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It is difficult to get an accurate record of the actual number of children that have been sexually abused. Many cases never come to light and because of differences in definitions of sexual assault, some cases are missed (658).
esearchers have begun to explore the concept of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with children and adults that were victims of sexual assault. Many times people associate particular events with particular stimuli. For example, certain orders, colors, sounds, and people can trigger a memory of a past event. This is truer for victims of sexual assault. According to Wolf, Sas, and Wekerle, 'traumatic episodes become associated with particular eliciting stimuli and can lead to maladaptive or a typical reactions. Such conditioning can play an important role in the formation of children's adjustment disorders subsequent to sexual abuse (Wolf et al. 38).'
Because people do not anticipate an abusive episode, there are usually things…
Famularo R, Fenton T, Kinscherff R, Ayoub C, Barnum R. Maternal and child posttraumatic stress disorder in cases of child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect. 1994;18:27 -- 36
Famularo R, Kinscherff R, Fenton T. Symptom differences in acute and chronic presentation of childhood post-traumatic stress disorder. Child Abuse Negl 1990;14:439 -- 44.
Saigh, P.A. (2004). A structured interview for diagnosing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Children's PTSD Inventory. San Antonio, TX: PsychCorp.
Walker, J. (2009). Anxiety associated with post traumatic stress disorder: The role of quantitative electroencephalograph in diagnosis and in guiding neurofeedback training to remediate the anxiety. Biofeedback, 37(2), 67-70
, 2010). This point is also made by Yehuda, Flory, Pratchett, Buxbaum, Ising and Holsboer (2010), who report that early life stress can also increase the risk of developing PTSD and there may even be a genetic component involved that predisposes some people to developing PTSD.
Studies of Vietnam combat veterans have shown that the type of exposure variables that were encountered (i.e., severe personal injury, perceived life threat, longer duration, intensity, complexity and exposure to the suffering of others), can adversely affect the symptomological course of the condition, meaning that the type of trauma that is experienced is also a risk factor in the development of PTSD (Cockram et al., 2010). Studies have also shown, though, that post-trauma factors such as stress management skills and social support systems can help to mitigate the development of PTSD as well as help facilitate recovery from the condition (Cockram et al., 2010).…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
Agras, W.S., Walsh, T., Fairburn, C.G., Wilson, G.T., & Kraemer, H.C. (2000). a
multicenter comparison of cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57(5), 459 -- 466 in Roth, a. & Fonagy, P. (eds.). (2005). What works for whom? A critical review of psychotherapy research. New York:Guilford Press.
One important aspect was that research findings suggested that PTSD was more common than was thought to be the case when the DSM-III diagnostic criteria were formulated. (Friedman, 2007, para.3) the DSM-IV diagnosis of PTSD further extends the formalization of criteria as well as the methodological consistency for PTSD and now includes six main criteria. The first of these criteria qualifies the meaning of trauma. A traumatic event is defined as "…one in which: (a) the person experienced, witnessed, or was confronted with an event that involved actual or perceived threat to life or physical integrity; and (b) the person's emotional response to this event included horror, helplessness, or intense fear." (Foa & Meadows, 1997. p449) This also relates to the psychological symptoms which are categorized into three main groupings; namely the re-experiencing of symptoms, such as nightmares and flashbacks; secondly symptoms of avoidance of trauma and related stimuli and…
Brown H. (2006) .The Effects of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on the Officer and the Family. Retrieved from http://www.nc-cm.org/article132.htm
Foa, E., & Meadows, E. (1997). Psychosocial Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder:
A Critical Review. 449+. Retrieved from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000413895
Flannery Jr., Raymond B. (1999). Psychological Trauma and Posttraumatic
PTSD Effects in the Military
The military and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
The Iraq occupation cost the Americans as citizens and as a government more than was foreseen hence brought more harm than immediate good to the U.S.A. As a nation. This is in light of the collateral damage that the war has caused to the people of America physically and emotionally. Many arguments have been fronted that the benefits of the occupation in Iraq were mostly myopic and imaginary than factual hence they are hard to physically point out as the troops come back home.
There are disorders that came about as a result of exposure to life-threatening and stressful situations during the several wars which the military personnel had no control over. Affected people often have flashbacks of the situation where they had no control over and they may have night mares.
PTSD can be defined as…
Helpguide, (2013). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms, Treatment and Self-Help
for PTSD. http://www.helpguide.org/mental/post_traumatic_stress_disorder_symptoms_treatment.htm msnbc.com news services, (2006). 1 in 10 U.S. Iraq Veterans Suffers Stress Disorder Survey
Finds Returning Soldiers Haunted by Nightmares, Flashbacks. Retrieved December 1, 2013 from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/11609834/ns/health-mental_health/t/us-iraq-veterans-suffers-stress-disorder/
National Institute of Mental Health, (2013). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Retrieved December 1, 2013 from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/nimh_ptsd_booklet.pdf
The basic idea with this kind of therapy is to have the individual talk about how this is: influencing their thoughts and actions with their spouses. Over the course of several different sessions, the objective is to: understand the emotions and feelings that are associated with event along with the underlying meanings tied to it. This is significant, because if this kind of approach can be used it will create for an effective strategy of: intervening when someone is first beginning to show a variety of symptoms. (Sautter, 2011, pp. 63 -- 69) (Evans, 2009, pp. 531 -- 539)
Potential Contributions to the Field
This can make a potential contribution to the field of Educational Psychology by providing insights about: how to improve communication and training. These two factors are important, in understanding how the thoughts of the individuals and the way past events are influencing them. Once this occurs,…
Evans, L. (2009). Family functioning predicts outcomes for veterans in treatment for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(4), 531-539
Kinichin, D. (2004). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Wantagh, NY: Success Unlimited.
Moore, B. (2010). Imagery rehearsal therapy: An emerging treatment for posttraumatic nightmares in veterans. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 2(3), 232-238.
Sautter, F. (2011). The Development of Couple-Based Treatment. Professional Psychology, 42-91), 63 -- 69.
The study also revealed that 9% of those still in active military service developed psychiatric disorders. It concluded that many of them displayed psychotic symptoms other than flashbacks and dissociative symptoms. These symptoms are essential parts of PTSD.
Most of the war veterans investigated exhibited psychotic symptoms of either depressive or schizophrenia. O the PTSD patients, 9% also suffered from major depressive disorder with psychotic features, while 11% had psychotic disorders. Many of them showed psychotic symptoms other than flashbacks and dissociative symptoms. Psychotic symptoms are essential parts of PTSD and relates to the trauma.
Personality disorders were found to be critical in developing PTSD after combat trauma. Alcohol dependence was often found in these afflicted soldiers. it, thus, presented as a risk factor to developing alcohol dependence after combat trauma. PTSD soldiers without personality disorders, on the other hand, confronted the risk of developing co-morbid depressive disorder and psychotic…
American Family Physician (2003). What you should know about post-traumatic stress disorder. 2 pages. American Academy of Family Physicians: Gale Group
Begic, D. (2001). Aggressive behavior in combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. 12 pages. Military Medicine: Association of Military Surgeons of the United States
Buncombe, a. (2005). Virtual reality "war" helps treat troops traumatized by combat. 2 pages. The (London) Independent: Independent Newspapers UK Limited
Business Editors (2007). Therapy battles war-related mental health conditions. 2 pages. Business Wire: Gale Group
In civilian life, such individuals will have gained a traditional ethical education whereas in a combat context, such individuals will have been instructed on the use of lethal force. According to illis, "habit and practice help the willingness and capacity to kill on command. The new recruit or volunteer may, and likely has, the innate reservation against killing anyone. Yet day in and day out, the 'normal' person is saturated with intellectual, physical, and emotional reinforcements and repetitions, to become prepared to kill. Centuries of military methods have been polished and refined to cope with any individual whose natural resistance to killing remains intransigent." (illis, p. 1)
These are instincts that can be difficult to 'turn off' as it were. This means that the therapist trained on how best to deal with such individuals must understand with empathy the aggression and the propensity toward violence which might be exhibited by…
Hausman, K. (2002). Race-Related Stressors Can Trigger PTSD. Psychiatric News, 37(18).
Willis, J.D. (2010). On Human Nature, Killing, Soldiers, PTSD -- and Our Ethical Duties. Leadership Ethics Online.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Abuse
This paper will highlight post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its related causes such as abuse. The main idea here is to overview some of the causes of this disorder and to relate it with physiological and sociological aspects, some other important facts related to the topic will also be mentioned in order to give the reader a better idea about those individuals who are diagnosed with the post traumatic stress.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
It is commonly observed that there exists a strong relationship between abusive behavior, PTSD and any experience of traumatic incident. The fact is that intimate partner abuse occurs more than expected by any common individual. According to the national estimates in the United States, around the time frame of one year some eight to twenty percent of individuals who are in a serious relationship would go on to get involved…
Vasterling, J. (2005). Neuropsychology of PTSD. New York: Guilford Press.
In this book, the writer specifically focuses on the biological, cognitive and clinical perspectives of the post traumatic stress disorder. The details include a full review of the biological symptoms, the cognitive behavior and the clinical response towards those symptoms. The writer has successfully connected a link between these complex sciences and bought up a common platform which is easy to understand and explain to any reader who is not familiar with this topic.
