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Education Qualitative Method Distinguishing Research
Words: 773 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 20245065
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The locus in this study would be to take the concepts of what is perceived as the duties of the resource officers and using these to determine what it is they can do to alleviate some of the concerns that face middle schools today.

Both the focus and the locus help the researcher to formulate the questions that they hope to answer by doing the research that they are looking at. Devising good questions from the beginning will help ensure that the appropriate research is conducted and good results are obtained.

SUBJECT: Generating an analytic memo

A good analytic memo should focus on a single term or idea within the research that is being done. The memo should explore the concepts characteristics while exploring the ways in which these characteristics might vary within different contexts.

In the study regarding resource officers' perceptions of their duties in suburban middle schools one…


Conceptual. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2009, from The Free Dictionary Web site: 

Empirical. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2009, from The Free Dictionary Web site:

Qualitative Nursing Study on Hourly Rounding
Words: 1657 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14111540
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Nursing Study on Hourly ounding

Qualitative nursing Study on Hourly ounding

Similarities and difference to other quantitative articles

Similar to other qualitative papers, ethnographic researchers target the inclusion and representation of the views and observations of the subjects. The questions in qualitative and ethnographic researchers try to focus on the understanding of the subjects in their engagements in the day-to-day experiences. It is the interests of qualitative and ethnographic researchers to seek the relative positions and evaluations of the subjects about the subject matter (Green, Dixon, & Zaharlick, 2002).

Qualitative and ethnographic researchers obtain guidance on implementation and design in conducting their study from the theoretical orientations. These orientations include data collections tools -- interviews, artifacts, participant observation -- and data analysis measures (Green et al., 2002). Theoretical guides also direct on measures of entering the field, data to collect, the relevant literature to retain, necessary records to make and…


Green, J., Dixon, C., & Zaharlick, A. (2002). "Ethnography As A Logic Of Inquiry." In Handbook For Methods Of Research On English Language Arts Teaching, Ed. James Flood, Julie Jensen, Diane Lapp, And James Squire. New York: Macmillan.

LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2013). Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice: Elsevier - Health Sciences Division.

Methods of Instruction and Intervention
Words: 1655 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56250778
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proponents of evidence based instruction represent one end of the methods of teaching continuum where practices that have been tested empirically using rigorous research designs are considered to be the only valid method of instruction (Odom et al., 2005). On the other end of the spectrum are methods that may be have some basis for use such an intuition, theory, etc. But have not been subject to empirical scrutiny are considered valid to use. Evidence based instruction or scientific research-based instruction consists of instructional practices or programs for which empirical data have been collected to determine the effectiveness of the program (Odom et al., 2005). In these types of practices/programs rigorous research designs have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the practices. Such research designs can include randomized, controlled trials; quasi-experiments; single subject designs; correlational methods, and/or qualitative research. The most empirically sound designs, randomized controlled experiments, are used…


August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Executive summary. Developing literacy in second- language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Condelli, L., & Wrigley, H.S. (2004). Identifying promising interventions for adult ESL literacy students: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.

Foorman, B.R., & Torgesen, J. (2001). Critical elements of classroom and small-group instruction promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 203 -- 213.

Odom, S.L., Brantlinger, E., Gersten, R., Homer, R.H., Thompson, B., & Harris, K.R. (2005). Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices. Exceptional Children, 71, 137-149.

Qualitative Language
Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66582235
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language facilitates criticism and understanding? hy or hy not?

Qualitative language, that is language that is not quantifiable and thus dwells in the realm of the sort of academic criticism and research "that produces findings not arrived at by means of statistical procedures or other means of quantification," remains a critical mode of expression, even in areas of study of the social sciences where "hard data" is a must. (Hoepfl, 1997, p.13) "here quantitative researchers seek causal determination, prediction, and generalization of findings, qualitative researchers seek instead illumination, understanding, and extrapolation to similar situations. Qualitative analysis results in a different type of knowledge than does quantitative inquiry. " (Hoepfl, 1997, p.13). But one must take precautions to make sure that the subjective nature of qualitative language does not impede, but rather facilitates understanding of a subject. To take just one example of how the qualitative association of words, can skew…

Works Cited

Custer, R.L. (1996). Qualitative research methodologies. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 34, 3-6. Retrieved 13 May 2005 from Qualitative Research Database at ttp://

Hoepfl, M.C. (1997, Fall). Choosing qualitative research: A primer for technology education researchers. Journal of Technology, 9, 12-39. Retrieved 13 May 2005 from Qualitative Research Database at ttp://

Sutton, B. (1993). The rationale for qualitative research: A review of principles and theoretical foundations. Library Quarterly, 63, 411-430. Retrieved 13 May 2005 from Qualitative Research Database at ttp://

Qualitative Nursing Studies for babes
Words: 1035 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69430782
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Iceberg Attachment for Infants

The concept analysis article reviewed in this document is "Attachment icebergs: Maternal and child health nurses' evaluation of infant-caregiver attachment" by Bryant et al. This article explores salient phenomena pertaining to the concept of infant attachment. However, it analyzes this phenomena from the perspective of nurses who are observing and working with infants and caregivers. The researchers were essentially attempting to solicit information from the nurses to explicate the phenomena of infant attachment, while determining what factors proved the most influential in this occurrence. As such, the researchers were able to glean a fair amount of insight not only about infant attachment, but about how to best treat it. Additional insight was also gleaned into factors that were germane to the nurses who observed infant attachment and who attempted to mitigate it with various degrees of success.

Method of Analysis

The method of analysis revolved around…


Bryant, E., Ridgway, L., Lucas, S. (2016). Attachment icebergs: Maternal and child health nurses' evaluation of infant-caregiver attachment. Community Practitioner. 89(5) 34-43.

Qualitative vs Quantitative Social Science Sometimes Debates
Words: 1349 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10774586
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Qualitative vs. Quantitative

Social science sometimes debates differences between quantitative and qualitative. On one side, positivists argue quantitative research is objective and measurable where post-positivists argue qualitative analysis allows for a rich understanding of the situation. Although qualitative and quantitative research differ in the techniques, types of data and ethical concerns, they both have their place in psychology. Let us begin by exploring the realm of quantitative research and then move on to qualitative research.

Quantitative research is research that uses numerical measures to evaluate the world. Often, this approach is used by positivists who believe in objective measures to predict the world. This epistemology says research can and should focus only on what can be observed and measured. Following is a discussion of features of quantitative research including techniques, types of data and possible ethical concerns.

There are multiple techniques used to collect quantitative data, but all techniques will…

Works Cited

Bartholomew, L.M., & Horowitz, K. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology .

Monk, A.N. (1993). Mixing oil and water? Ethnography vs. experimental psychology in the study of computer-mediated communication. INTERCHI'93, 3-6.

Rusbult, C.E. (1980). Commitment and satisfaction in romantic associations: A test of the investment model. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 16,, 172-186.

Rusbult, C.E. (1982). Exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect: Responses to dissatisfaction in romantic involvements. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1230-1242.

Qualitative Design
Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 18500689
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Qualitative Business Case Study: A Discussion
Business case studies are valuable educational tools used by educators, institutions, students and corporations within continuing education programs. Creating a case study or analyzing one written by a professor or executive, forces one to examine the strengths and weaknesses, successes and pitfalls of a particular business by analyzing precise situations, formulating one’s own conclusions and then making recommendations or other such inferences based on the data or predictions drawn from the data.
Case Study Design
The case study will manifest in a narrative or story-centric structure. The “main character” will be introduced early on in the case study as someone with a necessary objective or a specific but perhaps somewhat confounding choice that needs to be addressed (Schweitzer, 2015). The story of the main character remains interwoven throughout the case study design, offering necessary information about the company in question, the overall situation, and…

Justification for Mixed Methods Research
Words: 1187 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38490605
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oles of Theory in Qualitative esearch & Application

Qualitative esearch

Write a two page Journal entry on how well you are understanding the roles of theory in qualitative research and how this applies to your Final Project and to your Dissertation.

Thinking About Qualitative esearch Theory. Qualitative research approaches are grounded in theoretical frameworks that make certain assumptions about the world, about how qualitative research is best conducted, and about the type of research questions and solutions are acceptable for the research approach, and about the criteria that appropriate for trustworthiness (which is the equivalent proof in quantitative research approaches). When researchers take a qualitative approach, they consider the world to be socially constructed by people's individual perceptions. Qualitative researchers depend on respondents' accounts to provide explanations for observed behaviors and shared thoughts. The qualitative research approach does not begin with a hypothesis to be proven or disproved -- a…


Dwyer, S. And Buckle, J. (2009). The space between: On being an insider-outsider in qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8(1), 54-63. Retreived 

Glaser, B. G and Strauss, A.L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: strategies for qualitative research. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Company.

Trochim, W.M.K. (2006). Qualitative approaches. Research Methods Knowledge Base. {Web.] Independence, KY: Cengage Publishing Retreived 

Xu, M.A. And Gail Blair Storr, G.B. (2012). Learning the concept of researcher as instrument in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 17(42), 1-18. Retreived

Communicating Qualitative Research Analysis
Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83055817
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Qualitative research is different from quantitative research methodologies on the premise that it does not rely on numerical data. Qualitative research rely on text and image since it's a type of scientific research that seeks to provide contextual descriptions of the experiences of people regarding as specific research issue. In most cases, qualitative research methods are considered suitable in identifying intangible factors through a scientific inquiry such as socioeconomic status, religion, social norms, and ethnicity (College of Computer and Information Science, n.d.). In this regard, there are several aspects that distinguish qualitative research writing, which are brought by specific designs, steps of analysis, and data collection procedures. An understanding of these aspects of qualitative research writing helps in enhancing the effectiveness of the research process and research findings.

Salient Aspects of Qualitative Research Writing

In his discussion on qualitative research procedures, Creswell (2014) proposes ten aspects that differentiate qualitative research…

Fielding N 2010 Mixed Methods Research International
Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 4838384
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Fielding, N. (2010). Mixed Methods esearch. International Journal of Social esearch, 13 (2), 127 -- 138.

In the field of criminal justice and security management, there are a wide variety of techniques used to understand the best approaches for interacting with stakeholders. Fielding (2010) determined that the mixed method approach is the most effective. This is because it is examining different aspects of the problem and conducting a separate study to corroborate key ideas. These insights were used to show the underlying trends inside the U.S. And UK criminal justice systems. As Fielding determined, that both countries are wrestling with similar challenges including: rising criminal / gang related violence, juvenile delinquency and gun related crimes. This is illustrating the challenges impacting the two systems. In the future, these ideas can help to identify the root causes of these problems and the best approach for addressing them. The fact that similarities…


Ellicott, I. (2011). Procedural Justice in Contacts. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 17 (4), 592 -- 610.

Fielding, N. (2010). Mixed Methods Research. International Journal of Social Research, 13 (2), 127 -- 138.

Gorard, S. (2007). Where does Good Evidence come from? International Journal of Research, 20 (3), 307 -- 323.

Payls, T. (2012). Qualitative Research in the Digital Era. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 11 (4), 114 -- 119.

Stroke Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative
Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 13211034
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It was also found that higher levels of education were associated with a greater sense of well being across the dimensions.

Using the prior quantitative information as a guideline, Clarke proceeds to the qualitative section of her research with the attempt to shed more light on aspects of the stroke experienced wither not researched in the prior study or that were left with ambiguous explanation. While admitting that it would have been ideal to use the participants from the original CSHA, it was not possible. So she found a group of eight stroke survivors who were culled from a group of 250,000 individual patients from the Sunnybrook, and Women's College Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Canada. Of these eight, five had more sever impairments due to hemiparesis or hemiplegia, the remaining three were higher functioning, this gave the study a broader base to compare. The subjects were also recruited with…


Clarke, Philippa. (2003) "Towards a greater understanding of the experience of stroke: Integrating quantitative and qualitative methods" Journal of Aging Studies 17 pp. 171 -- 187

Mixing Methods Within Research Projects
Words: 1908 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 84083495
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(Niglas, 2004)

Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:

(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?

(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;

(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)

ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:

(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…


Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at: 

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at:

Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at: 

Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at:

Social Science Research Are Qualitative and Quantitative
Words: 4883 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70439606
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social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.

In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…


Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/

Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.

Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.

Social Epidemiology -- Methods Describe
Words: 2812 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93273090
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Indeed, as Muntaner (2003) posited in her research, qualitative methods can be included in a dominantly quantitative research design "in situations where qualitative research adds knowledge that would not be available via quantitative methods" (p. 55). Through a mixed-methods design, the researcher can provide better analyses and stronger interpretations and recommendations through balanced strengths of data reliability and validity -- that is, the achievement of "triangulation" in the research study.

IIA. ased on your reading of books such as eaglehole (1993), describe what you know about observational epidemiology as a research approach and compare it to experimental studies. Describe some of the designs within each, e.g., RCT, case-control studies, etc.

Observational and analytical/relational studies provide different results and answer different research questions and hypotheses when compared to the experimental approach. In observation and analytical/relational studies, the highest kind of analysis that can be done is correlational and not causal.



Bonita, R. And R. Beaglehole. (2006). Basic epidemiology. Geneva: WHO Press.

