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Psychosocial development theory was developed by Erikson and it is the best theory in psychology. He believed that personality progresses are a continuous series of stages. His theory also believes in the influence of social experience across the lifetime. Ego identity is one of Erikson's main elements in psychosocial theory. This is the self-conscious that we develop through the daily social interaction. Everyday's experiences and information in life cause major changes. Erikson also believed that the need for competition motivated behavior and actions in human being. This need for competence builds the ego quality or ego strength. If these stages are not properly handled, the result will be a sense of inadequacy. Erikson described fully the different stages in the psychosocial development expounding on what transpires in each. esearchers have accepted his theory and it has been globally applied both by scholars and researchers.
Psychosocial development holds that the different…
Chmielewski, T.L., Lentz, T.A., Tillman, S.M., Moser, W., Indelicato, A., & George, Z. (2011). Longitudinal Changes in Psychosocial Factors & Their Association with Knee Pain & Function After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Physical Therapy, 91(9), 1355-1366
Chou, T. & Hofmann, S. (2012). Perception of racial discrimination & psychopathology across three U.S. ethnic minority groups Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18(1), 74-81
Clark, J., Sheward, K Marshall, B., & Allan, S. (2012). Staff perceptions on the impact of the Liverpool Care Pathway in aged residential care in New Zealand. International Journal Of Palliative Nursing, 18(4), 171-177
Gurney, B., Randle, A., Granger, C., & Fletcher, J. (2010). 'In time & in tune' -- the fostering attachments group Adoption & Fostering, 34(4), 50-60
How will my career and life goals fit in with the life of another person, whether a loved one, a close friend, or even my family? "Erikson describes intimacy as finding oneself yet losing oneself in another," in friendships and in love relationships ("Erik Erikson and psychosocial development," E-ssortment, 2007). Finding the right balance of intimacy and isolation from others, meeting my own goals but still caring about the needs others still feels like a challenge. I know who I am, but I sometimes find it difficult to make that 'I' fit into the worlds of others I care about, whether it is to strike a good balance between studying and going out with friends, or to show love and caring without putting myself last around loved ones and relatives.
Erik Erikson and psychosocial development." E-ssortment. Retrieved 2 Aug 2007 at t http://www.azaz.essortment.com/psychosocialdev_rijk.htm
Erik Erikson and psychosocial development." E-ssortment. Retrieved 2 Aug 2007 at t http://www.azaz.essortment.com/psychosocialdev_rijk.htm
Crocker, AC (1997) the Impact of Disabling Conditions in Children. Wallace RG, iehl JC, MacQueen, and lackman JA (Eds.), 1997 Mosby's Resource Guide to Children with Disabilities and Chronic Illness. St. Louis: Mosby-Year ook, Inc. 1997.
Evans O, Tew , Laurence KM. The fathers of children with spina bifida. Zeitschrift fur Kinderchirurgie [Surgery in Infancy and Childhood]. 1986;41 Suppl 1:42-44.
Fagan J, Schor D. Mothers of children with spina bifida: factors related to maternal psychosocial functioning. (1993) American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 1993;63:146-152. [
Holmbeck GN, Gorey Ferguson L, Hudson T, Seefeldt T, Shapera W, Turner T, Uhler J. (1997)Maternal, paternal, and marital functioning in families of preadolescents with spina bifida. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1997;22:167-181. [
Kazak AE. Families with disabled children: stress and social networks in three samples. (1987)Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 1987;15:137-146. doi: 10.1007/F00916471. [
Minnesota Title V MCH Needs Assessment Fact Sheets…
Barakat LP, Linney JA. (1992) Children with physical handicaps and their mothers: The interrelation of social support, maternal adjustment, and child adjustment. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 1992;17:725-739. [
Barakat LP, Linney JA. (1994) Optimism, appraisals, and coping in the adjustment of mothers and their children with spina bifida. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 1995;4:303-320.
Crocker, AC (1997) the Impact of Disabling Conditions in Children. Wallace RG, Biehl JC, MacQueen, and Blackman JA (Eds.), 1997 Mosby's Resource Guide to Children with Disabilities and Chronic Illness. St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book, Inc. 1997.
In this regard many studies on ageing concluded that there is a definite correlation between psychosocial factors and both physical and metal health. Stuart-Hamilton, (2006), in the Psychology of Ageing: an Introduction states that "... If an older person has a strong sense of social identity, this may cushion (but not remove) the negative effects of a decline in physical health" (Stuart-Hamilton, 2006, p. 183). However, retirees like Albert who do not have a sense of identity or of social 'belonging' can be subject to a wide range of negative effects. This is also supported by studies which suggest that "...psychosocial factors mediated the impact of illness on the ability of old people's daily living activities" (Stuart-Hamilton, 2006, p. 183).
In conclusion, there is a growing awareness of the psychological and sociological problems that the retired and elderly person faces when he or she retires from the active…
Blazer D. 2002, Self-efficacy and depression in late life: a primary prevention proposal, Aging Mental Health, vol. 6, no.4, pp.315-324.
Brody, J. (1981) PERSONAL HEALTH. [Online] Available at http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE6DD1238F934A15756C0A967948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=all [1Jan 2009].
CHAPTER 3 -- PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES, [Online], Available at http://www.geriatricsreviewsyllabus.org/content/agscontent/social6.htm [1 Jan 2009].
Fry P, and Debats D. 2002, Self-efficacy beliefs as predictors of loneliness and psychological distress in older adults, International Journal Aging Human Development, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 233-269.
Psychosocial Process ecording
Theories thrive in situations where facts are scarce or sparse in human endeavors. Medicine is a field in which such truths are evident. According to Gorman (1990), radical biologists hold the view that all psychiatric complications are caused by brain abnormalities. On the other hand, dogmatic psychologists claim that medical treatment only covers up psychiatric symptoms. They state that psychological treatment gets to the root of the problem (cited in Waldo, 2013).
This case analysis scenario has applied the Bio-psychosocial Model analysis of psychiatry. The approach was made popular by George L. Engelis. The biological element of the bio-psychosocial model seeks to understand how illnesses are due to the functioning of an individual's body. The psychological aspect investigates potential psychologically related causes for illness including lack of self-control, negative thoughts and emotional turmoil. The social element investigates how social factors including how socio economic dynamics, technology, poverty,…
Waldo, A. D. (2013). Process Recording: Case Analysis. School of Nursing. Retrieved 9 November 2016 from https://www.academia.edu/8822397/Sample_Case_Presentation_in_Psychiatric_Nursing_Case_Analysis
The theory does not appear to allow for success in the workplace solely for the sake of workplace success. Instead, it appears to view procreation as the ultimate purpose of human life, with workplace success only a vehicle towards attaining success within the loving family circle.
To these ideas the authors add that the theory does not account for intimacy beyond the heterosexual and indeed beyond the sexual. As such, the theory is fundamentally inadequate to address the entire paradigm of successful adult individuation and attachment. Furthermore, the authors note that the theory is very limited in its connection between the biological and the psychological paradigms of differences between the male and female. While the theory does indeed better address the positive aspects of female development, it does so primarily in terms of the female drive to bear children, which substantiates the feminist view that the theory appears to be…
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…
Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5138/m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf
Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: http://graduate.lclark.edu/departments/counseling_psychology/mental_health/about/
Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson) (2014) Retrieved from: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm
Learning Theory (2014) Princeton University. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Learning_theory_(education).html
Human development refers to the psychological and biological growth of a human being throughout life. It starts from infancy all the way to adulthood. The scientific study of the development of a human being, psychologically, is referred to as Developmental psychology. According to Erik Erikson, there are eight critical stages in the development of a human being in order to become socially and psychologically well adjusted. This renowned psychologist is also credited with the expression identity crisis used to refer, not to the possibility of a catastrophic occurrence but to a critical turning point. Erikson points out that a person is confronted with challenges and experiences at each stage. One has to master all the dynamics at every stage in order to grow to the next one and each stage is successive and based on the completion of the earlier one (Sokol, 2009). This paper focuses on the adolescence and…
Erikson's Theory Of Identity Development
Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development was meant to provide society with a better understanding of the stages that an individual experiences across his or her life. Even with the fact that the first four stages described by Erikson are essential in a person's upbringing, it is only after these stages that he or she actually comes to understand society as a whole and starts to express interest in getting actively involved in the social order. It is actually probable that the first four stages are meant to prepare an individual to accumulate the experience needed for him or her to become a part of society.
