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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Words: 686 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95541824
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Mental Disorders: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
PTSD or post-traumatic stress disorder tends to surface among individuals with experiences of a frightening, life-threatening or shocking event. This severe, possibly incapacitating ailment may become apparent among eye-witnesses or survivors of life-threatening occurrences like natural calamities, fatal accidents, terror attacks, wars, personal assault (e.g., rape, abduction, etc.) or unexpected death in the family (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016; ADAA, n.d).
What are the signs and symptoms of the illness?
People naturally experience feelings of fear in the course of, and subsequent to, traumatic events. Fear causes several instantaneous physical changes that aid the person in evading, coping with, or protecting oneself from, it. Such a “fight-or-flight” reaction is common and aimed at self-protection against harm. Almost everybody experiences myriad reactions following traumatic encounters, though a majority of victims undergo natural recovery from its preliminary symptoms. Individuals whose issues persist might go on to…

Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA). (n.d.). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Retrieved November 13, 2017, from
National Institute of Mental Health. (2016). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Retrieved November 13, 2017, from

Post Traumatic Stress and Mental Disorder
Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25764193
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Mental Disorders and Crisis Intervention: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Summarize the signs and symptoms of the mental disorder
PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) indications may prove to be highly distressing. An individual suffering from this condition may find these indications disrupting their lives and resulting in challenges when it comes to carrying out everyday activities. The mental health condition known as PTSD is marked by the following three key groups of indicators, namely, intrusive, arousal and avoidance symptoms.
Intrusive symptoms
Specific memories, imageries, noises, feelings and smells linked to the traumatic occurrence may end up intruding into a PTSD-diagnosed individual’s life. Patients might be so intensely captured by recollections of their past trauma that it becomes hard for them to concentrate on their present. Patients commonly report the surfacing of disturbing trauma-linked memories from time to time. Besides distress, physical symptoms may surface as well, including sweating, muscular tension and a growth…

Lowcountry Graduate center. (2016, October 12). A Social Worker’s Role in Restoring Health to Military Veterans. Retrieved November 21, 2017, from
Veterans Affairs Canada. (2017, February 02). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and war-related stress. Retrieved November 21, 2017, from

The Potential Consequences of an Untreated Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Words: 1705 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93160505
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The relevance of ethics in research cannot be overstated. This is more so the case given the need to ensure that all researchers do not deviate from key social and moral values. My research interest has got to do with the potential consequences of an untreated post-traumatic stress disorder. Various studies have in the past sought to assess how untreated post-traumatic disorder affects those suffering from the same. One such study, titled Consequences of Untreated Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following War in Former Yugoslavia: Morbidity, Subjective Quality of Life, and Care Costs, seeks to “assess long-term mental health outcomes in people who suffer from war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but do not receive appropriate treatment” (Priebe et al., 2009). One of the ethical standards from the readings that the article meets is the procurement of voluntary consent from research participants prior to commencement of the study. In seeking to describe their…

Priebe et al. (2009). Consequences of Untreated Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following War in Former Yugoslavia: Morbidity, Subjective Quality of Life, and Care Costs. Croatian Medical Journal, 50(5), 465-475.
Pimple, K. D. (2016). Research ethics. London: Routledge
Resnik, D. (2011). What is Ethics in Research & Why is It Important. Niehs. Nih. Gov/Research/Resources/Bioethics/Whatis., 1–10.
Smith, D. (2003). Five principles for research ethics.

Influence of Vicarious Trauma and or Post Traumatic Stress upon K-12 Educators
Words: 790 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 35869916
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Vicarious trauma (VT) includes the harmful changes in the views of professionals, such as K-12 educators, of themselves, the world, and others, due to exposure to traumatic material or graphic of their clients or students. Post-traumatic stress (PTS) is a set of psychological symptoms acquired through exposure to individuals exhibiting the impacts of trauma. K-12 educators who work with students exposed to trauma are susceptible to indirect traumatization due to hearing about the experiences of their students and witnessing the negative influence of VT or PTS in them. Distress associated with PTS results from hearing traumatic stories, seeing distress at high levels post a traumatic event, retelling a victim’s story, and/or viewing trauma-related images. Personal trauma history, supervision experiences evidence, and perceived coping style evidence are predictors for vicarious trauma. Personal trauma history and exposure to trauma material with reasonable evidence are precursors for PTS. K-12 educators’ stressors can force…

