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The English won the naval battle handily, aided by some fortuitous inclement English Channel weather, and emerged as the world's strongest naval power, setting the stage for later English imperial designs. Elizabeth was a master of political science. She inherited her father's supremacist view of the monarchy, but showed great wisdom by refusing to directly antagonize Parliament. She acquired undying devotion from her advisement council, who were constantly perplexed by her habit of waiting to the last minute to make decisions (this was not a deficiency in her makeup, but a tactic that she used to advantage). She used the various factions (instead of being used by them), playing one off another until the exhausted combatants came to her for resolution of their grievances. Few English monarchs enjoyed such political power, while still maintaining the devotion of the whole of English society (Elizabeth I (1558-1603 AD) a Queen with the…
On the other hand, contributions in music were extremely important, some judging that, during this period, "in music, Elizabethan England led the world." Starting by first adapting the Italian madrigals, the English music discovery continued with its own madrigals, as well as a continued tradition in church music. Instrumental music was also greatly encouraged, as was the composing genius of the likes of William yrd or Thomas Tallis.
Literature has been left at the end, because the contributions made to Renaissance during Elizabeth's reign are inestimable. Shakespeare is probably the world's greatest playwright and the first name that reasonably comes to mind, but he was joined in the expression of an English literary spirit by the likes of Edmund Spenser, Christopher Marlowe or en Johnson, all succeeding in creating masterpieces that not only influenced their own times, but also viewers, readers and other writers for centuries to come.
1. Smith, Goldwin. A History of England. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Third Edition. 1966
2. Was Queen Elizabeth I. An ideal renaissance ruler? October 2001. On the Internet at http://www.daria.no/skole/?tekst=1247.Last retrieved on February 20, 2008
Smith, Goldwin. A History of England. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Third Edition. 1966. Page 262.
Was Queen Elizabeth I. An ideal renaissance ruler? October 2001. On the Internet at
That is, Elizabeth I considered her decision to make England mainly a Protestant nation is a political strategy to promote the rational and economic-minded perspective adopted by Protestantism.
From both Elizabeth's and Mary's religio-political strategies, it becomes apparent that the Church and State are inevitably linked, for it is the leader's value and belief systems that affect and influences political decisions. Therefore, political judgment and decisions are based on the context of the individual's / leader's system of values and beliefs.
The statement, "all men need something bigger than themselves to look up to and worship" demonstrates not only Elizabeth as a leader, but English society (in general) governed by the monarchy. This statement illustrates that while humanity seeks an ideal and model idol-leader to look up to, the presence of an individual committed and willing to take on the problems of civil society is enough for humanity or a…
Anna hitelock. The Queen's Bed: An Intimate History of Elizabeth's Court. New York: Sarah Crichton Books, 2013.
Before encountering Anna hitelock's The Queen's Bed: An Intimate History of Elizabeth's Court, few readers would have known anything about the private life of the English monarch. Those who wished to know might have unearthed numerous primary and secondary sources speculating on the Queen's private life, but none that covered the topic in as much detail, totality, or integrity as hitelock achieves in The Queen's Bed. This book offers readers an impressive analysis of why Elizabeth's private life is important from a historical standpoint, showing how her private life offers clues to the queen's character and to the historical and political context in which she lived. Moreover, hitelock shows how the private life of the queen became the source of scandal and rumor linked to overarching attempts to dethrone her; attempts related to…
Anna Whitelock. The Queen's Bed: An Intimate History of Elizabeth's Court. New York: Sarah Crichton Books, 2013.
Catherine the Great vs. Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I of England and Catherine II or Catherine the Great of Russia were both of noble birth. Elizabeth was the only surviving child of Henry VIII and his second queen, Anne oleyn (911 Encyclopedia 2004). She was born on September 7, 1533 at Greenwich Palace almost 200 years before the birth of Catherine the Great of Russia. Elizabeth's death was met with much frustration and bitterness by her parents who wanted a male who could inherit the throne. Her parents' marriage was considered invalid ab initio under Roman or English canon law, which did not allow her father to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne oleyn, Elizabeth's mother. Anne was also charged with adultery, owing to her pre-contract with Lord Percy and Henry's previous relationship with Anne's sister, Mary oleyn. With Anne's inability to provide a surviving male heir to Henry, she…
1. Alexander, John T. Catherine the Great: Life and Legend. Oxford University Press, 1989
2. Erickson, Carolly. Great Catherine: the Life of Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia. NT, Crown Publishers, Inc., 1994
3. LovetoKnow. Queen of England Elizabeth. 1911 Online Encyclopedia, 2004. http://48.1911encyclopedia.org/E/ELIZABETH_QUEEN_OF_ENGLAND.htm
4. Smirnov, Serge. Catherine the Great. Fingerhut Group Publishers, Inc., http://www.fingerhutart.com/smirnov_catherine_info.htm
Queen Victoria's legacy was to retain the strength of the British monarchy in spite of social and political reform, to rule with conservative values in spite of a growing trend of liberalism in her country, and to expand the political and territorial claims of the British Empire in a world that was becoming increasingly suspicious of colonialism. Queen Victoria emerges as a complex character, based on her numerous biographies and her own personal letters. Because of her position in recent history, much is known about Victoria, her life, and her times.
Victoria ascended to the throne in 1837 and married Prince Albert a few years after. Although Victoria began her political career as a liberal, she grew increasingly more conservative in her views due mainly to the influence of her husband. However, Albert died in 1861, leaving the Queen in a state of emotional chaos. She secluded herself and remained…
Therefore, this information is identifying how: specific events and attributes would shape the kind of queen she became in the future. As the information is helping t: tie all of these different events together, in association with the other articles that were discussed earlier.
The Life of Elizabeth I
Over the years, there are those leaders who have such a profound impact that they can change the course of a nation forever. Such is the case with Elizabeth I of England, as she is considered to be one of the greatest leaders in all of ritish history. This is because she assumed power at time when the country was at its weakest point. What happened was England became known a pawn between: the rival powers of France and Spain. Where, both nations had made: a tremendous number of discoveries in new world and they were competing with each for access…
Elizabeth I. (n.d.). Hyper History. Retrieved from: http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/people_n2/persons6_n2/elizabeth.html
Elizabeth I. (n.d.) Tudor Place. Retrieved from: http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/aboutElizabeth.htm
Elizabeth I. (2011). History Learning Site. Retrieved from: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/elizabeth_i.htm
Queen Elizabeth I of England. (2005). Kings College. Retrieved from: http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/elizabeth.html
Stephen obin's Leadership Models: Assessment of Film Queen Elizabeth I
What is the leadership-effectiveness model?
Leadership behaviors and Styles
Group member characteristics
Internal and External environment
After watching the 1998 movie "Elizabeth," this paper was written which to shortly examine the make of her according to obin's leadership model. An extremely astute, intelligent and most extraordinary irregularity of her time question of whether Elizabeth should be considered the great model of leadership most would, Elizabeth rose to power and prospered in bonding her people. This monarch did this without husband or successor, was an extraordinary writer who was able to utilize her words in order to gain power and had an age named after her. She was the virtuous and carried herself as ethical symbol to which many would more than likely assign the title "great leader." It was clear from the viewpoint of the movie…
Clemens, J. & W.M., 2000. Movies to manage by: Lessons in leadership from great films. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Elizabeth I. 1998. [Film] Directed by Shekhar Kapur. United Kingdom: PolyGram Filmed Entertainment.
English, F. & S.B., 1997. Using Film to Teach Leadership in Educational Administration.. Educational Administration Quarterly, 33(1), pp. 107-125.
Herrington, J.O.R. & R.T.C., 2009. Patterns of engagement in authentic online. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 19(1), pp. 59-71.
