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Public Private Comparator
Public Sector Comparator (PSC) in the Public-private partnership (PPP) Process
Increased global financial pressures have caused many government entities to cut costs in any way possible. One way is to outsource services or projects to private companies. However, when comparing costs, the public sector frequently bases its cost calculations for a project by omitting certain types of factors. These can include employee benefits, utilities, or total administrative costs. As result, public sector services may erroneously appear to be less expensive than private services. The public cost comparator (PSC) provides a better comparison of the costs of public and private services. If the private sector can provide services cheaper than the public sector, then the public sector may choose to engage in a public -- private partnership (PPP). This allows them to share the costs, benefits, and risks of the project.
More than one method exists for comparing…
Ball, R. (2009). The provision of public service infrastructure -- the use of PPPs in the UK and Australia. International Journal of Public Sector Management. 24 (1): 6-22.
Brusewitz, M . 2005. Public-private partnerships in the United States. Project finance. Legal Advisers Review. 2004/2005: p. 70-71. Available from: http://www.orrick.com/fileupload/394.PDF [Accessed 3 December 2011].
Bult-Spiering, M. & Dewulf, G., 2006, Strategic issues in public-private partnerships: an international perspective, Wiley-Blackwell.
Burger, P. & Hawkesworth, I. 2010. How to Attain Value for Money: Comparing PPP and Traditional Infrastructure Public Procurement. OECD. Annual OECD network meeting of Senior PPP Officials in Paris. 12-13 April 2010.
It relies on the vision of the state you choose to subscribe and it depends upon the costs and benefits of a few highly imperfect social institutions: market trends and the public sector. (Bovaird, Loffler, 2003, p. 25) The public sector is a ubiquitous social institution having grown in size and complexity within the last fifty years. Nevertheless, this is a linear development. Whereas the development belonging to the welfare state in the late 1960s and 1970s took an unprecedented growth of men and women in most OECD states, the 1980s and 1990s was marked by concerns and attempts to reduce the strength of the public sector, or, at a minimum, to make it more helpful and all these have fiscal implications.
A good number of policies have spending implications. In cases where money becomes scarce, financial constraints can create problems in public enterprises. Though the opposite-financial crises also have…
Albrecht, W. Steve; Albrecht, Conan C; Albrecht, Chad O. 2009. Fraud Examination. Cengage Learning.
Bovaird, Tony; Loffler, Elke. 2003. Public Management & Governance. Routledge: New York.
Corby, Susan; White, Geoff. 1999. Employee Relations in the Public Services: Themes and Issues. Routledge: London.
Fairholm, Gilbert W. 2001. Mastering Inner Leadership. Quorum Books: Westport, CT.
etrieved at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/EOPA/UNPAN014284.pdf. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Pearson Des. 2000. "Contemporary Issues in Public Sector Accountability: New Challenges for Accountability." 22 January. etrieved at http://www.audit.wa.gov.au/pubs/ipaa23022000.html. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Setting the Course: Integrating Conformance with Performance." 2000. September, 7. etrieved at http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/attorneygeneralHome.nsf/Page/Speeches_2000_Speeches_Setting_the_Course:_Integrating_Conformance_with_PerformanceAccessed on 30 May, 2005
Sozzani, Joseph "Privatization in the United States and Australia: A Comparative Analysis of the Modern Movement in Corrections." etrieved at http://www.bond.edu.au/law/blr/vol13-1/Sozzani.pdf. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
S.pt.103-358 Governmental Affairs Committee" 1994. August, 23. etrieved at http://members.tripod.com/whistle20/sr103-358excerpts.htm. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
The Audit Office Today." etrieved at http://www.audit.wa.gov.au/insideoag/. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Vouched for and Carried to Account: A History of the Western Australian Audit Office 1829-2004." etrieved at http://www.audit.wa.gov.au/history/index.html. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Wongchanglaw, Somphon. 2002. "Strengthening Public Scrutiny and Government Accountability eformation." etrieved at http://www.thinkcentreasia.org/documents/Strengthening%20public%20scrutiny.html. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Heeks, Richard. 1998. "Information Systems for Public Sector Management: Defining Accountability." Institute for Development Policy and Management. July. Retrieved at http://idpm.man.ac.uk/publications/wp/igov/igov_wp01.pdf. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Lamond, Jeff. "Transparency and Ethical Governance: Promoting Accountability in Australia" Australian Public Service Commission. Retrieved at http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/EROPA/UNPAN014284.pdf. Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Pearson Des. 2000. "Contemporary Issues in Public Sector Accountability: New Challenges for Accountability." 22 January. Retrieved at http://www.audit.wa.gov.au/pubs/ipaa23022000.html . Accessed on 30 May, 2005
Setting the Course: Integrating Conformance with Performance." 2000. September, 7. Retrieved at http://www.ag.gov.au/agd/WWW/attorneygeneralHome.nsf/Page/Speeches_2000_Speeches_Setting_the_Course:_Integrating_Conformance_with_PerformanceAccessed on 30 May, 2005
Welcome any and all suggestions [...]
4. Decide together on the best solution. Seek consensus in doing this" (Bruce and Pepitone, 1998)
The solution presented above has the direct benefit of involving the employees in the decision making process. This will make them feel that they are valuable assets for the organization and will increase their morale. However, to ensure that the staff members increase their performances as well, the leaders at the CAB have to offer them a wide series of incentives. These could include (but are not limited to): wage increases, premiums and bonuses, more flexible schedules, more extensive benefit plans, opportunities for promotions, training and professional development programs, day care centers for their children or more holydays and personal days
5. Changes in the Managerial Style and the Organizational Culture
Following the 1980s, the business community and the public sector have been struggling with reduced levels of…
Bruce, a., Pepitone, J.S., 1998, Motivating Employees: A Briefcase Book, McGraw Hill Professional
Cascio, W.F., Boudreau, J.W., Ramstad, P.M., 2008, Investing in People: Financial Impact of Human Resource Initiatives, FT Press
David, F., 1989, Strategic Management, Columbus Merrill Publishing Company
Joyce, P., Woods, a., 2001, Strategic Management: A Fresh Approach to Developing Skills, Knowledge and Creativity, Kogan Page Publishers
The article presents several points-of-view that question the efficiency of the police teams and their situation management. However, the author of the article discusses some of the causes that determined the actions of the police. The budget reductions are considered an important cause.
Another article in the Guardian discusses the effects that the budgetary reductions are likely to produce. The article is written by Fiona Harvey and refers to the effects on rural transportation. The writer addresses the job reductions in countryside buses. The most important effects of this action are represented by the fact that education and healthcare services will become difficult to reach in these areas, while air quality could be reduced. This also affects people's possibilities of finding jobs, of traveling to school or college, and in reaching health services (Harvey, 2011).
The importance of the issue addressed by this article is represented by the fact that…
1. Police not Politicians Quelled the Riots (2011). Public Service. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from http://www.publicservice.co.uk/news_story.asp?id=17147 .
2. Riots Mean Police Cuts Should Stop (2011). Public Service. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from http://www.publicservice.co.uk/news_story.asp?id=17134 .
3. Expenses, Phone Hacking, Riots, All the Same Problem (2011). Public Service. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from http://www.publicservice.co.uk/news_story.asp?id=17149 .
4. Harvey, F. (2011). Rural Transport Cuts Put Essential Services Out of Reach. The Guardian. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2011/aug/11/rural-transport-cuts-isolate .
If, on the other hand, the net present value of the public sector comparator is lower than the net present value of the public-private partnership, then the PPP is too expensive and ineffective and it does not represent the adequate solution for the provision of the public service (Grimsey and Lewis, 2007).
The public sector comparator identifies the value of money for the project in the case in which it would be completed by the state alone. In order to attain this objective, it implements four specific components:
a) The raw PSC
The raw public sector comparator represents the base cost of delivering the services, as specified in the project brief and under the public procurement method; under these conditions, the asset or the services are fully owned by the federal institution.
b) The competitive neutrality adjustment
The competitive neutrality adjustment represents a mechanism by which the net advantages and…
Bult-Spiering, M., Dewulf, G., 2006, Strategic issues in public-private partnerships: an international perspective, Wiley-Blackwell
Buxbaum, N.J., Ortiz, I.N., 2009, Public sector decision making for public-private partnerships, Transportation Research Board
Duncan, W.D., 2005, Joint ventures law in Australia, 2nd edition, Federation Press
Grimsey, D., Lewis, M., 2007, Public private partnerships: the worldwide revolution in infrastructure provision and project finance, Edward Elgar Publishing
Public sector recruitment tends to be less focused on a specific sector of society than private sector recruitment. The skill sets in the public staffing system is then also somewhat different from that in the private sector. Because the private sector tends to be more specialized in its rendering of service, the kind of staff required has a more specialized skill set and level of education. While the private sector would thus tend to reject public sector staffing systems, it is also a fact that trade unions are looking for ways in which the two sectors can work together in improving services to the public.
