector Expands, Faces Challenges, Business Wire, New York

April 25, 2008, Venezuela Commercial Banking Report Q1 2008, Business Wire, Dublin
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Income Inequality Even Though the

Words: 711 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86767825

Having a free market economy is one of the things that makes growth possible, although there is also inherent risk in it. More than one company can offer services, and the competition of more than one or two companies will help to keep services competitive and prices low. Competition, however, can also have its problems. ecause of the way that some products are packaged and structured, and the multiple steps that are needed between the beginning product and the consumer, there are several areas where competition can become a problem and individual companies can get too much of the market share, thereby causing a problem for others who may want to get involved in the same type of service (Preston, 2001).

Despite these issues for the economy and the free market, having the government operate something has not always gone well, either. Social security is an example of this. It…… [Read More]


Ferrara, Peter J. & Tanner, Michael D. (1998). A New Deal for Social Security. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute.

Preston, P. (2001). Reshaping Communications. Sage Publications.
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Hilsenrath Suggests That There Are Several Inferences

Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55791081

Hilsenrath, suggests that there are several inferences, which can be drawn from the growing view that poorly informed investors can make markets less efficient than suggested by the "free market" theories of the 1980s. According to the author, the first major implication is that behaviorist theories were now gaining wider acceptance in mainstream economics. Second, the fact that investors can be irrational implies that governments may have to re-evaluate issues such as market regulation and Social Security privatization. Third, if markets are sometimes inefficient, corporations would now have to rethink the way they judge management performance and compensation so that executives become less focused on stock price movements. Fourth, the fact that irrational investor behavior can lead markets astray does not, however, mean that the global emphasis on free markets and open economies will be reversed. For, all it really signifies is that the efficient market theory does not hold…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hilsenrath, J. "As Two Economists Debate Markets, The Tide Shifts." The Wall Street

Journal. New York: October 18, 2004, p. A1.
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Healthcare Addressing the Issue of

Words: 8204 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34819035

Stated to be barriers in the current environment and responsible for the reporting that is inadequate in relation to medical errors are:

Lack of a common understanding about errors among health care professionals

Physicians generally think of errors as individual that resulted from patient morbidity or mortality.

Physicians report errors in medical records that have in turn been ignored by researchers.

Interestingly errors in medication occur in almost 1 of every 5 doses provided to patients in hospitals. It was stated by Kaushal, et al., (2001) that "the rate of medication errors per 100 admission was 55 in pediatric inpatients. Using their figure, we estimated that the sensitivity of using a keyword search on explicit error reports to detect medication errors in inpatients is about 0.7%. They also reported the 37.4% of medication errors were caused by wrong dose or frequency, which is not far away from our result of…… [Read More]


Discussion Paper on Adverse Event and Error Reporting In Healthcare: Institute for Safe Medication Practices Jan 24, 2000

Patient Safety/Medical Errors Online at the Premiere Inc. page located at:

Medstat / Shortell, S. Assessing the Impact of Continuous Quality Improvement on Clinical Practice: What It Will Take to Accelerate Progress.

Health Policy Monitor (2001) A Publication of the Council of State Governments Vol. 6, No. 1 Winter/Spring 2001 PO18-0101
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Bush Administration Can Be Fully

Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87531451

The most worrying aspect in this case is the fact that the Patriot Act seems to be endangering some of the fundamental liberties of the American individual. The motivation seems simple: the country is at war and, in any such conditions, it is allowed to resort to all means to achieve victory. On the other hand, the fact that certain governmental practices (many of which have probably been going on in the past, but had never been exposed) are now out in the open and even regulated.

The case of the American citizen Yaser Hamdi is quintessential for the application of policies in times of war. Yaser Hamdi was captured in Afghanistan, deemed to be a member of al Qaeda and was categorized as an "enemy combatant." He had been held imprisoned without being charged for almost two years, with no access to attorneys or trials.