Muntaner, C. (2003). "Qualitative and quantitative research in social epidemiology: is complementarity the only issue?" Gac Sanit, Vol. 17, Supl. 3.

Olsen, J. And K. Christensen. (2010). An introduction to epidemiology for health professionals. NY: Springer.

Rosnow, R. And R. Rosenthal. (1996). Beginning Behavioral Research. NJ: Prentice Hall.

Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31510822
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In other words, one has the advantage of providing for both an objective and more interpretive and subjective approach to the research.

However, one must also take into account that both methods have certain disadvantages that must be taken cognizance of in choosing to combine these two methodological strategies in any specific research. This means that in effect the advantage of combining these two methods is dependent on the type of research that is intended and required. One would not for instance apply a mixed or combined approach to a study of patient's views and feelings, as this would be more suitable to a qualitative methodology. In other words, the central disadvantage in using a combined method lies in the possibly that such as approach would not be appropriate to the type of research being conducted. In essence this means that a combined methodology is not always the best research…


Hough, Helen, and Lorna Mckee ( 2007) "The Cultural Paradigm of the Smaller Firm."

Journal of Small Business Management 42 (4).

Myers M.D. Qualitative Research in Information Systems. Retrieved August 11,

2010 from

Manage and Organize Qualitative Data Lecompte 2000
Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79418643
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manage and organize qualitative data. LeCompte (2000) notes that data can be organized using traditional organization techniques like creating files, cataloging, labeling, and creating indices. These techniques are often applied to qualitative data that comes in the form of field notes or other written information. Today, the information might be stored in a database on the computer. Often the data might be recorded on a smartphone or tablet, which will make it even easier to transfer to a computer. However, the techniques of indexing, cataloging and labeling are still used to manage large amounts of qualitative data.

It is important that the research is able to make sense of the data, but it should also be remembered that one of the most valuable traits of qualitative research is that it has a lot of flexibility with respect to how that data can be analyzed and presented. As such, it is…

Works Cited:

Bansal, P. & Corley, K. (2011). The coming of age for qualitative research: Embracing the diversity of qualitative methods. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 54 (2) 233-237.

Guest, G., Bunce, A. & Johnson, L. (2006). How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and validity. Field Methods. Vol. 18 (1) 59-82

LeCompte, M. (2000). Analyzing qualitative data. Theory Into Practice. Vol. 39 (3) 146-154.

Morse et al. (2002). Verification strategies for establishing reliability and validity in qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods. Vol. 1 (2) 13-22.

Using a Qualitative Approach
Words: 523 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 56533414
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negative life outcomes for inner city children, in terms of their physical, psychological, emotional, and social growth. My research will attempt to determine the extent to which crime, lack of strong public schools, the prevalence of single-mother households, and other environmental conditions have an impact upon child development. My dissertation will take a qualitative, grounded theory approach. In the grounded theory approach, a theory about the study participants' experience is created inductively, rather than deductively. In other words, I will interview my study subjects and by coding their responses to semi-structured inquiries, I will develop a theory based upon those responses regarding the experiences of childhood development in inner cities.

My subjects will be drawn from schools which are located within urban areas and have had challenges regarding student academic performance and dropout rates. Students, parents, and teachers from these representative communities will be interviewed. With the grounded theory approach,…


Trochim, W. (2006). Qualitative approaches. Social Science Research Methods. Retrieved from: 

Using NVivo for qualitative data analysis. (2014). Stanford University. Retrieved from:

Quantitative and Qualitative research methods
Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91276064
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Consider how qualitative and quantitative research methods complement one another, and consider the role of mixed methods designs.
Quantitative and qualitative social science study techniques have, for long, remained discrete, barely overlapping, spheres. But, of late, innovations have shed light on quantitative and qualitative techniques’ complementarity (Maxwell, 1998). Complementarily employing both methods offers broader understandings besides facilitating research findings’ confirmation or triangulation using different techniques, thus improving overall result validity and making the research more useful for targeted entities. However, the quest for genuinely complementary research techniques is also a greatly challenging task as it implies extra expenses, in terms of human as well as monetary resources, in addition to the development of ethical quandaries pertaining to follow- up and a need for collaboration and respecting diverse epistemological and methodological stands (Maxwell, 1998).
Using a qualitative process prior to engaging in survey work is, without a doubt, the most widely…

Quantitative and Qualitative
Words: 6879 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 12570660
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Vaismoradi, 2013)

Qualitative thematic and content analyses represent two widely utilized nursing data analysis techniques. However, no explicit boundaries have been identified between them. That is, researchers utilize them interchangeably and, apparently, find it hard to choose one of the two. In this regard, Vaismoradi's paper explains and deliberates on the borders between qualitative thematic and content analyses, presenting implications for improving the uniformity between information analysis techniques and related researches' purpose. The discussion paper comprises of a logical outline and examination of thematic and content analyses' objectives, definitions, philosophical context, data acquisition and analysis, also dealing with their methodological nuances.

With respect to study setting, this qualitative study doesn't afford any scope for discussions on sample attributes and size. The researcher has founded it on thematic and content analyses concepts. Content analysis aims at describing document content features by studying the speaker, the target audience, and the intended and…


Ayres L. Qualitative research proposal -- part I: posing the problem.

J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2007a; 34: 30 -- 32.

Ayres L. Qualitative research proposals -- part II: conceptual models and methodological options. J. Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs.

2007b; 34: 131 -- 133.

Personal Learning The field of qualitative research
Words: 2685 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12093662
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My learning in the field of qualitative research
1. In terms of qualitative methodology and the problems of scientism/positivism, what does it mean to recognize the limits of exactitude and certainty, but still to have respect for empirical work? Where do you presently locate yourself paradigmatically and methodologically in terms of your own investments in producing knowledge?
As a research strategy, positivism can be an approach that is based on the ontological principle and the concept that reality and truth are usually free and independent of the individual and observer. A large number of critics and philosophers who are concerned with the idea and concept of investigation and research agree with this statement. The definition of truth as an independent, objective and autonomous existence of positivism can be seen in various works. A positivist researcher believes that the world adjusts to the unchanging and perpetual rules and laws of circumstances…

Mixed Methods Research Simply Taking Half a
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31842567
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mixed methods research simply taking half a quantitative plan and half of a qualitative plan and putting them together?" And an articulation of the challenges to using a mixed methods strategy of inquiry.

To what extent is mixed methods research simply taking half a quantitative plan and half of a qualitative plan and putting them together?

