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Racial stereotypes in "Ant of the Self"
In Z.Z. Packer's "Ant of the Self," the young protagonist Spurgeon is first depicted bailing out his father from jail. The traditional relationship of father and child is reversed. In the story, the child goes to help the erring parent. The father Ray smokes and calls the police 'pigs' -- a vestige from his history as a Black Panther -- and seems unrepentant about his arrest for drunk driving. Roy has no car, while his son must take control of the situation and drive his mother's vehicle. Spurgeon is dressed professionally for debate, and evidently has his eyes upon a future far different than the one envisioned for him by his father during his more radical days. Rather than support his son's ambitions, Ray asks for Spurgeon's winnings to invest in various schemes like cockfighting. "I make myself feel better by recalling that…… [Read More]
Cultural Biases in America Against Individuals of Asian Extraction
Personalize issue even for non-Asians
hat they are in general
hy and how they exist culturally
Asians not seen as true Americans
Advertising of past
Advertising today of anti-Asian nature
Negative Asian Stereotypes
hat they are hy bad
Positive Asian Stereotypes
hat they are hy no 'good' stereotype, good or bad
Violence Against Asians
Radio talk show host
Chinese delivery person
Call for Tolerance
Cultural Biases in America Against Individuals of Asian Extraction
Look around you. How many faces of color do you see? Or, perhaps you yourself are considered or consider yourself a person of color. e would like to think that we are all the same under the skin, so to speak. Yet our culture tells us differently. In the phrases of James Chan, the…… [Read More]
Their problem with the U.S. As a whole is more complex and it deals with fighting a concept of a dominant white culture. While they find it perfectly normal to be interested in "owning land, one of more homes, several cars, expensive jewelry and clothing" (Benshoff & Griffin p. 158) (they consider themselves no different from an ordinary American in this situation), their main focus lies in having everyone around them accept them as equals, as from their perspective, "the American Dream can simply be freedom of want" (Benshoff & Griffin p. 158).
Alongside of Harold and Kumar, viewers realize that society is no longer a place where people are judged on account of their wealth, intelligence, and background. Individuals in this film are mainly interested in race and social status is apparently determined by one's ethnicity. It is almost as if the central characters need to negotiate in order…… [Read More]
retain racial prejudices and how can we break such molds? acism and prejudices, just like reading and speaking, are taught. This is one of the easy ways to develop and retain racial prejudices. Babies, toddlers, children, and even adolescents are highly susceptible to their environments. Yes, as children age into adolescents, they begin to think and act with more independence and defiance, yet they are not outside of the realm of influence from their families. The views, attitudes, perceptions, and language that people grow up in build the foundation for nearly all of their own attitudes. This is a reason why concerned and aware parents will seek to find a balance between exposing their children to a variety of people, so that they will not be fearful of people who are different, with being careful about to whom they expose their children to, either because some people do not agree…… [Read More]
acial Identity Development
Which stage best represents your current racial/cultural identity development, using one of the models discussed in class.
Under the acial and Cultural Identity Model, there is focus on five different stages (i.e. conformity, dissonance, resistance / emersion, introspection and integrative awareness). This is also called the Hispanic-American Identity Development Model. The one which best represents my identity is resistance and emersion. This is because it questions standard beliefs and often contributes to challenging these ideas using a number of techniques. The most notable include: questioning why someone should be ashamed for who they are, sociological / psychological forces associated with discrimination, extreme anger at cultural oppression, the rejection of the main ideas from contemporary society and members of the dominant group are viewed with a sense of suspicion.
In this case, I feel that the system will often seek to oppress someone who is challenging standard beliefs.…… [Read More]
acial Profiing Discussion
The events from 2001 marked a crucial point in the history of the United States from the perspective of the casualties and human loss they produce but at the same time from the perspective of the changes these events marked in the American society. Nowadays, the security measures are increased to such an extend that there have been wide debates on the potential abuses that may take place in terms of human rights, privacy issues, as well as personal security.
One of the security measures enforced since September 2001 is the extended control measures and techniques used to prevent any terrorist attacks from taking place on American soil. At the same time though, despite the fact that increased security measures are justified, they also allow controversies over potential abuses. One of the arguments protesting against increased security measures as they are enforced today points out the role…… [Read More]
The novel opens seven years after Gabo's mother, Ximena, was murdered by coyotes -- or paid traffickers -- during an attempt to cross the border. Her mutilated body was found, her organs gone -- sold most likely. Because of the fear surrounding this border town and the lure of the other side, all of the characters become consumed with finding afa. These people are neglected and abused. Like other fiction works on this topic (such as Cisneros's The House on Mango Street), The Guardians (2008) is rich in symbolism and flavored with Mexican aphorisms. The novel also shows the reader how complex and perilous border life is when you're living in between the United States and Mexico.
