People who are guilty of personal attacks on Obama that challenge his birthplace, or equate him with Adolf Hitler, "…have been influenced to a major degree by a belief that he should not be president because he happens to be African-American" (CNN, p. 1). "It's a racist attitude," Carter asserted. And for this paper, it may be more like "modern racism" that does not embrace the "N-word" but does show hostility beyond merely ideological differences.
"I think an overwhelming portion of the intensely demonstrated animosity toward President Barack Obama is based on the fact that he is a black man, that he's African-American," Carter explained to NBC News (CNN, p. 1). Those who are biased against Obama due to his ethnicity, can mask that racial prejudice by attacking him politically, which is what South Carolina Representative Joe ilson did during Obama's speech to Congress in September, 2009. "You lie!" ilson…… [Read More]
Although it has often been seen as a production which exploits the racial prejudices of the American society, on the other hand it tries to deal with them and point them out through laughter. The question then arises, "does the charge of prejudice come from the fact that the movie laughs and pokes fun at it instead of excoriating it? Would it have been better if it had dealt with it in the same dour, overcast manner adopted by many anti-racist activists? Would a waggling finger and pursed lips be better than a laugh at the bastards' expense?" (Tremlett, 2002). Therefore, some views consider this approach to be more useful than hard line activists.
In relation to this approach, there are studies made which argue that discussion an issue, such as racial discrimination, by using humor as a tool, is an important and most of the times useful technique. More…… [Read More]
In order to increase inequality within my neighborhood, the first step would be to change leadership so that they are more heterogeneous and able to represent every facet of our community. In this way I believe we will be able to respond to the demands of everyone within a community that has a diverse ethnic background. Instead of my neighbors ignoring people of other ethnicities, I would want them to feel just as welcome as if they were Hispanic within our community. In the final analysis I believe that everyone at the core level is the same, but we are often separated by the fears of the unknown. Hispanics have too long distanced themselves from the mainstream and this has polarized our position within American society. I want to experience my Mexican heritage, but at the cost of not being to experience my American heritage as well. Therefore in order…… [Read More]
acism in America: Where do we stand?
From the time of the New World's discovery in the year 1492, racism has remained at the forefront of U.S. history. Even in the present day, it is reported that in America, one Black man dies from police confrontations every 28 hours. A majority of these incidents even fail to show up in local newspapers and news channels. It is only occasionally that these unfortunate victims garner the state media's attention and even rarer for such incidents to show up on national-level media. Over half a century following the famous "I have a dream" speech by Martin Luther King and many years following Barrack Obama's historic victory in the 2008 Presidential elections to become the nation's first ever African-American President, growing cases of racial violence prove the persistent sensitivity of this social issue. Mass racial aggression, dubbed the nation's "worst nightmare," persists (Lester,…… [Read More]
The fact that so many people believed that dependency of any kind was a serious threat to the development of the nation did develop into anti-racist sentiment as race seemed to be the defining character, in soc many situations of the labor force being utilized. One can definitely see this in the development of the early republican party, even though many call the rhetoric demonstrative of the dramatics that were needed by the party to set it apart from former parties the intended goal of the party, was to make steps toward destroying the system of economics that forced dependence, i.e. slavery. The unprecedented success of the early republican party, having developed only two presidential candidates the second being Lincoln, goes to show that the voice of eradicating dependence had a strong social precedence and was in many ways anti-racist in nature. Some dismiss these early ideas as demonstrative of…… [Read More]
Anti-Miscegenation Laws in the United States
In order to understand what an anti-miscegenation law is, it is important to look at the definition of the term miscegenation. This term is derived from two Latin words miscere, which means to mix, and genus, which refers to type, family, or descent (Frederickson, 1971). This term has therefore been used to refer to the mixing of racial groups, ethnicities, and in rare circumstances different religions, in most cases referring to cohabitation or intermarriage between such groups. It has also been used to describe situations where two persons of different racial backgrounds produce offspring without necessarily cohabiting or getting married. In the United States this term was mostly used in the context of white man's racist attitudes and black man's alleged craving for the white woman (Jordan, 1968). The very initial cases of racial mixing were witnessed with the emergence of the system of…… [Read More]
This type of zoning began to be enforced because of integration, which many Americans were opposed to. In recent years, the idea of exclusionary zoning still lingers as a topic of debate. This is not only an issue of race but also an issue of affordable housing for low income workers.