In order to support its argument, the writer also uses many examples from modern times as well as previous experiments related to biology, cognitive sciences and clinical sciences to asses what has developed from past experiences, what further needs to be done and what lies ahead in the study of post traumatic stress disorder.
Hudgins, M. (2002). Experimental treatment for PTSD. New York: Springer.
The results of the study found that cocaine/PTSD were younger that alcohol/PTSD subjects (Back et al., 2003). Additionally, the researchers found that the alcohol/PTSD participants were more likely to be married and have more intimate friends than the cocaine/PTSD participants. In addition, the study found that alcohol/PTSD participants were more likely to be employed full time (Back et al., 2003). The alcohol/PTSD participants were also more likely to be employed for longer periods of time (Back et al., 2003). In addition, women with cocaine/PTSD were more likely to be arrested for prostitution than alcohol PTSD. The study also found that there were high rates of sexual trauma associated with the development of PTSD (Back et al., 2003). In addition, the alcohol/PTSD groups were more likely to have developed PTSD as a result of a car accident or some other severe incidents.
Overall, the researchers assert that the study…
Back, S.E., Sonne, S.C., Killeen, T., Dansky, B.S., & Brady, K.T. (2003). Comparative Profiles of Women with PTSD and Comorbid Cocaine or Alcohol Dependence. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 169+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001630183
Dansky, B.S., Brady, K.T., Saladin, M.E., Killeen, T., Becker, S., & Roitzsch, J. (1997). Victimization and PTSD in Individuals with Substance Use Disorders: Gender and Racial Differences. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 22(1), 75+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001260060
Dansky, B.S., Byrne, C.A., & Brady, K.T. (1999). Intimate Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Individuals with Cocaine Dependence. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 25(2), 257.
This study drew the researcher inside with its warmth and obvious care for children. One weakness, the researcher notes, however, is the implementation of a specific example of implementing related literary techniques.
Application to the School Setting
The implementation of specific literacy strategies appropriate to aid children of abuse, as Haeseler (2006) recommends, the researcher contends, would prove to be a positive practice. The researcher would be concerned if this would add to the teacher's current stress and/or work load.
The article by Haeseler (2006) enhanced the researcher's appreciation of the value and versatility of literature. The researcher experienced second thoughts regarding the role of the teacher as a school psychologist, albeit, in addition to his/her current responsibilities. Perhaps, schools should consider contracting with professional writers to regularly implement this type therapeutic intervention for children with PTSD.
Comparing and Contrasting
The articles by Cook-Cottone (2004), Brown et al.…
Brown, E.J., Mcquaid, J., Farina, L., Ali, R., & Winnick-Gelles, a. (2006). Matching interventions to children's mental health needs: Feasibility and scceptability of a pilot school-based trauma intervention program. Education & Treatment of Children, 29(2), 257+. Retrieved March 12, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5016613285
Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Childhood Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Diagnosis, treatment, and school reintegration. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 127+. Retrieved March 12, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007987125
Haeseler, L.A. (2006). Promoting Literacy learning for children of abuse: Strategies for elementary school teachers. Reading Improvement, 43(3), 136+. Retrieved March 12, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018854141
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.(2009). American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc. Retrieved March 12, 2009, at http://www.psychiatryonline.com/content.aspx?aID=3357&searchStr=posttraumatic+strss+disorder
By nature, this approach demonstrates that "much research is pragmatically driven by the high-impact publication requirements of academia." (Byrne et al., 47) This is an important idea to consider in desiring to reflect validity in a qualitative approaches taken toward PTSD. Here, the intent for the researcher is to 'ground' his experiment in a thorough understanding of the research subject, with the primary research problem being the need to understand the nature of PTSD. The research purpose would be to gather and consult a sufficient number of academic sources to provide a meaningful definition of PTSD. The primary research question will ask the following: Can a fuller definitional understanding of PTSD promote better diagnostic capabilities amongst military doctors and therapists?
In certain study cases, external validity or the potential for generality are not practical goals. Instead, the uniqueness of a subject may denote the need for a research…
Byrne, N.; Regan, C. & Livingston, G. (2006). Adherence to Treatment in Mood
Disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 19, p. 44-49.
Garson, J. (2006). Ethnographic Research. North Carolina State University.
Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Sage Publications.
This has made it very difficult for me to relate to those around me, even to the family members that loved me and still love me, and that I still love; despite the bonds we share that could never be broken, there are parts of me that they will never understand -- parts of myself that I don't really understand.
As clear as the effects of PTSD are, and as evident as it is to many that the Iraq war has produced more horrors than many other military actions and thus has led to more cases of PTSD, there are some that argue these reports are overblown. In testimony given to the House Committee on Veteran's Affairs, Sally Satel argues that though PTSD is real and certainly debilitative, there is no reason to think that the military action in Iraq would produce more individuals with PTSD than other campaigns (Satel…
Huang, K. (2005). Night visions. Accessed 7 November 2010. http://www.mediathatmattersfest.org/films/night_visions/
Satel, S. (2004). "Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Iraq Veterans: Testimony before the House Committee on Veterans Affairs," American Enterprise Institute, March 11. Accessed 7 November 2010. http://libproxy.howardcc.edu:2067/ovrc/retrieve.do?subjectParam=Locale%2528en%252C%252C%2529%253AFQE%253D%2528su%252CNone%252C4%2529PTSD%2524&contentSet=GSRC&sort=Relevance&tabID=T010&sgCurrentPosition=0&subjectAction=DISPLAY_SUBJECTS&prodId=OVRC&searchId=R1¤tPosition=5&userGroupName=colu91149&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&sgHitCountType=None&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28ke%2CNone%2C4%29PTSD%24&inPS=true&searchType=BasicSearchForm&displaySubject=&docId=EJ3010640215&docType=GSRC
Vendantam, S. (2006). "Veterans report mental distress." Washington post, March 1. Accessed 7 November 2010. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/02/28/AR2006022801712.html
As a result, this is helping to focus our study on more effectively understanding the causes and the impact this disease is having of the lives of veterans along with their families.
The focus of our research will be to concentrate on PTSD development in soldiers that were deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan. There will be an emphasis on how this is impacting their lives based on the experiences that they endured during various events. Once this occurs, we will be able to offer specific insights about how to be able to more effectively understand their condition. This is the point that we can determine the best way of helping them to overcome these issues.
To comprehend the impact of PTSD requires conducting a study of 20 different veterans who were serving in combat zones. The age group that we will be focusing on is from 18…
Anderson, G. (2009). Using the Internet to Provide Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Behavior and Therapy Research, 47 (3), 175 -- 180.
Brown, A. (2010). Trauma Centrality and PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23 (4), 496 -- 499.
Foa, E. (2009). Effective Treatments for PTSD. New York, NY: Guliford Press.
Grieger, T. (2011). Fields of Combat. JAMA, 306 (5), 553.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder refers to a situation where an individual finds difficulty move on upon experiencing a harmful or terrifying situation Brewin, Andrews and Valentine 748.
The experiences introduce to an individual a sense of danger, disconnectedness, anxiety or painful memories. An individual experiencing post Traumatic stress feels helpless because their safety is threatened Brewin, Andrews and Valentine 749()
In reality, post traumatic disorder does not only occur as the result of physical threat. It is also associated to mental cognition that, may contribute to the feeling of helplessness and danger. In the case of danger directly affecting a close friend or family member, an individual may feel terrified and find it difficult to get over the situation. Prolonged feeling of the threat results to post traumatic stress disorder Brewin, Andrews and Valentine 750()
Causes of Traumatic Stress Disorder
It is derived from the definitions…
Brewin, C.R., B. Andrews, and J.D. Valentine. "Meta-Analysis of Risk Factors for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Trauma-Exposed Adults." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 68 (2000): 748-66. Print.
Silver, R.C, et al. "National Longitudinal Study of Psychological Responses to September 11. ." Journal of the American Medical Association, 288 (2002): 1235-44. Print.
PTSD in Children of Hurricane Katrina
What do you believe needs to occur in a counseling approach…
There is much evidence that children who survived the 2005 Hurricane Katrina disaster are particularly vulnerable to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). esearchers from the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center surveyed nearly 7500 children (age 9-18) between 2005 and 2008 from the most heavily devastated parts of the Gulf region. Their findings indicated extreme PTSD due to displacement, separation from family, pets and loved ones and belongings, and the witnessing of the destruction of homes and neighborhoods (Kronenberg, 2000). In some cases children even reported seeing family members or friends die or suffer serious injury resulting in a great deal of depression.
According to definitions formulated by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-T), it should come as no surprise that many of these youth suffer from PTSD given the stressors…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Alvarez, D. (2010). "I Had To Teach Hard": Traumatic Conditions and Teachers in Post-Katrina Classrooms. The High School Journal 94(1), 28-39. The University of North Carolina Press. Retrieved August 16, 2012, from Project MUSE database.
Kronenberg, M., Hansel, T., Brennan, A., Osofsky, H., Osofsky, J., and Lawrason, B. (2010). Children of Katrina: Lessons Learned About Postdisaster Symptoms and Recovery Patterns. Child Development, 81(4), 124-153. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01465.x.