Edmund Spenser opens, prefaces, and introduces The Faerie Queen with a letter addressed to Sir alter Raleigh. In this letter, Spenser outlines his intention behind writing the epic poem, "hich For That It Giveth Great Light to The Reader." Spenser writes, "The generall end therefore of all the booke is to fashion a gentleman or noble person in vertuous and gentle discipline." To accomplish this goal, The Faerie Queen features "the historye of King Arthure, as most fitte for the excellency of his person, being made famous by many mens former workes, and also furthest from the daunger of envy, and suspition of present time." Spenser thus explains why The Faerie Queen alludes to the Arthurian legends; the hearkening to the past is no small accident. The author hopes to engender in the reader a sense of lofty ambition, hope, and courage that the Arthurian legend represents. In…
Jusserand, J.J. Spenser's "Twelve Private Morall Vertues as Aristotle Hath Devised" Modern Philology. Vol. 3 No. 3. 1906.
Nestrick, William V. "The Virtuous and Gentle Discipline of Gentlemen and Poets." ELH. Vol. 29, No. 4, 1962.
Neuse, Richard. "Book VI as Conclusion to The Faerie Queen." ELH. Vol. 35, No. 3. P. 329-353.
Spenser, Edmund. The Faerie Queen. 1589. Retrieved online: http://www.bartleby.com/39/14.html
Then she suffered them, with her two women, to disrobe her of her chain of pomander beads and all other her apparel most willingly, and with joy rather than sorrow, helped to make unready herself, putting on a pair of sleeves with her own hands which they had pulled off, and that with some haste, as if she had longed to be gone.
All this time they were pulling off her apparel, she never changed her countenance, but with smiling cheer she uttered these words, 'that she never had such grooms to make her unready, and that she never put off her clothes before such a company.'
Then she, being stripped of all her apparel saving her petticoat and kirtle, her two women beholding her made great lamentation, and crying and crossing themselves prayed in Latin. She, turning herself to them, embracing them, said these words in French, 'Ne crie…
Adamson, John. "The queen ruled by others Traitor to some, martyr to others - John Adamson on the extraordinary life of Mary Queen of Scots," the Sunday Telegraph London, January 4, 2004. 22 July 2008 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-8914626.html .
Colburn H.; Strickland, Mary Agnes. 1845; Digitized Sep. 6, 2005. Letters of Mary, Queen of Scots: Now First Published from the Original. Harvard University. 22 July 2008 http://books.google.com/books?id=lttUoiwDd5AC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Mary,+ueen+of+Scots .
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 22 July 2008 http://www.bartleby.com/66/85/38185.html .
Fraser, Lady Antonia, 2008.. "Mary Queen of Scotland." Encyclopedia Britannica 22 July 2008 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/367467/Mary#tab=active~checked%2Citms~checked&title=Mary%20 -- %20Britannica%20Online%20Encyclopedia.
Elizabeth Bishop and Robert Lowell
The publication in 2008 of ords in Air: The Collected Correspondence of Robert Lowell and Elizabeth Bishop offers the reader a privileged glimpse into the long and emotional friendship between two major postwar American poets, who were each an active influence on the other's work. Bishop would enclose a poem in a 1961 letter to Lowell, claiming the draft "undoubtedly shows your influence" but also noting that "I'll probably make more changes" (ords in Air, 379). In a 1964 interview, Robert Lowell would claim Bishop as one of "the poets who most directly influenced me." (Kunitz 86). Indeed Travisano notes in his introduction to the letters that "Lowell's Life Studies and For the Union Dead, his most enduringly popular books, were written under Bishop's direct influence, as the letters make clear" (ords in Air, xviii). But those two titles mark a major shift in Lowell's…
Bishop, Elizabeth. The Complete Poems, 1927-1979. New York: Farrar Straus, 1984. Print.
Costello, Bonnie. Elizabeth Bishop: Questions of Mastery. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993. Print.
Gilbert, Sandra. "Mephistophilis in Maine: Rereading Skunk Hour." In Axelrod, Steven Gould and Deese, Helen. (Editors). Robert Lowell: Essays on the Poetry. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Print.
Hamilton, Saskia. The Letters of Robert Lowell. New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux, 2005. Print.
Since the invention of cinema in the twentieth century one of the favorite subjects of the moviemakers has been to spread out historic myths and events. The movie Elizabeth released on 13th November 1998 is directed by Shehkar Kapoor. The film is of 124 minutes long. It is the story of Queen Elizabeth I, who ruled England for 45 years from 1558 to 1603. Role of Elizabeth is played by Cate lanchett. The period shown in the film is mid sixteen century and the location is England. The film is about how Elizabeth I got to the throne, the early days of her struggle as queen of England and Ireland and the troubles she faced to maintain her reign. The film may be categorized as history and romance.
The film begins in the last days of Queen Mary, who was a fanatic Catholic as a result there was…
Kent, James D. "Elizabeth I and the limits of privatization" Journal: Public Administration Review. Volume: 58. Issue: 2. 1998
Palmer, Michael "Elizabeth I." B.T. Bats ford Limited, London, 1988
Shehkar Kapoor is an Indian Film Director, and was nominated for Oscar on his Screen portray of Elizabeth.
Queen Mary was also half sister of Elizabeth I.
" It is she who meets with Arthur and brings him to the rescue of her Knight.
But although he is good and true, the Red Cross night is not perfect, he can be defeated without help from God and the name of Arthur who represents England's great past, and the vision of his queen. Significantly, Arthur's glory and victory over Orgoglio comes not through military might, but through showing the evil giant his shield, which blinds Orgoglio with its goodness, shining like a mirrored diamond of purity and a vision of true faith. The victory of Arthur thus is of right, not simply of might, and a connection between Elizabeth, her Red Knight, and England's glory days of yore and true faith. Arthur's victory shows that England's past was not Catholic, but pre-Catholic, an England of a purer faith that Elizabeth seeks to restore as England's…
Certainly, the reign of Elizabeth I "was indeed the Golden Age of England," due to her personality, love for her country and the adoration of millions of Englishmen and women, not to mention several foreign kings and rulers who during her lifetime were bitter enemies, but following her death became ardent admirers ("Death of Queen Elizabeth I," Internet).
In 1588, some fifteen years before her death, Elizabeth I gave a speech to her faithful and loyal troops at Tilbury camp, where she arrived "in a great gilded coach and was escorted by 2000 ecstatic troops." James Aske, an eyewitness to this event, describes Elizabeth as "king-like and a sacred general" just before she began to address those in presence with "one of the greatest orations of British history, all the more extraordinary for being delivered at a moment of such trepidation." This speech truly reflects the atmosphere of Elizabeth's reign…
Death of Queen Elizabeth I." Elizabethan Era. Internet. 2007. Retrieved at http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/ death-of-queen-elizabeth-i.htm.
MacCaffrey, Wallace T. Elizabeth I: War and Politics, 1588-1603. New York: Princeton
University Press, 1994.
Schama, Simon. A History of Britain at the Edge of the World, 3500 B.C.-1603 a.D. New York: Hyperion Press, 2000.
(Ng, 1994, p. 93)
The philosophy of Confucius was based essentially on that of human relationships expanded to the sphere of the state, and even beyond into the cosmos. ight conduct and proper action among individuals and groups would result in an ordered universe, one that operated according to the proper laws. By cultivating these believes and following these rules one could hope to produce a society that was perfectly ordered and self-perpetuating. The Confucian ideal of leadership has endured today among many, not only in China, but in many parts of East Asia, and has even attracted followers in the West, for it addresses the issue of responsibility as a metaphor for virtue and harmony.