According to Sternlieb (1973)
Exclusionary zoning and subdivision control in the suburbs as a means of preserving the community status quo and of avoiding certain types of residential growth have been the focus of recent discussions and criticisms. Such land-use controls in conjunction with rising construction costs are seen as substantially reducing the availability of low and moderate income housing in the areas of suburban employment growth. A locality may effect prohibitive minimum price levels for new residential development by zoning its undeveloped lands for predominately single-family homes with requirements for large lots, large frontages, and large livable floor…… [Read More]
Essentially, those in the lower tiers of the urban
socioeconomic hierarchy, rather than having been drawn out of despair, have
been thrust to the periphery of America's 'revitalizing' cities.
One of the most important points raised by the course reading
material would be that underscoring a clear proclivity toward urban design
and planning in those who would first colonize the new lands. Though
massive and ripe with natural resources and incredible frontiers, the new
land was also flowing with inherently profitable waterways, brimming with
commercial trade prospects and inhabited by a native population which,
though Chudacoff reports it to have been significantly underestimated as an
city-dwelling peoples as well, would appear ripe for exploitation. More
importantly though to this discussion would be the text's consideration of
the inherency of the European urban culture to America's development.
Indeed, according to Chudacoff's (2005) account, "the Europeans who
colonized North America…… [Read More]
Social Science literature has largely defined racist societies as those where: official ideology proclaims that racial differences are unbridgeable; the ideal is "race purity"; social segregation is mandated by law; and stigmatized groups have limited access to economic opportunities so that they are kept impoverished (Fredrickson, p. 101). Thus, it is evident that the historical definition of racism has emerged from a construct of political, sociological and economic ideology, which overtly practices racial discrimination. Since modern day America professes an ideology of equality, the question thus arises as to whether anti-black racism is now a part of the nation's ignoble past. Unfortunately, it appears that the answer to that question is in the negative, as racial prejudices continue to perpetuate an economic and social divide between African-American blacks and "white" America, albeit under the guise of Laissez-faire racism or persistent negative stereotyping (Martin & Tuch, p. 16). Logically, therefore,…… [Read More]
g., a magnet school), and also in terms of the various percentages of whites; African-Americans; Asians; and Latino (a)s attending each high school. According to Solorzano and Ornelas (Feb/Mar 2004) their study of advanced placement high school enrollment trends among minority students was driven by their desire for clearer answers to several key questions about equal access to educational opportunities for minority students and white students alike within various Los Angeles public high schools.
The questions the authors sought answers to in their study were the following:
How do school structures, practices, and discourses help maintain racial and ethnic discrimination in access to AP courses? How do Latina/o and African-American students and parents respond to the educational structures, practices, and discourses that help maintain racial and ethnic discrimination in access to AP courses? Finally, how can school reforms help end racial and ethnic discrimination in access to AP courses? (p.…… [Read More]
Racism in America -- the Causes - Effects
hy has the ugly social scar of racism -- whites demonstrating racially biased attitudes and actions against African-Americans -- continued in the U.S. through the years? hat causes people to look down on those of another race -- or to otherwise hold people of another ethnicity in contempt? Given the fact that the U.S. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the Voting Rights Act (1965), and that Americans elected and re-elected a bi-racial president (Barack Obama), an objective observer from another country might imagine that racist attitudes have subsided (and in ways things have improved on racial issues).
There is still today -- and may always be -- white racism against blacks, and this paper points to the fact that racism has continued to be a social and moral blemish in the U.S. because it has become institutionalized and carried…… [Read More]
acism and Society -- Literature Letter
Senator Mitch McConnell
317 ussell Senate Office Building
Dear Senator McConnell:
I am writing to express my reaction to your four-year effort to ensure the failure of the presidential administration of President Barak Obama. First, let me say that I have never been a politically-oriented person; I am not even a registered voter. However, I have been monitoring news reports about the current state of the nation and of the disgraceful abuses of power exhibited by you and the other high-ranking members of your epublican Caucus. The manner in which you and your colleagues have reduced the U.S. Congress into a dysfunctional and ineffective Legislative Branch of our government (Grunwald, 2012) is the reason I am writing, the inspiration for this letter comes from my recent exposure to several pieces of 20th Century literature with which you might not be familiar. Copies of them…… [Read More]
Racism as One of the More Relevant Causes of Poverty
The prime objective of this paper is wholly that it will address racism as one of the more instrumentally causal factor for the prevalence of poverty.