Several sources of applicants are available to the recruiter. These include advertisements, newspapers and specialist magazines, databases, external organizations and executive searches. Advertisements can occur by means of for example notice boards, and these advertisements need to take into account equality and the need to…
While the modern day educational system still has a long way to go, it is recognized that it has made significant improvements. And one important source in the shaping of public education unionization was represented by industrial unionism. This industrial unionism has its roots in the Industrial evolution. When the factories opened and the people moved from the villages to the cities in search of better life, the bases of the labor force were set. But the initial labor force was exploited, not protected and underpaid.
Gradually, the people came to make demands of their rights to be protected and the unions took shape. They were initially met with resistance and even violent responses from factory owners, but they eventually received legal support and have come to better protect the rights of workers (Guasch, 1999). Today, the public education unions are still struggling, but they are on their difficult path…
Guasch, J.L., 1999, Labor market reform and job creation: the unfinished agenda in Latin American and Caribbean countries, World Bank Publications
Koppich, J.E., The as-yet-unfulfilled promise of reform bargaining
Pynes, J.E., Lafferty, J.M., Grievance arbitration
After having discussed Florida International University's Masters in Public Administration program with some of your graduates, I am very impressed with the analytical skills that your graduates acquire. I believe that analytical skills are so important because problems cannot be solved unless they have been properly analyzed, and problem-solving is the primary duty of a public-sector professional.
One of my additional intermediate goals is to increase my knowledge of the skills required to be a successful public administrator. While my work experience has given me knowledge of one area of public-sector employment, I feel that knowledge is incomplete. While I know that I want to work in a public-sector job, helping to make the community I live in a better one, I am not certain what role I want to play. Through my education, I hope to learn exactly what is required to work as personnel director, special project coordinator,…
(Barry C. Burden., et al.).
Another hypothesis the researcher explored is that as individuals perceive of burden as highly administrative. They will become less supportive of those specific tasks. The experience exhibited by such administrative burdens creates a negative mindset which influences how other aspects of the policy are perceived. As a result of this Framing effect the policy may appear to be more flawed because of it's emphasize on the negative elements rather than the benefits. In a wider view, administrators who perceive a policy as Burdensome may also see it as simply not being worth the burden, regardless of its importance and Philosophical pre-dispositions that might influence an employee to support or oppose a policy in Principle.
In this respect to other frames, the administrative burden perception can create a systematic bias which can lead to misinformed decisions and judgments, therefore the dimensions of evaluation which involves the…
Barry C. Burden, David Canon, Kenneth R. Mayer, and Donald P. Moynihan. The Effect of Administrative Burden on Bureaucratic Perception of Policies: Evidence from Election Administration. Retrieved August 24, 2012 from https://mywebspace.wisc.edu/bcburden/web/admin_burden.pdf
For the public sector, performance management is a valuable process. Organizations increasingly rely on performance data to make decisions relating to various organizational processes, including strategic planning, internal management, resource allocation, reporting, as well as monitoring and evaluation. This is what performance management is all about -- continuous measurement of performance, definition of performance objectives and outcomes, communication of the outcomes, and taking action based on those outcomes. As demonstrated by literature, implementing PBM can be viewed as implementing organizational change: it requires assessment of the status quo, defining the organization's desired future state, and undertaking action to achieve that state. For this to be achieved, however, a number of factors are important: strong leadership commitment, organizational culture changes, as well as attention to individual, operational, and strategic dimensions. If effectively implemented, PBM can positively influence employee and organizational outcomes.
Performance Management: Brief Literature Review
With the operational environment becoming…
Organizational Change in the Public Sector
This research proposal explores the feasibility of management in the public Sector as an organizational paradigm and new model in organizational development. The literature review reviews numerous journal articles that explore on the key concepts of change management strategies from a public sector project management perspective. The authors suggest that employee's participation, effective feedback across the board, and empowerment of subordinate staffs is a major step in transforming public organizations. This proposal further hypothesis that establishment of long-term and productivity advantages are crucial throughout the organization.
SCOPE AND PURPOSE
Factor 1: Need for change
Factor 2: implement a Plan for change
Factor 3: create political internal environment for Change
Factor 4: Support and Commitment from managers
Factor 5: enhancing External Support
Factor 6: Provide Resources for change
Factor 7: establish Change
Factor 8: ascertain comprehensive Change
Determinants of implementing…
Abramson, Mark A., and Paul R .Lawrence .2001. The Challenge of Transforming
Administration and its influence on organizational change. Management Decision,
50(10), 1843-1860, Review 62: 555-67.
Armenakis, Achilles A ., and Arthur G .Bedeian .1999 .Organizational Change: A Review of Associates.
In this order of ideas, both private and public companies desire to possess and use the latest technologies on the market as to increase the performances of their operations. Take for instance the case of a new and better accounting software. This will not only be sold to private companies, but also to the entities in the public sector. As such, the strategic approach of the technologies used by the two types of companies is also similar, with the specification that private companies are sometimes better financially equipped to make the desired purchases.
In terms of financial strategies, both organizations wish to attract various investors to fund their operations. Whereas the private companies issue stocks, bonds or engage in other types of financial operations to retrieve funds from interested investors, the public companies often find it more difficult to attract the needed funds. Take for instance the case of a…
Kickert, W.J.M., Klijn, E.H., Koppenjan, J.F., 1997, Managing Complex Networks: Strategies for the Public Sector, SAGE Publications
Whicker, M.L., Areson, T.W., 1990, Public Sector Management, Praeger Publishers
Leadership is a challenging endeavor in any sector. In the public sector, however, leadership tends to be particularly more challenging. Public sector leaders often have to work with fewer resources to address increasingly complex challenges. In addition, effective leadership in the public sector is vital for not only driving employee motivation and performance, but also ensuring efficient performance of government agencies and the government in general (McCarthy, 2015). Indeed, leadership is important for effective public governance -- transparency, accountability, planning, efficiency, and so forth (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD], 2001). Another challenge stems from the fact that public sector leaders operate within a conundrum of bureaucratic rules, processes, and processes, which affect processes such as communication, delegation, and teamwork (Teelken, Ferlie & Dent, 2012). In essence, leaders in the public sector face different challenges compared to their counterparts in the private sector, making public sector leadership an especially…
Leadership in Public Sector
here has been a declining public sector performance and a constant stream of complains from the general public. Over the years, there have been attempts to restructure the public sector in a bid to improve the performance and the satisfaction among the public. he main concern is whether the focus on leadership in the public sector, and the HRM in particular can bring noticeable changes to the public sector and improve the outcome and the results that are manifest.
he public sector in America has various challenges that bundled together leads to the general failure of the entire sector. However, these problems all point towards a crippled leadership, however there are remedies to it as shown in the selected annotated bibiographie below.
Government Fleet, (2011). Solutions to the op Challenges Facing Public Sector Fleets.
Retrieved May 5, 2011 from http://www.government-fleet.com/Article/Print/Story/2011/03/Solutions-to-the-op-Challenges-Facing-Public-Sector-Fleets.aspx
Outlines the various challenges that are…
This is a report of the WHO workshop that was held in December 2000 in France to look at ways in which the HRM can contribute positively to the improvement of the Health Care Sector in the entire world. This paper focuses on the capacity building for the HRM leadership and team with a bid to ensuring that the same training can capacity building would lead to a new dispensation of the leadership and skills needed to well and appropriately manage the Health Care sector, which in effect is one of the world's biggest private sectors.
The public sector, just like all other private and NGOs can deliver the services with a lot of efficiency and in a timely manner. The leadership in the various departments of the public sector is very instrumental in the ultimate effective service of the public sector. The public sector is see as a highly multifaceted field that poses a lot of challenges and the leadership that is determined and possesses the positive attributes and follows the stipulated procedures in order to perform and make the public sector a beneficial entity to the Americans in general.