The fifth stage provides the individual with the task of achieving "a sense of identity -- both who he or she is and what he or she will be" (Theories of personal development 254). While the individual was accustomed…
Aiken, Lewis R. "Human Development in Adulthood," (Springer, 1998)
"Theories of Personality Development"
This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).
The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…
Fraser, C.; Burchell, B. & Hay, D. (2001). Introducing social psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Heffner. (2003). "Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sexual_development.html
Pelzer, D. (1995). A Child Called it. Omaha: Omaha Press.
Springhouse. (1990). "Piaget's Cognitive Stages.' http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/piaget.htm
He also goes to have lunch with the counselor at least 2 a week.
Assessments of the Student
Some assessments that were used on Marcus were ATMS practices
Some of the other ways that are being used are pullouts with the interventionist so that they could push him back up to speed so that he could have been ready for the major testing that was coming up
Please add any other problem that you think he could possibly have .
The child was able to take be tested in the Task Reading area. (Not good at all will be attending the next session of tutoring so that he could attempt it again)
His reading rate is down also please make up other issues of academic's
Connection to Theory
Make up this info
Make this up I am Hispanic also and I worked with students…
Psychologists, such as Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson, theorize that humans go through stages in their development throughout life, growing from infancy to old age. Piaget outlined stages of thinking, referred to as cognitive development; Erikson described stages of personality, referred to as psychosocial development. How can you use this information to better understand your own life? hat stages of cognitive and psychosocial development have you gone through since you were an infant? hich stages will you encounter during adulthood and old age?
Piaget and Erikson both took a systematic approach to trying to determine what the different stages of human development. However, both individuals used different perspectives and formulated models that were inherently different. Piaget was interested in trying to determine the way children begin to develop various mental capacities to understand things such as numbers, time, causality, justice, etc. and he considered his work to be the realm…
McLeod, S. (2015). Jean Piaget. Retrieved from Simple Psychology: https://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
McLeod, S. (2017). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from Simply Psychology: https://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
Adolescence is an especially critical development stage for any individual. At this stage, individuals not only experience biological changes, but also become more aware of gender roles and expectations and experience cognitive development. Family and school become social incubators that trigger changes and psychosocial responses in adolescents. The film The Breakfast Club shows how a group of five adolescents go through critical changes in this stage of their life. This paper will highlight the developmental markers observed in one character depicted the film, Claire. Clare will be used as a case study to explore developmental issues related to gender, biology, and cognition. The paper also highlights various socialization agents (specifically school and family) and how they impact the individual’s self-concept, identity, and social role.
The Breakfast Club features five teenagers detained all day at Shermer High School. Several developmental markers are evident in the film. One of the markers is…
Piaget’s Stages of Development
Few theorists have had as strong an impact on developmental psychology as Jean Piaget. While the theories of Lev Vygotsky have offered compelling counterpoints to Piaget’s theories, the stages of psychosocial development Piaget proposed remain salient. In fact, it is easy to combine emerging research on childhood development from infancy to adolescence in terms of Piaget’s stages. As Lightfoot, Cole & Cole (2009) point out, evolutionary theories, information processing theories, and systems theories can all be integrated within the staged concept of development that Piaget proposed. Piaget shows how children develop physically, socially, and cognitively. Likewise, theories of childhood development can demonstrate how children develop self-awareness, empathy, and complex use of language. The four main stages of development include the sensorimotor, the preoperational, the concrete operational, and the formal operational. While far from being discreet stages with strong demarcations between them, empirical research in cognitive, behavioral,…
Sexual Child Abuse
Child sexual abuse involves a broad range of sexual behaviors that take place between a child and an older person. These sexual behaviors are planned to erotically stir the older person, commonly without concern for the consequences, choices, or outcome of the behavior upon the child. efinite conducts that are sexually offensive frequently involve bodily contact, such as in the state of sexual kissing, touching, fondling of genitals, and oral, anal, or vaginal contact. Nevertheless, behaviors might be sexually abusive even if they do not entail contact, such as in the case of genital exposure, verbal force for sex, and sexual abuse for purposes of prostitution or pornography.
For efinitions propose four main types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and child neglect), but seldom if ever does one form of abuse happen alone. The suggestion in itself is illogical. Physical abuse and sexual…
Diagnostic and Treatment Guidelines on Mental Health Effects of Family Violence. American Medical Association Web Site.
McClendon, Patricia D. November (1991). MSSW candidate. Incest/sexual abuse of children. Internet. p.23. Available: http://www.clinicalsocialwork.com/incest.html
National Association of Social Worker News. (1997, February). States eye domestic abuse welfare option. NASW News, Volume 42, #7, pp11.
Attachment behaviors and attachment experiences are central to child development, and can have lasting impacts on adult psychology. Attachment refers to a “sustained, developmental...connection,” (Mossler, 2014, 13.1). The attachment process is emotional, but it also serves distinct biological and evolutionary functions in enabling the survival of the species. As Mossler (2014) points out, attachment bonds can be formed between an infant and any adult due to the fact that early humans contended with far greater physical and environmental risks that might leave infants vulnerable should one or both parents perish. Infants experiencing healthy attachments will also evolve a sense of security that is essential for psychological resilience and the reduction of risk for separation anxiety and other attachment-related issues. This paper outlines the different attachment theories provided by Bowlby and Ainsworth, both of which show how attachment experiences are central to the evolution of fundamental social needs, such as trust…
life are in many ways the most exciting, as the newborn develops rapidly into a toddler. Changes in sensorimotor skills, in sheer physical growth, in behavior and brain development, language acquisition, and spiritual formation all comprise some of the key components of life during the first two years. Some of these changes are more noticeable than others. The ones to be most aware of include the following:
Body Changes (Biosocial Development)
Motor Skills Changes (Biosocial Development)
Sensorimotor Changes (Cognitive Development)
Language and Communications Changes (Cognitive Development)
Emotional Changes (Psychosocial Development)
These five are the most crucial areas in the baby's first two years of life because of how these changes will impact biological, psychological, and social development later in life. Many of these changes are plainly visible to the parents. For example, the physical size and body of the child will rapidly change over the two years. Likewise, the baby's…
Berger, K.S. (2009). Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence. 8th Edition. NY: Worth.
Children's Hospital of Richmond at VCU (2015). Fine motor skills: Birth to 2 years. Retrieved online: http://www.chrichmond.org/Resource-Library/Fine-Motor-Skills-Birth-to-2-years.htm
Sales Assistant at Marks and Spencer Section
There is a derivative need to ensure that Marks and Spenser Gifts vendors compete in Europe and America and other sections of the favorites in the clothing and cosmetics distributions. The business is located in the UK, but has a number of retail outlets in major world cities. The corporate organization was operational for the last one decade. The business is currently exploring options in food and beverage industry and thus the direction of social media sales strategy is a remarkable idea.