His case brings about…… [Read More]


1. Cassel, Elaine. Yaser Hamdi gets a lawyer: he just can't do anything. December 2003. On the Internet at / 

3. Medicare Modernization Act. On the Internet at

4. Turner, Julia; Lithwick, Dahila. A Guide to the Patriot Act, Part 1. On the Internet at
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Punishment Too Much or Not Enough

Words: 1761 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65009203

Punishment: Too Much or Not Enough

The purpose of the punitive measures effected by the criminal justice system has changed over time, especially as that system operates in America. There are several ideological stances to consider in regards to such punishment, which largely incorporate criminal, sociological, and moral viewpoints. The ebbing and swaying of various tenets espoused at different times and with varying popularity have largely resulted in today's criminal justice system in which punishment is largely viewed as a means of retribution. As such, punishment levied upon those convicted of criminal offenses is decidedly lengthy, resulting in a climate in which there appears to be a surfeit of punishment resulting in a system in which authors argue that "we are indeed ill" (ose, no date, p. 978). Certain other factors intrinsically related to the criminal justice system, such as the imminence of plea bargaining and the lucrative business of…… [Read More]


Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. New York: Sage Publications.

Dzur, A.W. (2012). Punishment, Participatory Democracy, and the Jury. New York: Oxford Press.

Miller, D.W. (2010). The drain of public prison systems and the role of privatization: a case study of state correctional systems. Retrieved from

Rose, M. (No date). Book reviews. Law & Society Review.
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Elliot Sclar's Influential Book You

Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32501106

The workers for the private firm are compensated at a level that is barely livable and these workers place a greater burden on the communities' social services.

Sclar's arguments comparing the differences between why privatization works in jobs involving low-skilled and high-skilled jobs merit some consideration and are easily understandable but there are some considerations that Sclar overlooks that should raise some concern as to the validity of his approach. As previously noted, Sclar's basic premise is that the goal of privatization is to reduce costs and that unless costs are lowered privatization has been a failure (Sclar p.63). Using this as a premise, Sclar argues that the overall benefits of privatization are largely negligible but what Sclar fails to consider is the benefits accrued due to true free market conditions existing as a result of true privatization.

Sclar's study and theorizing was done on a model where privatization was…… [Read More]

William L. Megginson and Jeffry M. Netter, From State to Market: A Survey of Empirical Studies on Privatization, Journal of Economic Literature: pp. 321-389 (2001).

Shaker A. Zahra, R. Duane Ireland, Isabel Gutierrez and Michael A. Hitt, Privatization and Entrepreneurial Transformation: Emerging Issues and a Future Research Agenda, The Academy of Management Review: pp. 509-524 (2000).

Critical Book Review
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Privatizing Social Security Social Security Can Be

Words: 1229 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18418877

Privatizing Social Security

Social security can be generally defined as a program that provides social protection or protection against conditions that are socially recognized to workers and their dependents. Such social conditions include old age, poverty, disability, and unemployment. This program is funded by the social security tax.

In most industrialized economies and a good portion of developing countries the postwar period has been spent to dramatically expand the pay-as-you-go social security programs that already existed. Although this expansion has led to a reduction of poverty rates among the elderly, it has as well led to the tremendous redistribution of sums from young and future generations, as a group, to simultaneous older generations, as a group (Altig and Gokhale, p.03). The mechanism that causes the redistribution to the initial elderly is clear. A bonus is received by the generations that are retired or close to retirement when an increment on…… [Read More]


Altig, D., and Gokhale, J., "Social Security Privatization: A Simple Proposal," Working Paper

97-03, 1997. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.

Cooley, T.F., and Soares, J.. "Will Social Security Survive the Baby-Boom?" Carnegie

Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy 45, 89;12. 1996.
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Practitioner Views Concerning the Status of Nigerian Telecommunications

Words: 3890 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68444727

privatization of the telecommunication industry in Nigeria


There is much controversy with regard to the contemporary privatized telecommunication companies. In order to gain a more complex understanding of the topic, one would have to interact with people and observe how they feel with regard to the fact that telecommunication companies are being privatized. By addressing senior managers, government officials, consultants, and academia, the research methodology process aims at providing accurate information regarding the way that specific communities feel toward the fact that capitalism is slowly but surely taking over the telecommunication industry in the country.