Far less idealistic were the ideas of the enaissance thinker, Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli lived in Italy at a time when its various princes were contending for power. The region was riven by war and…
Even in Catholic France, the Protestant sentiment that God's grace alone can save His fallen, human creation was evident in the humanist king, Francis I's sister, Margaret, Queen of Navarre's novel when she wrote: "We must humble ourselves, for God does not bestow his graces on men because they are noble or rich; but, according as it pleases his goodness, which regards not the appearance of persons, he chooses whom he will."
Shakespeare's Hamlet is haunted by the ghost of his father from Purgatory. Purgatory was a Catholic concept. But rather than trusting the vision of the divine on earth, Hamlet is suspicious about the ability of fallen human beings to enact justice. Rather than finding good in the face of women, Hamlet sees only evil. "In considering the cultural conditions that allow tragedy to revive, we may also want to consider that the plays occurred in Christian Northern Europe;…
'" (Molland 257) of course, this kind of thinking would eventually lead Dee to argue that "at length I perceived onely God (and by his good Angels) could satisfy my desire," and ultimately resulted in his extensive travels with the medium and alchemist Edward Kelley. Furthermore, this insistence on an astrological interpretation of cosmology directly influenced his other "scientific" works, something that is taken up in J. Peter Zetterberg's analysis of what he calls Dee's "hermetic geocentricity."
After discussing the somewhat limited commentary on Copernicus' theory of heliocentrism present in Dee's strictly scientific works, Zetterberg suggests that "to resolve the general ambiguity that surrounds the question of Dee's cosmological views it is necessary to leave his works on practical science and turn instead to his occult interests." In Monas hieroglyphica, the only work in which Dee "reveal[s] a cosmology," Zetterberg identifies a kind of hidden meaning Dee proposes to exist…
"A John Dee Chronology." Adam Matthew Publications. Available from http://www.ampltd.co.uk/digital_guides/ren_man_series1_prt1/chronology.aspx . Internet; accessed 20 March 2011.
Dee, John. General and rare memorials pertaining to the Perfect Arte of Navigation. 1575.
Dee, John. To the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 1604
Heppel, G. "Mathematical Worthies. II. John Dee." The Mathematical Gazette 5 (1895): 40.
life of Sir alter Raleigh. The writer of this paper takes the reader on an exploratory look at Sir alter Raleigh and his accomplishments as well as his execution. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
THE MAN ITH MANY FACES
Throughout history, we have studied those who made a difference. There have been heroes and villains and everything in between, but rarely has there been such a mixed character as Sir alter Raleigh. Sir alter Raleigh was a man who penned love and died by execution and handled many different lifestyles in between. If one had to sum him up in one sentence it would be; "Sir alter Raleigh was a versatile Renaissance Man."
hen Sir alter Raleigh was born it was in the mid-1500's. One of the things he did that prepared him for the future events of his life was spend time as a volunteer…
Early Life (accessed 3-11-2002)
Short Biography of Sir Walter Raleigh accessed 03-11-2002)
" The differences in these two lines seem to be only a matter of syntax but in actuality, it also differs in the meaning. The King James Bible version makes it seem like the Lord is making the individual do something, as if by force or obligation, while the Puritan version states that the Lord causes the individual to do something, as if out of their own will. This alone relays the message that faith itself is driving the action, not a perceived obligation.
Another distinction between the two translations can be found with the lines "Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life: / and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever" (King James Bible) and "Goodness and mercy surely shall / all my days follow me. / and in the Lord's house I shall / dwell so long as days…
Duke of Gloucester
Shakespeare's ichard III, The Duke of Gloucester, may not bear much resemblance to the real king in character and appearance but in this play, he is certainly the most dominant and a fully developed figure that serves as both the protagonist and villain of the play. For critics, it is hard to decide whether ichard III can actually be called a tragedy because here the protagonist appears less a tragic figure and more a vain, cruel and malicious king who was ruthlessly ambitious and killed people not for the love of his country, as most other tragic kings did, but advance his own objectives.
It is widely believed that Shakespeare's ichard III was based on Sir Thomas More's description of the king. Other historians have often described him as a courageous and warm king, a description widely different from the image we get from Shakespeare's play. In…
1) Sir Thomas More, The History of King Richard III, ed. By R.S. Sylvester (1963), pp. 7-8
2) Harrison, G.B., ed. Shakespeare: the complete works. New York: Harcourt, 1968
3) Donna J. Oestreich-Hart "Therefore, since I Cannot Prove a Lover." Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900. Volume: 40. Issue: 2. 2000. 241.
Your answer should be at least five sentences long.
The Legend of Arthur
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 9 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7A: Honor and Loyalty
1. Consider how Arthur's actions and personality agree with or challenge your definition of honor. Write a few sentences comparing your definition (from Journal 1.6A) with Arthur's actions and personality.
2. Write a brief paragraph explaining the importance or unimportance of loyalty in being honorable.
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 10 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7B: Combining Sentences
Complete the Practice Activity on page 202 of your text. After completing this activity, read over your Essay Assessment or another journal activity you've completed.
* Identify three passages that could be improved by combining two or more sentences with coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. Below the practice activity in your journal, write the original passages and the revised sentences you've created.
* Be sure to…
He also showed considerable personal initiative by co-founding a T-shirt company during his fifth form, and co-founding an advertising company, named The Five Seconds, in his sixth form.
This student's character and personality, as demonstrated by his extracurricular activities and academic success, will ensure his future success in economics. He is motivated, intelligent, and exceptionally well-suited to pursuing study in this specific field. I am deeply impressed by this student and recommend him unhesitatingly, as I am certain that he will excel in his studies with UCAS.
Girls Inc. Of Orange County. About Girls Incorporated of Orange County, California. 18 May
Health24.com. Teen pregnancy prevention. http://www.health24.com/sex/General/1253-1267,11605.asp or http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:j4x_fnz0rUJ:www.health24.com/sex/General/125
3-1267,11605.asp+Teen+Pregnancy+Prevention+Program+article& hl=en& client=firefox-a
Lederman, egina P. And Mian, Tahir S. 2003. The Parent-Adolescent elationship Education
Program: a curriculum for prevention of STDs and pregnancy in middle school youth.
Behavioral Medicine, Spring, 2003, 29(1), 33-41. .
Girls Inc. Of Orange County. About Girls Incorporated of Orange County, California. 18 May
Health24.com. Teen pregnancy prevention. http://www.health24.com/sex/General/1253-1267,11605.asp or http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:j4x_fnz0RrUJ:www.health24.com/sex/General/125
3-1267,11605.asp+Teen+Pregnancy+Prevention+Program+article& hl=en& client=firefox-a
She argues that the evasiveness and incongruites in the narrative exist since Spenser is facing issues that are not easily answered.
From the start, Britomart represents an authority figure, a power not found in any other knight in the Faerie Queene. Spenser says that Britomart literally cannot be beaten, since she carries a powerful magic spear, or phallic symbol (depending on the interpretation) that refers back to the theme of woman's chastity. Britomart easily knocks Sir Guyon off his horse at the beginning of Book 3. She then comes to a castle and once again pushes her authority, characterized as "masculine" with her armor and spear, and confronts six of Malecasta's knights at the Castle Joyous at the end of the first canto.
At last as nigh out of the wood she came,
A stately Castle farre away she spyde,
To which her steps directly she did frame.
Abate, Corinne S. Spenser's 'The Faerie Queen. The Explicator 55.1 (1996): 6+.
Heale, Elizabeth. The faerie queene: a reader's guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
Spencer, Edmund. The Faerie Queene. Gutenberg. 29 April 2010. http://www.gutenberg.org
Dichotomous views of women's roles complicated the Queen's personal life. On the one hand, she was expected to bear an heir; on the other she was better off as a Virgin Queen. As a political ruler, Elizabeth played what was typically a man's role: just as male actors would play female roles on stage, Elizabeth played a man. Levin points out the "serious" problem with Elizabeth's dual male/female role: "she herself was both ruler and potential producer of the heir," (p. 89). Moreover, as s female Elizabeth lacked the legitimacy automatically afforded to a King. "Elizabeth was queen to a people unused to female rule," and Elizabeth could have emasculated the throne had she not so adroitly assumed the image and persona of a man (p. 90). The monarchy was more than just a political position; the monarch was, in Elizabethan times, a divine symbol and role model.