Management Account in the Public Sector and Management Accounting in the Private Sector: A Comparative Review
The late 20th and early 21st centuries have brought increasing change to almost every country in the world, Australia included. Globalism describes, in fact, the increasing unification of the world through economic means (reduction of trade barriers, support of international trade, and mitigation of export and import quotas). They goal for globalization is to increase material wealth and the distribution of goods and services through a more international division of labor and then, in turn, a process in which regional cultures integrate through communication, transportation and trade. The overall theory is that if countries are tied together cooperatively economically, they will not have needed to become political enemies. Additionally, the idea of globalism and international trade has changed the way Australian's view public and private businesses and the opportunities afforded them because of investment,…
Alexander Performance Management, Inc. 2004, Private vs. Public Sector, viewed May 2012, .
Broadbent, J & Laughlin, R 1988, 'Public Private Partnerships: An Introduction', Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, vol 16, no. 3, pp. 332-41.
Financial Accounting Standards Board 2012, Convergence with the International Accounting Standards Board, viewed May 2012, http://www.fasb.org/international/convergence_iasb.shtml .
Funnell, W & Cooper, K 1998, Public Sector Accounting and Accountability in Australia, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.
Human esource managers are therefore faced with the challenges of 1) finding suitably talented individuals for public sector positions; and 2) training these individuals to continually deliver excellent services to the public (Moir, 2008).
Please discuss some of the importance of the labor relations in the public sector.
Labor relations in the public sector are specifically influenced by external environmental factors such as the economic-financial context, the legal context, and the political context (Lewin, 1988, p. 23). At the core of these aspects is that fact that they interact in terms of the main responsibility of public servants: to act as a catalyst for service provision from the government to the public. Managers within the public sector should therefore be consistently aware of employee needs, demands, and rights, since these do not only concern the employees and managers themselves, but also the image of the government in the minds…
Faizal, M. (2005). Institutionalization of Performance Appraisal System. Retrieved from: http://www.ub.uib.no/elpub/2005/h/701001/Masteroppgave.pdf
Lewin, D. (1988). Public Sector Labor Relations: Analysis and Readings. Lexington Books.
Moir, S. (2008, Mar. 20). Five key challenges for public sector HR professionals: one step forward, two steps back. Retrieved from: http://www.personneltoday.com/articles/2008/03/20/44960/five-key-challenges-for-public-sector-hr-professionals-one-step-forward-two-steps-back.html
Labor Relations in Public Sector
Collective bargaining in the public sector organizations will be quite different from that of the private sector organizations. The factors that drive the collective bargaining process in the private sector might not be present in the public sector. Private sector organizations are more concerned on the profit maximization philosophy whereas the public sector firms are more focused on serving general public therefore their priorities would be totally different and management approaches to collective bargaining would also be different. Moreover, private sector firms project for long-term budget forecasting, whereas in the public sector it is managed through third party legislature depending on the voters. These create challenges for the public sector to formulate a policy document that looks after the labor relations.
The Public Employees Fair Employment Act, commonly known as the Taylor Law, is a labor relations ruling policy document that covers public employees in…
CBA in Public Sector
According to iley, what are the main steps of a CBA?
The CBA process entails:
Computation of social costs and benefits
Sensitivity assessment of the occurring events
Discounting the long-term value of benefits: social costs and benefits accumulate over time. Many people would like to have the benefits immediately rather than later -- thus, there is a need to discount the value of the future benefits.
Comparison of social costs and benefits to establish the total rate of return.
Comparison of rate of return to be expected from different initiatives -- governments often have limited funds to use for different departments, thus, they often face the difficult choice of selecting the projects to be done first and the ones which should be postponed (iley, 2006).
Go through each objection cited by iley for using CBA for environmental impact and discuss whether it would be true for…
Ackerman, F. (2008). Critique of Cost-benefit, and alternative approaches to decision making: a report to friends of the Earth England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Retrieved from http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/reports/policy_appraisal.pdf
Head, B. (2008). Three lenses of evidence-based policy. The Australian Journal of Public Administration, 67(1), 1-11.
Pearce, D. G., Hepburn, C., & Koundouri, P. (2003). Valuing the future: recent advances in social discounting. World Economics, 4(2), 121-141.
Riley, G. (2006, September). Cost Benefit Analysis. Retrieved from ttp://tutor2u.net/economics/revision-notes/a2-micro-cost-benefit-analysis.html
Managing Out -- the Public Sector in the Community
Two major economic positions have dominated the public sector for more than a decade. One side believes that the government should take primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens, while the other contends that greater reliance on the private sector is the method by which an economy can be more effectively managed. The first idea has largely been gleaned from the works of Keynes. He was an economist who believed that government intervention was required to maintain a stable economy and that the state was better equipped to be the central figure in economic management because it has a duty to the citizens which the private sector does not (Pressman, 2011). The counter to this politically liberal position is that of Frederich Hayek. He believed that free markets were the best regulators of the economy ( Griffiths, 2007) and that…
Bhatti, Y., Olsen, A.L., & Pedersen, L.H. (2009). The effects of administrative professionals on contracting out. Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, 22(1), 121-137.
Broughton, C., & Chalmers, J. (2001). Reconsidering the revolution? Australian public sector administration in 2000. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 60(1), 81-88.
Caldwell, B. (2011). Hayek on socialism and on the welfare state: A comment on Farrant and McPhail's "Does F.A. Hayek's Road to Serfdom deserve to make a comeback?" Challenge, 54(1), 82-97.
Davis, G., & Wood, T. (1998). Is there a future for contracting in the Australian public sector? Australian Journal of Public Administration, 57(4), 85-97.
Complexity Theory in the Public Sector
The objective of this work is to examine complexity theory in the public sector. According to Paul Cairney in the work entitled "Complexity Theory in Public Policy" the term complexity "has relevance to a wide range of theories in public policy which describe the replacement of the simple "clubby days' of early post-war politics by complex relationships at multiple levels of government and among a huge politically active population." (2010, p.1) The focus on complexity, according to Cairney (2010) is "indirect and vague." (p.l) It is of the nature that indicates that there should be a shift in analysis "from individuals parts of a political system to the system as a whole; as a network of elements that interact and combine to produce systemic behavior that cannot be broken down into the actions of its constituent parts." (Cairney, 2010, p.1)
Defining Complexity Theory
Agaard, Peter (nd) The Promise and Facts of Emergent Strategy in Public Management. Retrieved from: http://egpa2010.com/documents/PSG11/Aagaard.pdf
Burren, Arwin van (nd) Knowledge Management for Government: Public-Private Communities of Practice and the Challenge of Co-Evolution. Paper presented at the British Academy of Management Annual Conference. 30 Aug -1 Sept. Retrieved from: http://repub.eur.nl/res/pub/7710/BSK-CDMN-2006-002.pdf
Cairney, Paul (2010) Complexity Theory in Public Policy. Political Studies Associations Conferences, University of Edinburgh. 1 Apr 2010. ID 43: Public Administration Specialist Group Panel: Complexity and Change in Public Policy. Retrieved from: http://www.psa.ac.uk/journals/pdf/5/2010/121_665.pdf
Mitchell, M. (2009) Complexity (Oxford: Oxford University Press) in: Cairney, Paul (2010) Complexity Theory in Public Policy. Political Studies Associations Conferences, University of Edinburgh. 1 Apr 2010. ID 43: Public Administration Specialist Group Panel: Complexity and Change in Public Policy. Retrieved from:
, although more governments are including citizen satisfaction survey results to address the lack-of-quality-indicators criticism. Ultimately, the article's key findings can be summarized in the four lessons learned from the states that the authors provide: (1) the importance of working proactively to identify roles and responsibilities; (2) the importance of committed leadership; (3) the importance of balancing political, managerial and performance measurement accountability; and (4) The importance of clarity and simplicity.
The article also brings to light the legitimacy of other readings in this unit; most notably, Wamsley and colleagues' (1987) Public Administration and the Governance Process. Although this essay was written almost a quarter of a century ago, the statements expressed about accountability and transparency are as relevant today as they were at the time of the writing. Wamsley et al.'s "concern for the more inclusive principals we commonly call the public interest" (p. 301) largely mirror the concerns…
Behn Robert. "The New Public Management Paradigm and the Search for Democratic Accountability," International Public Management Journal. 1998. (1:2):131-164
Brown, Trevor and M. Potoski. Transaction Costs and Institutional Explanations for Government Production Decisions. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 13:4 (2003): 441-468.