Post-Traumatic Stress in Children
Words: 2753 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19041717
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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is most commonly associated with war veterans. esearchers have, however, increasingly recognized this condition in women, children, and men from all backgrounds and for a variety of reasons. According to oberts et al. (2011), the condition results from the experience of an event that is traumatic, and that makes the individual feel helpless, horrified, or afraid. A common factor among sufferers of PTSD is persistence. The individual persistently avoids stimuli he or she associates with the event, for example. There is also a tendency to re-experience the event persistently. There are also several health consequences associated with the condition. These include a tendency towards suicide, substance abuse, impaired functioning and general health problems (oberts et al., 2011). When it occurs in children, post-traumatic stress disorder can have significant long-term consequences on their development. Several studies have investigated the demographic nature of…


Berkowitz, S.J., Stover, C.S., and Marans, S.R. (2011, Jun.). The Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention: Secondary Prevention for Youth at Risk of Developing PTSD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 52(6). Database: NBCI. Retrieved from: 

Fazel, M., Reed, R.V., Panter-Brick, C., and Stein, A. (2011, Aug. 10). Mental health of displaced and refugee children resettled in high-income countries: risk and protective factors. The Lancet. 379. Retrieved from:

Miller, G.E., Chen, E., and Parker, K.J. (2011, Nov.). Psychological Stress in Childhood and Susceptibility to the Chronic Diseases of Aging: Moving towards a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin. 137(6). Retrieved from: 

Odenbach, J., Newton, A., Gokiert, R., Falconer, C., Courchesne, C., Campbell, S., and Curtis, S. (2014). Screening for post-traumatic stress disorder after injury in the pediatric emergency department -- a systematic review protocol. Systematic Reviews. 3(19). Database: BioMed Central. Retrieved from:

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Quantitative
Words: 1934 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94683735
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Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).

Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses

The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:

1. The sample will not be random,

2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,

3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,

4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,

5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,

6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)

major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…


Schiraldi, Glenn. (2000) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition p. 446

Williams, Mary Beth and Poijula, Soili (2002) the PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications; 1 edition. p. 237

Foa, Edna B. Keane, Terence and Friedman, M. Matthew J. (2000) Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 388

Wilson, John P. And Keane, Terence M. (1996) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press; 1st edition. p. 577

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Treatments
Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46087824
Read Full Paper  ❯ an optimum range, between excessive denial and excessive intrusiveness of symptoms" (366); b) "normalizing the abnormal" (let the survivor know that it is perfectly normal to react emotionally to triggers that bring the trauma to mind; there is nothing wrong with the person, and indeed, the recurring symptoms are normal and just part of the healing process); c) "decreasing avoidance" (the person should be allowed to and encouraged to be open

PTSD - Dynamics & Treatments about the trauma, not to try to tuck it away or be in denial); d) "altering the attribution of meaning" (change the mindset of the victim from "passive victim" to "active survivor"); and e) "facilitating integration of the self" (371) (this is used primarily in coordination with hypnosis and "dissociation" in a strategy for "reintegrating" parts of the personality into the "self" - the theory being that PTSD tends to split apart components…

Another scholarly research article - published in the Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology (Reed, et al., 2006) weighs in on treatment strategies for spousal psychological abuse. The authors assert that presently there is a dearth of empirical evidence backing up the effectiveness for any existing treatments for the trauma a woman experiences when psychologically abused by her spouse or significant other. That said, the article suggests that "forgiveness therapy" (FT) is a "promising new area" (920) of treatment for this particular form of PTSD. The authors emphasize, however, that forgiveness therapy cannot be confused with "pardoning, forgetting...condoning or excusing" the wrongdoing that led to PTSD. The key concept in presenting FT is to have the woman examine "the injustice of the abuse," then give consideration to forgiveness as one possible option, and through compassion, make a choice to forgive or not to forgive. When a woman embraces FT, it certainly would be in sync with Christian values.