The exceptional advancement and development that we have attained within the contemporaneous parameters of the societies within which we survive and interact is something that is reflected within virtually all existing platform. It is quite apparent that the Legal, political, sociological and cultural frameworks as we presently know them, for instance, have all advanced and developed in accordance to the current day and age. This, moreover, is something that has primarily been due to the technologically oriented evolution that the global society has been undergoing at an uncharacteristically rapid rate for about two decades now. In spite this however; the global socio-community continues to be plagued by such sociological woes as economic…… [Read More]
Consequent to this, being aware of the discrimination he or she experienced in their last workplace, the individual (even if he or she is extremely talented in what they do) is expected to get a job where they would feel less stress, but where they would no longer be able to make use of their abilities. As a result, racism harms society for the fact that it prevents a talented individual from bringing their services to the community, and in addition to that it harms the individual, who ends up depressed and with a job that they do not enjoy doing.
The general public normally relates to white people when they think about civilization. Society taught them that white people are the cause of progress and that they came and brought civilization to the underdeveloped non-white individuals. ith the technology in Egypt and the ones from the Aztecs and the…… [Read More]
In colonial times, they were known to be Appalachians, Portuguese, Turkish slaves or even Gypsies. Their dark skin and mixed, doubtful origin made them a target for the ridicule and hate of the white population.
During 1800s the Melungeons lived on the border between Virginia and Tennessee and the name was used as an insult. The truth however was revealed when the results of a DNA study were printed in the Journal of Genealogy. The results shocked a large part of the white population, as it showed that they were the off springs of sub-Saharan Africans and white, European women.
This proves that although on the surface discrimination was dominant but mixing of races was also endemic. This presents a totally different picture to what has been portrayed by historians. Some researchers claim that such incidents were very common in those times in America and some researchers have pointed out…… [Read More]
It has even been shown that there is a psychological basis for the formation and perpetuation of racism in a society (Feinberg 2009). This makes it clear how the problem has been allowed to persist for so many years and so many generations.
Some suggest that reverse discrimination now takes place in this country, with unfair advantages being handed out to minorities (Brown 2009). Until these minorities have an equal say, however, the advantage definitely does not belong to them.
Feinberg, M. (2009). "acism and psychology." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/racism/homepage.html
Brown, M. (2009). "everse racism is wrong, too." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion/letters/bal-naacpletter1015a,0,7732476.story
Marshall, S. (2009). "The fight against racism today." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://race.eserver.org/fight-against-racism-today.html
and, a. (1963). "acism." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://freedomkeys.com/ar-racism.htm
Shah, a. 9204). "acism in North America." Accessed 16 October 2009. http://www.globalissues.org/article/165/racism#acisminNorthAmerica… [Read More]
Personal anecdotes related to the experience of prejudice are usually the most effective means of convincing an audience that prejudice exists, and that it is painful. Moreover, an effective author connects the issue of prejudice to broader issues that all readers can relate to regardless of their personal experiences. Thus, it is important to show how the society suffers from prejudice too. African-American authors are in the position of sharing personal anecdotes about prejudice from within the framework of what is supposed to be a free, open, and tolerance society. Because of the paradoxes in American society, prejudice seems even more terrible and ironic. Maya Angelou, Zora Neale Hurston, and Brent Staples are all African-American writers who offer convincing arguments about prejudice.