The book is important when attempting to understand the challenge of the border town life and it is, at the same time, a testament to faith, family bonds, cultural pride, and the human…… [Read More]
Possible Explanations in Structural Issues within the Educational Experience
The similarity in aptitude early on and the increasing academic achievement gap between black and white students thereafter would seem to suggest that the causes are most likely to be social and institutional. Among the possible factors, black children are less likely to have the benefit of a two-parent home; they are more likely to live in poorer communities with lower quality educational institutions; and they are 30% less likely to change school by their parents' choice. Unfortunately, the types of educational initiatives designed to reduce the education gap have not proven successful and to the extent their data suggest otherwise, it may be by virtue of over-reliance on the issue of "passing" instead of high achievement.
For example, the NCLB approach emphasized reducing the educational achievement gap among races by focusing on achieving proficiency in academic skills considered to be…… [Read More]
(Davis, 2001) That number is sure to have risen dramatically since Davis did her research.
The debates surrounding both the efficacy and the morality of racial profiling have created a lot of disagreement from many communities of color. Kabzuag Vaj is an organizer with the Asian Freedom Project in Madison, Wisconsin. The Asian Freedom Project has garnered hundreds of accounts of racial profiling of Southeast Asian youth over the past year. (Davis, 2001)
"Talking to the mainstream about racial profiling is hard," says Vaj. "The excuse people give us is extreme times demand extreme measures, whatever is necessary to catch the terrorists." (Davis, 2001) Organizers at People United for a etter Oakland (PUELO) also face similar concerns. They understand that although they are on all levels a multiracial organization, their campaign against racial profiling and police misconduct is simply inadequate to address the current political and sociological situation. "The fact…… [Read More]
Catfish and Mandala II
acism and racial relations are something unavoidable for a person coming and living in the United States; whether one is an immigrant or a temporary visitor. In Catfish and Mandala, Andrew X Pham says: "Since the day Chi ran away, I have wondered how utterly alone she felt. I have wanted to run away the way she did. In the years it took me to become an American, I haven't been able to answer the one question that remained framed in my mind from the day she left: How did America treat Chi, one vulnerable yellow in a sea of white faces?" (Pham, Catfish and Mandala, p. 33). In this passage, Pham explains what it is to live in America as an Asian immigrant. Pham suggests here that one of the reasons his sister escaped was the racism of her social environment, in addition to…… [Read More]
Fiction of ace
ace: The cultural power of the fiction of race
A recent PBS documentary was titled ace: The power of an illusion. This underlines what constitutes race -- race is a fiction, created by the faulty observational perceptions of human beings, and the history of human culture. ace is not a scientific reality. Because we can see color (and hair texture, facial shapes, and other characteristics) we perceive something we call race. But our scientific knowledge tells us that race does not exist. This is not to deny that race is a very powerful fiction that has influenced human history. The idea of racial categories proved to be deadly and destructive to the lives and the cultures of indigenous peoples. It was used to validate slavery, genocide, colonialism, and exploitation. But race is not 'real,' any more than the idea of 'carrying the white man's burden' was…… [Read More]
tenet of Christian societies is a need to create healthy and safe local communities. Christians frequently emphasize freedom and justice within the Judeo-Christian perspective. That means creation and promotion of fair criminal justice policies. These criminal justice policies must do away actions based on stereotypes and try to eliminate racial profiling as of apprehending potential criminals. With the support of religious entities and congregations, implementation of community-oriented policing methods through collaboration with intelligence-gathering entities may lead to effective and easier community policing. Things like fusion centers and intelligence-led policing (ILP) may make such a novel aim possible.
Fusion centers act as an information sharing center. Fusion centers were created under the U.S. Department of Justice through two government agencies: Office of Justice Programs and U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Most of them were formed from 2003-2007 (ukus, Warner, & Zhang, 2017). The purpose of fusion centers is to promote at…… [Read More]
The author of this brief report has been asked to review a case study and answer to what should be done so as to properly use and enforce community policing. In the test case, it is an issue that the Koreans and African-American people of a neighborhood are not getting along to well. The latest flashpoint is a Korean store owner who has detained an African-American youth for petty theft. Of course, the letter of the law could be followed and the child could be charged. Another way to proceed is to let the kid go. Those are the two general options. While one may be inclined to pick one of those extremes, there is an option in the middle.
There are some challenges here. First of all, any action taken against the African-American boy is going to potentially inflame the black protestors outside. This will be true…… [Read More]
The author of this brief report has been asked to answer a few questions as it pertains to stereotypes and interacting with people of other cultures. Indeed, the author has been asked to identify what a stereotype is. Second, there will be the identification of a culture that is challenge to work with in one or more ways. The stereotypes that are affiliated with the selected culture, at least some of them, will be defined. The author will then describe two practices that will help the author of this response work with this group more effectively. Finally, there will be a conclusion. While Asians are becoming a larger and larger asset to the melting pot that is the United States, it can sometimes be challenging to interact with them and frustrations can abound.