Some of the social media online platforms include Google blog, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and YouTube. Most people are now using social media for the basic transaction. As a result, there are opportunities to market using social media better than using traditional methods, which are relatively expensive, do not meet the odds of gain. In addition, online marketing constructively differs from traditional…
Agnihotri, Raj., Kothandaraman, Probakar., Kashyap, Rajiv., & Singh, Ramendra., 2012.
Bringing "Social" into Sales: The Impact of Salespeople's Social Media Use on Service Behaviors and Value Creation. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 32(3), 333-348.
Gregory, A., 2000. Problematizing Participation: A Critical Review of Approaches to Participation in Evaluation Theory. Evaluation, 6(2), 179-199.
Safko, Lon., 2013, . The fusion-marketing bible: fuse traditional media, social media, and digital media to maximize marketing. Choice Reviews Online, 50(10), 50-56.
psychosocial smoking cessation interventions for coronary heart disease patients effective?
The association with smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been well documented. To prevent further heart attacks, as well as to preserve their life, smokers have been consistently and strongly advised to quit smoking, and associations such as the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Task Force have drafted recommendations and reams of advice to assist patients in doing so. Nevertheless, many patients diagnosed with CHD continue to smoke despite the possibility of interventions and programs (many of them free) helping them to stop. Mortality can be reduced by as much as 36% if smokers with CHD determine to stop smoking 3-5 years after diagnosed (Critchley, 2003) aside from which dramatic reductions in cardiac attacks have been discovered when smokers have stopped smoking for as short a time as a year (Quist-Paulsen, & Gallefoss, 2003). The Coronary…
Barth, J., Critchley, J., & Benget, J. (2008). Psychosocial interventions for smoking cessations in patients with coronary heart disease, Cochrane Heart Review.
Critchley JA, Capewell S. Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease. J Am Med Ass;290:86 -- 97.
Frothingham, S. et al., (2006). How much does smoking cessation cut CHD risk? Clinical Inquiries, 57, 10, 675-679
Huey-Ling W., Harrell, J & Funk, S (2008). Factors Associated With Smoking Cessation
psychosocial factors on Faba bean yield: Effect of drought on faba bean yield
The Fababean or Vicia faba L. is now being cultivated as a commercial crop and is valuable to the cash crop segments. However the plant has issues with infestations and low yields in case of droughts and parasitic attacks. Many researches in both these aspects have shown that the yields can be increased by careful monitoring of the soil and water process and while excess water is a problem the deficit causes poor yield. The use of genomes and selective breeding shows a way to cultivate the plant successfully in the drought climate too.
Vicia faba of the family Leguminosae is an annual herb with coarse and upright stems; un branched 0.3-2 m tall, with 1 or more hollow stems from the base and is found naturally in the Central Asia, Mediterranean, and South America. (Muehlbauer; Tullu,…
De Costa, W.A.J.M; Dennett, M.D; Ratnaweera, U; Nyalemegbe, K.1999. Effects of different water regimes on field-grown determinate and indeterminate fababean (Vicia faba L.). Canopy growth and biomass production. Field Crops Research, vol. 49, no: 2 -- 3, pp: 83 -- 93.
Loss, S.P; Siddiquea, K.H.M. 1997. Adaptation of fababean (Vicia faba L.) to dryland Mediterranean-type environments I. Seed yield and yield components" Field Crops Research, vol. 52, no: 1 -- 2, pp: 17 -- 28.
Minguez, M.I. Ruiz-Nogueirab, A. B; Saub, F. 1993. Fababean productivity and optimum canopy development under a Mediterranean climate. Field Crops Research, vol. 33, no. 4, pp: 435 -- 447.
Muehlbauer, F.J; Tullu, Abebe. 1997. Vicia faba L. NewCROP FactSHEET. Accessed Online 26 June, 2012 from http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/cropfactsheets/fababean.html
A relatively recent phenomenon in the American family is the increase in young adults living at home. This development changes the conditions of midlife for many parents who expected an empty nest at this stage of their lives (Birren & Schaie, 2001).
elationships between parents and their adult children also are changing at this time because the "children" are now adults so they relate to their parents on a different level. For example, Colleen told me that her oldest son has even shared with her some intimate details about his love life. She said it was almost as if they were two women friends talking about their relationships. Where their conversations used to consist of talk about homework cleaning their rooms, now they talk to each other on a much more even playing field.
Attitudes toward this stage in life are changing as well. The impact of the "empty nest"…
Birren, James E. & Schaie, K.W. (2001) Handbook of the psychology of aging, 5th ed. Academic Press
Erikson, E. (1950), Childhood and Society., New York W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Gould, R.L. (1998). Transformations: Growth and development in adult life. New York: Touchstone Books
Lachman, M.E. (2001) Handbook of midlife development, Wiley & Sons
Academic Outcomes of Children With ADHD
ADHD Literature eview
Improving the Academic Outcomes of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Improving the Academic Outcomes of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2014) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition recognizable by attention deficits, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that manifest across multiple settings. The most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) describes ADHD as consisting of inattention, and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity, severe enough to interfere with day-to-day functioning and development. Common symptoms of inattention include poor listening skills, frequent mistakes, disorganized, avoidance of mentally challenging tasks, distracted, and forgetful. Hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms include fidgeting, inappropriate physical activity, excessive talking, interrupting others, and an inability to play quietly. Children suffering from ADHD would therefore have a difficult time succeeding academically.
If ADHD were rare this would not be a significant…
CDC. (2013). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Data & statistics. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html .
CDC. (2014). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and diagnosis. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/diagnosis.html .
Dang, M.T., Warrington, D., Tung, T., Baker, D., & Pan, R.J. (2007). A school-based approach to early identification and management of students with ADHD. Journal of School Nursing, 23(1), 2-12.
DuPaul, G., & Power, T.J. (2008). Improving school outcomes for students with ADHD: Using the right strategies in the context of the right relationships. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11(5), 519-21.
Old Boy at a Children's Museum Play Area
Soren is a 4-year-old boy. He has light blonde hair that is cut short on the sides and is longer on the top. He is a generally smiley child. He likes to interact with his surroundings and likes to run and hop, crouch and spring into action with a cry of delight as though he were taking great amusement in catching the world by surprise.
He is viewed at a play area in a children's museum. The observation begins just before noon and continues until a quarter past 1 pm.
The play area is very crowded and full of children around his own age, with parents standing nearby watching their children. Most of the children are playing on their own, looking at the environment around them, engaging with the activities (puzzles, blocks, interactive equipment, play sets, scooters, and jungle gym equipment). Soren's…
Mothering and Development
The presence of a sensitive mother throughout a child's developmental period is an essential determinant of healthy growth and maturation. The establishment of a solid social and emotional foundation during a child's formative years can not only aid in preparing one's youngster for life in the outside world, it can also instill a beneficial groundwork in the basic concepts of the self (Cassidy, 1990). In order to achieve such noble maternal goals a good mother needs to possess a plethora of fostering characteristics. The most important of such qualities include love, responsiveness, consistency, an eye to encourage and the ability to provide the child with a sense of security. Successful implementation of the aforementioned traits will allow the child to develop a healthy attachment to the mother. This attachment is most often constructed in the stages of infancy. Through the informative and enlightening work of John owlby…
Caldji, C., Tannenbaum, B., Sharma, S., Francis, D., Plotsky, P.M., & Meaney, M.J. (1998, February 24). Maternal Care During Infancy Regulates the Development of Neural Systems Mediating the Expression of Fearfulness in the Rat. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC20261/
Cassidy, J. (1990). Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Study of Attachment and the Self in Young Children. In M.T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E.M. Cummings, Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, Research and Intervention (pp. 87-119). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Cherry, K. (2011). Attachment Theory. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com /od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
Bretherton, I. (1992). The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28 (5), 759-775.
deduce the effects of parenting on the process of coping for a child, as parents take divorces or get separated. The data sample includes children aged between 9 to 12 years. These effects are being reviewed by studying the changes induced by intervention in a mother-child relationship quality and discipline (Ve'lez, Wolchik, Tein, & Sandler, 2011).