Speier, A.H. (2000). Disaster Relief and Crisis Counseling. Psychosocial Issues for Children and Adolescents in Disasters. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health
For many reasons, children in such families are especially vulnerable (4). Many studies have established that, in comparison with children of combat veterans without PTSD, the children of combat veterans with PTSD have more frequent and more serious developmental, behavioral, and emotional problems (2,5-10). Some of them also have specific psychiatric problems." (Klaric et al., p. 491)
It is thus that the discussion on PTSD must shift toward a more encompassing intervention and treatment approach. As the text by Klaric et al. illustrates, it is not sufficient to simply view the combat veteran as the only subject of such intervention. The research conducted here proceeds from the understanding that any such intervention may both fail to relieve the stresses felt by surrounding family members and might also fail to provide family members with the coping strategies necessary to understand the afflicted veteran family member, to recognize and avoid triggers and…
Klaric, M.; Franciskovic, T.; Klaric, B.; Kvesic, A.; Kastelan, A.; Graovac, M. & Diminic Lisica, I. (2008). Psychological Problems in Children of War Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Cross-Sectional Study. Croatian Medical Journal, 49(4), 491-498.
Tull, M. (2009). Stress in Children of Iraq War Soldiers. About Post Traumatic Stress (PTSD).
United States Department of Veterans Affairs (USDVA). (2010). Children Coping With Deployment. PTSD.va.gov.
PTSD as a Defense
The third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder recently included an anxiety Post-traumatic disorder otherwise known as PTSD. This disorder stems from psychological sequel, which comes as an aftermath of a significant stressor. The military has used many terms to refer to this situation including 'combat neuroses, 'shell shock', and 'war neurosis' (Wilson, Friedman & Lindy, 2011).
PTSD has recently attracted more attention based on means of legal defense. From the perspective of defense, its presence is parallel to innocence because of insanity. Literature reviews of this issue demonstrate the clinical features and provide an overview of three cases that received a bad reputation both locally and internationally because of their motions for defense. In these cases, the senior authors represented the expert witness (Wilson, Friedman & Lindy, 2011). They give recommendations to potential readers who may become an expert witness in…
Friedman, J., Keane, M., & Resick, A. (2010).Handbook of PTSD: Science and practice. New York: Guilford Press.
Sonnenberg, M., & Blank, A.S. (2009).The Trauma of war: Stress and recovery in Vietnam veterans. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Press
Wilson, P., Friedman, M.J., & Lindy, J.D. (2001).Treating psychological trauma and PTSD.
New York: Guilford Press
In this study, patients were adults suffering from PTSD that had been referred after three months of PTSD symptoms. These patients were not combat soldiers, and had been referred after either a non-sexual assault or a motor vehicle accident. The patients were between 17 and 60 years old and did not have other psychological problems. Eighty-four individuals made it through the primary assessment through the follow-up meeting. Individuals were randomly assigned to a treatment, although an equilibrium in regards to gender and trauma was maintained. The patients' progress was measured through the CAPS assessment, an interview that assesses the PTSD symptoms according to the DSM -- IV regulations. Secondary measures, including the Beck Depression Inventory, Impact of Event Scale, Catastrophic Cognitions Questionnaire, and State-Trait Anxiety inventory were used. Patients were exposed to either Imaginal Exposure, in Vivo Exposure, Imaginal Exposure with in Vivo Exposure, or Imaginal Exposure with in Vivo…
Barlow, David H. (YEAR). Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders Third Edition.
Bryant, Richard a. et al. (2008). A Randomized Controlled Trial of Exposure
Therapy and Cognitive Restructuring for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. 76(4), p. 695-703.
In young children the anxiety reaction may be associated with extreme agitated and/or disorganized behavior, while in adults the individual may actually experience "black out" symptoms and act upon his or her internal anxiety cues. As with many disorders there is a formal set of diagnostic criteria for PTSD and symptom length of endurance and severity are weighed in as crucial to the diagnosis. (Vasterling & Brewin, 2005, p. 4)
Neurobiological and Cognitive Effects
These outward symptoms and reports of the emotions that trigger them tend to be the most observable and therefore recorded aspects of the disease, yet it is also clear that much more is at work. A more modern take on PTSD, by the experts willing to look hard enough is that the traumatic event response may have to some degree created a neurobiological record creating in the brain a sort of hard wired response sequence for…
Vasterling, J.J. & Brewin, C.R. (Eds.). (2005). Neuropsychology of PTSD: Biological, Cognitive, and Clinical Perspectives. New York: Guilford Press.
(North et al., 2009).
esults / Findings
North and company (2009) mentioned that preceding studies had frequently disregarded or misrepresented main characteristics of the criteria, particularly the needed qualifying experience to a definite traumatic event and evaluation of symptoms specific to it. Simple indication checklists are known for its capability to mix up psychopathology with normal responses or other problems; the total symptom scores and thresholds describing caseness fall short guaranteeing accomplishment of the indicative algorithm; establishing assumed diagnosis on number and strength of symptoms sanctioned instead of compliance to the algorithm risks the homogeneity of categorization they sought for; they considerately highlighted the significant distinction among "PTSD symptoms" and "posttraumatic stress disorder," that correspond to extremely unlike units; although determining the symptoms might be useful claims, this only cannot be replaced in evaluating entire diagnostic criterion -- what has been achieved commands that they must keep on evaluating the…
North, C., Suris, a., Davis, M., & Smith, R. (2009). Toward Validation of the Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(1), 34-41. Retrieved March 18, 2009, from Research Library Core database. (Document ID: 1621890941).
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD):
Different, Yet Commonly Confused Disorders
It is important that providers are mindful of the fact that very different mental illnesses can present similar features in a clinical setting. According to Theodore A. Henderson’s article, “TBI and PTSD Appear Similar but Treatments Must Differ,” confusion between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is particularly common among providers treating military personnel and veterans. This is exacerbated by the fact that the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale contains many symptoms which exhibit features of PTSD, making diagnosis for providers which rely upon such instruments very challenging. An estimated 73% of veterans with TBI also have PTSD. Yet even civilians may receive inappropriate diagnoses, as the anxiety and trauma reported after a car accident may be diagnosed as PTSD even though it is actually caused by a TBI.
There are significant risks in confused…
Henderson, Theodore A. “TBI and PTSD Appear Similar but Treatments Must Differ.” Addiction Professional, 15.1 (2017), 32-37.
Knopf, Alison. “TBI ‘Sequelae’ Require Special Care by Behavioral Health Providers.” Behavioral Healthcare, 32.4 (2012), 42
Mental Disorders: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
PTSD or post-traumatic stress disorder tends to surface among individuals with experiences of a frightening, life-threatening or shocking event. This severe, possibly incapacitating ailment may become apparent among eye-witnesses or survivors of life-threatening occurrences like natural calamities, fatal accidents, terror attacks, wars, personal assault (e.g., rape, abduction, etc.) or unexpected death in the family (National Institute of Mental Health, 2016; ADAA, n.d).
What are the signs and symptoms of the illness?
People naturally experience feelings of fear in the course of, and subsequent to, traumatic events. Fear causes several instantaneous physical changes that aid the person in evading, coping with, or protecting oneself from, it. Such a “fight-or-flight” reaction is common and aimed at self-protection against harm. Almost everybody experiences myriad reactions following traumatic encounters, though a majority of victims undergo natural recovery from its preliminary symptoms. Individuals whose issues persist might go on to…
Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA). (n.d.). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Retrieved November 13, 2017, from https://adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-p
National Institute of Mental Health. (2016). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Retrieved November 13, 2017, from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/index.shtml
Mental Disorders and Crisis Intervention: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Summarize the signs and symptoms of the mental disorder
PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) indications may prove to be highly distressing. An individual suffering from this condition may find these indications disrupting their lives and resulting in challenges when it comes to carrying out everyday activities. The mental health condition known as PTSD is marked by the following three key groups of indicators, namely, intrusive, arousal and avoidance symptoms.
Specific memories, imageries, noises, feelings and smells linked to the traumatic occurrence may end up intruding into a PTSD-diagnosed individual’s life. Patients might be so intensely captured by recollections of their past trauma that it becomes hard for them to concentrate on their present. Patients commonly report the surfacing of disturbing trauma-linked memories from time to time. Besides distress, physical symptoms may surface as well, including sweating, muscular tension and a growth…
Lowcountry Graduate center. (2016, October 12). A Social Worker’s Role in Restoring Health to Military Veterans. Retrieved November 21, 2017, from https://www.lowcountrygradcenter.org/the-social-workers-role-in-restoring-health-to-military-veterans/
Veterans Affairs Canada. (2017, February 02). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and war-related stress. Retrieved November 21, 2017, from http://www.veterans.gc.ca/eng/services/health/mental-health/publications/ptsd-warstress
The PTSD essay outline is a basic outline like any other persuasive paper. It will include an introduction that tells the main purpose of the essay. It will also include three to five supporting points that allow the writer to fulfill that purpose. The outline is a great tool for any writer trying to convey important information about PTSD because it organizes the writer’s thoughts and words in a coherent manner. Once written, the outline acts a basic blueprint for the essay. The best way to approach creating an outline is to follow the basic template provided here below. See our template and example to help you discover how to craft your own.
PTSD Essay Outline Template
Grab the reader’s attention with an important fact or statistic that shows the seriousness of the issue.