A stereotype is a belief or presumption about a race, gender or other defined group.…… [Read More]
Chinese-Americans form one of the most professional and most well educated sections of American population yet they are still portrayed as 'unwanted' ethnic minority by electronic and print media. The stereotyping of Chinese-Americans goes back to the days when trade cards were used for advertising and is still a part of media depiction of this community. Stereotypes may not always be negative in nature, but they are certainly based on generalizations, which may or may not fit every individual of a certain community. However in our media, we notice that some communities are always presented in one fixed way and change is rarely accepted or allowed to creep in which says a great deal about biases prevailing in media circles. James Chan in his article " ough on ats" traces the history of this type of stereotyping of Chinese-Americans and shows that most of the times, media presents…… [Read More]
Racial segregation remains one of the most fundamentally perplexing questions within the body of American history. Many people erroneously believe that the racial and social structures that existed prior to the close of the civil war in 1865 resulted in both fundamental and rapid changes for those who had been subjugated by slavery, immigration and even war. The truth is far more complicated and changes were much more gradual. The reality of segregation was both social, legal and economic and to some degree still exists today, in a de jure manner. "Although de jure segregation in the United States is most commonly associated with the South, segregation could be found at one time or another in every section of the country." (Finkelman, 2003) ("South, The " Columbia Encyclopedia, 2000) Though the fundamental struggle of the civil rights movements has largely forced the eradication of de facto, or legal segregation de…… [Read More]
acial division/separation on campus in environment
Students in the focus group described the campus environment at Landgrant University as being welcoming overall, but difficult to find meaningful connections with other students. Segregation is too harsh of a term to use in this case, but it is clear some of the students at the university feel that people stick with their own racial groups when making friends. This has created a trend in campus life that is hard to overcome. Therefore, there remains a racial division/separation on campus.
Stereotypes are mentioned as one of the most common causes of racial division on campus. One participant in the focus group claimed that white students claimed they thought she was "ghetto" and stereotyped her as a "loud" African-American female until they got to know her. This experience shows that stereotypes continue to color first impressions of people, preventing meaningful friendships from forming…… [Read More]
Race and Arrests
Racial Profiling, according to the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), is a "longstanding and deeply troubling national problem." It involves police and private security personnel targeting people of color based on suspicions, in most cases, that the individual being targeted is up to something illegal. The ACLU states that racial profiling "occurs every day," and the result for the innocent person of color is often a "frightening detention, interrogation, and searches without evidence of criminal activity." The basis for the stop in many cases is a person's perceived race, ethnicity, and national origin -- and in some cases the clothing a person is wearing in addition to the color of his skin. This paper delves into a few of the questions that surround racial profiling: a) why do police feel the need to racially profile people? b) Is it just part of the work of a cop…… [Read More]
In fact, most lawyers practice neither criminal law nor personal injury law; they assist individuals prepare wills, set up their businesses, protect themselves from financial risks, purchase homes, patent inventions, and respond to IS tax audits. Most lawyers spend long hours working at their desks and never actually see courtrooms or accident victims (Haskell 1998). Certainly, some lawyers are dishonest people without moral scruples or ethics who will do almost anything to make money. But more often than not, that is a function of the type of person they are, just as some schoolteachers, postal carriers, and even members of the clergy are dishonest and immoral.
Telemarketers suffer from common stereotyping as being dishonest, rude, inconsiderate liars who care only about making a sales pitch. As with other stereotypes, some telemarketers may fit those negative characterizations, but assuming them to be true about everyone who happens to earn a…… [Read More]
The increased collaboration and mutual awareness of both mainstream and minority projects -- and the vanishing of the differentiation between the two spheres -- could only lead to better and more relevant arts projects (Moscou 2010). I hope to be able to facilitate increased integration of the performing arts community to this end.
Some major concepts that relate to the issue of race include identity, self-confidence and self-image, and a host of sociological and economic factors. The economic disparity between the various racially segregated neighborhoods in the greater Seattle area is readily apparent on a drive through such neighborhoods -- the "non-white" neighborhoods have older buildings in greater states of disrepair, a larger number of boarded-up and defunct storefronts, and higher crime rates than the more affluent white neighborhoods of the city itself and in outlying areas (Cornwall 2004; SJI 2010). Greater integration would likely also result in greater economic…… [Read More]
esearch has shown that good communication amid patients and health care providers is directly connected to a person's happiness, treatment adherence and affirmative health results (Cultural Competency for Health Care Providers, 2007).
The goal of a lot of provider-oriented health it tools is to make relevant patient information flawlessly and unmistakably accessible to providers at the point of care. In so doing, these tools can decrease clinical indecision related to blurred or mistaken patient information that may be found in a handwritten medical record. In the nonexistence of desired information or in the presence of blurred or uncertain data, providers may undervalue patient precise information while at the same time overweighting their own medical viewpoints, suppositions, prejudices, or stereotypes about certain kinds of patients. If apparent and precise patient information is accessible to the clinician, the utilization of this information should augment, getting rid of the need for relying on…… [Read More]
hat Mrs. Pell says to agent Anderson is both poignant and ironic: "Hatred isn't something you're born with. At school, they said segregation what's said in the Bible...Genesis 9, Verse 27. At 7 years of age, you get told it enough times, you believe it. You believe the hatred. You live it...you breathe it. You marry it" (Pell, (www.imdb.com).This movie was not a documentary albeit it did follow the plot of a real life civil rights tragedy. But the lines in the film reflect the reality of life in segregated, Jim Crow-dominated Southern towns during that time in our history.