Maya Angelou's autobiographical essay entitled "Graduation" is about her high school graduation in a segregated public school in Arkansas. Angelou's story is like that of other black…… [Read More]
Seven people in a room
The concept of the race came about in the nineteenth century in Europe. This is when they incorporated racial superiority, racial inferiority and racial difference into the western culture. At that time, race was viewed as inherited, permanent biological differences. Today race is viewed as a social construction that is influenced by physical characteristics. People are socialized to identify a person's race by; first skin color, then hair, then facial features such as shape of the nose and other physical features like height. People can decide to identify the seven people using these characteristics. Races constitute distinctive divisions of the human species, which can be identified by boundaries between them. Races are fixed unchanging and are homogenous by genes. [footnoteRef:2] [2: Ashley Montagu, "The Genetical Theory of Race, and Anthropological Method," American Ethnography Quasimonthly (2011): URL http:/ / http://www.americanethnography.com/article.php?id=37> (accessed on 25th July 2012).]…… [Read More]
The Price of Racial Harmony
Almost thirty years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964, race relations in the United States continue to be strained and the dream of racial harmony appears to be as far from reality as it ever was. Many commentators, including Shelby Steele, consider that the cause of these continued difficulties lies in society's determined emphasis upon race and color, rather than upon equality and individualism. The convenient packaging and classification of people into the camps of either black or white perpetuates the divisive conflict of oppressors vs. victims, and innocence vs. power. Although integration and multiculturalism are among the catchwords of the time, the present situation is merely a case of blacks and whites adopting the path of least resistance. To truly achieve equality and cooperation within racial relations, society must make radical changes in the way that it acts and thinks. This…… [Read More]
Thebedi suffers because of the same reason but her story reveals how broken a race becomes after years of repeated abuse. Thebedi lives in a culture thousands of miles away from the segregation realized in America but somehow, that mentality made its way across the ocean. The most amazing aspect of this story is the fact that it could have taken place on an American farm. The white man's ways belittled the black man even in his own land. Prejudice is no respecter of persons. hile we associate it with whites and blacks in America, across the globe people are killed and mistreated for all kinds of beliefs. One thing is clear: this state of mind comes from within the heart of man, not from without. Children play with each other without restraint and it is only when they begin to adopt the beliefs of their elders that they begin…… [Read More]
Example of the least severe would be changes in eye contact, from other students and/or faculty or person or people moving away from the person in a social situation as compared to severe which would be an overt usage of a derogatory term such as the N word in an angry manner or other racially derogatory terms and will also include acts of vandalism to property or physical violence. The questions regarding number of events will be three, one asking about racist events on campus, at work (where applicable) and lastly in the broader community. The final question will involve and overall expression of the degree the individual believes racism effects their daily life, based upon the 1-10 scale.
Data Collection Methods:
This work is a true survey style design and the data will be collected via electronic means. The dependant variable will be compiled in a set of averages…… [Read More]
Racism as Presented in Shakespeare's 'Othello'
The play Othello by William Shakespeare is the tragic story of a man who has moved from one culture to another. He looks differently than others because of Negroid features, which are mentioned in the play (thick lips compared to Europeans, and dark skin). Possibly because his not completely familiar with the culture within which he lives, he trusts the wrong people, with tragic results.
From the very opening of the play, Iago describes Othello physically but denies him a name (in fact we never hear Othello's name until the third scene). Iago describes how he must pretend to be loyal to Othello, saying, tis the curse of service,
Preferment goes by letter and affection,
Now, sir, be judge yourself
Whether I in any just term am affin'd
To love the Moor." (I.i)
Anyone familiar with the history of racism in the United States…… [Read More]
Racism in the Arizona Community
Do members of the community look like you? In what ways do they look the same or different?