Levin, Carole. The Heart and Stomach of a King. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994.
During the major battle Sir Francis Drake is quoted, "There was never anything pleased me better than seeing the enemy flying with a southerly wind to the northward" ("Elizabethan ar"). The Spanish Armada was forced to sail northward while the fleet of England was able to attack. Once the larger ships were so far out to sea as to not be a threat, the reminder crashed into the shores of Norway with a starving wasted crew. Those that survived had to surrender as many soldiers did due to the new weapon at the English army's disposal, the musket.
Queen Elizabeth helped inspire advancement in technology and science. The invention of firearms was just before the Elizabethan era but she was just the encouragement the army needed to upgrade. In 1595, all soldiers were ordered to replace their bows with a musket. The most popular one at the time was called…
"Elizabeth I." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009. Web. 30 Nov. 2009
The setting up the king's supremacy instead of the usurpations of the papacy, and the rooting out the monastic state in England, considering the wealth, the numbers, and the zeal of the monks and friars in all the parts of the kingdom, as it was a very bold undertaking, so it was executed with great method, and performed in so short a time, and with so few of the convulsions that might have been expected, that all this shews what a master he was, that could bring such a design to be finished in so few years, with so little trouble or danger (Slavin, 19)."
Cromwell's position was no less tenuous than that of his predecessor, olsey. Henry did not become a tyrant without warning. Ridley reports that even as a young man, before he succeeded his father as king, Henry was prone to outbursts of anger and bad temper…
Haigh, Christopher. English Reformations: Religion, Politics and Society Under the Tudors. Oxford University Press, Inc., 1993.
Lindsey, Karen. Divorced, Beheaded, Survived a Feminist Reignterpretation of the Wives of Henry VIII. Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 1995. Questia. 26 Nov. 2008
In The Life of Sir Walter Raleigh, 1522 to 1618, author James A. St. John (2005) examines the most important area of Raleigh's life, being his adventures and explorations in the New World, mostly in what is now the eastern coast of North America. For example, Raleigh had some connections with the original English settlement in Virginia and in 1584, he instructed two captains, Amadas and arlowe, to explore what is now Florida and then northwards to North Carolina; in 1585, Raleigh sent Sir Richard Grenville and some English settlers to North America, where they established a colony in present-day Roanoke Island in North Carolina (213).
In 1592, as a result of his alleged seduction of the queen's handmaiden and the failure of several expeditions against the Spaniards, Raleigh ended up disgraced by Queen Elizabeth which forced him to retire to his home in Dorsetshire, but in 1595, he financed…
Kingsley, Charles. Sir Walter Raleigh and His Times. New York: Kessinger Publishing
St. John, James A. The Life of Sir Walter Raleigh, 1552 to 1618. New York: Kessinger
Publishing Company, 2005.
For centuries, historians have debated the question of Kinsale's suitability as a landing place. From the Spanish perspective, it was quite suitable as a base, and for the Irish, Kinsale was too far removed from O'Neill and O'Donnell, who were constrained by the success of the new Lord Deputy (Thuillier 2001). Moreover, d'Aguila was cut off from his northern allies, and the support of local chiefs never came, thus the harnesses they had brought from Spain for horses promised by the Irish were useless (Thuillier 2001). Furthermore, the Spanish General, Brochero, the Spanish Naval Commander, left as directed after nine days with all the ships, leaving Kinsale Harbor open to the English Navy (Thuillier 2001). Nevertheless, Spanish forcers controlled Kinsale for 100 days, and for a shorter period, Rincurran and Ringrone Castles and Castle Park with an observation post on Compass Hill (Thuillier 2001).
Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, proved to…
Guttman, Jon. (2006). The History Channel: History.net. Retrieved December 05, 2006 at http://www.historynet.com/wars_conflicts/15_16_century/3037156.html?featured=y&c=y
Hugh O'Neill. (1998). Retrieved December 05, 2006 at http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/Bios/HughOneill.htm
Hugh1 O'Neill. (2006). Retrieved December 05, 2006 at http://www.nndb.com/people/079/000102770/
Musgrave, Anne. (2003). Hugh O'Neill. The New Advent. Retrieved December 05, 2006 at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11252a.htm
Sir Francis Drake was a ritish explorer, slave-trader, privateer, a pirate working for a government, in the service of England, mayor of Plymouth, England, and naval officer. Driven by early conflict with Catholic Spaniards and later fueled by tensions between England and Spain, Drake is best known for his piracy of Spanish settlements and ships and his role in defeating the Spanish Armada. Often referred to as the El Draque meaning "the dragon" by the Spanish, Drake earned his reputation as a tireless warrior against the Spanish.
The Elizabethan era is a period of English history during most of the 16th century under the reign of Elizabeth 1 of England. It is considered the height of the Renaissance of England with the development of Elizabethan theatre and renowned plays, books and poetry from William Shakespeare, Christopher Marlow, en Jonson and Thomas Kyd. During the Elizabethan era, Francis acon formulated early…
Elizabethan Era." Wikipedia. 25 Oct. 2003. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabethan_period .
Heseltine, Simon. "Sir Francis Drake Biography." PageWise. 25 Oct. 2003. http://pa.essortment.com/sirfrancisdrak_rkej.htm.
Seeler, Oliver. "The Voyage." 1996. Mendocino Community Network. 25 Oct. 2003. http://www.mcn.org/2/oseeler/voy.htm .
Sir Francis Drake." Redtek Internet Services. 25 Oct. 2003. http://www.redtek.net/abc/history/drake.htm .
This time period also marked a great deal of expansion for different European nations. This expansion occurred through the conquering of certain territories.
Machiavelli believed that great leaders had to possess certain attributes. He asserted that a "leader needs an analytical attitude without a sense of shame or guilt. Political calculation is required to control, rather than be victimized by events (Deluga, 2001)." In other words, a Machiavellian leader believes that the end justifies the means. These individual tend to have extremely charismatic personalities and that power to persuade large populations of people that there actions are justified.
The Machiavellian Leaders chosen for the purpose of this discussion will be Elizabeth I, Peter the Great and . Queen Elizabeth I was loved by the people of England to the extent that she had completely loyal subjects. She used her leadership qualities to defeat Spain. In addition she was…
Deluga, R.J. (2001)American presidential Machiavellianism: Implications for charismatic leadership and rated performance. The Leadership Quarterly
Volume 12, Issue 3, Autumn 2001, Pages 339-363
Grell, O. P Bob Scribner. (2002) Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation. Cambridge Press
King Phillip II. Retrieved February 22, from: http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/ king-philip-ii-spain.htm
As the Archbishop of Canterbury during the tumultuous reign of Henry VIII, Thomas Cranmer was in an extraordinary position to effect changes in England's political and religious direction. Through his writings, Cranmer laid the foundations for establishing the Church of England and moved England into the path of the growing European Reformation Movement.
By facilitating the numerous divorces of Henry VIII, he helped to weaken the authority of the Pope in England and contributed to the greater hold of the King.
This paper examines the effects of Cranmer's developing theology on the history of Tudor England. The first part of the paper looks at the role Cranmer played in justifying the theological bases of Henry VIII's numerous divorces. The next part then examines Cranmer's religious convictions, as enshrined in the Ten Articles and later, in the two versions of the Book of Common Prayer.
In the last section,…
Cranmer, Thomas. "The Most Healthful Medicine." ca. 1540. reproduced in Christian History, 1995. 14(4): 34-37.