Segue into identifying the supporting topics that you will touch upon in your essay.…
Military Times. (2018). 1 in 4 troops have an opioid prescription in a given year. Retrieved from https://www.militarytimes.com/pay-benefits/2018/12/04/one-in-four-troops-have-an-opioid-prescription-in-a-given-year/
RAND. (2008). One In Five Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans Suffer from PTSD or Major Depression. Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/news/press/2008/04/17.html
PTSD as TBI
Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) bear similar appearances in terms of symptoms. However, treating the two issues requires completely different methods and interventions and therefore it is important to be able to tell the two problems apart. However, as the symptoms are sometimes indistinguishable a thorough and complete understanding of both is necessary so that a health care provider can make an appropriate determination as to which is which.
PTSD emerged in the 1980s as an explanation for behavioral problems that it was then believed stemmed from some kind of external experience that harmed the psychological makeup of the individual. It was used to diagnose soldiers, for instance, who returned home from wars abroad and found it difficult to cope with civilian life. They often turned to drinking or to drugs or gambling or some other form of self-destructive behavior.…
AIS Health and Stress. “Why PTSD Stands for Poor Treatment from Slipshod Diagnoses. AIS Health and Stress, Feb 2013, 1-3.
Christova, Peka, et al. \\"Diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on correlations of prewhitened fMRI data: outcomes and areas involved.\\" Experimental Brain Research 233.9 (2015): 2695-2705.
Groves, Carla. \\"Exploring issues related to PTSD versus personality disorder diagnoses with military personnel.\\" Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment 25.7 (2015): 731-745.
Walter, Kristen H., et al. \\"Comparing effectiveness of CPT to CPT?C among US veterans in an interdisciplinary residential PTSD/TBI treatment program.\\" Journal of Traumatic Stress 27.4 (2014): 438-445.
I have seen first-hand the effects that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has on soldiers’ lives. Soldiers, both during deployment and when back home in civilian life, have unique perspectives and experiences from which they draw on when they go about their responsibilities and tasks. PTSD is like a bomb that disrupts that process, shatters the senses, and makes it impossible for the average soldier to be successful. For some soldiers, this struggle is ongoing because they do not know what has caused the change: they know they have experienced something during their tours of duty in Iraq or in Afghanistan for instance—but they do not know what triggers their spiral out of control later on. As Kang et al. (2015) have pointed out, there are more than one million veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan who are at risk of committing suicide because of PTSD. When they return home it is…
Groves, C. (2015). Exploring issues related to PTSD versus personality disorder diagnoses with military personnel. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 25(7), 731-745.
Hines, L. A., Sundin, J., Rona, R. J., Wessely, S., & Fear, N. T. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder post Iraq and Afghanistan: prevalence among military subgroups. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 59(9), 468-479.
Jakupcak, M., Conybeare, D., Phelps, L., Hunt, S., Holmes, H. A., Felker, B., ... & McFall, M. E. (2007). Anger, hostility, and aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans reporting PTSD and subthreshold PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 20(6), 945-954.
Kang, H. K., Bullman, T. A., Smolenski, D. J., Skopp, N. A., Gahm, G. A., & Reger, M.A. (2015). Suicide risk among 1.3 million veterans who were on active duty during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Annals of epidemiology, 25(2), 96-100.
Mehan, M. & Schneider, D. (2007). Military overmedicating troops, counselors charge. Retrieved from https://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/story?id=3936723&page=1
Orazem, R. J., Frazier, P. A., Schnurr, P. P., Oleson, H. E., Carlson, K. F., Litz, B. T., & Sayer, N. A. (2017). Identity adjustment among Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with reintegration difficulty. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 9(S1), 4.
Part 1– Case Analysis: Traumatization of Combat Veterans
Today, despite ongoing efforts by the health care community and policymakers to reverse the ugly trend, dozens of combat veterans take their own lives every day, and many of these victims suffered from various trauma-induced conditions including most especially post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the relevant literature concerning the effects of exposure to war on U.S. combat veterans. To this end, a discussion concerning the demographics for this population and the pervasiveness of the problem and an analysis concerning whether particular groups are more vulnerable than others are followed by an examination of factors of the trauma that are most influential in determining the severity of the symptoms. Finally, an assessment of the particular range of reactions to this type of trauma and a discussion concerning what communities and systems could…
Effectiveness of EMDR Psychotherapy for the Treatment of PTSD
Most people who undergo traumatic life experiences often find it difficult to cope and adjust and may, from time to time, not only contend with uncontrollable thoughts about the experience, but also experience severe anxiety. In essence, this could effectively impede their day-to-day functioning. It should be noted that in the past, various interventions have been applied with an intention of treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst adults. The said interventions include, but they are not limited to, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychological first aid (PFA), and critical incident stress debriefing (CISD). This text concerns itself with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). In so doing, the text will seek to assess and evaluate current research on EMDR as applied to adults suffering from PTSD. It should be noted that in the past, the…
Chen, Y., Hung, K., Tsai, J., Chu, H., Chung, M., Chen, S., …Chou, K. (2014). Efficacy of Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Patients with Posttraumatic-Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Public Library of Science, 9(8), 43-49.
Hildebrand, A., Grand, D. & Stemmler, M. (2017). Brainspotting – The Efficacy of a New Therapy Approach for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Comparison to Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 5(1), 45-53.
Kohler, K., Eggert, P., Lorenz, S., Herr, K., Willmund, G., Zimmerman, P. & Alliger-Horn, C. (2017). Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in German Armed Forces Soldiers with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder under Routine Inpatient Care Conditions. Military Medicine, 182(5/6), 1672-1680.
Rodenburg, R., Benjamin, A., Roos, C., Meijer, A.M. & Stams, G.J. (2009). Efficacy of EMDR in Children: A Meta-Analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 599–606.
Shapiro, F. (2014). The Role of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy in Medicine: Addressing the Psychological and Physical Symptoms Stemming from Adverse Life Experiences. The Permanente Journal, 18(1), 71–77.
Siedler, G.H. &Wagner, F.E. (2006). Comparing the Efficacy of EMDR and Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of PTSD: A Meta-Analytic Study. Psychological Medicine, 36(11), 1515-22.
Vieweg, W.R., Julius, D.A., Fernandez, A., Beatty-Brooks, M., Hettema, J.M. & Pandurangi, A.K. (2006). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Clinical Features, Pathophysiology, and Treatment. The American Journal of Medicine, 119, 383-390.
Wilson, G., Farrell, D., Barron, I., Hutchins, J., Whybrow, D. & Kiernan, M.D. (2018). The Use of Eye-Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy in Treating Post-traumatic Stress Disorder— A Systematic Narrative Review. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(9), 412-418.
The Hippocampus Region of the Brain and PTSD Prevention
This paper examines the relationship between neuroscience and PTSD. In particular it looks at recent findings in neuroscience regarding PTSD onset and prevention. The latest research shows that brain volume is impacted by PTSD and that individuals afflicted with PTSD literally see a diminishment of brain volume in both hemispheres of the brain. Other findings show that individuals who are most susceptible to PTSD have a deficiency in their hippocampal region of the brain, where associative learning has been linked. The conclusion is that the hippocampus is not stimulated enough to develop and thus this region of the brain is smaller than it normally is in most people. This could also explain why the majority of people who experience trauma are not afflicted with PTSD: they have adequately developed their hippocampus through associative learning and are able to process trauma…
Carmassi, C., Akiskal, H. S., Yong, S. S., Stratta, P., Calderani, E., Massimetti, E., ... & Dell'Osso, L. (2013). Post-traumatic stress disorder in DSM-5: estimates of prevalence and criteria comparison versus DSM-IV-TR in a non-clinical sample of earthquake survivors. Journal of affective disorders, 151(3), 843-848.
Chopko, B. A., & Schwartz, R. C. (2012). Correlates of career traumatization and symptomatology among active-duty police officers. Criminal Justice Studies, 25(1), 83-95.
Feeny, N. C., Zoellner, L. A., Fitzgibbons, L. A., & Foa, E. B. (2000). Exploring the roles of emotional numbing, depression, and dissociation in PTSD. Journal of traumatic stress, 13(3), 489-498.
Giordano, A. L., Prosek, E. A., Stamman, J., Callahan, M. M., Loseu, S., Bevly, C. M., ... & Chadwell, K. (2016). Addressing trauma in substance abuse treatment. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 60(2), 55.
Kang, H. K., Bullman, T. A., Smolenski, D. J., Skopp, N. A., Gahm, G. A., & Reger, M. A. (2015). Suicide risk among 1.3 million veterans who were on active duty during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Annals of epidemiology, 25(2), 96-100.
Kessler, R.C. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder: the burden to the individual and to society. J. Clin. Psychiatry 61 (SUPPL. 5), 4–14.
Klimova, A., Korgaonkar, M. S., Whitford, T., & Bryant, R. A. (2019). Diffusion tensor imaging analysis of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological psychiatry: cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging, 4(1), 81-90.
Lambert, H. K., & McLaughlin, K. A. (2019). Impaired hippocampus-dependent associative learning as a mechanism underlying PTSD: A meta-analysis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 107, 729-749.
The relevance of ethics in research cannot be overstated. This is more so the case given the need to ensure that all researchers do not deviate from key social and moral values. My research interest has got to do with the potential consequences of an untreated post-traumatic stress disorder. Various studies have in the past sought to assess how untreated post-traumatic disorder affects those suffering from the same. One such study, titled Consequences of Untreated Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following War in Former Yugoslavia: Morbidity, Subjective Quality of Life, and Care Costs, seeks to “assess long-term mental health outcomes in people who suffer from war-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but do not receive appropriate treatment” (Priebe et al., 2009). One of the ethical standards from the readings that the article meets is the procurement of voluntary consent from research participants prior to commencement of the study. In seeking to describe their…
Priebe et al. (2009). Consequences of Untreated Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following War in Former Yugoslavia: Morbidity, Subjective Quality of Life, and Care Costs. Croatian Medical Journal, 50(5), 465-475.