Mixed methods approaches blend aspects of both quantitative and qualitative research designs in their construction. For example, a study of the responses of incarcerated juveniles to a new program designed to reintegrate the adolescents back into society might use quantitative data regarding the recidivism rates of the participating vs. non-participating teens but would also contextualize the data with qualitative interviews with the teens themselves. A mixed methods approach would be justified given the need to determine the efficacy of the program in an objective fashion, particularly to justify its continued funding. However, to better…

It should be noted that some researchers consider these two methods of qualitative and quantitative state of inquiry to be fundamentally polarized: "purists posit that quantitative and qualitative methods stem from different ontologic, epistemologic and axiologic assumptions about the nature of research" (Onwuegbuzie & Leech 2005: 376). Others state that in the social sciences, there is no such thing as pure 'knowledge' distilled from subjective experience and thus the two approaches are fundamentally more similar than they seem. The existence of mixed methods approaches suggests that the two methods are fundamentally different yet both offer equally valid and useful perspectives.

In theory, a mixed methods approach should unite the best of both worlds, when it comes to research -- but it can also contain the weaknesses of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in each separate component of the research. Statistical data derived from the quantitative component of the research must be rigorously analyzed according to valid standards; qualitative data must be gathered in a meaningful fashion from the selected population and the identities and feelings of participants must be handled according to accepted ethical guidelines. There is also a final concern regarding both methodologies, which is the process of triangulation: "it's important when you do a mixed methodology that you bring those three pieces of data together" (Wilson n.d.). The quantitative data may actually contradict the qualitative data accumulated for the research, particularly if the quantitative data was derived from a much larger sampling of participants than the qualitative interviews and case study component. Mixed methods researchers must strive to present their findings in a meaningful fashion -- even if the two components of the research do not necessarily support the same conclusions, this must be highlighted in a manner to illuminate the topic.

Given the criticism that overly data-driven research in the social sciences can ignore the important 'human' and idiosyncratic nature of lived experience, mixed methods inquiries are particularly useful in studies of human beings and their personal experiences. Mixed methods approaches are growing more popular because they can introduce a level of scientific rigor and scope that a small qualitative ethnography or case study might lack, but still allow for subjective input from both researchers and participants. Moreover, given that it is increasingly acknowledged that even quantitative research is subjective to some degree, mixed

Debating Structured vs Unstructured Methods This Week
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85137375
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Debating Structured vs. Unstructured Methods

This week, you have learned about the characteristics of structured and unstructured approaches in qualitative research. For this assignment, you will compare the advantages and disadvantages of each approach and discuss the merits of each.

To prepare for this assignment:

Consider what you have learned in your research courses about planning out the methodology for a research design. As you may recall, a structured or predetermined approach has been advocated in most, if not all, of your research textbooks up to this point.

eview Chapter 5 in Qualitative esearch Design: An Interactive Approach. In this chapter, Maxwell mentions the differences between a structured and an unstructured approach to qualitative methods. To what extent do you agree with the point-of-view that an unstructured approach to qualitative methods can be desirable? Under what circumstances might this be true?

With these thoughts in mind:

Write a response of…


Maxwell, J.A. (2005). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (2nd Ed.).


Proposing and Justifying a Research Method and Design
Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33133730
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gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.

Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.

As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…


Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from: 

The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:

A Qualitative Case Study
Words: 3320 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75937999
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Teaching Practices of University Professors Who Lead Change:

A qualitative case study

All realize the fact that significant change has occurred in our society. One means to describe this societal transformation is by understanding the drastic shift from a contemporary to a postmodern age. Modernity's shortfalls, the current information age, and challenges linked to postmodernity have made numerous researchers and theoreticians redefine both public institutions and its leading practices and plans. Change is ubiquitous and inevitable. It defines the era we live in. It accords significance, legitimacy, and relevance to a number of societal shaping institutions and people. Michael Fullan is one of the noted scholars who has remarked upon on the promises and failures of transformation efforts (Arcay, 2009).

Fullan starts the discussion on educational change using the following words: the dynamics and number of factors interacting with and influencing the educational change process are exceedingly great and disallow…


Arcay, D. A. (2009). An Analytical and Descriptive Assessment of Michael Fullan's Scholarship on Educational Change. Boston College Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, 2-817.

Battey, D., & Franke, M. L. (2008). Transforming identities: Understanding teachers across professional development and classroom practice. Teacher Education Quarterly, Summer: 127- 149.

Burridge, P., & Carpenter, C. (2013). Expanding Pedagogical Horizons: A case study of teacher professional development. Australian Journal of Teacher Education.

Fullan, M. (2012). Change Forces: Probing the Depths of Educational Reform. Routledge: London.

Social Sciences Quantitative Qualitative and Mixed Methods
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17281787
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social sciences: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. However, there is another classification of research -- evaluation research -- frequently deployed in organizations. Evaluation research may make use of all of these different methodologies, even though it has a different goal than academic research. "The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide 'useful feedback' to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, client-groups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies" (Trochim 2006).

In contrast to the use of the scientific method as in quantitative research, evaluation research is more intent upon offering practical data that can be used to maximize organizational resources and is specifically devoted to program evaluation. Some evaluation research does use standard qualitative methods in the tradition of the scientific method. However, an equally common approach is that of "management-oriented systems models. Two of the most common of these are PET, the Program Evaluation and eview Technique, and…


Trochim, W. (2006). Evaluation research. Social Science Research Methods. Retrieved: 

First Response:

The correlation between evaluation research and research methods are they are applications for research and they are also purposes of research (Laureate Education, Inc., 2009). Evaluation research and research methods are distinct in the manner that they specify a specific purpose. The correlation when using the research is that they all correlate together to distinguish a common reason, intent, goal, or idea which is used in acquiring knowledge (Laureate Education Inc., 2009).

research design and methods used in leadership
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Data Collection in Leadership
As a social science, leadership research may involve any type of quantitative or qualitative data collection method. Qualitative research data collection methods include observation, participant-observation, interview, and document or content analysis (“Data Collection Methods,” n.d.). Quantitative data collection methods used in leadership research may include surveys and experiments, which allow for statistical analysis, the establishment of causality between independent and dependent variables, and the tracking of results over time. Whereas quantitative data collection methods had once been the most commonly used in the social sciences, recent trends in leadership research have shifted towards qualitative methods (Antonakis, Schriescheim, Donovan, et al., 2003). Qualitative methods often reveal nuances, patterns, and ideas that quantitative methods overlook or take for granted, making mixed-methods approaches extremely attractive in emerging literature on leadership and organizational behavior.
Methods of data collection and research design trends eventually feed the formation of new theories in…

Thematic Error Qualitative Research According to Agostinho
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Thematic Error

Qualitative esearch

According to Agostinho (2005), educational research which focuses on the efficacy of e-learning classes has lagged behind the implementation of this teaching approach and therefore a great need exists in this area. Although the integral use of computers and software in e-learning courses renders them ideally suited for quantitative research approaches, Agostinho argues that qualitative or naturalistic forms of investigation can play an important role in e-learning research as well. For example, qualitative research could provide details about the experience of online learning environments from the perspective of students and teachers, thus generating ideas on how to promote innovation that enhances e-learning efficacy.