D'Aubigne, Merle. Reformation in England. 2 vols. London: Banner of Truth, 1991.
McCulloch, Diarmaid. "Cranmer's Ambitious Legacy." History Today, July 1996. 49(6): 23-32.
McCulloch, Diarmaid. Thomas Cranmer: A Life. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
But Shakespeare does not try to render Republican Rome in faithful and accurate historical detail. "Peace! count the clock," says Brutus (2.1) although the play is ostensibly set during ancient times, and the practice of bear-baiting is referred to when Octavius says "e are at the stake / And bayed about by many enemies" (4.1)The entertainment of bear-baiting, a reminder of the brutality of the Elizabethan age, was even enjoyed by the queen and often took place near the Globe theater where Julius Caesar was first performed: "The bear was tethered to a stake in the middle of the ring, able to move only a short distance before being drawn up sharply when it got to the end of its tether. That's where the phrase 'at the end of my tether' comes from - the frustration and agony of not being able to go any further. Dogs would be released…
Elizabethan education. William Shakespeare Info. 2005. April 16, 2009. http://www.ask.com/bar?q=Elizabethan+school&page=1&qsrc=2417&ab=0&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.william-shakespeare.info%2Fwilliam-shakespeare-biography-childhood-and-education.htm
Entertainment at Shakespeare's Globe Theater. No Sweat Shakespeare. 2004. April 16, 2009.
Greenblatt, Stephen. Will in the World: How Shakespeare became Shakespeare. New York:
woman's rights were little recognized. As a creative source of human life, she was confined to the home as a wife and mother. Moreover, she was considered intellectually, emotionally and spiritually inferior to man (Compton's 1995), even wicked, as in the case of mythical Pandora, who let loose plagues and misery in a box. This was the early concept of woman in the West as an adjunct to man, although the woman in the East was not without property and individual rights and freedoms. Just the same, a woman was subject to man and could not own property, could not remarry and boys were preferred to girls. ut when allowed some rights, such as during the Middle Ages, a woman proved what she could achieve. A woman from an aristocratic family or line, for example, possessed power and prestige like a man in her class. England's Queen Elizabeth in the…
Barry, Ursula. Gender Issues and the Irish National Employment Action Plan. Final Report. Women's Education Research and Resource Centre. Dublin:University College, 2000. (accessed 15:05:03). http://www2.umist.ac.uk/management/ewerc/egge/egge_publications/lrl_Napev.pdf
Compton's Interactive Encyclopedia. Women's History in America. News Media, Inc., 1995. (accessed 15:05:03)
Evans, Karen. Overcome Barriers to Women's Technical Education. The Commonwealth of Learning, 1995. (accessed 15:05:03). http://www.col.org/barriers.htm
John Knox was a cottish religious reformer and political activist who founded the new cottish protestant religion of Presbyterianism.
He was probably born in 1513 or 1514 in Giffordgate, about 15 miles from Edinburgh, cotland. Nothing is known about his childhood, but his parents were remarkable. His father fought at the Battle of Flodden, and his mother was an educated woman. This was unusual in the 1500's.
Knox attended the University of Glasgow in 1552 and t. Andrew's University. Although he was Catholic, some think he first became familiar with Protestantism at the University of Glasgow. By 1540, he was a Catholic priest.
John Knox was a remarkable man. Although he is best known for founding the Presbyterian religion, all the things he did building up to this are remarkable. He became a friend of the Protestant George Wishart, who was banished from cotland for his beliefs. He returned to…
The Columbia Encyclopedia. "Knox, John." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001.
Greatsite Marketing. "English Bible History." Accessed via the Internet 1/12/05.
Still, his union with a woman also of common birth leaves us to reflect that in all likelihood, Spenser himself would enter the court after an upbringing of modestly. This denotes the distinction of Spenser as a critique of reigning structures of authority in his time and place. This also helps to introduce our discussion to the historical context into which he deposited his first important work of poetry.
The choice of language in the poem is a curious one, at least insofar as it can be regarded as somewhat misleading of the work's time of origin. Its composition in 1579 and the poet's declared affection for and indebtedness to the works of Geoffrey Chaucer are facts submerged beneath the linguistic affectations which Spenser felt were necessary to carry the pastoral form. (Bear, 1) Indeed, the prologue which is composed by an otherwise anonymous writer signing as E.K., provides…
Bear, R.S. (2006). Introduction to Edmund Spenser's the Shephearde's Calendar. The University of Oregon.
Hales, J.W. (2004). The Project Gutenberg EBook of a Biography of Edmund Spenser. Project Gutenberg.
Hamilton, a.C. (1990). The Spenser Encyclopedia. University of Toronto Press.
NNDB. (2008). Edmund Spenser. Soylent Communications. Online at http://www.nndb.com/people/405/000085150/
Critics and audiences are fascinated by how an actor interprets a formidable historical figure, bringing her or him to life on the big screen. Television actors have more leeway but the roles that earn actors awards tend to be quirky and unusual, such as Hugh Laurie in House, Alec Baldwin in 30 Rock, and America Ferrera in Ugly Betty.
ill Ferrell and Jack Black may be correct about comedians not earning accolades on the big screen. However, comedians that step beyond their boundaries, who can stretch the meaning of comedy as well as their acting skills, may land award-nominated parts. hile starring in a film about a man with no arms and legs who sues a major corporation would be surefire way to get noticed, less melodramatic parts may also propel a former comic into Oscar stardom. Quirky and dark comedies are the prime contenders for films that are both…
Nominations and Winners: 2007." HFPA. Retrieved Feb 26, 2007 at http://www.hfpa.org/nominations/index.html
79th Academy Awards." Oscar.com. Retrieved Feb 26, 2007 at http://www.oscar.com/oscarnight/winners
The poem actually appeared in four books that were finally published in 1596; these were Book I-Holiness, Book II-Temperance, Book III-Chastity, Book IV-Friendship, Book v-Justice, Book VI-Courtesy.
These books were also divided into scenes that were referred to as Cantos, hence looking like drama plus narrative in one. It is notable that, just like in any other epic, each book is dedicated to examining the life and escapades of a particular hero or heroine.
In addition to these characteristics that make it an epic poem, it was heavily based on the politics of the time and religion where there is a tussle between Protestantism and Catholic (Debora B. Schwartz, 2005). These two themes then called for a crafty use of a number of characters in the depiction of the various themes throughout the poem.
In general, the poem has made good use of the medieval allegory and the Italian romantic…
Albin Lesky (1966). A History of Greek Literature. James Willis and Cornelis de heer: trans.
New York: Thomas Y. Cromwell Company. Retrieved June, 15, 2011 from http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/literat3/qt/EpicPoetry.htm
Debora B. Schwartz, (2005). Spenser's The Faerie Queene General. Retrieved June, 15, 2011
In Jamaica, like many other physicians abroad, Sloane collected specimen; later, he acquired the collections of others. Among the botanical material in his collection were exotic plants and bird skins, "unique albums of Durer's prints and drawings" "a vast library of manuscripts and printed books" (Geographical 2003 26+,the second two items of which probably contained abundant botanical engravings.
Not all of the items Sloane collected survived. One that id, however, was cocoa, which he brought back to England and "marketed shrewdly as a medicinal drink valued for its 'Lightness on the Stomach'" (Sterns 2003 411+). The financial incentive was strong in many of the collectors, although with Sloane, it also had a practical side as he went in search of remedies. In 1712, for example, Sloane became keen to purchase the collection of the German physician, Engelbert Kaempfer. A chapter of Kaempfer's book, Exotic Pleasures, mentioned a number of Oriental…
Bell, Susan Groag. 1990. Art Essay: Women Create Gardens in Male Landscapes: a Revisionist Approach to Eighteenth- Century English Garden History. Feminist Studies 16, no. 3: 471-491.