Finally, a recent article published in Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training (Heckman, et al., 2007), presents a literature review of existing empirical studies of treatments for incarcerated persons suffering PTSD. There are over 2 million people in U.S. prisons - 93% of them male and 100,000 juveniles - and of those inmates, some 21% of males are victims of PTSD, 48% of females prisoners are PTSD victims, and up

PTSD - Dynamics & Treatments to 65% of juveniles suffer due to PTSD. The authors believe that "cognitive treatments" (such as relaxation training, psycho education, art therapy, anger management) deserve more study. Also worthy of more research are "exposure and desensitization" treatments (clients simultaneously focus on traumatic material and an "external stimulus using saccadic eye movements of alternating bilateral stimulation"). Among the offshoots of exposure and desensitization treatments - seemingly effective in a correctional institution setting - is "traumatic incident reduction" (TIR); this entails the PTSD survivor / victim being exposed to repetitive "guided imagery" of the event that originally caused the trauma. Seeing that event over and over can reduce the depression, anxiety, avoidance and intrusive thoughts that are associated with PTSD, the authors explain.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Most
Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64553818
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In his book, Finley relates to the stories of four soldiers that suffered PTSD, including a U.S. Marine named Tony Sandoval "who can barely complete a full sentence about the horrors he saw" and by an Army soldier (Jesse Caldera) who "is haunted by fears he killed a child" (General OneFile).

An article in the journal Policy Review references an early example of PTSD, suffered by an Athenian warrior that was "struck blind 'without blow of sword or dart' when a soldier standing next to him was killed" (Satel, 2011, p. 41). That story was told by Herodotus, and Satel suggests it was an ancient example of PTSD, which in I it was also called "battle fatigue," "combat exhaustion," and "war stress," according to the author.

One of the pertinent questions raised in this article relates to the how the severity of PTSD is determined by healthcare professionals -- and…

Works Cited

Harvard Women' Health Watch. "Left Behind After Suicide." Retrieved April 6, 2011, from General OneFile.

Publishers Weekly. "Fields of combat: Understanding PTSD Among Veterans of Iraq

and Afghanistan." 258.13. Retrieved April 6, 2011, from General OneFile. 2011.

Satel, Sally. "PTSD's Diagnostic Trap." Policy Review. Vol. 165. Retrieved April 6, 2011,

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism Addiction
Words: 4543 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57309421
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction


Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview

PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The ole of Trauma

Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD

Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion

Genetic and Environmental Influences

Models of Assessment/Conclusions

Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1"

This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to identify the influence of trauma on subsequent alcohol abuse in patients varying in age from 13-70.

A survey of the literature available on PTSD and alcohol/substance abuse on patients is conducted leading to a conclusion that a direct relationship does exist between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction. This conclusion coincides with a large body of evidence and prior studies which link the prevalence of traumatic disorders with alcohol and substance…

References" f C l "1":

Brady, S.; Rierdan, J. Penk, W; Losardo, M; Meschede, T. (2003). "Post traumatic stress disorder in adults with serious mental illness and substance abuse." Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4(4): 77-90

Brown, P.J. (2001). "Outcome in female patients with both substance use and post-traumatic stress disorders." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 18(3):127-135

Bulijan, D.; Vreek, D.; Cekic, A.A.; Karlovic, D.; Zoricic, Z; Golik-Gruber, V. (2002).

'Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence and somatic disorders in displaced persons." Alcoholism: Journal on Alcoholism and Related Addictions, 38(1-2)35-40

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder What
Words: 1426 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83333850
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17% of men and 13% of women have experienced more than three traumatic events in their lives, and the onset of PTSD is generally based on the degree and the extent of the trauma, and the duration, and the type. For example, when there is a rape, then there is a 49% chance that the women will experience PTSD, and when there is a physical assault, it would be 31.9%. For sexual assault, the percentage would be 23.7 and when the person has been in an accident, and then the percentage would be 16.8%. (What is PTSD?)