In "Dances ith olves" the protagonist, John Dunbar, who has been banished to a wilderness post because he tried to commit suicide, has a newfound appreciation for Native Americans. In his life and his army career he has been given the propaganda that all native peoples are criminals and…… [Read More]
ethnic, racial, and religious group is subject to stereotyping from others. This means that there are terms and ideas prescribed to a group of people based on certain characteristics that makes assumptions on those individuals because of these assumed characteristics. Stereotypes are rarely if ever based upon true characteristics but upon archaic and prejudicial ideas. There are both positive and negative stereotypes, but even ones that seem to compliment the specific group are still offensive because they give all individuals in that group the same characteristics, denying the people their individuality. Stereotypes are some of the most prevalent and ingrained ideas within the society. Even people who understand the fallacy of stereotyping and do not believe in them are aware of the terms applied to certain groups and may find themselves buying into some of them on a subconscious level. This is because these ideas have become conditioned into the…… [Read More]
Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities
in Health Care
The recent report of the Institute of Medicine, Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care (2002 Smedley et. al.), indicates that bias, stereotyping, and prejudice may often contribute to the quality of health care that is provided to non-white patients. For anyone entering into the field of health care, this information is beneficial because it uncovers many of the reasons why some patients receive inadequate health care that can lead to future prevention of this problem.
The vast majority of studies reviewed concluded that minorities are less likely to get the same treatment as whites, including necessary procedures. The studies also suggested that patient attitudes cannot explain completely why disparities exist in health care. Clearly, race has become as issue in the health care industry. The report brings to light the depth of the problem when it…… [Read More]
By being born a man or a woman signals to bearing certain clear sexual characteristics. Socialization takes individuals through a path that inculcates certain norms and codes of conduct depending on whether one is born a male or a female. In other words, the rules that one adopts and follows are guided by whether they are biologically male or female. Therefore, one’s communication, expression and behavior is shaped by the preexisting cultural and social norms including non-verbal language. Consequently, people’s behavior may differ because they are shaped by cultural and social norms from varying socio-ethnic and cultural setups. All these forces define gender; which is effectively a social construction of one’s biological sex. It allows for the recognition and distinction between men and women. According to Lippman (1922), stereotypes were important because they were an offshoot of a people’s ideas and heritage and, thus, served important purposes. Stereotypes helped…… [Read More]
Family, Community, and acial Trends in U.S. Juvenile Criminal Justice
The subject of race and ethnicity as they relate and correlate to criminality and prison populations in the United States has been the subject of a great deal of study and commentary for many decades. It is unquestionably true that a disproportionate number of people of color are convicted of crimes than are Caucasians both on a national level and at the community level in the majority of the country; this fact is easily supported by a cursory review of criminal justice statistics and is not a matter of debate despite the contentiousness of the issue. What is debated are the reasons behind this skewed prison population/criminal element, and in an effort to address this debate the following paper will study the problem as it appears not amongst adults, but amongst the still-developing youth of the country.
ace,…… [Read More]
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Stanley…… [Read More]
On the other hand, their depiction as perpetual victims of racial violence tended to diminish the degree of true society and infrastructure that existed for these tribes, reducing them to lone individuals or small bands and the obvious underdog in a game of cat and mouse. Certain characters are also used to depict the stereotypical pride of the Native Americans, showing a willingness to die against all reason for a cause that was already lost. This is another romanticized vision of Native Americans that almost attempts to assuage the guilt of white oppression by making the sacrifices of the Native tribes seem almost willing and granting of a certain degree of nobility.
In the early 1990s, Northern Exposure was a very popular and rather unique show, providing comedy not in the standard sitcom-with-laugh track format, but through more dramatic and realistic explorations of an isolated town full of…… [Read More]
The fact that he chose to use real Black people in the background, but white actors in the lead roles highlights the idea that Blacks were still supposed to be subservient to whites; even lead characters who were supposed to be Black were portrayed by whites. However, it also points to one of the reasons that whites chose to employ blackface: the perpetuation of racial stereotypes. hile many minstrel shows focused on less frightening aspects of Black stereotypes, the Birth of a Nation focused on a fear that people would use to drive anti-Black sentiment in the period following Reconstruction: the image of the Black male as dangerous rapist. Although many people protested the racist elements of the movie, it became an instant success, and remains a controversial but constant member of most critics' best film lists.
Blackface persisted as a staple in American entertainment throughout the early part of…… [Read More]
While America prides herself on her multiculturalism and acceptance of those from all lifestyles and cultures that is not always the case, as the readings and personal experiences clearly indicate.