Johnston, Jocelyn, Barbara Romzek and Curtis Wood. The Challenges of Contracting and Accountability Across the Federal System: From Ambulances to Space Shuttles. Publius: The Journal of Federalism. 2004 (34:3): 155-182.
Klingner, Donald, John Nalbandian and Barbara Romzek, Politics, Administration and Markets: Conflicting Expectations and Accountability. American Review of Public Administration. 32:2 (2002): 117-144. .
1960s 1970s, reasons growth unionization public sector? Choose discuss.
There are a number of highly salient factors that can account for the burgeoning union membership in the public sector of employees that took place between the 1960's and the 1970's. One of the chief proponents for this success was the American Federation of Government Employees, which had a number of different member organizations as constituents and which played a large part of this surge in union membership. Governmental employees in general also accounted for this dramatic upswing in the public sector. These employees function at several different levels including at the state, municipal and the federal level, and their organization into labor unions significantly aided in the degree of hegemony these groups were able to establish and project during these two decades.
Additionally, several types of legislation were passed during these two decades that fostered the growth of union membership…
Sloane, A.A. & Witney, F. (2010). Labor relations (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
History Of Human Resource Management in the Public Sector
efore business was conducted in the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of commerce that exists today, large firms in the public domain were able to keep a much more direct eye on their employees. This historic reality involved much more personal and face-to-face interactions within much smaller operating environments. There were far less multibillion dollar corporations, and thus workforces were typically much less segmented and estranged . This made labor pools much easier to supervise and monitor. Consequently, periodic progress and performance reports were the primary human resource management tools utilized during much of the 20th Century . Recently, however, the globalization of public sector business has forced companies to restructure their human resource management systems. eing that performance-screening devices (that have been dated back to the Chinese Empire in 1115 .C.) started to show their age, firms must now…
Bratton, J., & Gold, J. (2000). Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice. Mahwah, NJ, United States: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
Carroll, a.B., & Buchholtz, a.K. (2008). Business and Society: Ethics and Stakeholder Management. Mason, OH, United States: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Chen, C.-J., & Huang, J.-W. (2009). Strategic Human Resource Practices and Innovation Performance. Journal of Business Research, 62 (1), 104-114.
Despres, C., & Hiltrop, J.-M. (1995). Human Resource Management in the Knowledge Age. Employee Relations, 17 (1), 1-23.
CBVH then continues to work with VESID to assess performance on an ongoing basis, participate in on-site reviews, and provide technical assistance or recommend adjustments to contracts as needed.
In the near century that these agencies have been in place, they have worked together in their efforts to assist those with disabilities to find employment. The current supported employment delivery system has allowed all eligible individuals with the most significant disabilities who are interested in supported employment to obtain services. A joint policy statement between the CBVH, the State Education Department, and VESID was initiated in 1985. At this time, the two State agencies agreed that only by working together could they address the needs of individuals who are deaf and blind. Through the memorandum of the agreement in 1999, CBVH and VESID reaffirmed their commitment to joint efforts to better serve this unique group of individuals. While there are…
American Foundation for the Blind. "Statistics and Sources for Professionals."
Retrieved November 26, 2010.
Belote, L. Low Vision Education and Training: Defining the Boundaries of Low
Vision Patients. A Personal Guide to the VA Visual Impairment Services
Leadership and HM in the Public Sector
At the national level, leadership in human resource management has been problematic, if not negative, in its effects. The Civil Service eform Act of 1978 and related legislation established the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) to provide leadership and innovative personnel programs for the federal establishment. Instead, in the first ten years after its creation, OPM established a record of missed opportunities, failed initiatives, and declining organizational effectiveness, as documented in comprehensive reports issued in 1989 by both the U.S. General Accounting Office and the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (Ingraham and Ban, 2008).
By any measure of performance against legislative intent, OPM has been largely an organizational failure in the conduct of its programs and the achievement of its goals. OPM has not become the primary management office for the president, as envisioned by its first director, Alan Campbell. It has…
Patricia, Ingraham W., and Ban. Carolyn (1988) Politics and Merit: Can They Meet in a Public Service Model? Review of Public Personnel Administration (Spring):719.
Lane, Larry M (2009) The Administration and Politics of Reform: The Office of Personnel Management. Policy Studies Journal 17 (Winter):331-351.
Swoboda, Frank (1989) A Coming Shift in the Power Balance. The Washington Post (October 8):H3.
Selznick, Philip (1987) The Idea of a Communitarian Morality. California Law Review 75 (January):445-463.
Conservationism vs. Development
Land is a serious subject for the private and public sectors, both of which vie against one another for its control. All over the states, partisans exist who are either pro-conservationism or pro-development. Typically these partisans can be divided into two camps: the pro-business camp which supports development and the conservationists/environmentalists who resist development and promote land preservation. There is no easy resolution for the two disagreeing sides on how to approach the issue; either the land must be protected or it must be developed. However, a solution is possible -- and in many cases it is not just one solution but a number of solutions that work together to effect a compromise. In short, it is up to the public sector to establish rules and regulations stating exactly where the private and public sectors start and stop regarding land usage.
Santos, Watt and Pinceti (2014) show…
Eilperrin, J. (2009). Obama signs major land conservation law. Washington Post.
Retrieved from http://voices.washingtonpost.com/44/2009/03/30/obama_signs_major_land_conserv.html
Santos, M., Watt, T., Pinceti, S. (2014). The push and pull of land use policy:
Reconstructing 150 years of development and conservation land acquisition. PLOS One, 9(7): 1-9.
Undocumented Immigrants in Gainesville
The city of Gainesville has a population of about 54,000 and of these, approximately 3,200 are illegal aliens. The law enforcement community in this city is charged with protecting these undocumented aliens on the one hand and enforcing illegal immigrant laws on the other. To the extent that undocumented residents are afraid that the police will enforce the latter may be the extent to which they are discouraged from seeking help from the law enforcement community when they need it, exacerbating existing crime levels. Conversely, the extent to which law enforcement authorities fail to enforce illegal immigration laws may be the extent to which they are viewed as being malfeasant in the prosecution of their official duties. To determine the optimal course of action for law enforcement authorities faced with these conflicting priorities, this paper reviews the relevant literature including a discussion of so-called "sanctuary cities"…
Armajani, B. (2007, August). What transformational leaders do. Government Finance Review, 23(4), 79-83.
Bahn, S. (2013, April 1). Transformational leaders? The pivotal role that supervisors play in safety culture. International Journal of Training Research, 11(1), 17-21.
Bambale, A. & Jaafaru, S. F. (2012, May 1). Servant leadership as employee-organization approach for performance of employee citizenship behaviors in the Nigeria's electric power sector. Journal of Marketing and Management, 3(1), 1-5.
Berger, T. A (2014, Fall). Servant Leadership 2.0: A call for strong theory. Sociological Viewpoints, 30(1), 146-150.
Organizational Change and Development in Public Sector
Additional points are in red per
Rewrite Edition April 6, 2012
Organizational Change and Development in the Public Sector
One of the most challenging aspects of organizational change is defining a compelling enough vision for associates and employees to concentrate on so they see the value of changing how they work and why. Empirically-based studies indicate that transformational leaders are the most effective at clearly defining and executing a compelling vision that leads to long-term change in an organization (Pardo-del-Val, artinez-Fuentes, Roig-Dobon, 2012). The following proposal for a capstone project focuses on the qualitative factors that contribute the most to successful change management strategies that lead to long-term, permanent change occurring throughout an enterprise. Transformational leadership is essential for the development of an organizational culture that values long-term learning, which is the foundation of long-term productivity gains in an enterprise (Pardo-del-Val, artinez-Fuentes, Roig-Dobon,…
Change management is inherently qualitative in nature as it is often an internalized aspect of behavior in organizations (September, McCarrey, Baranowsky, et. al., 2001). Translating these inherently qualitative aspects of organizational behavior into quantitative measures of performance requires a research method that captures the quantitative, external perceptions and actions of respondents throughout an organization. The research method is therefore predicated on attitudinal measures of perception and performance. The research method therefore includes the research design based on random sampling and Likert scaling to quantify attitudinal
ethical obligations -- as discussed, for example, in Chapter 16 of the Northouse text -- allegedly breached by Smith or Halloran while in office. (These obligations will not "fit" perfectly, as the real world does not always match the academic world precisely. Contemplate and give the best answer.) In each case, describe the ethically-proper course of action that was not taken by the relevant actors. Does New York -- like Chicago, Illinois, which was called the most corrupt city in the United States (Cody, 2012) -- have a special culture where corruption is accepted or even expected? Be sure to contrast the differences between leadership and power. Also discuss whether Smith and Halloran's behavior would have been unethical in the private sector.