Claude Aubriet www.rhs.org.uk/.../pubs/garden0603/library.asp
Eighteenth century textiles, http://www.costumes.org/tara/1pages/USITT4.htm
Fara, Patricia. 1998. Images of a Man of Science. History Today, October, 42+. http://www.questia.com/ .
incongruous to try to compare the artists illiam Shakespeare and Bob Marley. These two men, separated by centuries and embodying two very different forms of art, both make up part of the history of popular culture. One man is considered the premiere playwright in the history of the English language, a man whose name is synonymous with high culture. The other man is known for his success in a musical genre and a culture that uses a different meaning for the word high. hat could these men possible have in common one might ask? Examining the history and writings of both Renaissance writer illiam Shakespeare and reggae musician Bob Marley it becomes evident that they both use emotional appeals and heavy symbolism to prove points about the human condition and to promote understanding between people from different stations of life, all of which are used to persuade others that the…
Backus, Truman J. 1897. "William Shakespeare." The Outlines of Literature: English and American. Sheldon: NY. 90-102.
Laroque, Francois. The Age of Shakespeare. Harry N. Abrams: London.
Marly, Bob, 1973. "Get Up, Stand Up." Burnin'. Tuff Gong.
Marley, Bob, 1973. "I Shot the Sheriff." Burnin'. Tuff Gong.
Transformational Women's Leadership
The website for Changing Minds.org describes transformational leadership in the standard way, as charismatic leaders with vision and imagination who inspire followers to achieve radical change in an organization or society. Transformational leaders are passionate and exciting and they care about their followers. They make people believe that their ideals can be achieved through their own commitment, enthusiasm and drive. In the process, their followers are also transformed and empowered to do things that they would never have believed possible. This website also points out some of the dangers of transformational leadership in that when such leaders are wrong they can lead "the charge right over the cliff and into a bottomless chasm." They may also "wear out" their followers with constant demands for high energy and commitment, especially if those at the lower levels really do not desire change (Transformational Leadership 2002-11)
Legacee.com has a very…
Goodman, D., ed. (2003). Marie Antoinette: Writings on the Body of a Queen. Routledge.
Lever, E. (2000). The Last Queen of France. Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.
Plain, N. (2002). Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the French Revolution. Marshall Cavendish.
Price, M. (2004). The Road from Versailles: Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette, and the Fall of the French Monarchy. NY: St. Martin's.
Appalachian dialect is one of America's most distinctive linguistic contributions to the English language. The dialect originated in the speech patterns of Scottish, Irish, English, and German immigrants to the Appalachian Mountains, although the Scottish-Irish origin of the dialect is the most pronounced in the language. hile many Americans see the Appalachian dialect as a corruption of the English language, the Appalachian dialect may be more correctly described as an archaic form of English, dating back to the times of the first Queen Elisabeth. Today, the Appalachian dialect is thriving, maintained by the relative isolation of the inhabitants of Appalachia from the rest of the United States.
Over the years, a great number of linguists have investigated the unique and thriving Appalachian dialect extensively (Virgin English). These studies have revealed a great deal about the origins of the Appalachian dialect, in addition to a thorough characterization of the dialect itself.…
Appalachian Dialect. 01 November 2003. Google cache of http://mcweb.martin.k12.ky.us/hillsweb/history/dialect.htm. http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:Dllb1lcywE4J:mcweb.martin.k12.ky.us/hillsweb/history/dialect.htm+Appalachian+dialect+&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
Burke, Henry. Notes from the Underground. Appalachian dialect unusual to non-natives. 01 November 2003. http://www.mariettaleader.com/100400/notesfromtheunderground.htm
Crafton, Michael, Dr. Present Day English. Excerpts from the works of Dr. Micheal Crafton. Department of English, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, Georgia. 01 November 2003. http://www.tutorpal.com/Our_English/present_day_english/dchn_pde.html
Dial, Wylene P. The Dialect of the Appalachian People. West Virginia History, volume 30, no. 2, (January 1969), pp. 463-71. 02 November 2003. Available online at http://www.wvculture.org/history/journal_wvh/wvh30-2.html
Thou shalt keep them, 0 Lod, thou shalt peseve them fom this geneation foeve."
Conceptually, the poem has fou sepaate stanzas, each with the hyme scheme of ababcdc. It is stuctued in the fom of the Shakespeaean o Elizabethan sonnet. Vebal intoductions (e.g. Help, left, standeth, seeks, etc.) seve to move the poem in a melodious way. In fact, eading this poem one is almost caught with it as a semon o oation. Many of the wods have a hashe, o staccato-like timbe, a shap contast to the love sonnets of the ea (bitte, wicked, piece, fea, etc.). This shapness, combined with the oatoical style seves Bacon's pupose of slightly aguing, slightly full of angst, and slightly aogant -- towads God. This, too, echoes much of the Biblical Job.
The poem does not ead as if it was contived, testament to Bacon's clea genius with language as well as his…
references, his loyalty to the Crown, and his nature and pinining for money and respect. This duality is certainly present in the poem, "Help Lord."
In the Elizabethan Era, European philosophers considered the world to be a macrocosm hosting millions of individual microcosms: people. The term microcosm signifies the creation of the human being as a complete world. In contrast, macrocosm refers to the idea of the whole universe outside humanity. This idea that an individual person is a world unto himself, yet still part of the chain of being, provided some interesting philosophical debate. Even within the body of humans the same patterns were seen. The head was the sun-king-lion-eagle-gold of the little world of the human, the godlike part which was the seat of reason. Thus, in the microcosm of the body was figured the macrocosm of the kingdom, and of the universe itself. The beehive, with its orderly division of roles and a single queen bee, was an ideal symbol as a microcosm of the ordered human state (Best).