The article explains that children are more prone to the risk of getting mental health problems if they suffer from psychosocial stressors. In the presence of these stressors, such mental health problems can be avoided if the coping efforts are more active and engaging. Coping efficacy or the belief in one's self of being able to positively negotiate with the effects of emotional traumas and situations also plays a positive part in keeping at bay the development of mental health problems. It is mentioned that several factors can aid in developing an effective coping…
Ve'lez, C.E., Wolchik, S.A., Tein, J.-Y., & Sandler, I. (2011). Protecting Children From the Consequences of Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Parenting on Children's Coping Processes. Child Development, January/February, Volume 82, Number 1., Pages 244 -- 257.
Health -- Nursing
Piaget Theoretical Perspective On Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
The theory of cognitive development by Piaget presents a comprehensive approach in evaluating human intelligence development and nature in developmental psychology. Piaget shares that children play active roles in growing of intelligence through learning by doing and by examples. The intellectual development theory involves a focus on believing, reasoning, perceiving and remembering the natural environment. The primary term for this is developmental stage theory dealing with knowledge and how humans gradually acquire, use, and construct nature. Piaget adds that the cognitive development provides progressive mental reorganization for thinking processes resulting from environmental experience and biological maturation. Children construct an appreciation of the real world through experience discrepancies between their knowledge and their discoveries within the environment. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2009), the theory insists that the cognitive development…
Ashford, J., LeCroy, C. (2009). Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Multidimensional Perspective. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2012). Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2013). Essentials of Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Newman, B.M., Newman, P.R. (2010). Theories of Human Development. New York: Psychology Press
While the primary cause of stuttering may be related to physiological disposition of the brain (the way it handles language skills and speech patterns), environmental factors may affect the physical condition or may even play a decisive role in triggering its activation. Psychoanalytical therapies may also help stuttering children "re-teach" the behavior of brain -- in other words, adapt to its different functioning -- and help overcome it before reaching adulthood.
Buchel, C., & Sommer, M. (2004) What causes stuttering? PLoS Biology, 2(2): 159-163. etrieved 5 March 2012 from http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0020046
Duckworth, D. (n.d.) Causes and treatment of stuttering in young children. SuperDuper Handy Handouts, 65. etrieved 5 March 2012, from http://www.superduperinc.com/handouts/pdf/65_Cause_and_Treatment_of%20Stuttering.pdf
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, . (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing esearch, 51(3), 669-687.
Klaniczay, S. (2000). On childhood stuttering and the theory of clinging. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26(1), 97-115. doi:10.1080/007541700362186…
Buchel, C., & Sommer, M. (2004) What causes stuttering? PLoS Biology, 2(2): 159-163. Retrieved 5 March 2012 from http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0020046
Duckworth, D. (n.d.) Causes and treatment of stuttering in young children. SuperDuper Handy Handouts, 65. Retrieved 5 March 2012, from http://www.superduperinc.com/handouts/pdf/65_Cause_and_Treatment_of%20Stuttering.pdf
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, R. (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 51(3), 669-687.
Klaniczay, S. (2000). On childhood stuttering and the theory of clinging. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26(1), 97-115. doi:10.1080/007541700362186
Psychosocial Development Theory
In the history of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was the first to delve into the unknown recesses of the human mind to identify reasons for neuroses. As such, he identified infantile sexuality to lie at the heart of most problems in the relationship with the self and others and used the three-dimensional model of the id, the ego, and superego to describe the various ways in which these neuroses manifested themselves. Today, many theorists use Freud's theories to build their own derivative theories. Even though many today reject some or most of the early philosopher's ideas, it is thanks to him that these theories have a reason for existence in themselves. Today, the theory known as psychosocial development bases many of its concepts on the early ideas conceptualized by Freud. As such, theorists like Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney have developed their own concepts of what…
Adler Graduate School. (2014). Alfred Adler: Theory and Application. Retrieved from: http://www.alfredadler.edu/about/theory
Beyers, W. And Seiffge-Krenke, I. (2010). Does Identity Precede Intimacy? Testing Erikson's Theory on Romantic Development in Emerging Adults of the 21st Century. Journal of Adolescent Research. 20(10). Retrieved from: https://biblio.ugent.be/input/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=941691&fileOId=967467
Davis, D. And Clifton, A. (n.d.) Psychosocial Theory: Erikson. Retrieved from: http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html
Goodman, S.H., Connell, A.M., and Hall, C.M. (2011). Maternal Depression and Child Psychopathology: A Meta-Analytic Review. Clinical Child Family Psychological Review. 14. Retrieved from: http://psych.colorado.edu/~willcutt/pdfs/Goodman_2011.pdf
There are multiple stages of development that all children go through. The depth and breadth of these developmental changes ebb and flow greatly as growing children move from one stage of development to the next. Overall, there are several major developmental stages in the life of a child. There are the toddler years, the prepubescent years and the adolescent/teenage years. The brief literature review that follows in this report shall focus on the last of those. To be complete with this analysis, adolescence is not the end of human development given that many suggest that development extends into the 20's and 30's. Even so, the adolescent years of development are hailed by many as being the most pivotal, at least in some regards. While many would debate the above, it is clear that the adolescent years are among the most important.
Regardless of the development or life stage that…
Infancy is the stage between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by rapid physical growth than any other stage of life. Very interesting changes occur in this couple of years. Brain development also occurs rapidly at this stage. Prior to birth, the unborn baby has most of the brain cells, but not all. There is a very rapid development of the neural connections between the cells. Contrary to what most people think, the baby is not entirely helpless. It is capable of all the basic activities required to sustain life -- breathing, suckling, swallowing and excretion. By the first week, the newborns can identify the direction from which sound is coming, recognize the voice of the mother from other voices and is capable of simple imitating basic gestures such as opening the mouth and sticking out the tongue (Shaffer & Kipp, 2013).
An initial psychotic episode is often the result, with immediate in-hospital treatment recommended for testing and observation. Treatment includes anti-psychotic medication and patients often respond well, particularly in milder cases of the illness. (Csernansky, 2001) However, a general inability to adapt socially will persist and prevent a "normal" existence for these individuals. In one case, a female patient described her general personality despite medication as characterized by "low self-esteem, hypersensitivity to criticism, hyperempathy, excessive generosity, susceptibility to manipulation, and social awkwardness" (eichenberg-Ullman, 2010). In addition, substance abuse, inability to hold a job, risk of suicide, and unwanted pregnancy are typical themes in these patients' lives. (Csernansky, 2001) in the case of pregnancy, females often suffer complications beyond their mental illness, such as poor prenatal care, risk of violence during pregnancy, and reduced likelihood of having a male supportive figure (staff, 2007)
In the middle phase of schizophrenia, or the first…
Collier, E. (2007). Challenging the concept of "burned out" schizophrenia. Mental Health Nursing, 14.