New York State Sen. Malcolm Smith and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were arrested by federal authorities in an alleged plot to rig the New York…
Associated Press. (2013, April 2). Politico. Retrieved from N.Y. state sen. arrested in alleged mayor race plot: http://www.politico.com/story/2013/04/nyc-mayor-race-rig-malcolm-smith-89536.html
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Greenleafe Center. (2011). What is Servant Leadership? Retrieved from Greanleafe Center for Servant Leadership: http://www.greenleaf.org/whatissl/
Margolin, J. (2013, April 2). State Sen. Malcolm Smith, city Councilman Halloran arrested in 'bribery plot' to rig mayor race. Retrieved from New York Post: http://nypost.com/2013/04/02/state-sen-malcolm-smith-city-councilman-halloran-arrested-in-bribery-plot-to-rig-mayor-race/
Pay-Offs and isks of Capital Investments
The decision of whether an investment project can be accepted or denied as part of a company's growth initiative will involve the ascertainment of the investment's rate of return generated by the project. Nonetheless, the rate of return is influenced by specific factors of the company or project that make the decision acceptable or unacceptable. For instance, when we talk about a charitable project, most often it is not approved by the rate of return, but rather on the desire of the business to foster good will and contribute by giving back to the community. Through capital investment decisions, managers of a particular organization create accountability and measurability to determine the long-term economic aspect of the project and the project's financial profitability (Baker & English, 2011).
An example of an investment capital made by an organization was when Exxon Mobil, acquired XTO esources. The…
Baker, K. & English, P. (2011). Capital Budgeting Valuation: Financial Analysis for Today's Investment Projects. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Mikesell, J. L. (2014). Fiscal Administration: Analysis And Applications for the Public Sector (ninth Ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth.
The private security field also underwent significant reforms in connection with the qualifications, training, and (especially) vetting of employment candidates as well Ortmeier, 2009). Ironically, instead of recognizing the comprehensive improvement throughout the private security industry after 2001, many police personnel intensified their pre-existing disdain for all non-sworn security professionals instead (Dalton, 2003).
The Conceptual Significance of Public and Private Spaces
One of the worst consequences of the antagonism on the part of police toward private security forces is that the private security industry could actually provide valuable assistance to the overall interest of national, regional, and local security. Whereas the actions of all government policing and law enforcement authorities is very strictly limited by fundamental constitutional principles (especially in connection with 4th Amendment search and seizure concepts), non-governmental security agents can operate with considerably wider latitude (Larsen, 2007). In general, private security personnel may conduct various types of searches…
Dalton D. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Security in the Post-9/11 Era. Burlington, MA:
Larsen R. (2007). Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing.
Ortmeier P. (2009). Security Management: An Introduction. Uppers Saddle River,
Addressing this issue is a matter of policy, and difficult to address at the management level. However, extensive recruiting procedures in diverse communities may help to combat the continued disparity of advantages for many minorities. In addition, social representation can be achieved by promoting educational and employment opportunities in a variety of socio-economic settings. The use of internships can also create exposure both of public agencies and of the diverse emerging workforce.
5) There are many different variables that contribute to achieving productivity in the workplace. Research shows that employee satisfaction with their work is a major factor in determining employee productivity. Satisfaction can be improved with increased benefits, including increased wages and salaries, but another very important factor in job satisfaction is the employee's interest in their work and the belief that they are necessary. Promoting a workplace that shows how much it values its employees is essential to…
Public Program vluation: Quality Performance Measurement
Caiden, G and Caiden, NJ (nd) Measuring Performance in Public Sector Programs. Public Administration and Public Policy. Vol. II. Retrieved from: http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c14/1-34-05-06.pdf
Caiden and Caiden (nd) report that the link between reforms and public measurement and evaluation were not merely chance since as the reforms developed devolution was emphasized or the moving of functions and services to the government levels that were lower, along with an emphasis on privatization, decentralization of management, transparency and satisfaction of customers. It is reported that all of these were dependent on accountability maintenance and credibility.
Poister, T. (2001) Measuring Performance in Public and Non-Profit Organizations. Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from: http://glennschool.osu.edu/faculty/brown/home/810/Class%20Materials/Poister%20Performance%20Chapters%201,%202,%203.pdf
Poister (2001) writes that performance measures are "objective, quantitative indicators" of a range of performance in public programs or for public agencies. (p.3) This work reviews the early development and background of performance measurement and ensues on…
Ewoh (2011) examines the applications and types of performance measurement as well as the limitations of performance management. A comparative analysis is conducted in this study.
10. Lawrence L. Martin and Peter M. Kettner, (1996). Measuring the Performance of Human Service Programs. Sage Publications.
The work of Martin and Kettner (1996) examine performance measures in the public service organization and the specific outputs of performance measurement along with logic models. Quality performance measures and outcome performance measures are also reviewed including numeric counts and standardized measures of performance.
Public health core function that is principally addressed by the author is law. As pointed out by the author, public health law infrastructure that is sound is imperative for the reason that it institutes the powers and duties of government to safeguard injury and disease and promote the health of the population (Gostin, 2008). There are examples of how law is used in public health. To begin with, at a personal and individual level, this core function can educate, generate inducements, deter as well as punish. A good illustration is in the sense that health communication promotions provide education and encourage people to make much healthier choices and decision (Gostin, 2000). Secondly, in public health, law as a core function mandates agents of change behavior to have product designs that are much safer and also the use of property. A good example is in the sense that the government undertakes…
This role is in response to clients' demands for a single trustworthy individual or firm to meet all of their financial needs. However, accountants are restricted from providing these services to clients whose financial statements they also prepare." (U.S. Department of Labor, ureau of Labor Statistics, 2009)
1. Public Accounting
The work entitled: "The Reality of the CPA's Role" states that modern CPAs work "behind the scenes as trusted advisors in nearly all significant business decisions. Successful accountants display the ability to think strategically and creatively and to be problem solvers and business advisors." (Douglass, 2006) Douglass states that the views of the CPA are widely varied "...whether from the viewpoint of the investing public or from the perspective of the companies that engage CPAs to audit their financial statements or perform other functions. In fact, many people not involved in the business management or accounting profession may perceive CPAs…
Douglass, Kevin (2006) the Reality of the CPA's Role New Jersey CPA Magazine, April 2006. Accounting and Auditing. Online available at: http://www.amper.com/publications/amper-cpa-role.asp
Erard, Brian (1992) Taxation with Representation: An Analysis of the Role of Tax Practitioners in Tax Compliance. Journal of Public Economics 52 (1993) 163-107. North-Holland. Online available at: http://aysps.gsu.edu/isp/files/ISP_SUMMER_SCHOOL_2008_ERARD_TAXATION_WITHOUT_REPRESENTATION.pdf
Financial accounting for Local and State School Systems (2005) Chapter 4: Governmental Accounting. National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. Online available at: http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2004/h2r2/ch_4.asp
Garrison, Ray H. And Noreen, Eric W. (2009) What is Managerial Accounting/Cost Accounting. Accounting Management. Online available t: http://www.accountingformanagement.com/
This essentially means breaking large jobs down into tiny jobs done by expert people. Frederick Taylor's scientific management methods called for optimizing the way that tasks were performed and simplifying the jobs enough so that workers could be trained to perform their specialized sequence of motions in the one best way. This also fits into the classic organization theory by once again referring to a group of expert people doing one job to the best of their ability.
Three levels of ethics (of the four) noted in the text include: professional ethics, organizational ethics, and social ethics. Explain each of these forms of ethics. Use examples as needed, to clarify your responses.