Towards the goal of providing a deeper understanding of the value that qualitative research can offer to e-learning research, Agostinho (2005) analyzed an e-learning study in terms of its methodological structure using an intrinsic case study approach (Creswell, Hanson, Plano, and Morales, 2007,…


Agostinho, Shirley. (2005). Naturalistic inquiry in e-learning research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 4, 2-13.

Creswell, John W., Hanson, William E., Plano, Vicki L., and Morales, Alehandro. (2007). Qualitative research designs: Selection and implementation. Counseling Psychologist, 35, 236-264.

Organizing Data in Qualitative and Quantitative Studies
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Tracking Data

In research, data and information collected needs to be organized in a manner that makes sense for the researcher at the analysis and report writing stages. Data can be organized depending on the data analysis objectives of the researcher. The researcher would organize qualitative data differently than a survey or quantitative data. It is through data organization that the researcher, at times, would make sense of the data at hand and would either confirm or change the direction or focus of the data analyses (while keeping in mind that any changes should still be aligned with the study's objectives).

Organizing data collected using qualitative methods require a different kind of organization or approach to data analysis. Qualitative data are made up of text relevant to the study at hand, and may be in the form of a key word, phrase, sentence, or passage from a specific discussion into…


Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Reisman, J., Gienapp, A. And S. Stachowiak. 2007. A Handbook of Data Collection Tools: Companion to "A Guide to Measuring Advocacy and Policy." Organizational Research Services.

Understanding Early Readmission Through Qualitative Measures
Words: 1725 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Peer Reviewed Journal Paper #: 2966373
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eadmission of patients with diabetes is a problem that warrants consideration of the contributing factors. eadmission of patients within 30 days of discharge is considered to be an indicator of healthcare quality -- along with other circumstances, such as patient lifestyle -- that needs to be addressed from a patient care perspective and from a cost of care perspective (Dungan, 2012). A dismal statistic starkly represents the problem: oughly 8% of the U.S. population is represented by patients with diabetes, yet this group accounts for 23% of the hospitalizations in the nation (Dungan, 2012). On top of this figure, between 14.4% to 21% of diabetic patients are readmitted, compared to 8.5% and 13.5% of U.S. hospital patients overall (Dungan, 2012). The problem is exacerbated by the rise in national rates of diabetes means that more patients will present from the general population and, accordingly, more patients with diabetes will experience…


Donnell-Jackson, K., Ram M. Jhingan, R.M. And Rubin, D.J. (2013). Early Readmissions among hospitalized patients with diabetes: A qualitative assessment of contributing factors. Paper presented at Diabetes: Diagnosis, Complications & Outcomes, The Endocrine Society's 95th Annual Meeting and Expo, from June 15 -- 18, 2013, in San Francisco, California.

Dungan, K.M. (2012, September). The effect of diabetes on hospital readmissions. Journal of Diabetes Science Technology, 6(5), 1045-1052. Retreived from 

Dye, J. G, Schatz, I.M., Rosenberg, B.A., and Coleman, S.T. (2000, January). Constant comparison method: A kaleidoscope of data. The Qualitative Report, 4(1/2).

Hellman, R. (2014, October). An individualized inpatient diabetes education and hospital transition program for poorly controlled hospitalized patients with diabetes. Endocrine Practice, 20(10), 1097-1099.

research in education qualitative quantitative
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Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
According to Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.), research design decisions are linked to ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the researcher’s beliefs about whether reality is absolute or contextual, universal or relative. Whether the researcher is a realist or a relativist determines research questions and designs, with an increased tendency for relativists to focus on phenomenological and qualitative methods and a realist to use quantitative methods. Muijs (n.d.) describes quantitative research as using numerical data and mathematical methods, showing how a realist will use these types of methods to seek for an objective truth. Likewise, epistemology refers to how the researcher acquires knowledge, or what sources of knowledge are deemed valid. A researcher who believes in absolutism and realism will veer towards quantitative methods, which yield absolute and generalizable results. On the other hand, a researcher who values subjectivity would take a phenomenological and qualitative approach.…

synopsis qualitative'studies of emotional intelligence
Words: 1126 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83267568
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Emotional Intelligence is the aptitude of an individual to be aware of their personal emotions and those of others surrounding them. Emotional intelligence is also referred to as Emotional Quotient (EQ). The knowledge of one’s emotional intelligence is important in that the information obtained from the knowledge can be used to influence thinking towards a given direction. It is also vital for it provides for the opportunity to be able to improve on one's behavior in order to adjust to an environmental or in order to achieve any set intentions.
Moreover, Emotional intelligence can define the performance of an individual academically, just as can be Intelligence Quotient since they are very closely linked. Emotions of an individual can affect the performance of individuals even at the workplace. Thus, it is key for an employer of a leader to ensure that they have the ability to discern the emotions of their…

Qualitative Quantitative and Mixed Methods Research
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Mixed Methods Research

Two important aspects of qualitative research relates to the role of the researcher and the manner in which knowledge is viewed. These two aspects fundamentally distinguish qualitative research from quantitative research (Creswell, 2014). In qualitative research, the researcher seeks to cultivate a closer relationship with the subject(s). This means that the researcher focuses on a single or a small number of subjects, and utilises designs that allow closer interaction with the subjects such as in-depth interviews, observations, and focus group discussions. Cultivating a closer relationship with the subjects is informed by the need to gain a deeper understanding of the research phenomenon (Denscombe, 2010). This arises from the assertion that knowledge is subjective (Bryman, 2008). In other words, different individuals tend to have different meanings and worldviews about a given phenomenon. The role of the researcher, therefore, is to understand the unique interpretation a subject holds about…

Qualitative Interviews
Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 23014624
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Health and Safety Questionnaire

Qualitative research questions regarding health and policy issues are difficult to put together in a comprehensive fashion. For this reason, it is necessary to have a brief literature review to see how some scholars have dealt with this problem. Then it will be possible to put together a properly structured interview. Then, the author structured a sample interview.