Pimple, K. D. (2016). Research ethics. London: Routledge
Resnik, D. (2011). What is Ethics in Research & Why is It Important. Niehs. Nih. Gov/Research/Resources/Bioethics/Whatis., 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0086
Smith, D. (2003). Five principles for research ethics. https://doi.org/10.1037/e300062003-028
ESSAY Question: Why is it that we associate PTSD to war veterans first and foremost? In fact, if we look at the numbers of those served in the armed forces and the gender distribution we will see that the numbers are contradictory. Why is it that we have more men who experienced war trauma, yet we have more women diagnosed with this disorder? Women (10.4%) are twice as likely as men (5%) to experience PTSD at some point in their lives, what do you think are the contributing factors ? Support your views with complimentary internet research.
PTSD first became widely known as a possible diagnosis in the wake of the Vietnam War, but the condition (as its name suggests) is specific to trauma, not to wartime trauma alone. In fact, sexual abuse is one of the most common reasons people experience PTSD. The fact that women experience sexual assault…
Vicarious trauma (VT) includes the harmful changes in the views of professionals, such as K-12 educators, of themselves, the world, and others, due to exposure to traumatic material or graphic of their clients or students. Post-traumatic stress (PTS) is a set of psychological symptoms acquired through exposure to individuals exhibiting the impacts of trauma. K-12 educators who work with students exposed to trauma are susceptible to indirect traumatization due to hearing about the experiences of their students and witnessing the negative influence of VT or PTS in them. Distress associated with PTS results from hearing traumatic stories, seeing distress at high levels post a traumatic event, retelling a victim’s story, and/or viewing trauma-related images. Personal trauma history, supervision experiences evidence, and perceived coping style evidence are predictors for vicarious trauma. Personal trauma history and exposure to trauma material with reasonable evidence are precursors for PTS. K-12 educators’ stressors can force…
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Children
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is most commonly associated with war veterans. esearchers have, however, increasingly recognized this condition in women, children, and men from all backgrounds and for a variety of reasons. According to oberts et al. (2011), the condition results from the experience of an event that is traumatic, and that makes the individual feel helpless, horrified, or afraid. A common factor among sufferers of PTSD is persistence. The individual persistently avoids stimuli he or she associates with the event, for example. There is also a tendency to re-experience the event persistently. There are also several health consequences associated with the condition. These include a tendency towards suicide, substance abuse, impaired functioning and general health problems (oberts et al., 2011). When it occurs in children, post-traumatic stress disorder can have significant long-term consequences on their development. Several studies have investigated the demographic nature of…
Berkowitz, S.J., Stover, C.S., and Marans, S.R. (2011, Jun.). The Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention: Secondary Prevention for Youth at Risk of Developing PTSD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines. 52(6). Database: NBCI. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096712/
Fazel, M., Reed, R.V., Panter-Brick, C., and Stein, A. (2011, Aug. 10). Mental health of displaced and refugee children resettled in high-income countries: risk and protective factors. The Lancet. 379. Retrieved from: http://18.104.22.168:9998/91keshi/Public/File/36/379-9812/pdf/1-s2.0-S0140673611600512-main.pdf
Miller, G.E., Chen, E., and Parker, K.J. (2011, Nov.). Psychological Stress in Childhood and Susceptibility to the Chronic Diseases of Aging: Moving towards a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin. 137(6). Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3202072/
Odenbach, J., Newton, A., Gokiert, R., Falconer, C., Courchesne, C., Campbell, S., and Curtis, S. (2014). Screening for post-traumatic stress disorder after injury in the pediatric emergency department -- a systematic review protocol. Systematic Reviews. 3(19). Database: BioMed Central. Retrieved from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/2046-4053-3-19.pdf
Similarly, researchers should be aware of the consequences of halo, prejudice to the leniency or seriousness of fundamental trend and position or propinquity of deviation from the pace that can artificially increase reliability of measure devoid of improving reaction correctness or validity. (Williams, and Poijula, 2002).
Limitations/Strength and Weaknesses
The following conditions might have affected the results of the present study:
1. The sample will not be random,
2. all demographic information will be self reported and not verified,
3. all the subjects for the study came from 3 local Kansas mental health facilities located in South Central Kansas,
4. all data for the BDI-II is self reported,
5. data is for individuals with specific DSM-IV diagnosis,
6. data is for individuals who are currently seeking treatment for the specified DSM-IV disorders (Schiraldi, 2000)
major strength is that respondents will be selected from ? number of different places for better…
Schiraldi, Glenn. (2000) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill; 1 edition p. 446
Williams, Mary Beth and Poijula, Soili (2002) the PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms. New Harbinger Publications; 1 edition. p. 237
Foa, Edna B. Keane, Terence and Friedman, M. Matthew J. (2000) Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. The Guilford Press; 1 edition. p. 388
Wilson, John P. And Keane, Terence M. (1996) Assessing Psychological Trauma and PTSD. The Guilford Press; 1st edition. p. 577
..in an optimum range, between excessive denial and excessive intrusiveness of symptoms" (366); b) "normalizing the abnormal" (let the survivor know that it is perfectly normal to react emotionally to triggers that bring the trauma to mind; there is nothing wrong with the person, and indeed, the recurring symptoms are normal and just part of the healing process); c) "decreasing avoidance" (the person should be allowed to and encouraged to be open
PTSD - Dynamics & Treatments about the trauma, not to try to tuck it away or be in denial); d) "altering the attribution of meaning" (change the mindset of the victim from "passive victim" to "active survivor"); and e) "facilitating integration of the self" (371) (this is used primarily in coordination with hypnosis and "dissociation" in a strategy for "reintegrating" parts of the personality into the "self" - the theory being that PTSD tends to split apart components…
Another scholarly research article - published in the Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology (Reed, et al., 2006) weighs in on treatment strategies for spousal psychological abuse. The authors assert that presently there is a dearth of empirical evidence backing up the effectiveness for any existing treatments for the trauma a woman experiences when psychologically abused by her spouse or significant other. That said, the article suggests that "forgiveness therapy" (FT) is a "promising new area" (920) of treatment for this particular form of PTSD. The authors emphasize, however, that forgiveness therapy cannot be confused with "pardoning, forgetting...condoning or excusing" the wrongdoing that led to PTSD. The key concept in presenting FT is to have the woman examine "the injustice of the abuse," then give consideration to forgiveness as one possible option, and through compassion, make a choice to forgive or not to forgive. When a woman embraces FT, it certainly would be in sync with Christian values.
Finally, a recent article published in Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training (Heckman, et al., 2007), presents a literature review of existing empirical studies of treatments for incarcerated persons suffering PTSD. There are over 2 million people in U.S. prisons - 93% of them male and 100,000 juveniles - and of those inmates, some 21% of males are victims of PTSD, 48% of females prisoners are PTSD victims, and up
PTSD - Dynamics & Treatments to 65% of juveniles suffer due to PTSD. The authors believe that "cognitive treatments" (such as relaxation training, psycho education, art therapy, anger management) deserve more study. Also worthy of more research are "exposure and desensitization" treatments (clients simultaneously focus on traumatic material and an "external stimulus using saccadic eye movements of alternating bilateral stimulation"). Among the offshoots of exposure and desensitization treatments - seemingly effective in a correctional institution setting - is "traumatic incident reduction" (TIR); this entails the PTSD survivor / victim being exposed to repetitive "guided imagery" of the event that originally caused the trauma. Seeing that event over and over can reduce the depression, anxiety, avoidance and intrusive thoughts that are associated with PTSD, the authors explain.
In his book, Finley relates to the stories of four soldiers that suffered PTSD, including a U.S. Marine named Tony Sandoval "who can barely complete a full sentence about the horrors he saw" and by an Army soldier (Jesse Caldera) who "is haunted by fears he killed a child" (General OneFile).
An article in the journal Policy Review references an early example of PTSD, suffered by an Athenian warrior that was "struck blind 'without blow of sword or dart' when a soldier standing next to him was killed" (Satel, 2011, p. 41). That story was told by Herodotus, and Satel suggests it was an ancient example of PTSD, which in I it was also called "battle fatigue," "combat exhaustion," and "war stress," according to the author.
One of the pertinent questions raised in this article relates to the how the severity of PTSD is determined by healthcare professionals -- and…
Harvard Women' Health Watch. "Left Behind After Suicide." Retrieved April 6, 2011, from General OneFile.
Publishers Weekly. "Fields of combat: Understanding PTSD Among Veterans of Iraq
and Afghanistan." 258.13. Retrieved April 6, 2011, from General OneFile. 2011.
Satel, Sally. "PTSD's Diagnostic Trap." Policy Review. Vol. 165. Retrieved April 6, 2011,
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction
Alcoholism and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Overview
PTSD and Co morbidity of Alcoholism: The ole of Trauma
Childhood Abuse and Gender Differences in PTSD
Association Between Alcoholism and Emotion
Genetic and Environmental Influences
Models of Assessment/Conclusions
Abstract TC "Abstract" f C l "1"
This study will examine the relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and alcoholism/addiction. The author proposes a quantitative correlation analysis of the relationship between PTSD and alcoholism be conducted to identify the influence of trauma on subsequent alcohol abuse in patients varying in age from 13-70.