I remember once sitting in a Chris Rock open mike when he cracked a joke about how he viewed the U.S. To be the rich relative in his family who financed your education after assaulting you for years. Even though I couldn't stop laughing at that; in hindsight however, living in Arizona for over 20 years and in light of the new immigration law I cannot help but agree with that completely. Even though I have gotten the best out of the best and yet I have been slapped down all my life too. I grew up in the pre-civil rights movements when my neighbourhood was the home of jazz and blue centres and breakthrough entrepreneurs who paved the way to better lifestyles making in-roads for the…… [Read More]
Racialization is where two, racial groups have become so disgusted with one another that they will begin to take negative views of each other .Where, WASP's would often see blacks as the lowest ethic groups in society, while they would view other ethnics groups in more positive light (but only to a certain extent). A good example of this can be seen with the way many individuals will not acknowledge someone as an American (such as: Christy Yamuguchi's Olympic performance against Midori Ito of Japan). Despite being a fourth generation Japanese-American, the media commentators kept implying that she was Japanese (even though she was from America). This is significant, because it shows how the radicalization of WASP's has created racial triangulation. Where, they cannot acknowledge the accomplishment of minorities, (despite the fact that they are Americans). In this case, the media was using racial triangulation to keep Yamuguchi down to…… [Read More]
In her interview, she is obliquely asked to lose weight. Her body, as we will see shortly, is ever the object of external appraisal. To work on-air, she must look a certain way. Her bosses imply that she needs to tighten up. This tightening is contested later by the expansion of pregnancy. When she goes out with her sister to celebrate the new job, they are let into the club before others based on looks. Inside the club, they worry about whether or not men are thinking about "fucking them." They also refer to other women as "skanky bitches." All of this evidences a certain emphasis on looks, an emphasis that transcends civility. A woman's commerce in the move is based on use for others.
It is at the same club that the woman character meets Ben. They meet and eventually return to Alison's sister's place where the have drunken…… [Read More]
As America gradually becomes a predominantly diverse society, more and more issues are brought into fore, and this include the formulation of policies and institutions that seek to improve the lives of the 'minority' (i.e., Americans with non-Caucasian race) and provide efficient services for them. This is the greater implication that Takaki elucidates in his book: analyzing a socio-cultural problem to bring about effective solutions for it.
Takaki's discussion of this social problem is related with a more serious and crucial problem that plagues American society today: the closed-minded view of Americans concerning cultural diversity and its apparent fear for the destabilization of the status quo. This status quo was identified by Takaki as the Americans' tendency to think of the concept "American" as "white," and the destruction of this status quo would result to a new social order, wherein Americans of European descent would eventually become the minority and…… [Read More]
In years before, America was a collection of Chinese, Germans, Italians, Scots, Croats, etc., all craving freedom. Today, even the simple concept of an English-speaking nation is fading off the continent. In the past, immigrants were taught in English in the public schools. In America today, children are taught in German, Italian, Polish, and 108 other languages and dialects. Most of these schools are funded by 139 million federal dollars. "The linguist's egalitarian attitude toward dialect has evolved into the multicultural notion that dialect as a cultural feature is part of one's identity as a member of that culture."
Due to their ethnic or cultural heterogeneity, multiethnic societies in general are more fragile and have a higher risk of conflicts. In the worst case such conflicts can cause the breakdown of these societies. Recent examples of this were the violent breakdown of Yugoslavia and the peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. Forced…… [Read More]
Black people have to work as hired household help or as farm labor while white people own the economic resources of production. Gordimer's mother had a black maid and it is likely that this made her sensitive to the inequality between the two communities (Gordimer et al. 1990).
On the other hand, What it's Like to be a Black Girl explores the psychological pressure and turmoil that a young black girl living in an urban society has to go through. Her identity is shaped by her consciousness of her physical appearance and how different it is from the white-skinned acceptable norm of society. She also has to deal with her developing sexuality and the responses that elicits from people in her community. The poem shows how the young black girl has to accept her fate as a passive sexual being to satisfy the needs of the male.
Compared with Thebedi,…… [Read More]
A further stereotype about Asians that cannot be ignored is that regarding the sexuality of the Asian female. "Asian Pacific women have generally been perceived by Hollywood with a mixture of fascination, fear, and contempt....If we are 'good' we are childlike, submissive, silent, and eager for sex or else we are tragic victim types. And if we are not silent, suffering doormats, we are demonized dragon ladies -- cunning, deceitful, sexual provocateurs." (Hagedorn) the pornography industry is highly populated with Asian women fulfilling the male desire for sexual stereotypes. Japanese school girls in short skirts with lollipops and repressed sexual needs are a popular fetish. The subservient Geisha wife in kimonos, pale make-up, and most importantly donning a subservient, unthreatening, submissive sexual attitude is another. Look again and one is certain to find the "dragon lady" as mentioned above: the over-sexed, wild, uninhibited Asian girl looking to please as many…… [Read More]
hat Mrs. Pell says to agent Anderson is both poignant and ironic: "Hatred isn't something you're born with. At school, they said segregation what's said in the Bible...Genesis 9, Verse 27. At 7 years of age, you get told it enough times, you believe it. You believe the hatred. You live it...you breathe it. You marry it" (Pell, (www.imdb.com).This movie was not a documentary albeit it did follow the plot of a real life civil rights tragedy. But the lines in the film reflect the reality of life in segregated, Jim Crow-dominated Southern towns during that time in our history.