Qualitative Interview Methodology Literature

In a journal article in the International Journal for Quality in Health Care, the authors put together a 32 item checklist to help set up competent focus group interviews with consolidated criteria for reporting The authors performed their comprehensive search in Cochrane and Campbell Protocols, CINAHL, Medline,, systematic reviews of studies of a qualitative nature, reviewer or author guidelines of major medical journals and also reference lists of the relevant journals and other publications for existing checklists that are widely used to assess qualitative…


Lingard, L., Albert, M., & Levinson, W. (2008). Grounded theory, mixed methods, and action research.

British Medical Journal, 337, 459-461.

Tong, A., Sainsbury, P., & Craig, J. (2007). Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research

(coreq): a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups. International Journal for Quality

Qualitative Research on Human Trafficking
Words: 710 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50310742
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Anchored on the research objective of determining differences, if there are any, in human trafficking rates between male and female adults, the researcher will develop a tool (in-depth interview guide) that will cull out important insights into the issue of human trafficking, from the perspective of both the victims and representatives from organizations/agencies on preventing it.

An in-depth interview is the appropriate qualitative data collection method, as the issue of human trafficking is a very sensitive issue for its victims, and one that requires deeper discovery, thus the inclusion of interviews of experts on the issue. Two in-depth interview guides will therefore be developed for the study: a guide for interviewing human trafficking victims (both male and female) and another for the issue experts.

From these tools, the researcher is expecting that themes relevant to the focus of the two informant groups will emerge. From the victims, a deeper understanding…


Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Hepburn, S., & Simon, R.J. (2010). Hidden in plain sight: Human trafficking in the United

States. Gender Issues, 27(1-2), 1-26. doi:

Qualitative and Quantitative Data Analysis
Words: 1832 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78985915
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.....employee data to answer some human resources related questions using the SPSS software. The screenshots of the entire data are presented in the Appendix 1 and Appendix 2. The report provides the findings for the HR (human resources) issues after carrying out the data analysis of employee's data. The outcome of the analysis reveals that workers between 25 and 55 years of age form the largest percentage of employees in the organization where the mean age of all the entire workforce is 39.19 years. However, workers between 18 and 29 years of age consist of 30.4% of the workforce. However, workers between age of 30 and 40 consist of 23.2% of employees within the organization. Employees between 41 and 50 years of age consist of 23.2% of the workforce while employees between 51 and 63 of age consist of 21.7%.

The findings also reveal the proportion of the employees belonging…

Qualitative Research Annotated Bibliography
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Baxter P. & Jack S. Qualitative Case Study Approach: Design and Implementation for Inexperienced Researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), 544-559

This paper treats case study as an approach in research. A qualitative case study approach avails tools for research in complex phenomena in context. If appropriately applied, the methodology is a valuable tool for health sciences in evaluating programs, crafting interventions and developing theory. This paper seeks to guide the inexperienced researcher in picking out the important elements for purposes of design and implementation of qualitative case study research tasks. There is a summary of the available designs of case study. The generalized recommendations for drafting the research questions, crafting propositions, binding the case, determination of the case in focus, triangulation and discussion of the sources of data are also availed. In order to apply the principles, there must be clear samples of research questions, propositions of study and various…

Qualitative and Quantitative Research Differences
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Discussion of the Differences Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Q1. How does a research problem/question guide the determination to conduct a quantitative versus a qualitative research study?
In general, qualitative research is exploratory in nature and seeks to understand a particular phenomenon from a particular subject’s perspective (McLeod, 2017). It is open-ended in its focus and the researcher has no predetermined conclusions before embarking upon the study. As a result, it focuses on a small rather than a large population. In stark contrast, a quantitative study seeks to understand a phenomenon in an objective fashion that is generalizable to a large population (McLeod, 2017). It is often framed in the form of a predetermined hypothesis and is narrow in its focus.
Q2. Discuss the value of using a conceptual framework or theory (grand or mid-range) to guide a quantitative research study. Address the debate of the appropriateness of using of…

Qualitative Research Assessment and Method
Words: 462 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Application Essay Paper #: 50690122
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Interview Method

Identify the data collection techniques used by Lenski et al. (2005) in this study. The researchers collected data by "learning about ethnography, conducting participation observation, making descriptive observations," conducting neighborhood observations, school site observations and interviewing participants.

Given the design of this study, do you think the students were participant observers or nonparticipant observers?

The students were participant observers because students and teachers were engaged in activities together.

How does this qualitative design differ from the quantitative designs that we have studied?

This design does not collect or analyze statistical data. The main method of data collection is the interview method. This is a one-on-one process of speaking to participants, asking questions, and receiving in-depth answers. The design is a type of examination: it looks in order to see more details and clarity regarding a process but it does not attempt to quantify the picture that emerges.


Qualitative Doctoral Business Research Role of Theory
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Analysis Role of Theory in Context of Qualitative Doctoral Business Research
Models and theories produce the basis upon which empirical inquiries are built. Empirical research is not only concerned with data variations (with respect to what is going on in the globe) but also with testing whether such data is in conformity with the theory or model (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). It is also our intention to progress existing theories or even come up with new ones on the basis of existing ones and on the basis of freshly acquired empirical evidence. Generally two strategies for carrying out quantitative research exist. The first strategy involves formulation of hypotheses by researchers based on previous research information and testing those hypotheses against available empirical data through a process called confirmatory research. Confirmatory research is used to…

Qualitative Phenomenon
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Epistemological assumptions

The epistemological assumption of the research is that social media fundamentally changes the way that people relate to one another, specifically how they relate to marketing and brands. It also changes the way that marketers try to reach customers.

Marketers currently face a quandary about the degree to which they must balance the use of social media with more traditional forms of media. While the overall direction of current research suggests that social media will be used more and more as a form of customer engagement, companies often feel it is still important to use other ways to connect with customers because not all consumers are 'online' (this is heavily dependent upon the type of demographic targeted by the industry) and not all customers respond to online messages the same degree they respond to other, more traditional channels. Businesses can also be change-resistant about the idea of incorporating…

Methods of Obtaining Data for a Classroom Study
Words: 483 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64275481
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Baxter, P., Jack, S. (2008). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4): 544-559.

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among

Five Approaches. CA: SAGE.

Merriam, S. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis. CA: Jossey-Bass.

Qualitative Decision-Making
Words: 572 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20102003
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AIDS & Obits

The author first starts off by talking about how homosexuality has evolved from being considered a mental disorder to being sinful/immoral to being a medically accepted, albeit fairly alternative and rare, form of human behavior and lifestyle. However, many of the stigmas of being gay continue and this continues in the form of how obituaries that relate to single men. Indeed, the cause of death is rarely mentioned or, as the article notes, there is often a telltale clue that gives an indication as to what happened. QA review was conducted of whether and when AIDS deaths were listed in an obituary for single men that died between the ages of 18 and 50. In 1986, there were five people that died of AIDS, at least that were identified, and that took up nearly a fourth of all listed causes. However, that number was zero out of…

Descrptive Design Research Method and Design Proposal
Words: 2120 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 90647310
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Descrptive Design

esearch Method and Design Proposal

A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).