America has been multicultural or multiethnic for centuries, white Americans still are the majority in most areas, and their ideals, beliefs, and even prejudices dominate all of society. To fit in, immigrants must assimilate to the predominate way of thinking, acting, and feeling, even if it is against their own cultural values and beliefs. Thus, they may actually have to engage in cultural pluralism, or acting one way with their own ethnic members while acting another way in white society. There are numerous examples of this every day in society, such as the encounter the author of "A Different Mirror" had with the cabdriver. onald Takaki's family had probably been in the country longer than the cabdriver's had; yet the…… [Read More]
All because of a racially fueled hatred that exaggerated the nature of the merciless war. This image of the cruelty and heartless Japanese is what eventually allowed the American people and government to justify the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The racist attitudes clearly clouded the United State's commitment to defending Democracy, both abroad and within its own borders. One of the worst examples of this merciless prejudice was the removal of the Japanese from cities along the West Coast in Executive Order. The internment of hundreds of thousands of Japanese-Americans clearly threatened the mage of democracy here at home, in the U.S. borders. The research suggests that "after the American entry into the war against Japan, the U.S. military imposed curfews and other restrictions on persons of Japanese descent living on the West Coast, including both naturalized native American citizens, and eventually 'excluded' mot Japanese-Americans from certain Western…… [Read More]
These shows depict diverse expressions of sexuality and relationships within the gay and lesbian communities, but they also tend to overgeneralize. Bisexuality is hardly treated at all, because it does not fit into neatly defined categories like "gay" and "straight." Occasionally this theme is discussed in films and television, as with one episode of Six Feet Under.
Stereotypes can constrain real-life behavior as film and television offer visual cues for modeling. This is why it is important to feature more diverse characters and diversity of experiences. Not all black men are highly sexed, aggressive, and dominant in their sexuality, and not all black men abandon women as is sometimes suggested by the media. Likewise, not all Asian men are nerdy and asexual and not all Asian women are detached vixens.
When stereotypes do capture a general truth, they can be funny, which is why they are commonly used in the…… [Read More]
A black woman walking up to the counter at Macy's will be a customer, not an American-American customer; a Latino buying a car at a used car lot in Memphis won't be a Mexican-American he will be a customer. That's how it should be.
THREE: Why is the focus so different between male authors and female authors? For the same reason that men see the world from a very different lens than women see the world. Naomi Wolf has a very good perspective on why there is such a dramatic difference between what men write about and what women write about, and I agree with her wholeheartedly. There were archaic yet potent attitudes toward women a century ago, Wolf explains, in which "normal female activity, especially the kind that would lead women into power, was classified as ugly and sick." In fact, there were whispers that if a woman engaged…… [Read More]
' Anthony, an actual resident of the street, sneers at white perceptions of how blacks talk in the media: "You think whites go around callin' each other honky all day?" hile Anthony's theft of the SUV is clearly shown to be destructive, socially as well as morally, the film also shows how black inner city views of law and order have evolved in such a negative and polarized fashion: the presence of the black officer Detective Graham aters is undercut by the racism and racial profiling of other members of the force.
Racism is circular in nature, and this is revealed in Anthony's lapses in logic: "That waitress sized us up in two seconds. e're black and black people don't tip. So she wasn't gonna waste her time. Now somebody like that? Nothing you can do to change their mind. You expect me to pay for that kind of service?"…… [Read More]
April 15, 2013 is Patriots' Day in Massachusetts, and a particularly notable day in Boston because of the running of the marathon. Local news coverage in the morning consisted of pre-race interviews with runners and spectators. By mid-afternoon, tragically, the focus had shifted from the elite athletes and their sport to the explosions that killed two and injured many others. The explosions occurred before millions of people, both those at the scene and those watching on television in the Boston area, where the entire event is covered live.
Reporters spoke rapidly in excited voices. There were reporters at the scene and in the studio. They all struggled to make sense of what happened and tried to relay to viewers what little information was known. At first, there was speculation that the explosions were an accident, but it soon became apparent that small bombs were detonated deliberately to disrupt the…… [Read More]
"Why is it so easy to develop and then retain racial prejudices?" How can we break this "mold"?
acial prejudices are formed easily because they are learned cognitive patterns. One develops racial prejudices just as one learns a language or learns how to ride a bicycle. Just as it is difficult to "unlearn" a skill, it can also be difficult to "unlearn" racism. However, it is possible to break the "mold" of racism by refusing to engage the racist mind, refusing to engage racist discourse, recognizing when racism exists, and teaching the future generation about love and respect.
As Nittle (n.d.) points out, most types of racial prejudice arise from "race-based stereotypes." Stereotypes are cognitive categories or structures. In many ways, stereotypes help human beings organize an otherwise overwhelmingly complex world. Thus, we group similar things into clusters or categories. All ducks and penguins fall into the bird category.…… [Read More]
Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help?
If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view. Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help (for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action).
ut what are the exact principles of affirmative action: let us take a look at them and analyze them. Title VI, section…… [Read More]
Hernandez vs. Texas and its Importance to Latinos in the U.S.
Studies conducted in the past have clearly indicated that some racial groups are overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system. There have been claims that some stages of the criminal justice system disadvantage some groups, with some of the disadvantaged groups being Asian-Americans, Hispanics, and African-Americans. This text largely concerns itself with the U.S. Supreme court ruling of Hernandez vs. Texas, a landmark Court ruling that has had a significant impact on the civil rights of Mexican-Americans. In so doing, it will, amongst other things, speculate on the relevance of this particular court ruling to Latinos in the U.S.