In "Dances ith olves" the protagonist, John Dunbar, who has been banished to a wilderness post because he tried to commit suicide, has a newfound appreciation for Native Americans. In his life and his army career he has been given the propaganda that all native peoples are criminals and…… [Read More]
Although Friedman claims that the use of religion as a common bond among early Americans is no longer relevant, there are scores of Americans who still believe that the nation is essentially a Christian one. The identity of Tea Party people is inextricably tied into an identity that may seem outmoded to many Americans. Yet to the Tea Party, their identity is more American than any apple pie.
Most Americans throughout most of American history considered it perfectly fine to deny half the (white) population the right to vote on the basis of gender. Being female was considered a handicap, which systematically denied women the right to be Americans even if they identified with the culture of the United States. Asian men who worked on the railroads in nineteenth century America were not even permitted to start families because their Otherness was too much for the ASP majority. Now, Asians…… [Read More]
ace, Discrimination and Education
acism and discrimination have been long-lasting impediments to equality of education in the United States. It was only in the mid-20th century that African and Native Americans won legal access to equal education. Much of America's early history of racism still lingers within the educational system. Today, poverty and poor literacy skills often plague African-American and Hispanic students, and Native American groups continue to pressure the government for self-determination and equality in educational attainment. Groups like the NAACP continue to work to see racism and discrimination in education eliminated in the United States, and significant progress has been made over the last decades, although racism continues to be a problem in American schools.
The history of racism and discrimination in the United States is almost as long as that of America itself. The fledgling nation of the United States reserved education largely for its white, male,…… [Read More]
Catfish and Mandala II
acism and racial relations are something unavoidable for a person coming and living in the United States; whether one is an immigrant or a temporary visitor. In Catfish and Mandala, Andrew X Pham says: "Since the day Chi ran away, I have wondered how utterly alone she felt. I have wanted to run away the way she did. In the years it took me to become an American, I haven't been able to answer the one question that remained framed in my mind from the day she left: How did America treat Chi, one vulnerable yellow in a sea of white faces?" (Pham, Catfish and Mandala, p. 33). In this passage, Pham explains what it is to live in America as an Asian immigrant. Pham suggests here that one of the reasons his sister escaped was the racism of her social environment, in addition to…… [Read More]
Instead of pretending that racism and its effects no longer exist, we need to strengthen affirmative action and devise a new set of policies that directly tackle the racial gap in wealth." (Derrity, 1).
That, in a nutshell, is the position of this paper. America has not given affirmative action enough time to act. Moving forward, we should continue our affirmative action policies, but with an end in mind. Economists and sociologists, along with help from America's captains of industry and human resources experts, should devise an ideal time frame whereby affirmative action will end, and set outside and inside goals for this time frame as well.
But for now, affirmative action must continue, and continue with gusto, to reverse the horrors that America's history has caused.
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW of RELATED LITERATURE
History of Affirmative Action review of the history associated with affirmative action is the first step to…… [Read More]
" It's the "oppression theory," D'Souza claims that helped those nations who were colonized by the West, and he makes sense when he points out that while British colonialism was bad for his grandfather in India, it was good for him. The British brought English language traditions to India, and that helped him; the West brought technology to India, and that is good, too. And the British built roads, railway systems, docks, irrigation, and more, and here in the U.S., "Jesse Jackson is vastly better off because his ancestors were enslaved than he would have been if that had never happened." Why? Jackson and "others like him" (that sounds like of racist or at least condescending) would be living in Somalia or Ethiopia or Nigeria. Pretty strange idea, but he is right by saying colonialism brought "millions of nonwhite people into the orbit of Western freedom."