For the Elizabethan's, the combination of the Great Chain of Being and Microcosm/Macrocosm organized and framed their own picture of humanity. Humans had a hierarchical organization; they knew what station they were born into, what field of endeavor and what they might expect out of life. Fate and Destiny were part of the puppet-master God who planned for a series of events to occur that would change a person's life -- all as it should be. Even if, as in many of the plays of Shakespeare, one small action could change the outcome of the entire story (e.g. The delivery of the note in Romeo and Juliet, a glance or bit of proof in Othello) the stars predict what it is that will happen. For Bacon, however, we can see his struggle with this duality in the way he phrases opposites: "fears… seeks to please; flatter… with a cloven heart" (Gaukroger, 101-2)
Similarly, the twin themes of micro and macro-cosmos were part and parcel of the literature, philosophy, and even political/economic views of the time. This view was, of course, left over from the Renaissance, and while many popular historians see the Elizabethan Era as a time of change and intellectual revolution, it was only a few forward thinkers that challenged the view of the dual nature
Firearms Legislation and Firearms-Related Violence in Europe
This paper examines the relationship between firearms legislation and gun-related violence across countries and regions in Europe. The focus of the paper is to identify possible sources of literature to help answer questions regarding whether legislation is an effective tool in reducing firearms-related violence. The paper focuses on variance of gun violence rates throughout Europe, gun legislation, and possible national strategies for addressing the issue of gun violence. It finds that there are many variables that impact regions and can effect greater or lesser rates of gun violence -- factors such as education, culture, economic stability, political instability, and so on. No two countries are the same in terms of people, customs, traditions, ideals, and execution of the law. It is therefore important to better understand how culture plays a role in determining the effects of firearms-related violence in throughout Europe. This information…
A Critical Analysis of Salome with the Head of St. John the Baptist by Carlo Dolci
Carlo Dolci’s Salome with the Head of St. John the Baptist (Illus. 1) is an oil on canvas painting housed in the Phoenix Art Museum. Completed in Florence, Italy, by Dolci in 1670, the painting reflects the style of the Baroque and the typical religious-historical type of subject associated with the Counter-Reformation underway throughout Europe as part of the Council of Trent’s mission to use art to reinforce the principles and doctrines of the Church at a time when Protestantism was undermining the Church’s teaching authority (Vidmar). Salome appears as though disinterested in the disembodied head, offering it up to the public as though it were a piece of overripe fruit that one may or may not like to partake of. Dolci’s use of light reinforces the idea that Salome is by no means…
Wedding Gowns: The History Of the White, Western Wedding Gown
Despite the seeming ubiquity of white wedding gowns, the association of a beautiful, white dress with a bride's marriage day is relatively recent and specific to Western culture. Most women up to the 19th century simply wore their best dress, which was unlikely to be white. "Grey was much favoured as both modest and useful, and brown was not uncommon; white was usually just too impractical" (The history of the white wedding dress, 2013, eader's Digest). White came into fashion amongst the aspiring middle class when Queen Victoria wore white to her wedding. White had been often worn by royalty in the past but was not particularly fashionable at the time. "Victoria's attire was considered far too restrained by royal standards, with no jewels, crown, or velvet robes trimmed with ermine. White was also considered the color of mourning at…
Eicher, J.B., Evenson, S.L., Lutz, H.A. (2008). The visible self: Global perspectives on dress,
culture, and society, 3rd Edition. New York, NY: Fairchild Books
Flock, E. (2011). Queen Elizabeth was the first to get married in white. The Washington
Post. Retrieved: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/royal-wedding-watch/post/queen-victoria-was-the-first-to-get-married-in-white/2011/04/29/AFIYPmDF_blog.html
The democratization process of the Bahamas is somewhat convoluted. On the one hand, this tiny island recognizes the Queen of England as its monarch (The Commonwealth, 2016). On the other, it has a dual party parliament that enables a fair amount of democracy. A brief overview of the history of this country alludes to some of its political complexity in relation to its democratic process. Firstly, the Bahamas was the island the Christopher Columbus initially landed on in 1492. Ever since that initial landing, the island has been colonized by various colonists. Colonial power eventually transferred from the Spanish to the British -- as such, the island became part of the British Commonwealth at the end of the 20th century (The Commonwealth, 2016). It is interesting to note that its status as part of the commonwealth helped to issue this country the amount of democracy that it currently has due…
First, his use of rhyme is incredibly heavy, and quickly becomes awkward and intrusive:
Ye sons of men that durst contemn the Threatnings of Gods ord,
How cheer you now? your hearts, I trow, are sthrill'd as with a sword.
The internal rhyme in the odd numbered lines of each stanza, especially when coupled with the end rhyme in the even numbered lines (this pattern repeats in the second half of the stanza), gives the poem a condescending feel as though it is an instruction for children, while at the same time hammering itself into the mind of the reader in an obsessive manner. The complete lack of enjambment strengthens this effect, especially when reading the poem out loud.
In comparison to this, Bradstreet's sometimes stilted rhyme comes out very favorably. In one of her most well-known poems, "To My Dear and Loving Husband," even her twelve straight…
Bradstreet, Anne. "To My Dear and Loving Husband." Accessed 5 May 2009. http://www.annebradstreet.com/to_my_dear_and_loving_husband.htm
Bradstreet, Anne. "In Honour of that High and Mighty Princess, Queen Elizabeth." Accessed 5 May 2009. http://www.annebradstreet.com/in_honour_of_that_high_and_mighty_princess_queen_elizabeth.htm
Wigglesworth, Michael. "The Day of Doom." Accessed 5 May 2009. http://www.puritansermons.com/poetry/doom001.htm
" From few data it launches itself into the construction of general principles. The principles then being regarded as true, deductively valid explanations were constructed and then protected against recalcitrant data in an ad hoc way." (McGreak 174)
Bacon was of the opinion that such theories were far too limited and limiting as they"...apply to a narrow range of particulars and have no observational consequences outside their original preserve." (McGreak 175) in other words, the older scientific method prevented the scientist or naturalist from making new and surprising discoveries. This is an insight that was to have great significance for the development of modern scientific methodology. Bacon therefore sought to use a more inductive form of reasoning in science which would "...discover the causally and thus explanatory relevant properties of nature." (McGreak 175)
Another importance facet of his views of science and methodology is to be found in Novum Organum,…
Abbott, Edwin a.D.D. Francis Bacon: An Account of His Life and Works.
London: Macmillan, 1885.
"Bacon, Francis, English Philosopher and Statesman." The Columbia
Encyclopedia. 6th ed.
2% of the total GDP and 2.9 in the employment; the proportions are expected to increase and are still considered relatively low in comparison to other countries, generally due to the tardy response of the Japanese authorities. "As the tourism market continues to grow steadily, tourism industry is expected to become the leading industry of Japan throughout the 21st century" (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2002).
Balassa, B.A., Noland, M., 1988, Japan in the World Economy, Peterson Institute for International Economics
Cochrane, J., 2008, Asian Tourism, Elsevier Science and Technology Books
Hiroko, T., 2004, the Political Economy of eproduction in Japan: Between Nation-State and Everyday Life, outledge
Hiroyuki, H., 2003, Between Preservation and Tourism: Folk Performing Arts in Contemporary Japan, Asian Folklore Studies, Volume 23
Hudman, L., Jackson, ., Essa, E., 2002, Geography of Travel and Tourism, 4th Edition, Cengage Delmar Learning
Ishikawa, N., Fukushige, M., 2006, Impacts…
Balassa, B.A., Noland, M., 1988, Japan in the World Economy, Peterson Institute for International Economics
Cochrane, J., 2008, Asian Tourism, Elsevier Science and Technology Books
Hiroko, T., 2004, the Political Economy of Reproduction in Japan: Between Nation-State and Everyday Life, Routledge
Hiroyuki, H., 2003, Between Preservation and Tourism: Folk Performing Arts in Contemporary Japan, Asian Folklore Studies, Volume 23
They will go to far to hire a mercenary like Iago to pursue their goal for them. There are Othellos today as there was a shining one in Shakespeare's fiction or time. Military heroes like him have secret vulnerabilities, which reveal themselves in unguarded or trying moments. As a self-claimed victim of a foreign culture, Othello's cry of discrimination resounds in contemporary society despite his accomplishments.
Contentment in life is everyone's universal pursuit. That pursuit takes on what the present culture makes available and is most suitable at the moment. Othello perceives that his contentment goes beyond acclaim and military power. It includes having a dutiful and beautiful wife in Desdemona. He pours his weakest on him and on a scheming subordinate, Iago. Othello's credulousness is not confined to Shakespeare's time. Credulousness is universal. People living and thriving in a country with a different culture must invest in trust or…
Sparknotes Editors. Othello by Shakespeare (1622) Paperback. No Fear Shakespeare.
Sparknotes, July 3, 2004
The Southern Dvina flowed from the heart of Russia into the Baltic near Riga, but through hostile Livonia. The headwaters of the Dvina and the Volga were not far apart and could have been connected by canals, thus providing a water route that might atone for the disproportion of Russia's enormous landmass to her coasts and ports. The Baltic would unite with the Caspian and the Black Sea, and East and est would meet.
In 1557, Ivan sent an army to Livonia, which ravaged the country brutally, burning houses and crops, enslaving men and raping women until they died. hen Livonia appealed for help, Stephen Bathory roused the Poles and led them to victory over the Russians at Polotsk, and Ivan yielded Livonia to Poland. However, long before this set back, his campaign had led to revolts on the home front. Merchants whom Ivan had thought to benefit decided that…
Cavendish, Richard. 2002. Kazan falls to Ivan the Terrible: October 2nd, 1552. History
Today. 01 October. Available Online from HighBeam Research Library, accessed 12 October 2006.