Csernansky, J.G. (2001). Schizophrenia: A New Guide for Clinicians. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Heinrichs, R.W. (2001). In Search of Madness: Schizophrenia and Neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nicole, V. (2007, 11-21). Schizophrenia and Pregnancy: Genetic Links and Effects. Retrieved 11-24, 2010, from www.associatedcontent.com: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/454786/schizophrenia_and_pregnancy_genetic_pg2.html?cat=70
Freud and Erikson Theory
Compare and Contrast Freud and Erikson Theory
This essay begins by discussing Psychoanalytic Theory proposed by Sigmund Freud; the theory portrays that human behaviour is the result of conflict between the biological drives that develop slowly from childhood and play a significant part in determining a person's character. After a short review of the Psychoanalytic theory and evaluating it against modern psychoanalytic perspectives, the study will then cover a quite different theory i.e. Erikson's theory that reduces the significance of biological contributions. Erikson's Theory supposes that character/personality development is determined by not only biological factors but also by historical, ethnic, and cognitive factors. Erikson's theory explains challenges or issues that people face in the modern world. The fact that words such as "inner-space," "identity crisis" and "lifespan" have gained prominence in spoken and written language is testament to Erikson Theory's relevance. The Erikson's theory also has…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Freud vs. Erikson: How Do Their Theories Compare? Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://psychology.about.com /od/theoriesofpersonality/ss/Freud-and-Erikson Compared.htm#step2
Difference Between Erikson and Freud (2011, April 5). Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-erikson-and-freud/
Hayes, N. (1999). Access to Psychology. London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton Educational
Jarvis, M. & Chandler, E. (2001).Angles on Psychology. Cheltenham, Australia: Nelson Thornes Limited.
EIK EIKSON'S PSYCHOSOCIAL THEOY
Analysis of Erik Erickson's Psychosocial Theory
Ayinde, Titus Adeboye wrote the article titled 'An Understanding of the Need for Psychosocial Support System among Children with Physical Disabilities: Linking Theory with ealities." The article focuses on the need to offer psychosocial help to people with disabilities as a pathway to acceptance and recovery. The psychological insights as developed the process of expression and thinking involved in the article made the concepts shared to be applicable in the context child growth and development. While undertaking the study, Ayinde (2013) expressed how Erickson evolved through different points of view and tried to express human growth and development in totality. The appropriateness of the article can be seen in its procedures of the psychological development of a child as categorized in the eight stages, the expression of the applicability of these stages, and the connection with the revelation of real-life…
Ayinde, Titus Adeboye. An Understanding of the Need for Psychosocial Support System among Children with Physical Disabilities: Linking Theory with Realities. Revista de Asistenta Sociala; Bucharest 4 (2013): 107-115.
(2009, March). omen's Health Law eekly, 34. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1651848781).
CNSs need skills in mental health. (2009). Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 6. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343051).
Lance Armstrong Foundation. (2009). Official ebsite.
Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livestrong.org/site/c.khLXK1PxHmF/b.2660611/k.BCED/Home.htm
Heyman, Patrick & Sandra olfe. (2001). Neuman's System's Model. University of Florida.
Retrieved March 1, 2009, at http://www.patheyman.com/essays/neuman/short.htm
Okamura, Masako Shigeto Yamawaki, Tatsuo Akechi, Koji Taniguchi, & Yosuke
Uchitomi. (2005). Psychiatric disorders following first breast cancer recurrence:
Prevalence, associated factors and relationship to quality of life. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35(6), 302-9. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest
Medical Library database. (Document ID: 876421851).
Quinlin, Patrick. (2001). Beating cancer with nutrition. Nutrition Times Press.
Pengelly, Michele & Diana Purnell. (2009). An audit of levels of psychological support referrals for cancer patients. Cancer Nursing Practice,…
Agnew, Thelma. (2009). Acting with confidence. Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 18-20.
Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343111).
Baker, Maggie Koerth-Baker. (2008). The power of positive thinking: Truth or myth?
Special to LiveScience. Retrieved March 1, 2009. http://www.livescience.com/health/080829-happy-thoughts.html
Human Development in ehabilitation Counseling
ehabilitation counseling is a profession that focuses on using a counseling process to assist disabled individuals to achieve their individual, career, and autonomous life goals. As a result, professional in this field work in various settings including healthcare facilities, rehabilitation centers, governmental agencies, learning institutions, and insurance companies. Given their role in helping people living with disabilities, rehabilitation counselors need to acquire necessary competencies and skills for effective practice. One of the most crucial elements to the development of a rehabilitation counselor is understanding human development, a suitable age range or group to counsel, and applying relevant theories during practice. These three factors help in enhancing the effectiveness of a rehabilitation counselor in his/her setting.
Significance of Human Development to a ehabilitation Counselor
As previously indicated, one of the important elements to the development of a rehabilitation counselor is understanding human development. Generally, understanding lifespan…
Good Therapy. (2017, January 30). Child and Adolescent Issues. Retrieved April 26, 2017, from http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/issues/child-and-adolescent-issues
Sales, A. & Brodwin, M.G. (2015). Human growth and development considerations in rehabilitation counseling (2nd ed.). Linn Creek, MO: Aspen Professional Services.
Childhood Obesity and Its Affects on Self-Esteem, Learning and Development
Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in developed nations of the world and its prevalence is continuously rising from 1971. In the Scandinavian countries, childhood obesity is less than compared to the Mediterranean countries; yet, the amount of obese children is increasing in both cases. Even though the highest rates of childhood obesity have been seen in developed countries, and at the same time, obesity is increasing in developing countries as well. Childhood obesity is at increased levels in the Middle East and Central and Eastern Europe as well. As an example, in 1998, The World Health Organization project assessing of cardiovascular diseases had showed that Iran was one among the seven countries, which had the highest rates of childhood obesity. (Dehghan; Akhtar-Danesh; Merchant, 2005, p. 1485)
In UK, observations state that there has been a noticeable enhancement in obesity…
Abell, Steven C; Richards, Maryse H. 1996. The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: an investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Vol: 25; No: 1; pp: 61-64
Boyles, Salynn; Smith, Michael. 2003. Mental Illness Common in Childhood Obesity; Defiance, Depression Cited in Study. April, 7. WebMD Medical News. Retrieved October 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web:
Bullying and Overweight and Obese Children. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://kidshealth.org/research/bullying_overweight.html
Student Social Identity Development
How and hy Students Develop a Social Identity
hat is meant by Student Development?
Author Nancy J. Evans notes that the phrase "Student Development" too often becomes simply a vague catchphrase that has little application to college students' lives and learning. Student Development embraces the psychosocial, cognitive-structural, and social identity of students in postsecondary settings (Evans, et al., 2009).
In the quest for self-direction, students universally seek a social identity as well as an education that can propel them into meaningful, successful careers.
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., Guido, F.M., Patton, L.D., and Renn, K.A. (2009). Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice.
Introduction to Training Session
Clearly college and university students already have an identity when they enroll in classes, although their more mature individual identity in the social milieu will evolve with time. This training session embraces the question of how and why a…
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., Guido, F.M., Patton, L.D., and Renn, K.A. (2009). Student
Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Hanson, C. (2014). In Search of Self: Exploring Student Identity Development: New
Directions for Higher Education, Number 166. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Early Childhood Observation
year-old Andrew is a Caucasian male. He was dressed in brown khaki trousers and a navy blue shirt. Andrew' trousers have their pockets on the side. He is of average height and body mass. He loved this catchy haircut and put on a pleasant smile. He has this buoyant and controlling demeanor. He loved to play with his age mates, especially the boys. There are times when he played alone, especially when he noticed that matters were becoming too physical and here he demonstrates the withdrawn-rejected aspect of development. His psychosocial character is evident at times, for instance, when he goes off to meet his friends and have some games with them. However, Andrew carefully observed his cleanliness and grooming. He showed signs of being egocentric, viewing the world from his own perspective. The latter character was uncommon among the children in the children's park playground. This…
Advocates for youth. (2008). Growth and Development, Ages Nine to 12-What Parents Need to Know. Retrieved from Advocates for youth: http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/parents/155?task=view
CDC. (2016, March 15). Middle Childhood (9-11 years of age). Retrieved from Division of Human Development and Disabilities, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/middle2.html
Eccles, J. S. (1999). The Development of Children Ages 6-14. When School is Out, 9(2).