Most importantly, qualitative data methods…


Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from 

Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.

Lancet, 359, 145-149.

Hofferth, S.L. (2005). Secondary data analysis in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 891 -- 907.

Tradition -- Qualitative Traditions Also Known as
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Tradition -- Qualitative traditions, also known as approaches, view the more multidimensional and multidisciplinary paradigm of research (conceptions of self, ethics, the environment, etc. (Creswell, p. 51). It is an approach or mind-set to the way research is conducted, but more than that it is the approach to the subject matter that may be sociological, cultural, historical, etc. -- all depending on the expertise of the researcher, the desired inquiry, and the theoretical grounding that is most appropriate for the project (p. 103).

In general, there are five qualitative traditions/approaches to research studies:

Narrative -- Narrative is a method and phenomenon of study -- it focuses on experiences, stories, and the spoken or written text that gives and account of events and actions that are then chronologically connected (pp. 70-2).

Phenomenological -- Narrative studies report single individual, phenomenological studies account the meaning of issues for several experiences of their "lived"…


Creswell, J.W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design; choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.

Mixed Methods Primary and Secondary
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Quantitative research uses survey, and questionnaires to collect data. Through quantitative analysis, a researcher is able to correlate mass data to the research findings. Despite the benefits identified in both quantitative and qualitative research, the paper identifies some shortcomings in both research methods. To address these shortcomings, the paper proposes mixed methods that involve combining both quantitative and qualitative research.


Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative esearch: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.

Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive esearch Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.

Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative esearch Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.

Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.

Firestone, W.A. (1987).Meaning in Method: The hetoric Quantitative and Qualitative esearch. Educational esearcher.19(7):16-21.

Goodwin, W.L. Goodwin, L.D. (1996). Understanding qualitative & quantitative research in early childhood education.…


Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative Research: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.

Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive Research Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.

Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative Research Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.

Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.

Experimental Research Methods in Business Experimental Research
Words: 4846 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 87946505
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Experimental esearch Methods in Business

Experimental esearch Methods

The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.


The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…


Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.

Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.

Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved

Ensuring Research Quality in Qualitative Studies
Words: 424 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53925730
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Falter in Quality

The strength of the use of interviews as a data collection device is that they ensure a high rate of response; that the interviewer can tailor his or her response to the subjects' responses over the course of the interview; and the interviewer can clarify any ambiguous responses. Problems with interviews can arise when the subjects make their responses conform to the unintentionally communicated expectations of the interviewer, based on a desire to 'please' the researcher. To ensure quality control in my process of interviewing I tried to adhere to a relatively similar script between interviews for comparison of subject responses. I did not want to be overly directive during the interview and only intervened if the subjects were confused and had no response to my queries. I transcribed and recorded the interviews to ensure I was not missing any critical word choices that might be revelatory…


Whittemore, R., Chase, S.K., & Mandle, C.L. (2001). Validity in qualitative research.

Qualitative Health Research, 11 (4): 533-37

Business Qualitative Research Aims to
Words: 336 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34629292
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While the debate between the two is hot, and it seems quantitative research is the more valid, perhaps the best solution is to combine the two methods to come up with a more extensive and valid form of research. Combining facts and figures with interviews, objects, and images is a good way to see all sides of an issue or research subject. Instead of debating which type of research method is the most effective, it would serve researchers better to merge their ideas and methods to create a more well rounded type of research that could give more insight into a wider variety of topics.

It seems that any kind of detailed and well-planned research can be valid, especially if the researcher knows how to define their research and understands what they are hoping to accomplish with the research. Thus, either of these methods would serve many different types of…

IRR vs Mirr Valuation Methods the Process
Words: 2613 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60688853
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I vs. MI Valuation Methods

The process of capital budgeting in corporations involves selecting projects that add value to the organization. Capital budgeting can involve nearly everything like buying a new truck, replacing old machinery, and acquiring some land. In most cases, businesses, especially corporations, are required to conduct these projects in order to improve profitability and enhance the wealth of shareholders. The process of undertaking a capital budgeting decision requires the company to first determine whether the project will be profitable. The determination of the profitability of a project is accomplished through the use of several valuation methods like the Internal ate of eturn, Net Value Present, and Modified Internal ate of eturn. These approaches usually produce different results though the ideal capital budgeting solution should result in the indication of the same decision by the three metrics. Organizations tend to place more emphasis on one valuation method than…


Abraham, A. (n.d.). Modified Internal Rate of Return MIRR. Retrieved June 30, 2012, from

"Financial Valuation Concepts -- The Internal Rate of Return (IRR)." (n.d.). Financial Modeling

Guide. Retrieved June 30, 2012, from 

Pinkasovitch, A. (2011, July 8). An Introduction to Corporate Valuation Methods. Retrieved June 30, 2012, from

the use of a focus group in qualitative research
Words: 561 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 99384304
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Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

No conceptual or theoretical framework was clearly identified. However, the authors do focus on patient-centered care within an evidence-based practice framework.

esearch/Study Design

The research design is described as being descriptive and is therefore phenomenological. The authors use a focus group model, and operationalize the definition of the term focus group. A focus group for the purposes of this study is defined as a small group and has as its objective the "acquisition of information based on perceptions, beliefs, traditions, and values of its participants," (Heinrich & Karner, n.d., p. 31). Focus groups are one of the most commonly used study designs in qualitative research in health care (Gill, Stewart, Treasure & Chadwick, 2008). Furthermore, the focus group was selected for this qualitative research design because it permitted 'interaction and discussion" among the participants, leading to "rich data related to the learning needs of older adults living in…


Gill, P., Stewart, K., Treasure, E. & Chadwick, B. (2008). Methods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups. BDJ 204: 291-295.

Heinrich, C. & Karner, K. (n.d.). Ways to optimize understanding health related information. Geriatric Nursing 32(1).

Mixed Method Qualitative Quantitative Mixed Methodologies Quantitative
Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 50233499
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Mixed Method

Qualitative, quantitative, mixed methodologies

Quantitative, qualitative and mixed methodology research

Quantitative methodologies tend to be data-driven in nature. The presumption of the correct 'way of knowing' in quantitative research is positivistic in nature. It is assumed there is an objective, concrete truth that can be learned through empirical observation and the careful construction of an experiment. Quantitative methods of research often use the scientific method or quasi-scientific methods of study design. The researcher has a clear idea of the phenomenon he or she is attempting to study. The researcher's primary tools include questionnaires, objective measurements and other methods of gathering statistical results. Often there is a control group to see if the results are statistically significant in nature. The study is carefully designed before the research takes place to isolate specific variables of inquiry and its focus of study is narrow, rather than broad. The types of knowledge…


Neill, James. (2007). Qualitative vs. quantitative research. Retrieved:

The qualitative vs. quantitative debate. (2012). Writing at CSU. Retrieved:

Sales Forecasting Qualitative Sales Forecasting
Words: 794 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84923815
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" In these types of organizations where only a few large customers are served, predicting sales based on first-hand knowledge of the customers can be an effective forecasting method.