Dolmatov, Vladimir. 2003. Britain and Russia. History Today. 01 July.
Available Online from HighBeam Research Library, accessed 12 October 2006.
Due to a shortage in labor supply, the demand for the working class increased exponentially. As such, the peasants were no longer at the bottom of the hierarchy in terms of the social and the economic class -- they were suddenly a highly desirable commodity that began charging fees to provide ti. The following quotation corroborates this fact.
Labour had become scarce and expensive and labourers well-off. Thos who survived the plague suddenly found they could pick and choose their masters, name their price for services, build up their landholdings and begin to employ their neighbors (Jones).
Since feudalism (a precursor to capitalism) was the system upon which England's economics and society was based, the government had to change its focus so that it could attempt to restore the exploitive practices in which laborers were readily cheated out of their labor. The English government became much more active in the…
Jones, Dan. "The Peasant's Revolt." History Today. 59 (6): 33-39. 2009. Web. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/detail?vid=5&sid=4a1a08bc-7187-48b3-af28-8f30ae05e2ea%40sessionmgr113&hid=8&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&an=41326596
Sage, Henry. "The Protestant Reformation Germany and England." www.academicamerican.com. 2010. Web. http://www.academicamerican.com/colonial/topics/reformation.htm
Spadafora, David. "Black Death." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2008. Web. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/67758/Black-Death
Walker, Greg. "Henry VIII and the Invention of the Royal Court: Challenges the View that Intrigue and Court 'New Men' Took Root Under the Tudor Monarch." History Today. 47: 13-20. 1997. Print.
Social Construct of Prenuptial Events: From the Bridal Sheets to the Bachelorette Party
The social constructs of the transition from single adulthood to married life throughout recent history have differed between men and women. In modern construct women and men often share a similar prenuptial event that has many elements of public expressions of sexuality, the bachelor or stag party and the bachelorette or staggette party. (Tye and Powers, 1998, pp. 552-561) In most western societies before 1900 and especially during the enaissance the prenuptial ceremonies and rituals included a longer period of time that encompassed a gray area that included the business of the marriage transaction and the ritual of becoming publicly aware of the person you were to marry. Historically speaking there was little if any overt display of sexuality during pre-1900 premarital celebrations. (uggiero, 1985, p. 26) Changes in public sexual expression from before 1900 to now…
Benson, P.J. (1992). The Invention of the Renaissance Woman: The Challenge of Female
Independence in the Literature and Thought of Italy and England. University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Fordham, J. (Apr/2000):. "Death of a Porcupine: DH Lawrence and His Successors."
Literature and History. Vol. 9 Issue 1, pp.56-67.
It has been stated that there are only seven real story lines, upon which all literature is based. Whether or not this is true, modern literature often echoes myths or legends of long ago. Sometimes, the recycling of a tale is blatant, and other times it is subtle. William Shakespeare regularly made use of Greek myths, and folklore. In the play, "A Midsummer Night's Dream," Shakespeare's premise is that Theseus, the Duke of Athens, and Hippolyta, a warrior he has captured, are to be married. Shakespeare has successfully created a plotline based, if only loosely, on the greek myths of Theseus and Hippolyta, queen of the Amazons.
The myth of Theseus is one of the most popular of the Greek myths. There are many different stories that involve Theseus, but perhaps the most famous is the story of how Theseus killed the Minotaur. The greeks understood the myth in…
" The bill then goes on a calendar, so it can be debated, discussed, or amended. The bill then goes to the floor of the house where it is read, discussed, and voted on. If it passes by a two-thirds margin, it goes on to the Senate, where it goes through the same process. If it makes it this far, it is "enrolled," signed by the Speaker of the House and the Vice-President, and then it goes to the president for signature ("Ben's Guide"). Both legislative branches seem to have similar means of passing bills, Canada's follows about the same procedure in a different order.
In Canada, Canadians elect a Parliament, and the most the members can sit on Parliament is five years. The Parliament is made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. The leaders of the two bodies are the Speaker of the House and the…
Andres, Gary J. "Left, Right Left; Liberals, Lobbyists and Laws in Lock Step." The Washington Times 2 Feb. 2006: A19.
Editors. "Ben's Guide to Government." Ben'sGuide.gpo.gov. 2007. 21 Sept. 2007. http://bensguide.gpo.gov/9-12/index.html
Editors. "Canadians and Their Government." CanadianHeritage.gc.ca. 2007. 21 Sept. 2007. http://www.canadianheritage.gc.ca/special/gouv-gov/section2/infobox2_e.cfm
Editors. "Office of the Registrar of Lobbyists." ORL-BDL.gc.ca. 2007. 21 Sept. 2007. http://www.orl-bdl.gc.ca/epic/site/lobbyist-lobbyiste.nsf/en/h_nx00162e.html
Shakespeare and the manner in which he wrote and the theatre of his times.
In this modern world that we live in today we still do not forget the one great playwright William Shakespeare, and this is because of the fact that his work is unique and unmatched to any other. His lifetime, as we are convinced, was full of activity regarding his literary works. ut the truth is that we know very little about how he grew up and how he got married. We do however know that it was from the 1597 that he started an active life in acting, in which he performed before the queen. It was in London that he learned how to manage the theatre. It was not long after this that he flourished into an expert playwright whose work would touch the hearts of all who read it (1).
William Shakespeare was…
In his painting Flight into Egypt, Battista Dossi took great care to tell the story of the Holy Family at the very moment the painting shows. He evokes the urgency in the life of the traveling Holy Family as they flee for the life of their child. All that needs to be said in the painting is told with color and precision, movement and depth, and the entirely personal glimpse into the lives of the Holy Family. Battista's work is at once compelling and evocative of the situation.
The work entitled Flight into Egypt is oil on panel by the Ferrarese artist Battista Dossi, (circa 1490 to 1548) who was the younger brother of Dosso Dossi. The brothers were the primary painters in the court of Ferrara under the Alfonso I'd'Este and Ercole II d'Este. Unfortunately, most of the documented work the brothers did for the court was…
In fact most of the Preface consists of questions that are editorially legitimate ("hy did John hite take his colonists to Roanoke, and not to Chesapeake Bay as planned?" And "…If the Powhatan didn't kill them, then where were the Lost Colonists?"), and they cry out for answers, which the author attempts to provide throughout the book.
hat can be said about the substance -- if not the style -- of Miller's narrative is that she is certainly thorough. Her training as an anthropologist comes through very plainly when she takes several pages to show she has done the research on all the characters in this book. As to John hite, and why his name isn't mentioned other than in an "…anonymous 1585 ship's log," Miller takes great pains to explain why there would be no record of him even being on board. hen she builds a case against a…
Miller, Lee. Roanoke: Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony. New York: Arcade Publishing,
In what concerns economy and taxation, Margaret Thatcher succeeded in signficicantly assisting the recovery of the ritish economy, and, by 1983, the country experienced economic growth and inflation and mortgage rates were at their lowest levels since 1970. However, the international public remembers her not for more than the things she has done to improve the ritish economy, as her 1976 speech about the Soviet Union impressed people everywhere. This particular speech gained her the nickname "Iron Lady" and she even came to relate to the name a few months after the incident.
The nickname suited Margaret Thatcher very well, given that whatever she did, she did it with an iron fist. Although she was extremely elegant and very candid, all her political actions were firm and strong. Moreover, she demonstrated her strength of mind consequent to the 1984 incident, when an Irish Republican Army bomb exploded in the hotel…
1. Sian Ellis. Live the History -- Margaret Thatcher: Iron Lady. 24 August 2007. Web. 8 November 2011.
2. Becket, Claire. Margaret Thatcher. Haus Publishing, 2006.