Measurement is one of the most important steps in this process, taking into account that, in order for it to be reliable and valid, the researcher needs to have a very good understanding of the concepts he or she is measuring.

In order to achieve best results with the questionnaire…… [Read More]

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Crisis in Canada Are the

Words: 5697 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63405314

In 2000 legislation was presented by Ralph Klein to the legislature, demanding that provinces be permitted to allow private hospitals. That same year, more budget cuts slammed the health systems, when the "Federal udget offers 2 cents for health care for every dollar of tax cuts." (Health Coalition) in 2002 the Romanow Royal Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada was created to investigate the health-care situation in the nation and to foster (and witness) public discussion on the subject. Their report was presented in Ottawa towards the end of the year, and in 2003 some of its suggestions regarding intelligent use of federal funding were implemented. The commission, in general, supported the continuation of universal care. However, the 2003 "Health Accord" did not include any ruling against the use of federal funding contracted out to for-profit institutions (a situation that some critics claim is part of the…… [Read More]


Axworthy, Lloyd & Spiegel, Jerry. "Retaining Canada's health care system as a global public good" Canadian Medical Association Journal, Aug 20,2002; 167 (4), 365-366

Canadian Institute for Health Information. Health Care in Canada.

Canadian Institute for Health Information: Ottawa, 2004.

Choudhry, Sujit. "The Enforcement of the Canada Health Act" McGill Law Journal, vol 41; 462-510
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Privatizing China's Transportation Infrastructure the

Words: 4154 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26281561

Despite these constraints, China does in fact have an impressive transportation infrastructure already, and China's rankings relative to the rest of the world in various transportation infrastructure categories is provided in Table 1 below.

Table 1

Current Status of China's Transportation Infrastructure

Infrastructure Category

Statistics/Current Status

World Rank




77,834 km



3,583,715 km (includes 53,913 km of expressways)



110,000 km navigable


Merchant marine



Ports and terminals

Dalian, Guangzhou, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin (see map at Appendix a)

Source: China, 2010

The network of paved highways and roads that extends throughout China, though, is not the same type of national and unified transportation system that exists in the U.S., Japan and Europe that are characterized by uniform standards and regulatory guidelines and many of the roadways are in bad condition [10]. Notwithstanding the current state of the roadways throughout China,…… [Read More]

Bibliography." The American Journal of Economics and Sociology 65(3):



Tian, R.G. & Wang, C.H. (2010). Encyclopedia of the Nations. Retrieved from http://www.

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To Privatize or Not to Privatize Healthcare in Canada

Words: 2049 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57682397

Healthcare in Canada: To Privatize or Not to Privatize

To Privatize or not to Privatize: Healthcare in Canada

Canada prides itself in one of the most generous healthcare systems in the world. Canadians do not have to rely on their employers for health insurance or to pay out-of-pocket for their medical procedures as the greater part of their healthcare bill is footed by the government. This has had the effect of making the country a rather healthy nation; however, its health comes at a cost. Canada currently spends over 9% of its GDP on healthcare -- the highest amount in the developed world. This proportion can be expected to rise over the coming years as the Baby Boomer population ages. Privatization has been proposed as a possible way of reducing the government's expenditure on healthcare. This text assesses the potential costs and benefits of healthcare privatization.

Open letter to the…… [Read More]


Commission on the Future of Healthcare in Canada. (2002). Sustainability of Canada's Healthcare System. Commission on the Future of Healthcare in Canada. Retrieved December 14, 2015 from

Howard, W. J. (2011). Missing Links: the Effects of Healthcare Privatization on Women in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Prairie Women's Health Center of Excellence. Retrieved December 14, 2015 from

Wilson, DF. (2000). Privatization of the Canadian Healthcare System: Not Yet and Hopefully Never. University of Alberta, Edmonton. Retrieved December 14, 2015 from