In basic terms, the Hernandez case "involved the exclusion of Mexican-Americans from serving as jurors, which, like voting, is a primary duty and privilege of U.S. citizenship" (Soltero, 2009, p. 38). Accused of murdering Joe Espinoza, Hernandez was indicted…… [Read More]
While in high school, she worked as a waitress at a local diner. Most of the population was black, therefore there was little contact with white customers or employees. Margaret feels that she was socially isolated until the 1950s. She was not exposed to white culture; it was foreign to her. She was only exposed to black culture of the time. They were not allowed in certain stores, restaurants, or other places of business. She remembers "white only" restrooms and "black only" fountains. This cultural isolation was oppressive.
Margaret feels that the oppressive attitudes and discrimination that she experienced as a child determined much of how her life proceeded in adulthood. The idea that she could only go so far was ingrained as a child. She never really broke free of this feeling. In her 40s, she moved to upstate New York. Here, she found that many women had succeeded…… [Read More]
But Martin Lawrence bugs out his eyes a little and he's a coon. It makes no sense.'7
The defense seems somewhat warranted. After all, if all characters in the sitcom Martin were white, and acted the same way, such behavior would be attributed to the standard stupidity showcased on television. Much like the quote earlier about sitcoms and stereotypes leveling things, television in general fails to showcase the brightest and most sublime of human endeavors.
Lawrence is not alone in criticisms aimed at contemporary black actors. In her essay, "Stereotypes of History: Reconstructing Truth and the Black Mammy," Jennifer Kowalski claims, "actors such as Martin Lawrence, Eddie Murphy, and Tyler Perry, have once again recycled the first existence of the Mammy/Aunt Jemima character." The "mammy" stereotype is "represented as full-figured women with strong and defensive attitudes, especially toward men who may bring harm to their loved ones." Lawrence recently starred…… [Read More]
They may not be overtly trying to keep blacks down, but I have noticed they it is important in this company to keep whites at the top of the ladder.
For example, my manager, a Caucasian, has been with this company for 20 years, he earns a salary in six figures and has no college experience. It shows. In fact under his supervision our department is collapsing. There is a supervisor who is African-American who tries hard to cover up for his boss's errors of judgment and wrongheaded decisions. He should be the one running our department, but he hasn't been promoted or compensated -- or even given credit for the yeoman's work that he does. The black supervisor has been with the company as long as the white manager, and the black supervisor has two master's degrees, but he can't catch a break in the company pecking order. The…… [Read More]
Children and Prejudice
hat a person first needs to know in order to fully understand the various factors that influence racial / ethnic stereotypes is what being Caucasian truly means in our society. In other words, what does "whiteness" mean for a Caucasian child? hat does whiteness mean to a child who is African-American -- or to a child that is Latino, or Native American? The authors (Derman-Sparks, et al., 2005) delve into this and other important issues that relate to not just ethnicity but to social power and influence.
hat is Racism -- this is important to know -- in America? According to the authors it is important to understand that racism is not just an attitude that one person has towards another. In fact racism in American is an "…institutionalized system of power" that makes the determination as to what groups are "advantaged" and what groups are "disadvantaged"…… [Read More]
Self and Social Psychology
Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.
Discovering the Self
Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas
Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…… [Read More]
A key role here would be that of the teacher, as most interactions at this age usually occur in school. Therefore, proper advice from a guiding counselor on issues referring to racial differences, to questions such as "What does it mean to be black?" could be of help in prompting further discussions on related subjects.
In analyzing the CNN pole, the role of the teacher is evident: he must help students answer their questions and address their fears, in order for each generation to be les inflicted by racial prejudices.
ut, as everly Tatum pointed out in one of her articles, "many educators are unskilled at talking about racial issues. Many teachers have had limited possibility to explore such issues in their own education, and they hesitate to lead discussions about racial tensions for fear that they will generate classroom conflicts." School counselors must be prepared to help students from…… [Read More]
This abuse of Arab-Americans and Muslim-American follows the ritualized sacrifice of the pharmakos, which involved the projection of a specific set of characteristics onto the scapegoated victim, who was then sacrificed in order to restore the health and unity of the community" (p. 165). As Taslitz (2002) emphasizes, such hate crimes and stereotypical portrayals of Arab-Americans represent a firmly entrenched set of beliefs held by many Americans that contribute to the government's ability to increase its power at the expense of the civil rights afforded the ordinary citizenry. "The most serious threats to our freedom often advance in small steps," Taslitz notes, and, "The risks we assume are, in large part, reflections of laws that encourage certain customs and values" (p. 125).
This step-by-step erosion of civil liberties can be best understood as a response to the demonizing of Arabs in America as far back as the late 1800s (Akram,…… [Read More]
Gay rights are also an issue of regular discussion. This sector of society is so marginalized that many states by law do not allow them to marry each other. Instead, they are expected to practice their courting and dating rituals in what is described as a "normal" way. Even religion is used as a basis for this type of discrimination.