Other traumatic events may be a child's life threatening illness, or a natural disaster, or a witness or a victim of a shooting or a stabbing, and so on. (What is PTSD?) These people may also experience of several kinds of physical symptoms related to their traumatic experience, and some of them are:…


Gore, Allen. T; Richards, Georgeianna. (27 April, 2005) "Post Traumatic Stress

Disorder" Retrieved at . Accessed 6 November, 2005

Managing Traumatic Stress" American Psychological Association. Retrieved at Accessed 6 November, 2005

What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?" A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of
Words: 2054 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14834415
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and isk of Dementia among U.S. Veterans

According to Yaffe et al. (2010), Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a prevalent psychiatric syndrome linked to increased mortality and morbidity rates. This condition is among the most prevalent amid veterans returning from combat. Among veterans returning from Afghanistan and Iraq, the prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder is estimated to be about 17% (Seal et al., 2009). Veterans returning from Vietnam have a twenty to thirty percent rate. Past studies have confirmed that PTSD is linked to increased health care consumption and an augmented danger of developing a variety of other medical conditions among veterans such as dementia. The risk factors that link PTSD to increased rates of dementia include head injuries, depression or medical comorbidities.

This work highlights the findings of the study carried out by Yaffe et al. (2010). The project specifically focuses on the conclusions…


Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Deurenberg, R. (2009). A practical guide to Pubmed/Druk 1/ING. London: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum.

Gerrish, K., & Lacy, A. (2013). The research process in nursing. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Glasziou, P.G., Mar, C.D. & Salisbury, J. (2009). Evidence-Based Practice Workbook. John Wiley & Sons.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in
Words: 2002 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10848150
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Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than research that was compiled by Occupational Medicine. Where, they found that various factors can help trigger those who are suffering from PTSD including: a lack of support and traumatic disassociation with the events. (isson 399 -- 403) in the Death of all Turret Gunner, the author is experiencing a lack of support and is having their traumatic disassociation, replayed consistently in the person's mind.

This can help to increase understanding of the issue; by showing how once those vets who are exposed to PTSD, must have counseling. Then, this must be followed up by a cognitive approach of sympathetically listening to their issues. As a result, this underscores how some kind of proactive approach needs to be utilized, to reduce suffering.

When you compare the Death of all Turret Gunner to the Only Things They Carried and Dulce et…


Bisson, Jonathan. "Post Traumatic Stress Disorder." Organizational Medicine 2007: 399 -- 403. Web. 

Hunsley, John. "Post Traumatic Stress Disorder." A Guide to Assessment that Works. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2008. 293 -- 298. Print.

Jarrell, Randall. "The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner." 1945.

Owen, Wilson. "Dulce et Decorrum."

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and
Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32678472
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The EMD technique is used in conjunction with psychotherapy and it has proven very effective for statistically significant numbers of patients in controlled studies (Breslau, Lucia, & Alvarado, 2006; Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

Ethical Issues in Treating PTSD in eturning Combat Veterans with MDMA

A much more ethically controversial approach involves the use of low doses of MDMA in conjunction with traditional psychotherapy. That is because MDMA is an illicit drug with a very well-deserved reputation for being notoriously popular with recreational users and addiction. While their may be beneficial therapeutic uses of MDMA in certain patients, the population of U.S. armed services veterans suffering from PTSD are also, demographically and psychologically, at the greatest risk of drug addiction and to mental instability that could be worsened by non-therapeutic use of consciousness-altering substances, particularly in connection with unauthorized and unmonitored or controlled use.

It is not necessarily never appropriate to…


Breslau, N., Lucia, V., and Alvarado, G. "Intelligence and Other Predisposing Factors in Exposure to Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Follow-up Study at Age 17 Years."Arch Gen Psychiatry, Vol. 63; (2006):1238-1245.

Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Vol 76,

No. 1; (2010): 13-21.

Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder The James A
Words: 1065 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5891390
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: The James a. Haley Veterans' Hospital's Solution to PSTD

The James A. Haley Veterans' Hospital (JAHVH) is dedicated to serving the nations veterans. It was activated in 1972 and provides patient care services, and also serves as a teaching hospital. According to the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs, VA (2014), JAHVH consists of five Veteran Health Administration (VHA) facilities located in Brooksville, Zephyrhills, New Port ichey, Lakeland and Tampa. Their primary mission is to provide America's military veterans with proper medical care and services, in line with their commitment to meet their changing surgical, medical, and quality of life needs (VA, 2014).