Erikson, E. (1968). Identity, youth and crisis. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
Identity vs. role confusion occurs from age 12 to 16. This is when the individual will discover fidelity, their sexual identity and they will begin to assume social / occupational roles. Intimacy vs. isolation is when the individual learns to have deep feelings of love and will often become parents. This will last from 18 to 30 years old. ("Personality Development," 2012) (Pressley, 2007)
Generativity vs. stagnation will last from 30 years into old age. In this state, there is a focus on caring for other people, individual occupations, self-perceptions and achievement / creativity. Old age is when the person is considered to be elderly and much wiser. This is where they will integrate the stages from earlier in life to provide specific insights about: themselves, their role in the world and how various events will define the individual. ("Personality Development," 2012) (Pressley, 2007)
These stages are illustrating the importance…
Personality Development. (2012). Learn. Retrieved from: http://www.learn.ppdictionary.com/personality_development_4.htm
Pressley, M. (2007). Child and Adolescent Development. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Van Hooser. (2012). How to Apply Psychosocial Development. E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/how_7566430_apply-psychosocial-development-classroom.html
(Broderick & Blewitt).
Aside from the major issue, at least for the parents, of Jason's reserved social demeanor; there have been several other indicators of acting our behavior that he has presented. On several occasions Jason has complained of stomachaches and headaches prior to having to go to day care or even to any other playtimes where he knows his parents will not be attending. Also, if he has felt threatened by other children in outside settings he will also develop these symptoms in order to be sent home. Then, conversely, after he has been at day care he often does not want to return home and occasionally has a minor tantrum or crying fit. In instances such as these, with seemingly confusing and contradictory symptoms, one must remember that children often do not express anxieties in any direct fashion but often present with symptoms or strange ideologies that can…
Broderick, P.C., & Blewitt, P. The life span: Human Development for Helping
Professionals (2nd ed.). (2006) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Burgess, Kim B., and Alastair J. Younger. "Self-Schemas, Anxiety Somatic and Depressive
Symptoms in Socially Withdrawn Children and Adolescents." Journal of Research in Childhood Education 20.3 (2006): 175+.
Landon Carter's Character through
Erik Erikson's stages of development
Erik Erikson was an American developmental psychologist who was born in Germany and went to postulate eight stages of psychological development. He developed a model that talked about the eight stages every human passes through as he grows. These stages depict and analyze a person's life from when they are baby till they die. It mentions how in every stage a person is presented with problems and challenges. Every stage depicts a crisis which has to be resolved or else it will create problems in the next stage. Thus, for a person to attain a positive personality they need to attain positive goals of that stage and progress smoothly to the next one. (osenthal, Gurney, & Moore 2)
A Walk to emember is a popular romantic drama movie released in 2002. With the setting in North Carolina, the movie revolves around…
A Walk to Remember. Dir. Adam Shankman. Perf. Mandy Moore, Shane West, Peter Coyote. Warner Bros. Pictures, 2002. DVD.
Beaumont, Sherry L., & Zukanovic, Ray. "Identity Development in Men and Its Relation to Psychosocial Distress and Self-Worth." Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science. January (2005) Web.
Elkind, D. "Erik Erikson's Eight Ages of Man." New York Times. New York Times, 5 April 1970. Web. 15 November 2012.
Gross, Francis L. Introducing Erik Erikson: An invitation to his thinking. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. 1987.Print
He has received little personal affirmation for 'who he is' in all of the social settings in which he finds himself. He has had more success in school, but the challenges of his ADHD have resulted in disciplinary problems at time.
The first step is to find some form of social intervention to result in a more stabilized situation at home, either offering Jacob's mother support if she is at risk of violence at the hands of her husband, or attempting to offer some conflict or anger management for the couple. In school, Jacob would benefit from additional resource room support to help him deal with his ADHD, along with academic enrichment to enhance his sense of self. Jacob may also be referred to a school therapist to help him engage in more effective social interactions with peers. The school nurse may wish to discuss with Jacob's parents different medications…
Cherry, K. (2013). Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. Retrieved at:
Driscoll, M.P. (1994). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon
McLeod, Saul. (2007, August). Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved at:
childhood is a fascinating time for children, and the adults around them who watch them grow. It is a time of exploration, self construction, and improved understanding. Middle childhood is between the ages of 6 and 8, with some reports extending that age range to as much as 11 years old (CDC 2012). This is the period of the child who is featured in this observation and empirical analysis. She and her two parents live in a suburban neighborhood that can be seen as middle class. She is about six and a half, and has just entered elementary schooling in the context of first grade. As she closes in on her first year of real school, it is clear how the social environment of that school has impacted her overall development.
The observation was carried out in three stages. First, I met her and her mother at a local park,…
Bunce, Guy. (2011). Educational implications of Vygotsky's zone of proximal development on collaborative work in the classroom. Academics. Web. http://www.guybunce.co.uk/writings/academic/vygotsky-and-the-classroom.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Middle childhood. Child Development. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/middle.html
Harmon, Deborah A. & Jones, Toni Stokes. (2005). Elementary Education: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO.
Karpowitz, Dennis. (2012). Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood. University of Kansas. Web. http://psych.ku.edu/dennisk/CP333/Emotional_Mid_Child.pdf
Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents
Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents
Child development is influenced by many factors. Some of the most important factors that affect the development of a child include heredity, nutrition, parental affection, and culture. Cognition refers to a general processes regarding the principles of thinking in humans, whereas social cognition refers to the study of how people process and use social information, particularly how social information is encoded, stored, retrieved, and then applied by the person in social situations (Striano & eid, 2006). Social cognition and social cognitive development are often studied by cognitive psychologist and social psychologists. The parallel between cognitive development and the development of social cognition certainly cannot be ignored. Cognition in children develops within the social context, but also most likely conforms to certain developmental patterns (Piaget, 1954). The primary influences of the…
Baumrind, D. (1967). Child-care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior.
Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88.
Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.
Blakemore, S.J. (2011). Social-Cognitive Development during Adolescence. Child Psychology
Death anxiety was given a broad definition and seemed to point to how one dealt with the death of others also. I found that I did not deal with death very well. Mainly because I was not able to know my real father, and I felt betrayed by the man who was my actual father when I had to experience the abuse that my family went through. It was an ordeal because my father died, but it was a bigger ordeal because of the revelations that came afterwards. I found that one can regress from a level of maturity when a major negative event occurs.
I look back at my life through the prism of these two theories and there is not much that I regret, even though there were some significant bumps along the way. I agree with the precepts because I can see a lot of what both…
Boeree, G.C. (2005). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/ewaters/345/2007_erikson/erikson.pdf
Bruess, B.J., & Pearson, F.C. (2002). Are there gender differences in moral
reasoning as defined by Kohlberg? College Student Affairs Journal, 21(2),
Physical and mental disorders are often comorbid, reflecting an entire system that is out of balance. A healthy state, both physically and mentally reflects a state of equilibrium and stability that every organism wishes to achieve (Wallace, 2008).When one portion of the system is out of balance, the entire system can be out of balance. The degree to which the system is out of balance determines the degree of the disturbance.