Professional ethics consists of the rules of what professionals should and should not do. Being a professional often comes with authority and power. A client often places trust in a professional on the basis that the…
Finance in Public Administration
One of the important components towards the successful delivery of services to the public is management of financial resources. Financial management in public administration basically entails budgeting as well as budget execution, monitoring, and accounting with respect to planning and programming of public administration. In essence, public finance administration basically entails raising revenue from the public, allocation of public funds and other financial resources, and managing public assets. These processes are usually carried out to help ensure that the government has adequate money to finance all its activities. In this regard, proper financial management in public administration is crucial towards preventing misuse of public money or resources as well as ensuring compliance with the relevant financial regulations. This paper examines finance in public administration in relation to the budgeting process and budget decision-making based on the fundamental principles of public finance.
Fundamental Principles of Public Finance…
intended for a quantitative public policy perspective analysis of strategic and financial changes in small, private as well as not for profit advanced schooling organizations and institutions in Jamaica. The primary intent behind this paper would be to assess the framework by which strategic and financial innovational changes in small, private, not for profit advanced schooling institutions in Jamaica operate. They concentrate on the conditions which will make financial investments much better than be adopted and even implemented in a variety of contexts. In this way hopefully to lay smooth the road for just about any future studies conducted in the region or on the main topic of financial investments with the associated implications. This could, hence inadvertently, provide all potential studies and researches an excellent service. It might provide them with a foundation base on which to consult in most regions of conflict and trouble that may arise due…
Allen, K.M. (1999). The response of small private colleges to financial distress in the nineties. Dissertations Abstracts International, 60 (04), 1034A.
Bauer, J.E. (1987). An analysis of the relationship between the use of adaptive and interpretative survival strategies and financial resilience in Lutheran colleges. Dissertations Abstracts International, 48 (09), 2250A.
Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: Principals. Policy & Practice, 5(1), 7 -- 74.
Bower, J.L. (1970). Managing the resource allocation process: A study of corporate planning and investment. Boston, MA:Harvard Business School Press.
Public Administration and its Analysis
This is a paper on the concept and basis of Public Administration and the importance it holds in the field of management.
Defining the Breadth and Scope of Public Administration
In the early years of public administration was hailed as a strong and positive as a professional force for studying and putting into practice for the improvement and revamping of the administration of the federal, state and legislative government but also sure of the political and ethical authenticity of the field of public administration in performing that role.
In what is now known as the Classical period, the mind set of the people that were in the field of public administration were based on the resulting derivative of the theory and principles of values from the intellectual side of political science and, in the main part, from constitutional democratic theory. Woodrow Wilson is considered to…
Preface to Public Administration, A Search for Themes and Direction" by Richard J. Stillman II, copyright 1991 by St. Marin's Press, Inc. As the primary reference source":
U.S. Bureau of the Census (1996). Current Population Reports. No. P25-1130.
Noam, Eli (1995). Electronics and the Dim Future of the University. Science 270 (October 13): 247-249..
Klay, William Earle and Lance DeHaven-Smith (1997). It's the Economy (Values, Stupid! Findings of the FloridaScan Project. Futures Research Quarterly 13:4 (Winter): 51-73.
public administration and considers the effect of their writings and theories on the field of public administration. It has 6 sources.
An analysis of the core areas of public administration and how these areas interrelate with one another; taking into account the theories and writings of major players in the field of public administration and how their views shaped these areas.
The principles of public administration are the clearest description of its usefulness to society and government. This administrative science is barely 100-125 years old in the U.S. And a little over 200 years old in France. Tracing its roots back to Napoleon, public administration evolved largely as a result of the increasing complexity of society, economy and technology. The French system of Public Administration is still considered by many to be the world's best. Compared to Germany and Britain, the U.S. was relatively slower to utilize public administration in…
4)Harting, Tracey L. The Science of "Muddling Through" by Charles E. Lindblom 1998, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://www.tamucc.edu/~whatley/PADM5302/theo14e.htm
5) Book review. Understanding Public Policy. Prentice Hall. Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://vig.prenhall.com/catalog/academic/product/1,4096,0130260088,00.html?type=FEA
6) Thomas Wadsworth, Book Review. Political Science. Fiscal Administration: Analysis and Applications for the Public Sector, Sixth Edition, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://newtexts.com/newtexts/book.cfm?book_id=816
Pension Plan eplacement ates
Public Pension eplacement ates
The portion of monthly pre-retirement income that will be replaced by monthly pension plan funds is called the pension plan replacement rate (Quadagno, 2011). In the United States, the majority of pre-retirement income replacement comes from Social Security payments (Quadagno, 2011). The actual replacement rate for wage earners with lower incomes is higher than for those who have had higher wages during their working years (Quadagno, 2011). But overall, wealthier recipients of Social Security payments still achieve higher income replacement (Quadagno, 2011). "By 2030, a worker who retires at age 62 will receive only 70% of the whole retirement benefit, and workers who want to receive the maximum benefit will have to wait until they reach age 67" (Quadagno, 2011, p. 10). How does this compare with the situation in other countries? Comparing prior earning replacement rates for Greece and the United…
Current and Prospective Theoretical Pension Replacement Rates. (2006, May 19). Social Protection Committee (SPC), European Commission: Employment, Social Affairs, and Inclusion. Retrieved http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/
Nektarias, M. (). Financing public pensions in Greece. SPOUDAI, 50 (3-4), University of Piraeus.
Nelson, R.M., Belkin, P., Mix, D.E. (2011, August 18). Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R41167.pdf
This however leads to the decentralization of the operations and the loss of control. Then, efficiency is lost due to numerous litigations. The legislation protecting the employees in the United States is extremely complex and managers in the public offices are often the target of accusations of discriminations. This leads to not only loss of efficiency, but also internal tensions and decreased commitments and performances.
Finally, problems are also raised by violence in the workplace, changing demographics and continuous reforms. With over 2 million cases of workplace violence and homicides in the workplace, employees in public institutions lose the sense of safety and security and this further decreases the quality of their work. Then, the structure and composition of the population change, to generate changes in the services needed, and require constant change and development in the means in which the agencies deliver the services. Last, the legislations continually change…
Chapter 10: Continuing challenges for public personnel
The role of the non-profit organization has transformed in many ways as society and the values inherent within that society also change and transform. The ability to create an organization with purpose and a sense of a greater duty is what makes the non-profit sector of exchange such a unique and important facet within the constructs of our society. The purpose of this essay is to address a situation where a recommendation is needed to determine the best route of approach for raising funds for a hypothetical nonprofit agency.
The background of this case deals with selecting between two options of fundraising method to improve and increase community services. This general situation is encountered by most nonprofit organizations and provides a solid background for discussing the ideas and principles inherent within the public sector. The first option imposes a user fee for individuals who currently request assistance. The second…
Association of Fundraising Professionals (nd). Donor Bill of Rights. Viewed 29 Sep 2014. Retrieved from http://www.afpnet.org/Ethics/EnforcementDetail.cfm?ItemNumber=3359
Bennet, J. (2012). The New Price of American Politics. The Atlantic, Oct 2012. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/10/the/309086/
Frumkin, P., & Kim, M.T. (2001). Strategic positioning and the financing of nonprofit organizations: Is efficiency rewarded in the contributions marketplace?. Public Administration Review, 61(3), 266-275.
Funkhouser, M. (2014). The Failure and the Promise of Public Participation. Governing, 6 Jan 2014. Retrieved from http://www.governing.com/gov-institute/funkhouser/col-failure-promise-public-participation-government.html
In the final purpose of accountability, where the goal is to enhance the learning capacity and effectiveness of the executive branch, we should realize that what needs to happen in this situation is that public authorities act on feedback about their own performance (Deutsch, 1963; Luhmann, 1966; Behn, 2001 as cited in Bovens et al., 2008). Thus, a good accountability mechanism, from this angle, is one that illustrates how the actor in question is learning and becoming more efficient as a result of the mechanism itself.
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, F.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption
Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aucoin, P. & Heintzman, . (2000). "The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Public
Management eform." International eview of Administrative Sciences, 66, 45-55.
Arnull, a. And D. Wincott. (2001). Accountability and Legitimacy in the European Union.
Oxford: Oxford University…
Anechiarico, F. & Jacobs, F.B. (1996). The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption
Control Makes Government Ineffective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Aucoin, P. & Heintzman, R. (2000). "The Dialectics of Accountability for Performance in Public
Management Reform." International Review of Administrative Sciences, 66, 45-55.