A survey of the literature available on PTSD and alcohol/substance abuse on patients is conducted leading to a conclusion that a direct relationship does exist between Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Alcoholism/Addiction. This conclusion coincides with a large body of evidence and prior studies which link the prevalence of traumatic disorders with alcohol and substance…
References" f C l "1":
Brady, S.; Rierdan, J. Penk, W; Losardo, M; Meschede, T. (2003). "Post traumatic stress disorder in adults with serious mental illness and substance abuse." Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 4(4): 77-90
Brown, P.J. (2001). "Outcome in female patients with both substance use and post-traumatic stress disorders." Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 18(3):127-135
Bulijan, D.; Vreek, D.; Cekic, A.A.; Karlovic, D.; Zoricic, Z; Golik-Gruber, V. (2002).
'Posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol dependence and somatic disorders in displaced persons." Alcoholism: Journal on Alcoholism and Related Addictions, 38(1-2)35-40
17% of men and 13% of women have experienced more than three traumatic events in their lives, and the onset of PTSD is generally based on the degree and the extent of the trauma, and the duration, and the type. For example, when there is a rape, then there is a 49% chance that the women will experience PTSD, and when there is a physical assault, it would be 31.9%. For sexual assault, the percentage would be 23.7 and when the person has been in an accident, and then the percentage would be 16.8%. (What is PTSD?)
Other traumatic events may be a child's life threatening illness, or a natural disaster, or a witness or a victim of a shooting or a stabbing, and so on. (What is PTSD?) These people may also experience of several kinds of physical symptoms related to their traumatic experience, and some of them are:…
Gore, Allen. T; Richards, Georgeianna. (27 April, 2005) "Post Traumatic Stress
Disorder" Retrieved at http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic1900.htm . Accessed 6 November, 2005
Managing Traumatic Stress" American Psychological Association. Retrieved at http://www.apa.org/practice/traumaticstress.html. Accessed 6 November, 2005
What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?" A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and isk of Dementia among U.S. Veterans
According to Yaffe et al. (2010), Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a prevalent psychiatric syndrome linked to increased mortality and morbidity rates. This condition is among the most prevalent amid veterans returning from combat. Among veterans returning from Afghanistan and Iraq, the prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder is estimated to be about 17% (Seal et al., 2009). Veterans returning from Vietnam have a twenty to thirty percent rate. Past studies have confirmed that PTSD is linked to increased health care consumption and an augmented danger of developing a variety of other medical conditions among veterans such as dementia. The risk factors that link PTSD to increased rates of dementia include head injuries, depression or medical comorbidities.
This work highlights the findings of the study carried out by Yaffe et al. (2010). The project specifically focuses on the conclusions…
Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Deurenberg, R. (2009). A practical guide to Pubmed/Druk 1/ING. London: Bohn Stafleu van Loghum.
Gerrish, K., & Lacy, A. (2013). The research process in nursing. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Glasziou, P.G., Mar, C.D. & Salisbury, J. (2009). Evidence-Based Practice Workbook. John Wiley & Sons.
Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than research that was compiled by Occupational Medicine. Where, they found that various factors can help trigger those who are suffering from PTSD including: a lack of support and traumatic disassociation with the events. (isson 399 -- 403) in the Death of all Turret Gunner, the author is experiencing a lack of support and is having their traumatic disassociation, replayed consistently in the person's mind.
This can help to increase understanding of the issue; by showing how once those vets who are exposed to PTSD, must have counseling. Then, this must be followed up by a cognitive approach of sympathetically listening to their issues. As a result, this underscores how some kind of proactive approach needs to be utilized, to reduce suffering.
When you compare the Death of all Turret Gunner to the Only Things They Carried and Dulce et…
Bisson, Jonathan. "Post Traumatic Stress Disorder." Organizational Medicine 2007: 399 -- 403. Web. http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/57/6/399
Hunsley, John. "Post Traumatic Stress Disorder." A Guide to Assessment that Works. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2008. 293 -- 298. Print.
Jarrell, Randall. "The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner." 1945.
Owen, Wilson. "Dulce et Decorrum."
Their experiences emphasize the importance of human contact. They enjoy such intimacy with their comrades in arms and expect the same respect and comradery form mental health and counseling professionals.
However, the literature review that was available in the article was more positive with regard to this. A 2009 study was referenced that used debriefing as a treatment regimen. In this program, the debrief uses a specific set of questions used to guide participants to acknowledge the events of combat they experienced and then review them, emphasizing the stressors involved (ibid, 725). Additionally, a 2007 survey polled individual contacts outside of a treatment clinic, of which the visits were in order to deal with PSTD or other psychiatric disorders (ibid, 723). Again, talking about the issues experienced in combat or in stressful situations seemed to this author to have provided the most tangible and effective results, at least in the…
Cognitive processing therapy. (2011, August 19). Retrieved from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/cognitive_processing_therapy.asp .
Hourani, L.L., Council, C.L., Hubal, R.C., & Strange, L.B. (2011). Approaches to the primary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder in the military: a review of the stress control literature. Military Machine, 176, 721-730.
Treatment of ptsd. (2010, October 5). Retrieved from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/treatment-ptsd.asp ,
The EMD technique is used in conjunction with psychotherapy and it has proven very effective for statistically significant numbers of patients in controlled studies (Breslau, Lucia, & Alvarado, 2006; Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
Ethical Issues in Treating PTSD in eturning Combat Veterans with MDMA
A much more ethically controversial approach involves the use of low doses of MDMA in conjunction with traditional psychotherapy. That is because MDMA is an illicit drug with a very well-deserved reputation for being notoriously popular with recreational users and addiction. While their may be beneficial therapeutic uses of MDMA in certain patients, the population of U.S. armed services veterans suffering from PTSD are also, demographically and psychologically, at the greatest risk of drug addiction and to mental instability that could be worsened by non-therapeutic use of consciousness-altering substances, particularly in connection with unauthorized and unmonitored or controlled use.
It is not necessarily never appropriate to…
Breslau, N., Lucia, V., and Alvarado, G. "Intelligence and Other Predisposing Factors in Exposure to Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Follow-up Study at Age 17 Years."Arch Gen Psychiatry, Vol. 63; (2006):1238-1245.
Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Vol 76,
No. 1; (2010): 13-21.
Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: The James a. Haley Veterans' Hospital's Solution to PSTD
The James A. Haley Veterans' Hospital (JAHVH) is dedicated to serving the nations veterans. It was activated in 1972 and provides patient care services, and also serves as a teaching hospital. According to the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs, VA (2014), JAHVH consists of five Veteran Health Administration (VHA) facilities located in Brooksville, Zephyrhills, New Port ichey, Lakeland and Tampa. Their primary mission is to provide America's military veterans with proper medical care and services, in line with their commitment to meet their changing surgical, medical, and quality of life needs (VA, 2014).
In particular, the Veterans' Hospital facilitates programs that help veterans deal with post traumatic stress disorder (PSTD). This is a disorder that is common among military veterans, which develops due to terrifying ordeals involving actual or the threat of physical harm (National Institute of…
Hinton, D.E & Fernandez, R.L. (2010). The Cross-Cultural Validity of Posttraumatic
Stress Disorder: Implications for Dsm-5. Review. Retrieved 14 April 2014 from http://www.researchgate.net/publictopics.PublicPostFileLoader.html?id=5473a258d11b8b88758b45d6&key=a9111768-a052-4cde-a93f-344bc3357ba3
The National Institute of Health (2009) PTSD: A Growing Epidemic. NIH Medline Plus. Vol. (4)1 10-14. Retrieved 15 April 2014 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/magazine/issues/winter09/articles/winter09pg10-14.html
The U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs, VA (2014). VA History. Usa.gov. Retrieved 14 April 2014 from http://www.va.gov/about_va/vahistory.asp
Furthermore, the severity of the initial condition cannot be determined in relation to long-term affects.
VA clinics are the best source of information pertaining to older veterans and PTSD. It is not known where all veterans of previous wars are at the current time, but VA does have scattered statistics on older veterans. According to VA WWII veterans received a hero's welcome home, as opposed to Vietnam Veterans who were the targets of an angry public (National Center for PTSD, 2007b). The welcome that they received had a tremendous affect on the ability to cope and recover from the traumas associated with war. According to VA, the affects of PTSD on older veterans is often more subtle than in Vietnam Veterans or those from more recent conflicts. For instance, the older veteran may experience irrational fears, which can later be traced to trigger memories related to the war. Therefore, there…
Calhoun, P.S., Beckham, J.C., & Bosworth, H.B. (2002). Caregiver burden and psychological distress in partners of veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15, 205-212.
Henkel V, Mergl R, Kohnen R, Maier W, Moller HJ, Hegerl U. (2003). Identifying depression in primary care: a comparison of different methods in a prospective cohort study. BMJ 326:200-201.