Indeed, despite many efforts to the contrary, discrimination is still very much a part of life for those who do not assimilate into mainstream society. This is Baraka's focus of rebellion. According to the author, black authors and artists are to unite against such discrimination by offering the world a culture that is unmarred by other influences. Anything else is the beginning of assimilation and ultimate cultural death, as symbolized by Clay. Indeed, his point is not difficult to understand. Certainly, the assimilation of a gay person into mainstream heterosexual…… [Read More]
This may not have been the lesson of the drama, but it certainly reminded me of this fact.
In another way, I find the story unsettling in that it indicates how oftentimes the minority person is punished solely by virtue of his being a different color, or looking different in some way (Editors of Salem Press). It is not only the different color that causes punishment and social penalization. Other external, such as age, handicap, and looks can penalize one too. These are externals as Clay points out to Lula: "You really don't know anything about me." Meaning: You don't know anything about the real me. You are judging me according to facts or myths that you mentally construct upon. The real 'me' slips by you unexamined and ignored. This may be a lesson to those who engage in stereotypes. Doing so is harmful not only to victim but also…… [Read More]
From her conspicuous consumption of product-related merchandise it is safe to assign her firmly to the upper middle class. Gender stereotypes and messages abound in this ad, as in many others. One example is the woman-as-food or woman-as-product message; she is something to be eaten or consumed like any other fast-moving consumer good, which sets a dangerous precedent. "Turning a human being into a thing, an object, is almost always the first step toward justifying violence against that person." (Kilbourne, p. 278).
The implied consequence for buying the product is becoming desirable as an extraordinary female. Those who fail to buy the product must resign themselves to a passionless life full of mediocrity. Extraordinary females are those whose lives are saturated with the product. Pozner (p. 51) gives evidence of this actually happening when she says, "What disturbs me is not that I prefer the taste of Snapple (I do),…… [Read More]
She knew the secret I was trying to hide. but, unlike a estern woman, she didn't confront me, threaten, even pout. (Hwang 519)
Song also expresses how Gallimard has viewed her and her country when the says to the judge,
The est thinks of itself as masculine -- big guns, big industry, big money -- so the East is feminine -- weak, delicate, poor... But good at art, and full of inscrutable wisdom -- the feminine mystique. (Hwang 531)
Hwang uses the excesses of the operatic world as a beginning point for a play about two people who themselves are playing a part in life, a part derived from an opera that embodies a false, but for some comforting, image. Gallimard believes in an image, and Song knows this and so presents that image. Gallimard is a man who has failed with estern women and who sees Asian women as…… [Read More]
(African-American Policy Forum, 2009) Asian-Americans are also benefitting from affirmative action programs and for example it is related that the "...(a) the Small usiness Administration's Section 8(a) program has greatly benefited Asian-American-owned businesses. The Wall Street Journal estimates that affirmative action helped Asian-American-owned businesses more than double their share of contracts in a ten-year period, going from 10.5% of contracts in 1986 to 23.7% of contracts in 1996." (African-American Policy Forum, 2009) Asian Pacific Americans are particularly aided by affirmative action in trades such as law enforcement, firefighting and contracting. enefits to Latino-Americans include race-conscious admission and recruiting strategies at universities to encourage Latino enrolment in schools. In addition, "Publicly funded English-as-a-Second Language (ESL) programs for Latino students help both the Latino community" and the community at large. (African-American Policy Forum, 2009) it is additionally stated that "Native Americans also benefit tremendously from affirmative action programs" in that "Affirmative action…… [Read More]
political opinions he or she holds?
What causes an individual to hold the political opinions he or she holds?
Political Attitudes Toward Immigration and acial Stereotypes
Immigration has been a prominent political issue heighted by legislation introduced over the last few decades. People hold various political opinions of immigrants, especially those in the U.S. illegally, which tends to be divided along racial lines. It is interesting that in a country built by immigrants that many people have negative attitudes toward immigrants that are perpetuated by stereotypes and prejudice against racial groups. Stereotypes are widely used to generalize about the characteristics of groups of people through the assignment of simple labels alleged to represent group traits which are frequently based upon perceived wrongs of one group by another (Burns and Gimpal, 2000). Some of the most prominent stereotypes that have been the subject of psychological investigation involve ethnic identity (Burns and…… [Read More]
In fact, the Toy is considered to be one of the most racist films of all time due to these issues (Sastry).
Blazing Saddles and the Toy approach comedy from distinct perspectives, and although they may have common elements, the differences in their approach to humor, comedy, and race allow the audience to understand why Blazing Saddles is successful in its commentary on society and why the Toy fails miserably at changing people's perspectives about society in a positive way. Brooks's approach to race and social status helps to redefine how blacks were viewed in cinema, and also helps to demonstrate that previous cinematic depictions have been skewed due the control exercised by Hollywood executives. On the other hand, Donner's approach to race and social status ends up being degrading, racist, and further reinforces negative stereotypes of race and social status. It is through these various depictions and approaches that…… [Read More]
African-Americans are second only to Native Americans, historically, in terms of poor treatment at the hands of mainstream American society. Although African-Americans living today enjoy nominal equality, the social context in which blacks interact with the rest of society is still one that tangibly differentiates them from the rest of America. This cultural bias towards blacks is in many notable ways more apparent than the treatment of other people of color, such as Asian immigrants, as is reflected in disparate wages and living conditions experienced by these respective groups. Common stereotypes hold the successful, college educated black man or woman as the exception rather than the rule, whereas Asians are commonly thought of as over-achievers. Although any bias undermines social interaction in that it shifts attention away from individual merit, the bias towards African-Americans can be said to be worse than most, and lies at the root of discrimination and…… [Read More]
Television on Society
Television has helped to create and perpetuate perceptions of gender and race.