One of the newer concepts in public policy is the idea of the public-private partnership, or PPP. Essentially, PPPs are when the government works with private enterprise on a project. Public projects tend to be those that benefit society as a whole, and traditionally governments as representatives of the people have been the drivers of such projects. Private enterprise has often specifically avoided many types of projects because of the financial or operational risk involved. A public-private partnership is a form of development where government and private enterprise share the risk and capital expenditure in a project. The split will be different for every project, but it often involves the government taking on some risk in order to facilitate the project moving forward, on the principle that the project moving forward is in the best interests of the general public. In some instances, the government utilizes public-private partnerships to…
Koehler, P. (2012). Why do some stadium redevelopment projects succeed where others fail? An analysis using macro-level trends in stadium building. Colgate University. Retrieved November 16, 2014 fromhttp://www.colgate.edu/docs/d_centers-and-institutes_institute-for-philosophy-politics-and-economics_fellowships/koehlerstadiumpubfunding-11-02-12.pdf?sfvrsn=2
Kuriloff, A. (2012). Stadiums cost taxpayers extra $10 billion, Harvard's Long finds. Business Week. Retrieved November 16, 2014 from http://www.businessweek.com/news/2012-11-06/stadiums-cost-taxpayers-extra-10-billion-harvard-s-long-finds
Nisar, T. (2007). Value for money drivers in public private partnership schemes. International Journal of Public Sector Management. Vol. 20 (2) 147-156.
Sharma, M. & Bindal, A. (2014). Public-private partnership. International Journal of Research. Vol. 1 (7) 1270-1274.
Public administration is one of the constructs upon which every government functions. It incorporates the concepts of administrative responsibility and public interest upon which the idea of ethical obligation and the dilemma brought about by the privatization of government functions ride. Anytime the electorate cast their votes and express their preference for one candidate over another, they do so in the expectation that the candidate will work towards satisfying the public's interests, rather than their own, and that they will use their positions to help people, rather than dominate them. This expectation is, however, not often given the significance it deserves, despite the fact that it advances from the party that stands to either benefit or lose directly from a public administrator's actions.
The Concept of Public Interest
Although it is difficult to give an explicit definition of the constituents of public interest, experts have repeatedly referred to it as…
CAPAM Featured Report. (2010). Ethical Dilemmas in the Public Service. CAPAM. Retrieved from http://win2vin.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/ethical-dilemma-good-one.pdf
Holland, D., Nonini, D.M., Lutz, C., Bartlett, L. & Frederick-McGlathery, M., Guldbrandsen, T. & Murillo, E. (2007). Local Democracy under Siege: Activism, Public Interests, and Private Politics. New York: New York Press.
Starling, G. (2007). Managing the Public Sector (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Stillman, R. (2009). Public Administration: Concepts and Cases. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Public Admin General Budget Allocation
Social Insurance (aid to the elderly, disable, unemployed)
Public Education (K -- Universities)
Environmental Management (regulate clear and clean water; regulate the handling & disposal of hazardous & radioactive wastes)
Support of Cultural Institutions (e.g. libraries, museums, zoo, etc.)
Conservation of Natural Resources
Management of National Parks % Lands
Manage Law and Order
Build and Maintain Roads, Dams, & Other Infrastructure
A critique of the general thought process used to reach a consensus on the various public policy categories
In choosing the public policy category, it is crucial to determine the necessary resources and measures that should prioritize the percentage budget allocation for the federal government. Security of the federal government is crucial to the development and growth of the nation. This makes security reasonable to command large portion of the budget allocation.…
This is a contractual obligation, as money has been received for a certain service.
This is closely related to the third obligation in the model, which is "duty to the organization." The press has an obligation to provide the public with a wide variety of viewpoints in order to ensure public debate and accurate information. If a certain piece of information is withheld from the public as a result of its controversial content, this constitutes unfair censorship. The general principle of the press is to promote knowledge rather than censorship. Hence, information that could cause disagreement should not be withheld on those grounds alone.
On the other hand, the press in general also has a duty to society in terms of providing accurate information. The advertisement is in direct opposition to generally accepted facts regarding slavery. Hence publishing it on the strength merely of publishing whatever opinion is paid for…
The presence of water is also central to the architecture of mosques, albeit for religious more than aesthetic purposes.
Conclusion: Two Squares, Two Cultures
The Place de la Concorde shares more in common with the Maidan-i-Shah than is immediately apparent. The two squares are about the same size: around 8 hectares. Both have been used for multiple purposes and whisper the changes that have taken place within their respective cities. Political and social life has centered on each of these public spaces.
More than a century separates the two squares, as the Maidan-i-Shah in the early seventeenth century and the Place de Louis XV in the mid-eighteenth century. The architecture and intended use of the two squares proves to be radically different. Unlike the Maidan-i-Shah, the Place de la Concorde serves no religious function. The lack of places of worship as part of the city square speaks directly to the…
Boyer, M.C. (1996). The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments. MIT.
Carmona, M. (2003). Public Spaces, Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design. Oxford: Architectural Press.
The Center for Design Excellence (n.d.). Public space. Urban Design. Retrieved online: http://www.urbandesign.org/publicspace.html
Craven, J. (n.d.). Public spaces: cities, towns, and landscapes. About.com Guide to Architecture. Retrieved online: http://architecture.about.com/od/urbandesign/u/PublicSpaces.htm
The ole of Management Information System in Decision Making in Public Administration (Case Study on Hungarian Central Statistical Office)
Organizations require appropriate information in the form of proper databases and reports which plays a pivotal role in decision making. The quality of data holds significant importance as the top management of large organizations derives its high level decisions mostly from the available data rather than inspecting the in depth core activity components. This fact is depicted by the analysis of a case study pertaining to the implementation of a Management Information System (MIS) in the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, which has ultimately improved the quality of information flow within the organization. This paper examines how the implementation of an MIS within HCSO lead to the standardization of report formats and operational data collection procedures. Not only this, the paper will also highlight the role played by an MIS…
HCSO Strategy 2005-2008 "Hungarian Central Statistical Office." Budapest (2005), Accessed
January 9, 2013 Download at:
Unfortunately, the influence of the healthcare industry lobbyists is tremendous. One need only look up the publicly available information of how much large healthcare interests contribute to members of the U.S. Congress in any given year to understand why healthcare legislation continues to favor corporations over the members of the American public, almost half of whom cannot afford health insurance (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009).
Challenges, Problems and Next Steps
The principal problem responsible for the perpetuation of this issue is that political lobbying is currently an accepted process in the U.S. That poses tremendous challenges, largely because the very individuals whose attention, resolve, and action would be required to rectify the situation are those who currently benefit the most from it: elected members of the U.S. Congress. Unfortunately, only a small minority of those stakeholders -- most notably epresentative Anthony Weiner of New York and Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont…
Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:
West Legal Studies.
Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.
Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.
They may not be reassigned to perform work that is substantially different from their normal occupational responsibilities (OSHA, 2003).
Employers may not submit information about the employee that is intended to have damaging consequences on the employee's financial credit history, and employers may not engage in conduct or communications designed to "blackball" the employee from other employment, either within government or in connection with any private sector employment opportunities. Finally, employers may not engage in conduct intended (or reasonably perceived) as "intimidation." Intimidation is one of the most difficult types of non-compliance with activities protected under the Act, because it is subject to interpretation and because it is capable of being perpetrated without any written record. Likewise, many forms of conduct that are generally benign under ordinary (i.e. non-adversarial) circumstances at work only rise to the level of intimidation" in specific context (USLC, 2007).
efusal to Work:
Under certain (limited)…
OSHA (2003) Whistleblower Fact Sheet. Accessed October 9, 2007, at http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_WhistleblowerFacts/whistleblower_protections-general.pdf
U.S. Library of Congress (2007) Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989. Accessed October 8, 2007, at http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/F-c101:1:./temp/~c101Ylqmha:e37677 :
WhistleblowerLaws.com; (2007) the Law: An Overview. Accessed October 9, 2007 at http://whistleblowerlaws.com/protection.htm
Public Health Preparedness
The concept of 'public health preparedness' (PHP) has been garnering recognition worldwide, given the global-scale threats which are constantly encountered by professional healthcare organizations, including bioterrorism, Ebola, the West Nile Virus, and influenza. Preparedness approaches have brought about improvements in the overall healthcare system, by enabling swifter responses to diverse kinds of hazards across the globe. A majority of PHP measures adopted in America are government-judged; this gives rise to concerns pertaining to militarization. Still, preparedness programs in other country-level settings don't essentially indicate comparable implications. The global significance of health sector preparedness has served to increase governmental need of resolving the concern by means of financing, advances, and maintenance approaches which aid speedy response to every kind of crisis. However, akin to all other ideas, the PHP concept is also accompanied by certain major challenges, like the threat of public health militarization. Yet the associated advantages…
Eisenstein, R., Finnegan, J. R., & Curran, J. W. (2014). Contributions of Academia to Public Health Preparedness Research. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl 4), 5 -- 7.