Hoge, C., Castro, C., Messer, S., McGurk, D., Cotting, D., and Koffman, R. (2004). Combat Duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, Mental Health Problems and Barriers to Care. 351:13-22. Retrieved June 30, 2008 at http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/351/1/13
Kang HK, Natelson BH, Mahan CM, Lee KY, Murphy FM. (2003) Post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness among Gulf War veterans: a population-based survey of 30,000 veterans. Am J. Epidemiol 157:141-148.
g., when there are deaths of several soldiers or emergency workers of a unit). Combat is a stressor that is associated with a relatively high risk of PTSD, and those interventions that can potentially diminish this risk are very important. But what is not clear in the above is how much the debriefing provided is more a form of stress management for the ?critical incidents? that are very much part of warfare, as opposed to interventions for those psycho- logically traumatized and at risk of PTSD. People in the military are exposed to stressors other than combat, and these may be traumatic (Atwater, 2009). eports of soldiers who were involved in body recovery in the Gulf War provide important insights. This is a high-stress situation, linked to vulnerability to posttraumatic morbidity.
Asnis, et al. (2004) reported that soldiers of one group who had been debriefed were compared with another, which,…
Army News Service. (2007). Army launches chain teaching program for PTSD, TBI education.
Atwater, Alison. (2009). When is a Combat Veteran? The Evidentiary Stumbling Block for Veterans Seeking PTSD Disability Benefits, 41 ARIZ. St.
Asnis, G.M., Kohn, S.R., Henderson, M., & Brown, N.L. (2004). SSRIs vs. non-SSRIs in post traumatic stress disorder: an update with recommendations. Drugs, 64(4), 383-404.
Bergfeld, C. (2006). A dose of virtual reality: Doctors are drawing on video-game technology to treat post-traumatic stress disorder among Iraq war veterans. Business Week.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a commonly occurring mental health problem facing military personnel and veterans. The constant problems that plague those with PTSD can cause them to lead a lower quality of life with potential development of depression and anxiety commonly prevalent in those with the mental disorder. This qualitative study aims to research ways to provide positive pathways to care for members of the UK Armed Forces receiving treatment for PTSD by examining United States PTSD programs and studies performed on efficacy of these programs. This study will show what has worked in American PTSD programs under the Department of Veterans Affairs and what can be applied for the UK Armed Forces.
The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has various programs available to help military personnel and veterans cope with PTSD. Information collected from studies assessing these programs' effectiveness will be used to provide more effective…
Khusid, M. A., & Vythilingam, M. (2016). The Emerging Role of Mindfulness Meditation as Effective Self-Management Strategy, Part 1: Clinical Implications for Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety. Military Medicine, 181(9), 961-968. doi:10.7205/milmed-d-14-00677
Murphy, D., Hunt, E., Luzon, O., & Greenberg, N. (2014). Exploring positive pathways to care for members of the UK Armed Forces receiving treatment for PTSD: a qualitative study. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 5(1), 21759. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v5.21759
Petticrew, M., & Roberts, H. (2009). Systematic reviews in the social sciences: A practical guide. Malden, Mass. [etc.: Blackwell Publishing.
Saini, M., & Shlonsky, A. (2012). Systematic synthesis of qualitative research. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Professionals should treat African-American females with PTSD with utmost support and therapy that is beneficial to the victim. Further, the issue of substance abuse must be addressed in a manner that is acceptable to the victim.
Treatment of problems associated with substance abuse and PTSD must be designed in a consistent way that provides a solution to both substance abuse and PTSD altogether. Although the professionals are required to focus more on treating PTSD, they must incorporate treatment of alcohol and substance abuse.
Prevention for relapses is of utter importance because they prepare the victim to enter state of soberness and cope with symptoms of PTSD. These symptoms have been reported to become worse as African-American females attempt to abstain from substance abuse.
For many African-American females with PTSD and substance abuse disorder, it is recommended that they consult the membership directories. This is an international society for PTSD that…
Adams, R. & Boscarino, J. (2005). Differences in mental health outcomes among Whites and African-Americans. Washington, DC: Human Kinetics.
Adams, R. & Boscarino, J. (2006). Predictors of PTSD and delayed PTSD after disaster.
Virginia: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Alcantara, C. & Gone J. (2007). Reviewing suicide in Native American communities. California:
Anthropologist working with the VA
Definitions / Interests / Key Problems and Issues
Previous Work Performed by Anthropologists in this Area
The Employment Situation, Current Salaries and Opportunities for Advancement
ibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles
Relevant professional organizations, ethics statements and newsletters
Names / locations of PAs and others working in the content area locally and elsewhere.
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Other helpful information you think about on your own
The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan had a dramatic impact on the way someone sees themselves and the world around them. This is because many veterans have been forced to serve multiple tours and are still dealing with the lasting experiences from them. Two of primary injuries most are suffering from are post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TI). Anthropologists are seeking to understand the…
Bibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles.
2014. Summary. BLS. Electronic document, http://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/anthropologists-and-archeologists.htm . accessed April 3, 2012
2010. Hidden Battles on Unseen Fronts. Drexel Hill: Casemate.
The other principal difference between the sources reviewed is that the first included narratives authored by different clinicians and experts and incorporated their anecdotal professional experiences as well as their description of the manner in which their treatment approaches relies on empirical research in each of their different areas of clinical expertise. As a result, that work is an appropriate reference for the available treatment options for PTSD and for the optimal combination of different approaches in specific types of cases.
By contrast, the second source consists only of a literature review of previous research without any narrative contribution from experts apart from the conclusions in each of the studies reviewed. More importantly, this source does not address or consider any non-pharmacological PTSD interventions, much less any combinations of multiple modalities concurrently. In fact, the authors expressly reference the apparent absence in the available literature of any studies specifically investigating…
Davis L.L., Frazier E.C., Williford R .B., and Newell J.M. "Long-Term
Pharmacotherapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder." CNS Drugs, Vol. 20, No.
6 (2006): 465-476.
Foa E., Keane T.M., Friedman M.J., and Cohen J.A. (2008). Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress
Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces has declared that the country should put in more effort to treat the occurrences of Post-traumatic stress disorder and suicides among soldiers. In just a span of one week, there were four Canadian military suicides (Fekete, 2013). These soldiers went on to commit suicide after returning from war. It is known that hundreds and thousands of men and women have lost their lives in numerous battles till date. Suffering even after war is over and not being able to take over one's nerves is just horrible. Countries like Canada and U.S. are quite concerned over the increasing rates of PTSD amongst veterans. This event shows that PTSD amongst veterans is a serious problem and is becoming quite common.
What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a condition that develops after a person experiences one or more traumatic events. PTSD is…
Douglas, J. (1993). Childhood physical abuse and combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. Am J. Psychiatry, 150 235 -- 239.
Fekete, J. (2013). Military's 'stiff upper lip' attitude over PTSD needs to stop, Governor-General David Johnston says. [online] Retrieved from: http://news.nationalpost.com/2013/12/12/militarys-stiff-upper-lip-attitude-over-ptsd-needs-to-stop-governor-general-david-johnston-says / [Accessed: 16 Dec 2013].
Kardiner, A. (1941). The traumatic neuroses of war.. Psychosomat Med Mono, 11 (111).
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) on one's well being can be problematic if not successfully understood and incorporated within a person's psyche. The purpose of this essay is to critically review the literature on the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of PTSD from a "biopsychosocial" perspective. This approach is holistic in nature and is helpful in understanding that nature of disorders and their place within the medical profession. Disorders are important because they suggest a relative problem and not an objective problem. Order is subjective and the need to view PTSD from a more objective viewpoint is helpful in learning what its study can truly do for those who are suffering from the ill effects of trauma. While trauma is inherent in the human condition, successful ways of dealing with this issue of life development have not been adequately expressed in a cohesive manner. This essay attempts to bridge these gaps of…
Edwards, D. (2013). Responsive integrative treatment of clients with PTSD and trauma-related disorders: An expanded evidence-based model. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 23(1), 7- 19.
Haugen, P.T., Splaun, A.K., Evces, M.R., & Weiss, D.S. (2013). Integrative approach for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in 9/11 first responders: three core techniques. Psychotherapy, 50(3), 336.
Jakovljevi?, M., Brajkovi?, L., Jaksi?, N., Lon-ar, M., Aukst-Margeti?, B., & Lasi?, D. (2012). POSTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS (PTSD) FROM DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES: A TRANSDISCIPLINARY INTEGRATIVE APPROACH. Psychiatria Danubina, 24(3.), 246-255.
Peri, T., & Gofman, M. (2014). Narrative Reconstruction: An integrative intervention module for intrusive symptoms in PTSD patients. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6(2), 176.
vignette I have experienced a traumatic event and do have some symptoms; however, my presentation is not consistent with the diagnostic criteria in the DSM -- 5 (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Therefore, I do not have PTSD; or at least at this point I do not qualify for a formal diagnosis of PTSD. There are a couple of reasons for this:
First, at this point I have experienced a traumatic event (criterion A). Following the event I have had a nightmare, some flashbacks, and some autonomic nervous system symptoms such as increased respiration and dizziness. So there are two intrusion symptoms (flashbacks and nightmares; criterion B), and some anxiety -- related type symptoms such as heavy breathing and feeling dizzy which appear to be best satisfied by criterion E (APA, 2013). Some of the diagnostic criteria for PTSD such as criterion C (avoidance), criterion D (negative alterations of cognition)…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Ozer, E.J., Best, S.R., Lipsey, T.L., & Weiss, D.S. (2008). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: A meta-analysis. Psychological trauma: Theory, research, practice, and policy, Vol S (1), 3-36
Resick, P.A., Monson, C.M., & Rizvi, S.L. (2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder. In DH
Barlow (Ed.), Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual (pp. 65-122). New York: Guilford Press.