Television and Perceptions of Gender
How children form ideas about gender
Perpetuating gender myths through entertainment programming
Gender portrayals on prime time news
Racial Stereotypes on Television
Television in shaping the perception of black people
Television and stereotyping Asian-Americans as the model minority
Television played a great role in colonial domination of American Indians.
Conclusion and change - where to now?
In his famous dictum of the medium is the message, Marshall McLuhan illustrated how mass media, as an extension of human capabilities, has tremendous personal and social consequences (McLuhan: 23).
Television is in a particularly strong position to initiate such consequences. After all, the great majority of American homes have at least one television set, putting the medium in an unparalleled position to affect American society.
Television also has a power to shape an…… [Read More]
Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk
Definition of isk
The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.
This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…… [Read More]
S. news magazines between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1998. They concluded that the images of the poor in these news magazines "do not capture the reality of poverty, but instead provide a stereotypical and inaccurate picture of poverty that results in a misconception of beliefs about the poor, antipathy toward blacks and lack of support for welfare programs.
Similarly, Dixon and Linz (2000) researched the content of a random sample of local TV news programming in Los Angeles and Orange counties to determine representations of blacks, Latinos, and whites as lawbreakers and law defenders. "Intergroup" comparisons of perpetrators found that blacks and Latinos are significantly more apt than whites to be shown as lawbreakers. "Interrole" comparisons, lawbreakers vs. law defenders, similarly found that blacks and Latinos are more likely to be shown as lawbreakers than as defenders, whereas whites are significantly more apt to be portrayed as defenders…… [Read More]
Moore shared this insight with other children's-book writers, librarians and editors, including Elinor Sinette, Franklin Folsom, Mary Elting Folsom, Frances Keene, Stanley Faulkner and Sylvia Faulkner" (Kohl, 1991).
Later on the Council on Interracial Books for Children was founded by Moore and they made it their cause to highlight the flaws in the text books. The council not only supported reform but it also became an example of an interracial organization. They started their work with the Interracial Books for Children Bulletin as a platform to highlight issues of treatment of minorities in textbooks and library books. Later workshops, public meetings and the Bulletin were used to augment the cause. This and other such organization made public the stereotypes and biases portrayed in the text books. They not only criticized writers but they also blamed publishers for encouraging books that supported a racist stance. Due to their efforts a moderate…… [Read More]
Rosewood is a film particularly suitable and interesting for the application of social psychology. It concerns the story of a black community in early 20th-century Florida. The community was rather a-typical of the time, since black people were wealthy landowners. The neighboring company town of Sumner on the other hand, was occupied by poor white people, who were jealous of the wealth they observed in Rosewood. This setting provides a backdrop for social psychological analysis concerning ingroups and outgroups, and how racism leads to escalating tension.
Prejudice and Racism
Prejudice, according to rehm, Kassin & Fein (147), can be unintentional. It also means the stereotyping of a certain group of people on the irrational grounds of a perceived threat, exacerbated by the fact that little personal information is available about the target of prejudice. In the film, prejudice against black people is a paradigm of the historical time. The likelihood…… [Read More]
Media Presentation of Hate Crimes Against African-Americans: Annotated Bibliography
Baum, M., Potter, P. he relationships between mass media, public opinion, and foreign policy: oward a theoretical synthesis. Annual Review of Political Science, vol. 11 (2008): 39-65. Web.
Potter and Baum's paper firstly assesses the wide-ranging advances in academic knowledge with regard to foreign policy and public opinion in the course of the last decades, placing emphasis on comparatively recent researches. Subsequently, the authors propose a structure, on the basis of the market equilibrium principle, designed to synthesize the unconnected research programs which make up the literature pool on foreign policy and public opinion. For achieving this, the authors integrate mass media -- a third key strategic player -- that, in their opinion, has a crucial part to play, together with leaders and ordinary citizens, in influencing public outlook towards, and power over, foreign policy, besides considering the leader-public relationship. hey…… [Read More]
In this case, the various challenges that these individuals were exposed to and their ability to overcome them, showed me how the views of the past were incorrect. Where, the accomplishments of person will not be dependent upon: the racial, ethnic or gender group they were from. Instead, it is their overall state of mind and ability to overcome the obstacles that they are facing, that will determine how successful they will be in the future. This is important, because it shows how the lives of a host of individuals, from a variety of backgrounds, would have an impact upon shaping these views.
When you step back and analyze the underlying influences on my racial / gender beliefs, it is clear that there are a number of different factors that would influence them. Where, I was following the typical thinking (within society and in the media) about the different racial…… [Read More]