In particular, the Veterans' Hospital facilitates programs that help veterans deal with post traumatic stress disorder (PSTD). This is a disorder that is common among military veterans, which develops due to terrifying ordeals involving actual or the threat of physical harm (National Institute of…


Hinton, D.E & Fernandez, R.L. (2010). The Cross-Cultural Validity of Posttraumatic

Stress Disorder: Implications for Dsm-5. Review. Retrieved 14 April 2014 from 

The National Institute of Health (2009) PTSD: A Growing Epidemic. NIH Medline Plus. Vol. (4)1 10-14. Retrieved 15 April 2014 from 

The U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs, VA (2014). VA History. Retrieved 14 April 2014 from

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Treatment
Words: 3310 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 69891712
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g., when there are deaths of several soldiers or emergency workers of a unit). Combat is a stressor that is associated with a relatively high risk of PTSD, and those interventions that can potentially diminish this risk are very important. But what is not clear in the above is how much the debriefing provided is more a form of stress management for the ?critical incidents? that are very much part of warfare, as opposed to interventions for those psycho- logically traumatized and at risk of PTSD. People in the military are exposed to stressors other than combat, and these may be traumatic (Atwater, 2009). eports of soldiers who were involved in body recovery in the Gulf War provide important insights. This is a high-stress situation, linked to vulnerability to posttraumatic morbidity.

Asnis, et al. (2004) reported that soldiers of one group who had been debriefed were compared with another, which,…


Army News Service. (2007). Army launches chain teaching program for PTSD, TBI education.

Atwater, Alison. (2009). When is a Combat Veteran? The Evidentiary Stumbling Block for Veterans Seeking PTSD Disability Benefits, 41 ARIZ. St.

Asnis, G.M., Kohn, S.R., Henderson, M., & Brown, N.L. (2004). SSRIs vs. non-SSRIs in post traumatic stress disorder: an update with recommendations. Drugs, 64(4), 383-404.

Bergfeld, C. (2006). A dose of virtual reality: Doctors are drawing on video-game technology to treat post-traumatic stress disorder among Iraq war veterans. Business Week.

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Learning
Words: 1738 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68579813
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Overall Assessment

Overall each of the articles contribute significantly to the study of PTSD. The impact of memory and learning issues for those that have the disorder should not be downplayed as such issues can negatively impact the quality of life for those with the disorder.

Each of the articles provide answers to disqualify certain hypotheses and qualified others as worth further study Overall Assessment.

With each of the articles the medical and mental health community came one step closer to targeting and discovering exactly where the problem is in learning and memory issues for people with PTSD. Even when the answer is, "no" that is not where the problem is, it helps narrow down where in fact the problem does originate from.




Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 274 Taylor & Francis Taylor and Francis…




Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 274 Taylor & Francis Taylor and Francis 325 Chestnut StreetPhiladelphiaPA191 NCEN Taylor & Francis Ltd. 36370 10.1080/138033990520223 2005 126 R. Yehuda et al. Learning and Memory in Veterans with PTSD Learning and Memory in Aging Combat

Veterans with PTSD

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder the Diagnosis
Words: 1146 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77068315
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Psychometric Properties

The normative sample for the DAPS included 620 participants from a stratified random sampling from Department of Motor Vehicles registries and telephone listings (Smith). Of these 620 participants, 446 reported at least one DSM-IV-T experience in the past. Smith also reports that 70 university students were sampled as well. The assessment authors conducted another sample to measure reliability. The study included 257 undergraduate students, 191 clinical patients, and 58 participants recruited through flyers and newspaper advertisements (Smith). Both samples were primarily female, 74% in the university sample and 80% in the community sample, as well as Caucasian, 84% in the university sample and 77% in the community sample (Smith). The mean age was 19.6 in the university sample and 35 in the community sample.

Boothroyd reports the following reliability and validity data for the DAPS. The majority of the 13 scales have Cronbach coefficients above .8, and internal…


Axford, S.N.. (n.d.) Review the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Boothroyd, R.A. (n.d.) Review of detailed assessment of posttraumatic stress. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Courtois, C.A. (2008). Complex trauma, complex reactions: Assessment and treatment. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, (1), 86-100. doi:10.1037/1942-9681.S.1.86

Doll, B. (n.d.) Review the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.