Overall each of the articles contribute significantly to the study of PTSD. The impact of memory and learning issues for those that have the disorder should not be downplayed as such issues can negatively impact the quality of life for those with the disorder.
Each of the articles provide answers to disqualify certain hypotheses and qualified others as worth further study Overall Assessment.
With each of the articles the medical and mental health community came one step closer to targeting and discovering exactly where the problem is in learning and memory issues for people with PTSD. Even when the answer is, "no" that is not where the problem is, it helps narrow down where in fact the problem does originate from.
ACHEL YEHUDA,1 JULIA a. GOLIE,1 LISA TISCHLE,1
KAINA STAVITSKY,1 and PHILIP D. HAVEY1
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 274 Taylor & Francis Taylor and Francis…
RACHEL YEHUDA,1 JULIA a. GOLIER,1 LISA TISCHLER,1
KARINA STAVITSKY,1 and PHILIP D. HARVEY1
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 274 Taylor & Francis Taylor and Francis 325 Chestnut StreetPhiladelphiaPA191 NCEN Taylor & Francis Ltd. 36370 10.1080/138033990520223 2005 126 R. Yehuda et al. Learning and Memory in Veterans with PTSD Learning and Memory in Aging Combat
Veterans with PTSD
Child and PTSD
THE CURSE OF EMOTIONAL TRAUMA
Nature equipped the body with an inherent mechanism to avoid danger or defend oneself against it (NIMH, 2013). ut in some persons, this naturally protective mechanism goes haywire and the reaction to fight or flee remains even in the absence of real danger. This abnormal condition is called post-traumatic disorder (NIMH).
The condition grows out of a horrifying experience of physical violence or threat in the person, a loved one or even a stranger as witnessed by the person who later develops the condition (NIMH, 2013). PTSD was first recognized as a mental and emotional condition among returning war veterans. ut it can also develop from other traumatic experiences, such as rape, torture, beating, captivity, accidents, fires, road accidents or natural disasters (NIMH).
Social Workers and PTSD
The social worker performs a number of professional roles. They act as brokers,…
AACAP (2013). Posttraumatic stress disorder. Number 70, Facts for Families"
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Retrieved on October 12,
2014 from http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_Youth/Facts_for_Families/Facts_for_Families_Pages/Posttraumatic_Stress_Disorder_70.aspx
CSC (n.d.). Roles of a social worker. Chadron State College: Nebraska State College
Dorrepaal, Thomaes, Smit, van Balkom, et al. (2010) address the topic of Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD) which often occurs following a history of child abuse. Complex PTSD has associated features in addition to the normal symptoms of PTSD that make it much more difficult to treat. As social workers will most likely encounter clients/patients suffering from PTSD symptoms and patients suffering from child abuse this topic is relevant to social work practice.
The researchers are primarily interested in knowing if stabilizing treatment normally used for PTSD and other psychiatric disorders is effective for patients with Complex PTSD, particularly women with PTSD and childhood sexual abuse. The research question is evaluative.
As this study is in the brief communications section does not contain an in depth literature review. The literature review in this study simply describes the features associated with Complex PTSD and presents the questions of…
Dorrepaal, E., Thomaes, K., Smit, J.H., van Balkom, A.J., van Dyck, R., Veltman, D.J., & Draijer, N. (2010). Stabilizing group treatment for complex posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse based on psycho-education and cognitive behavioral therapy: A pilot study. Child abuse & neglect, 34(4), 284-288.
Runyon, R.P., Coleman, K.A., & Pittenger, D.J. (2000). Fundamentals of behavioral statistics
(9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). New York:
Brown, J., Cohen, P. Johnson, J.G. (1999, ecember). Childhood abuse and neglect: specificity of effects on adolescent and young adult depression and suicidality. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(12), 1490-1496.
The authors conducted this study in order to investigate the magnitude and independence of the effects of childhood neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse on depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents and adults. Over a 17-year period, a cohort of randomly selected children was assessed for a range of environmental, familial, and childhood risks and psychiatric orders. The history of abuse was verified through official records of abuse and by the retrospective self-report of the 639 youths in the study. The subjects were between the ages of one year and 10 years at the beginning of the study, with a median age of five years.
The results of the study showed that adolescents…
Dehlinger, E., Steer, R.A., and Lippmann, J., (1999). Two-year follow-up study of cognitive behavioral therapy for sexually abused children suffering post-traumatic stress symptoms. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23(12), 1371-1378.
The researchers were interested in learning if 2-year gains found in the earlier research by Dehlinger, et al. (1996) would also be shown in this research with 100 children who had been diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of being abused as children. The research by Dehlinger, et al. (1996) involved 12-session pre-test and post-test randomly assigned therapeutic treatments with sexually abused children and their non-offending mothers. The random group assignments were cognitive-behavioral treatments for the child only, for the mother only, for the mother and the child, or for a community comparison condition. The study participants were followed and assessed at 3-months, 6-months, one year, and two years after treatment.
The data was analyzed through the use of a repeated MANCOVA, while controlling for the pre-test scores. Three measures of psychopathology were taken at the assessment intervals, examining specifically for the following: depression, externalizing behavior problems, and PTSD symptoms. The researchers found that the Dehlinger, et al. (1996) study was basically replicable, with the pre-treatment and post-treatment improvements shown and maintained during the 2-year period.
Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatment
Clinical Presentation of Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatments
On January 13, 2015, Andrew Brannan, a 66-year-old Vietnam veteran was executed in Georgia for killing police officer Kyle Dinkheller in 1998 (Hoffman, 2015). At the time, Brannan had been living in a bunker on his mother's property without water or electricity and had stopped taking his medications. According to the Veterans Administration (VA), he was 100% disabled due to combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He also suffered from bipolar disorder, had lost two brothers to a military plane crash and suicide, and lost a father to cancer. Veterans groups, death penalty critics, and mental health advocates, all petitioned the Georgia Supreme Court for a stay of execution unsuccessfully. The veterans groups were particularly interested in preventing the death of yet another veteran who developed severe psychiatric problems while serving his or her country.
Trauma in general…
APA (American Psychiatric Association). (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Cook, J.M., Dinnen, S., Simiola, V., Bernardy, N., Rosenheck, R., & Hoff, R. (2014). Residential treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in the Department of Veterans Affairs: A national perspective on perceived effective ingredients. Traumatology, 20(1), 43-9.
Dursa, E.K., Reinhard, M.J., Barth, S.K., & Schneiderman, A.I. (2014). Prevalence of a positive screen for PTSD among OEF/OIF and OEF/OIF-era veterans in a large population-based cohort. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27, 542-549.
Ehring, T., Welboren, R., Morina, N., Wicherts, J.M., Freitag, J., & Emmelkamp, P.M. (2014). Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Clinical Psychology Review, 34(8), 645-57.
The normative sample for the DAPS included 620 participants from a stratified random sampling from Department of Motor Vehicles registries and telephone listings (Smith). Of these 620 participants, 446 reported at least one DSM-IV-T experience in the past. Smith also reports that 70 university students were sampled as well. The assessment authors conducted another sample to measure reliability. The study included 257 undergraduate students, 191 clinical patients, and 58 participants recruited through flyers and newspaper advertisements (Smith). Both samples were primarily female, 74% in the university sample and 80% in the community sample, as well as Caucasian, 84% in the university sample and 77% in the community sample (Smith). The mean age was 19.6 in the university sample and 35 in the community sample.
Boothroyd reports the following reliability and validity data for the DAPS. The majority of the 13 scales have Cronbach coefficients above .8, and internal…
Axford, S.N.. (n.d.) Review the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Boothroyd, R.A. (n.d.) Review of detailed assessment of posttraumatic stress. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Courtois, C.A. (2008). Complex trauma, complex reactions: Assessment and treatment. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, (1), 86-100. doi:10.1037/1942-9681.S.1.86
Doll, B. (n.d.) Review the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
PTSD in the Middle East
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common mental health or psychological disorders facing people in the Middle East region. This condition emerges from episodes of social upheaval, combat, and violence that have become common in the Middle East over the past few years. Some of the major areas in the Middle East that have been characterized by increased conflicts in recent years include Palestine, Iraq, and Lebanon. Given increased conflicts and combat in the Middle East, PTSD and other trauma-related mental health conditions are expected to become public health crisis in the Arab world (Suto, 2016). Therefore, public health professionals in the Middle East face the need to develop appropriate measures for diagnosis and treatment of PTSD and other trauma-related disorders. However, the treatment of this condition and other traumatic mental health disorders is significantly affected by culture. This paper examines how…
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is classified under the rubric of Trauma and Stress related disorders in the fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The rubric of Trauma and Stress related disorders is itself relatively new, starting only with the DSM-5, with previous editions classifying the disorder as an anxiety disorder (Sascher & Goldbeck, 2016). Unlike anxiety disorders, all disorders classified under the Trauma and Stress umbrella are differentiated by the presence of a precipitating traumatic event (McGraw-Hill Education, 2012). In other words, one of the main diagnostic criteria of PTSD is exposure to a traumatic or stressful event: such as “death, threatened death,” violence or violation: witnessed or directly experienced (National Center for PTSD, n.d.). Military veterans are of course repeatedly exposed to such traumatic events, which is why the prevalence of PTSD is relatively high among this population cohort. In…