A child that has greater resilience skills can recover from a greater disturbance than a child with little resiliency. Everyone has heard stories of the rich and famous who rose up from situations of poverty and despair to become something great. This is exactly what this research is about. Eriksson's psychosocial model sets up the situation that the person must overcome. Wallace's theory on resiliency provides an understanding of what the child needs to overcome these circumstances to become…
Anthony, E., Alter, C. & Jenson, J. (2009). Development of a Risk and Resilience-Based Out-of-
School Time Program for Children and Youths. Social Work. 54 (1): 45+. Retrieved from Questia Database.
Brendtro, L. & Larson, S. (2004). The Resilience Code: Finding Greatness in Youth. Reclaiming Children and Youth. 12 (4): 194 +. Retrieved from Questia Database.
Brown, W. (2006). The Value of Role Models in Inspiring Resilience. Reclaiming Children and Youth. 14 (4): 199+. Retrieved from Questia Database.
The subject interviewed is a 17-year-old Hispanic male from Cleveland, Ohio. Although his legal name is Harley, this adolescent chooses to call himself by the name "Renegade." Renegade lives in a loft with 12 other boys ranging from the ages of 15 to 27 above a rare book store in a historic and impoverished section of the city. Renegade was either orphaned or abandoned at a young age, and spent many years bouncing around foster homes and group homes as a ward of the state of California. Since leaving the care of the state, Renegade was able to uncover many mysteries about his past that were officially "sealed" regarding his biological family. Renegade was not given any information about his ethnic background as a child, but his mocha-colored skin and dark, striking hair obviously set him apart as an ethnic minority. There were Latino and Mexican boys in…
Aranel et al. (2005) "Erik Erikson." Wikipedia. Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_H._Erikson
Brainmeta. (2004) "Jean Piaget" Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://brainmeta.com/personality/piaget.php
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [3/10/2005] from http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html .
Karp, J. (2004) "Erikson's stages of psychosocial development." (2005) "Erik Erikson." Wikipedia. Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erikson%27s_stages_of_psychosocial_development
They establish identities or are confused about what roles to play. Additionally, Cherry (2011) states that child must have a conscious sense of self that is developed through social interaction. A child's ego identity is constantly evolving as he or she acquires new experiences and information. Processing these new experiences and information embodies and shapes one's sense of self.
According to Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development (Berger, 2010), thoughts and expectations profoundly affect attitudes, beliefs, values, assumptions, and actions. In turn, these factors have a direct correlation to the sense of self that motivates competence, positive behaviors, and actions. If a void occurs in developing a sense of self relative to others, he or she will have psychological barriers that are translated into a defense mechanism to conceal one's lack of motivation, fear of failure, and social dysfunction (Berger, 2010). Lowering the affective filters are critical to foster social development…
Berger, S. (2010). The developing person: Through childhood and adolescence. New York: Worth Publishers
Cherry, K. (2011). Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com /od/psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial.htm
Psychological Movie Interpretation: Ordinary People
On the surface, the movie Ordinary People is a movie about loss. It focuses on a family that is recovering from the death of its oldest son. The older son, Buck, and the younger son, Conrad, are portrayed as stereotypical golden boys, with lifetimes full of promise ahead of them. Both boys are strong swimmers on the swim team, however, while out together, without any parents, on a boat, they get into a boating accident. Buck is unable to save himself. Perhaps more significantly, Conrad is unable to save Buck. Conrad spirals into a significant depression and attempts to commit suicide. He is hospitalized in a mental institution because of his suicide attempt. The movie opens after Conrad returns home from the mental hospital and focuses on Conrad's attempts to reintegrate into his family and his suburban environment. Conrad's father, Calvin, is distraught about Buck's…
Cherry, K. (2013). Erikson's psychosocial stages summary chart. Retrieved October 15, 2013
from About.com website: http://psychology.about.com /library/bl_psychosocial_summary.htm
Erikson, E. (1994). Identity and the life cycle. New York, W.W. Norton & Company.
Harder, A. (2012). The developmental stages of Erik Erikson. Retrieved October 15, 2013
According to Erik Erickson's theory of psychosocial development, there are eight stages through which an individual should pass in the development from infancy through adulthood. If someone does not achieve the goal of a particular stage, s/he will be unable to move past it and will suffer the consequences for life. The goal of a stage is considered a personality trait; failure to reach the goal is considered to be the lack of a trait. For example, the final stage in Erikson's construct is "integrity vs. despair." A person who reaches that stage successfully is said to have integrity, while one who is not successful does not. Erikson referred to each stage as a "crisis." He did not use the word in the pejorative sense, but rather to express the idea of a turning point in one's life (Atalay, 2007, p. 16). In the sad case study of the…
Atalay, M. (2007). Psychology of crisis: An overall account of the psychology of Erikson.
Ekev Academic Review 11(33), pp. 15-34.
Erikson Institute: Erik H. Erikson. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.erikson.edu/default
Snow hite has a low sense of self-efficacy. She dreams of a prince making her life better, not of making her life better through her own initiative She does not leave her cruel stepmother's home, rather she waits until she is literally forced out in a life or death situation, even though she was being abused and used as a scullery maid. This behavior may also tie into her strong superego as a character -- she does not openly disobey her stepmother, ever, and works hard to earn her keep for the dwarves. However, her superego's strength is inconsistent -- she breaks into a home rather than takes refuge somewhere else, and allows herself to eat an apple from a stranger.
Snow hite is the subject of her stepmother's projections -- all of the woman's fears about aging and her loss of beauty are projected onto the girl, and the…
Wagner, Kendra Van. (2009). Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. About.com
Retrieved June 7, 2009 at http://psychology.about.com /od/theoriesofpersonality/a/psychosocial.htm
Psychological Foundations Towards Education
Major characteristics of Freud's theory and Erikson's theory
Looking at pages 143-164 of the article, Freud and Erikson address the basic issue of self-definition. According to Freud believes that a person's sense of self stems from parental projections in the course of the genesis of super-ego. In addition, he argues that these introjects form the foundation of a person's self-definition in childhood and that such parental identifications are not significantly updated or revised during childhood or adolescence. Either way, an individual's self-concept is believed to be a function of the fundamental identification process, which takes place during one's pre-school years. Although Freud has extensively written on the human development process, Erikson was the pioneer in writing about the formation of identities. In his works, Erikson has gone far and beyond Freud's parental introjects and childhood identifications (Austrian 37). He argues that the presence of self-selected identity…
Austrian, Sonia G. Developmental Theories Through the Life Cycle. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. Print.
Lipsitt, Lewis P, and David S. Palermo. Research Readings in Child Psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2011. Print.
Miller, Patricia H, and Ellin K. Scholnick. Toward a Feminist Developmental Psychology. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print.
Harris, Margaret. Exploring Developmental Psychology: Understanding Theory and Methods. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, 2008. Print.
Personality Development in Immigrant Children
Personality development is one of the most commonly researched areas of psychology. At first blush, the relation between personality and the cognitive development of immigrant children may appear somewhat nebulous. However, as contemporary research moves ever closer to an integrative approach, the fields of social and biological science -- once regarded as discrete disciplines -- are merging like the overlapping disks of a Venn diagram.
The cognitive development of children has historically been analyzed through the lens of nature-nurture theorists. The utility of this line of thought weakens under the brilliant new discoveries in the field of neuroscience, and cognitive psychologists have deepened and broadened their inquiries to encompass new findings that point to a greater integration of disciplines.