QUESTION #3: Why does…… [Read More]
This can be seen in the Catholics who were so tightly bound to the Vatican in Rome (17). The textbook points out that this wasn't just the case for Catholics, the Protestants in the New orld were also closely tied to their Protestant religion in England.
The relationship that the colonists had with the Native Americans was an important one because the European colonists needed the Native Americans to help them build their New orld; in short, the Europeans needed the Indian workforce (Ruckman 17). Sadly, Indians became slaves who were bought and sold, or they were forced (indentured) workers (17). Ruckman notes that the colonists needed major work done and the Indian workforce was not enough to meet the demands of a growing society, which is why slaves for Africa were being imported -- roughly beginning around the year 1502 (17).
Spain came to the New orld in 1492…… [Read More]
Preconceptions about race prevented the white Australians from accurately assessing the needs, motivations and behaviors of Aboriginals by giving the white Australians a bias in their own minds that served as an agonist towards the race that was different from their own. In many ways it was no different in America, where the White Anglo Saxon Protestants (WASPs) viewed the blacks and the Mexicans and the Catholics as subhuman or of a lower class or caste which should not be allowed to populate or hold political power. In the end, it is all about control, and the people who put up the fences and who try to keep the Aboriginals out are the ones who are acting subhuman.
The white Australians are represented by Mr. Devil who really is called that by the Aboriginals because he possesses no human goodness. Human goodness and charity sees beyond race and ethnicity and…… [Read More]
America, having the perfect schools has long been thought to be the panacea of all our nation's social troubles. If only we could teach our children to master America's social values while still in school, we could produce a population of perfect engineers for our future society. Injustice, racism, poverty, and all the other social illnesses of America would be cured by this new generation of progressive thinkers. The quality of our nation's education system needs to be improved, and President Bush's education reform plan will do just that.
It is obvious that the so-called "progressive" educational approach has failed. The academic knowledge of our children has fallen in comparison to other industrial nations. In an attempt to stem our nation's slide in educational rankings, government expenditures for education have risen dramatically. Every year, billions of taxpayer dollars are poured into the U.S. education system. The government seems to believe…… [Read More]
Birmingham Campaign of 1963 and the Civil Rights Movement
Since the end of the Civil War and the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which abolished slavery in America, equal rights for African Americans was one of the anticipated outcomes. Yet, the law did not swing entirely in favor of equality; rather, it offered freedom and segregation. Jim Crow laws were essentially institutionalized with the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision, which affirmed that blacks were “separate but equal” to whites—i.e., they were “equal” in the eyes of the law (after all, the 14th Amendment had affirmed their equality, and the 15th had affirmed their right to vote—even women were not granted that right until the 19th Amendment), but as far as the law was concerned blacks were not permitted to mingle with whites in public. Thus, blacks had to sit in their own sections in a theatre (the balcony—referred to…… [Read More]
Black Lives Matter: The Paradox of Injustice—“If We Must Die…”
In the poem “If We Must Die,” by Claude McKay, the African American poet writes that “If we must die, let it not be like hogs / Hunted and penned in an inglorious spot, / While round us bark the mad and hungry dogs, / Making their mock at our accursèd lot.” He states if blacks must be persecuted, let it not be in vain—but rather let them fight back. This was essentially the directive of Malcolm X as well (Fiero, 2010). However, Martin Luther King, Jr., had a different take on the plight of black people in America. He believed they should use non-violent means of protest. He based his idea on Thoreau’s (1849) “Civil Disobedience.” McKay’s poem does not promote civil disobedience but rather actual physical confrontation. McKay did not want his people to be passive. He wanted…… [Read More]
(explain). Even though I was not born in Japan and am an American by birth, part of my heritage is Japanese and I cannot and do not want to forget that. Hearing such derogatory comments is similar to a Polish-American hearing a joke that makes fun of Poles or Americans who are Jewish seeing anti-Semitic grafitti.
Dating has not been easy, either. It seemed like all the white girls to whom I was attracted to did not see me in the same way because they believed I was Asian. Only a small number of girls in this country will date outside their race -- and mixed people like me fall into that category. There were no Asian girls that interested me. (actually, there were only xx Asian girls to begin with).