Khan, Y., Fazli, G., Henry, B., de Villa, E., Tsamis, C., Grant, M., & Schwartz, B. (2015). The Evidence Base of Primary Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Scoping Review and Stakeholder Consultation. BMC Public Health, 15, 432. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1750-1
Moore, S., Mawji, A., Shiell, A., & Noseworthy, T. (2007). Public Health Preparedness: A Systems-Level Approach. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61(4), 282 -- 286. http://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2004.030783
Nelson, C., Lurie, N., Wasserman, J., & Zakowski, S. (2007). Conceptualizing and Defining Public Health Emergency Preparedness. American Journal of Public Health, 97(Suppl 1), S9 -- S11. http://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.114496
This leads to the inability to compare financial statements reliably with each other (Seay & Ford, 2010). A second concern is that the income statement will reflect increased volatility due to fair market writeups or writedowns. The third concern is the inconsistency in valuing some assets and liabilities at the current exit price. The fourth concern is whether price reflects the intrinsic value of the asset. It is suspected that price and value will differ, particularly in a downward trending market (Seay & Ford, 2010).
These concerns will affect the acceptance of fair value accounting and its ability to restore trust in the transparency and accuracy of accounting statements. According to Seay & Ford, many blamed fair value accounting for the collapse of the banking industry. However, they remind readers that the accountant only reports the information and that they were not to blame in the banking industry collapse.
Bedard, J. & Gendron, Y. (2010). Can audit committees deliver? CA Magazine; Sep 2010; 143 (7). 50-53.
Gates, S., Lowe, D. & Reckers, P. (2007). Restoring public confidence in capital markets through auditor rotation. Managerial Auditing Journal. 22 (1): 5-17.
Seay, S. & Ford, W. (2010). Fair Presentation -- an Ethical Perspective on Fair Value Accounting Pursuant to the SEC Study on Mark-to-Market Accounting. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 13 (1): 53-66.
Thomason, M. (2009). Auditing the PCOAB: A Test to the Accountability of the Uniquely Structured Regulator of Accountants. Vanderbilt Law Review. 62 (6): 1954-1989.
Private-label securitization has basically ended, and Fannie and Freddie were positioned into conservatorship by their controller subsequent to working in a dangerous and unsteady way. The job currently is to figure out how best to restore a connection between homebuyers and capital markets in a manner that deals with the problems of the old arrangement (Bernanke, 2008).
One alternative that has been talked about is that of privatizing the GSE's and letting them contend in the marketplace as private mortgage insurers and securitizers. In order to get rid of the assumption of government backing and to arouse competition, some suggestions supporting privatization call for collapsing the corporation into less significant components prior to privatizing them. Privatization would resolve a number of troubles connected with the present GSE model. It would get rid of the disagreement amid private shareholders and public policy and probably reduce the total dangers as well (Bernanke,…
Bernanke, Ben S. (2008). The Future of Mortgage Finance in the United States. Retrieved November 13, 2010, from Federal Reserve Web site: http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/speech/bernanke20081031a.htm
Housel, Morgan. (2010). Why the U.S. Can't Inflate Its Way Out of Debt. Retrieved November 13, 2010, from the Motley Fool Web site: http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2010/04/16/why-the-us-cant-inflate-its-way-out-of-debt.aspx
US Congress passes stimulus plan. (2009). Retrieved November 13, 2010, from BBC Web site: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7889897.stm
Woodhill, Louis. (2010). You Can't Tax Your Way Out of a Debt Crisis. Retrieved November 13, 2010, from Real Clear Markets Web site: http://www.realclearmarkets.com/articles/2010/05/11/you_cant_tax_your_way_out_of_a_debt_crisis_98459.html
The organization identified its key goals which became its vision statement. They key goals included customer satisfaction, simplification of communication between the taxpayer and agency, increased compliance rates and maximization of revenue. Elliott Hibbs, director of the Arizona Department of evenue, is excited about the results his department has managed to achieve by creating a high performance organization where value matters. He explained: "Previous administrations had done great work increasing customer service levels and satisfaction. But an unintended consequence of that emphasis was that voluntary compliance rates had dipped, with a negative effect on overall tax revenue. The more comprehensive approach to public-sector value, as applied to my department, is the most exciting thing I've seen in my 20 years of service in terms of balancing accountability and agency performance to deliver value to citizens." (Jupp & Younger, 2004)
Jupp & Younger (2004) have identified some important characteristics of a…
1) Popovich, M, ed. Creating High-Performance Organizations: A Practical Guide for Public Managers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers;1998
2) Vivienne Jupp and Mark P. Younger, a Value Model for the Public Sector, Outlook Journal, February 2004
Question Two: Discuss the causes of public organization decline and cutback management tactics.
The decline of an organization requires noting and remedying to ensure that the organization does not collapse. Some of the signs of a declining organization include the increase in employee turnover due to low wages and lack of motivation. The low wages is due to low earnings enjoyed by the organization because of a decline in market presence. Low earnings attributed to a decline in the revenue generated by the organization because of a decrease in consumer satisfaction. A decrease in customers means that the organization does not enjoy economics of scale. This results to an increase in the operational cost thus low profits (ainey, 2009).
Public sector organizations are old and may be using outdated practices. Organizations that are not embracing changes in their operating environment risk overtaking by time. The organizations in the public sector…
Bozeman, B. (2004). All organizations are public: Comparing public and private organizations. Washington: Beard Books.
Rainey, H.G. (2009). Understanding and managing public organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Private Public School Similarities and Differences
isk and Benefits in Public and Private Schools
Special Need Students
Teachers Credentials in Private and Public Schools
This research paper focuses on the similarities and differences of private and public school education. It deciphers several truths and realities associated with these two systems. isks and benefits along with teacher's credentials in private and public schools are discussed in detail. Another factor brought to light is the positive role played by ample resources in the betterment of private sector and the loss it has incurred to public sector education system.
Parents always face this query whether they should choose a private school or public schools. They want best for their children and it is a normal perception that private schools are way better than public schools in terms of quality and academic excellence. Although problems exist in both the sectors but due to ample…
Anonymous. American Academy Of Child And Adolescent Psychiatry. March 2011. 29 January 2013.
-- . PISA. 2 November 2012. 29 January 2012.
Nan, Stein. "Bullying, Harassment and Violence among Students." Radical Teacher (2007): 43-55.
Reese, William J. America's Public Schools: From the Common School to "No Child Left Behind." New York: John Hopkins University Press, 2005.
OZChild's Board of Directors is actively involved in support of the organization through stewardship of a network of professional contacts as potential donors, and in liaison with the Australian Government in support of the agency's mission and programs. Operations expenses are of course included in the OZChild Strategic Plan designed toward sustainable growth and maintenance of the agency's position within the national and international social services community as a leader in service provision and policy advocacy.
One could effectively argue that where Ife's Australian Government and its utilitarian reductions left off, the growth sector of NPO social services, and especially social work advanced its role in management of a critical national public sector formerly dictated by traditional constraints of the social welfare state. If the overall aim is to interpret the outcomes to the transformation of public administration by way of the "managing out" phenomenon, then OZChild and other agencies…
Allan, J., Pease, B. & Briskman, L., 2003. Critical social work - an introduction to theories and practices. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin.
Alston, M. & McKinnon, J., eds., 2005. Social work fields of practice (2nd ed.). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Austin, M., 2002. Managing Out: The Community Practice Dimensions of Effective Agency Management. Journal of Community Practice 10.4, 33-48.
Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (FaHCSIA), 2010. Australian Government. Available at: http://www.fahcsia.gov.au/Pages/default.aspx