This discussion will touch on the influence that classic theories of personality development have on contemporary personality theory, referencing seminal work by pioneers in psychology and…
Almy, M. (1976). Review of 'Memory and intelligence; Understanding causality;' and' The origin of the idea of chance in children'. American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry, 46(1), 174-177. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1976.tb01239.x
Baxter, G.D., & Rarick, C.A. (1987). Education for the moral development of managers: Kohlberg's stages of moral development and integrative education. Journal of Business Ethics, 6(3), 243. Retrieved http://search.proquest.com/docview/198088703?accountid=25340
Bandura, Albert (2001, February). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52 (1), 1 -- 26.
Berry, J.W., Phinney, J.S., Sam, D.L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant Youth: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55(3), 303-332. doi:10.1111/j.1464-0597.2006.00256.x
Adolescents with poor problem-solving skills are at greater risk of suicide, according to an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (Grover, et al., 2009). The authors concentrate on the problem of "chronic stress" in adolescents, saying it involves "deprivation or disadvantage" that is ongoing and those dynamics create a "continuous stream of threats and challenges" for the adolescent. The therapy in this research? Counselors, therapists, parents and teachers all need to help adolescents learn "well-developed problem-solving abilities" in order to "buffer the negative impact of both episodic and chronic stress…" (Grover, p. 1286).
Earlier in this paper it was asserted that up to 20% of adolescents in the U.S. will encounter some form of depression due to stress. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggests that the best treatment for severely depressed youths is a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication; that formula works better than either…
Bradley, Kristen. (2002). Survey Shows High Levels of Teen Stress. International Child and Youth Care Network. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.cyc-net.org/today2002/today021016.html .
Byrne, D.G., and Mazanov, J. (1999). Sources of Adolescent Stress, Smoking and the Use of other Drugs. Stress and Health, 15(4), 215-227.
Cherry, Kendra. (2009). What Is Emotional Intelligence? About.com. Psychology. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com .
Ciarrochi, Joseph, Deane, Frank P., and Anderson, Stephen. (2001). Emotional Intelligence
Freud's Psychosocial Development Theory Presumes That Adult Character Is Established By Age 5
Freud finds that we humans are extremely symbolic creatures; we have a common set of symbols that provide us a very effective language for our shared wishes. What case does he make that we are accustomed to symbolic experience and that we talk about these symbols in the bigger society of humankind? Freud's theory presumes that adult character is established by age 5, with the resolution of the Oedipus issue. Hence, it only explains character growth into adolescence. On the other hand, Jung regarded that character continued to develop across the lifespan and explains levels of mature growth not regarded by Freud. Both theorists highlighted the subconscious, but Erickson went beyond to talk about the significance of the combined unconscious; an idea Freud particularly refused. Both had little actual physical proof to back up their speculation. However,…
Housing Support on Teenager Parents
Housing Support on Teenagers
The Impacts of Housing Support on Teenagers Parent in United Kingdom
UK leads Europe in teenage pregnancies in Western Europe with 35,966 conceptions in the under 18s in 2009. Majority of these unplanned pregnancies are the cause and consequence of social exclusion in UK. (UNICEF, 2001) There are 90K teenagers under 20 years and 8k under 16-year's pregnancies in England each year; it is the highest rate in Western Europe (SEU, 1999).
Teenage pregnancy can take place before first menstrual period (12or 13 years), which can result into pregnancy but usually occurs between 13 to 20 years of age. The National Health Services spends over £63 million a year on teenage pregnancies in UK. (Dennison, 2004).
Teenage parenthood is a serious social problem; it has adverse effects on parents and children. These young mothers have greater chances of being poor, less…
Botting, B., Rosato, M. And Wood, R. (1998). Teenage mothers and the health of their children. ONS Population Trends 93: 19-28.
Dennison, C. (2004) Teenage pregnancy: An overview of the research evidence, London: Health Development Agency.
DfES (2006a)"Teenage Pregnancy: Accelerating the Strategy to 2010," DfES, Nottingham.
James R. Rest (1986), "Moral Development Advances in Research and Theory," published by Praeger, New York.
Her day's routine and life merely revolved around these characters that cause her to think or act differently. All of these characters have quite an influential pressure on her that the Nina eventually becomes an amalgamation of thoughts. Pretty soon she gives into the evil desires that she cannot distinguish reality from illusions.
Stone and Church (1989) have called adolescence a very vulnerable period. According to them, adolescence is full of continuous feeling of emotional volatility, rebelliousness and intense idealism. It is seen that adolescence needs to develop a tough inside full of security and confidence. Only if they are sure about themselves and their abilities, these adolescents will go on to take the different problems in life. ebellion and intense idealism is quite prominent during this stage. The adolescent wants to do things and hopes to aspire activities that will make him or her better than everybody else. If…
Black Swan (2010). [DVD] Darren Aronofsky.
Hall, G. (1904). Adolescence. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall..
Stangor, C. (2011). Introduction to psychology. Flat World Knowledge.
Stone, L., and Church, J. (1989). Childhood and Adolescence. McGraw-Hill.
Babies -- Birth to Year One
Thomas Balmes' 2010 documentary Babies portrays the stage of development that infants undergo from their birth to their first year. Focusing on four culturally diverse families and lifestyles, the film gives its viewers insight into how a child's cognitive and physical developments manifest throughout 12 months of life. One surprising aspect of the child's development stage that was shown in the documentary was the fact that even through the different parental backgrounds the basic stages that infants undergo remained ultimately the same. The children cried at certain physical impacts, they gurgled and laughed at forms of amusement, they began to speak and form words in their own languages, and they moved on to crawl, stand, and walk by the end of their first year. Regardless of nationality -- Namibian, Japanese, Mongolian, and American -- and the methods used by cultural and lifestyle constraints, there…
Health Promotion Lesson Plan
The concept of health promotion is thought of as "the science and art of helping people change their lifestyle to move toward a state of optimal health" (Dunphy et al., 2011, p 25). Serious heart conditions can be prevented, which is why it is so important to utilize community education techniques in order to help try to warn community members of the complications before they occur. This current lesson plan works to create three separate community lesson plans, based on specific age ranges. The age 18-29 focuses primarily on the use of social media and health advocacy efforts in association with the American Heart Association. For ages 30-49, there is also a focus on these two, combined with more community oriented issues, and for 50-60, there is much more of a focus on financial training along with community organized workshops.
Prevention has become a major issue…
References McLeod, Saul. (2010). Erik Erikson. Developmental Psychology. Simply Psychology. Web. http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
Erikson also states that the development of personality continued through the entire life cycle, rather than just during childhood as Freud has postulated. Finally, Erikson believed that each stage of development had both positive and negative elements.
Erikson's departure from the Freudian school was not readily accepted, even by those who were close to him and admired his work. In each of Erikson's developmental stages there is conflict with bipolar outcomes, as previously described. In Erikson's belief, each individual must experience both sides of the conflict in order to incorporate them into life and to synthesize these into a higher level of functioning. This differs from Freud's theory in that each stage has a name, rather than relation to pleasure from a body zone (oral, anal, etc.). According to Erikson, when the conflict is worked through in a constructive manner, this positive experience then becomes the more dominant part of…
Chapman AJ, Foot HC, Smith JR. (1995) Friendship and Social Relations in Children. Transaction Publishers, New York.
Wallerstein, R.S. (1998). Erikson's Concept of Ego Identity Reconsidered. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 46:229-247
Leffert M. (2007) Postmodernism and its impact on psychoanalysis. Bull Menninger Clin. 71; 1:22-41.
Marzi a, Hautmann G, Maestro S. (2006) Critical reflections on intersubjectivity in psychoanalysis. Int J. Psychoanal 87; 1297-1314.