A survey of customers involves asking customers about their future intentions. One of the benefits of this method is that it allows for an overview of all customers, rather than focusing on several select customers. The second benefit is that it gains information by going directly to the buyer. This method is best used in markets where consumer behavior and consumer perceptions drive the market (Neal, Quester, & Hawkins 1999, p. 1.5). This includes the fashion industry, the entertainment industry, as well as many service industries.

The historical analogy method is based on recognizing that similar products will often follow similar growth patterns. This method is used to predict the future sales of new products. This method is best used in…


Baker, M.J. (1999). The IEBM Encyclopedia of Marketing. London: International Thompson Business Press.

Neal, C., Quester, P., & Hawkins, D. (1999). Consumer Behavior: Implications for Marketing Strategy. Boston, MA: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Perreault, W.D., & McCarthy, E.J. (2000). Essentials of Marketing. Boston, MA: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Is it Possible to Blend Qualitative Approaches
Words: 869 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57557554
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Managing Different Perspectives in the Literature

One of the strengths of qualitative literature -- as well as one of its frustrations -- is its innate subjectivity. Different authors may present the reader with different approaches, both of which can be equally valid and still be characterized as qualitative. The variety of perspectives offered on qualitative research from diverse sources allows the individual researcher to tailor his or her approach to the specific subject of his or her research study. Unlike a quantitative, statistical approach which requires passing certain mathematical tests to be valid, the validity of a qualitative approach depends on the needs of the specific study. For example, for a primarily narrative qualitative study that is merely designed to showcase experiences, having a research question might not be particularly useful. However, for a grounded theory approach, a research question would likely be required to focus the research process and…


Creswell, J. (2012). Qualitative inquiry and research design. Sage.

Maxwell, J. Designing a qualitative study. Retrieved from:

Social Sciences In General Qualitative
Words: 2583 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49942215
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These individuals will be recruited via email, similar to that of the journal recruitment email. However, the email will only detail that they have been selected to participate in a free shopping spree at a given time and place in appreciation for their loyal patronage. Another possibility is to set up a drawing at the selected store. From the individuals who register, random participants can be selected.

The experiment itself will utilize a simulated shopping environment will be set up. Half the participants will be bombarded with advertisements while shopping and prior to shopping (such as having ads mailed and emailed to them). The other half will not be bombarded with the advertisements for that particular brand and products. All other variables will be the same. After the experiment, the observer will be able to compare the purchases of the two groups to see if the advertisement group purchased the…


Girdner, Ellen R.R. (2001): Evaluating Research Articles from Start to Finish. London: SAGE Publications.

Graydon, Shari. (2003): Made You Look: How Advertising Works and Why You Should Know. Toronto: Annick Press.

Johnson, J. Douglas. (1978): Advertising Today. Chicago: Science Research Associates.

Kleppner, Otto. (1966): Advertising Procedure. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Value of Qualitative vs Quantitative
Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97847056
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esponses may be 'coded' so that some numerical data can be amassed but overall, the most important part of the research is the lived 'experience' that is recorded. In contrast, with quantitative research, it is the data that is more significant. However, quantitative studies can provide the springboard for qualitative studies, as they point out phenomena in the general population that needs to be studied in more 'micro-level' detail. Similarly, qualitative studies can act as early fact-finding expeditions that provide the basis for quantitative analysis, to see if the study of the smaller population is reflective of a larger phenomenon. Neither one type of research needs to come before the other.

A good example of a comparison of qualitative and quantitative research from translation studies can be found in the field of "research in second language learning that identifies learners' problems in composition and attempts to explain them by referring…


Connor, Ulla. (1996). Contrastive rhetoric: Cross-cultural aspects of second-language writing.

Cambridge University Press. ERIC Database. Retrieved: 

Lund, Thorleif. The qualitative -- quantitative distinction: Some comments. Scandinavian Journal

of Educational Research, 49 (2): 115 -- 132

Value of Shifting From Qualitative to Quantitative
Words: 575 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 63719267
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Value of Shifting from Qualitative to Quantitative and Back Again

Qualitative research is considered hypothesis generating, whereas quantitative research is designed to test hypotheses. Based on this perspective, the natural direction of research flow would be from qualitative to quantitative study designs (Black & Fauske, 2008). Qualitative research tends to focus on experiences, rather than the measuring and tracking of objective factors, but there are times when it makes sense to base a qualitative study on quantitative findings. This essay will examine the value of transitioning from qualitative to quantitative study designs and vice versa.

Qualitative to Quantitative

A qualitative study is traditionally conducted when little is understood about a phenomenon, such as the experiences of patients during treatment. For example, Black and Fauske (2008) were interested in understanding the experiences and practices of case managers during advanced care planning. A focus group design was used to conduct semi-structured interviews,…


Black, K. & Fauske, J. (2008). Measuring case managers' advance care planning practice: Translating focus group findings to survey development. Care Management Journals, 9(4), 166-76.

Ullman, S.E. (2005). Interviewing clinicians and advocates who work with sexual assault survivors: A personal perspective on moving from quantitative to qualitative research methodologies. Violence Against Women, 11(9), 1113-39.

Sampling Design & Data Method
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(362) One additional note on this half of the duel research study was that the pair of applicants with and without fictitious criminal records was rotated throughout the experiment to reduce the odds that a single applicant would alter results if assigned the rigid role of ex-con or clean record applicant.

In the second half of the research study the same set of potential employers was surveyed using a vignette method. The vignette described the scenario of applicants who matched the (tester) applicants. The employers who were screened by asking for the person in charge of hiring at the place of business were then asked to respond to the scenario by answering questions regarding if they would or would not hire or consider hiring the applicant in the vignette. Data was collected utilizing the responses to the survey questions, which avoided direct racial comparisons but simply stated the race of…

Works Cited

Pager, Devah and Lincoln Quillian.. "Walking the Talk? What Employers Say vs. What They Do." American Sociological Review 70: 2005, 355-380.

Gray, Paul S., John B. Williamson, David a. Karp, and John R. Dalphin the Research Imagination: An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2007.