There is an interesting book by Pearl Fuyo Gaskins called What Are You? Voices of Mixed-Race Young People. The…… [Read More]
Racism in Media
Television news casting has a long history of perpetuating negative stereotypes of the Black community through what the news broadcasts and how it creates images that are transformed into symbols that become associated with the African-American community. Through these images, certain signs and symbols are created that later become associated with the Black community. hile attempts to make media more inclusive have marginally succeeded, failure lies in its inability to create any sort of social change but instead continues to perpetuate stereotypes.
In "Racism and the Media," Yasmin Jiwanai describes the role the media has on people's everyday lives. Jiwani writes that the media provides "us with definitions about who we are as a nation; they reinforce our values and norms; they give us concrete examples of what happens to those who transgress these norms; and most importantly, they perpetuate certain ways of seeing the world and…… [Read More]
hen people believe that the people of a particular race are inferior to another, it is referred to as racism, and these beliefs have taken on different forms throughout human history (Anti-Defimation League, N.d.). hen people of a particular ethnic group or historical collectivity are tried to be eliminated by another or dominate or exclude another based on the differences that the dominant group believes is hereditary in nature and unalterable, it is called racism. Broadly, racism is identified on the basis of two characteristics. hen a dominant group of people believes that another race or group of people are morally inferior and hence such people deserve less respect and concern, it is racism based on moral considerations.
However, Hoon the other hand, when a dominant group of people believes that another race or group of people, on an average, is genetically inferior and hence based on this assumption,…… [Read More]
It was filmed in Aboriginal languages, with all of the characters speaking a variety of languages that were native to the people of Australia before the Europeans came. This helps connect aboriginal people from today with the past that they are trying not to lose. There are always the subtitles, to allow everyone to understand the dialogue of the characters in the story. Yet, it is filmed in aboriginal languages in order to revitalize an ethnic community that has been plagued by racism seen under a colonial structure. The Europeans took away the everyday use of such unique languages, and the film helps try to reconnect modern aboriginals with the past that could be fading away faster than anyone ever want. This essentially brings a new life to a culture that would otherwise be fading away. It is a modern movement to reach back before the time of colonialism and…… [Read More]
Chris Rock and Dave Chappelle are two black comedians who use racial humor as a base for their routine. However, I do think that black comedians making fun of blacks (and whites for that matter, as both Rock and Chappelle routinely do) does encourage amalgamation. The reason for this is that in highlighting in a humorous way our differences, comedians can make is feel more comfortable with each other. There is a kind of cathartic experience in having truths told about yourself or your community in a way that is funny. It makes you feel less sensitive or vulnerable, and as everyone is laughing at the same joke there is a feeling of unity or community because the truth is really what unites people in the end. Comedians can say those truths that might be too uncomfortable to say in a formal manner because they add a touch…… [Read More]
This was racism at its worst. The enslaved Africans and the native Indians began to get closer to each other, and started to share certain ethic traditions between themselves, and soon, they started to marry each other, especially because of the disproportionate number of African males to females. A number of red-black people began to emerge from these unions, and these people formed traditions of their own. However, slavery continued to flourish and all these people were technically termed slaves. Having decided to take maters into their own hands to protest against the indignities being perpetrated against them in the name of slavery, Africans, Cherokees or Native Americans, and also Irish workers put up small acts of resistance and revolutions. (Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789)
In the year 1790, in the United States of America, a census revealed that about 19% of the entire population of…… [Read More]
While some readers of the book accuse the authors of seeing racism around every corner, this particular book actually pinpoints so many similarities between the coming American militia and other White Supremist groups that there can be no question of its validity.
If one wishes to test the thesis strength of this book one only has to research many of the militia beliefs and recent movements and hold them against former group movements like the KKK and others to see that they are scarily similar.
One of the strongest examples of coming militia movements in America used in the book is the Oklahoma bombings (Dees, 1999). Within the Okalahoma bombings ran a constant undercurrent of fear and anger at anything that was not white in skin color and attitude.
The fact that they were willing to bomb and kill a building that had a daycare center in it because that…… [Read More]
John Burdick in “The Lost Constituency of Brazil’s Black Movements” questions the narrative that race mixing, or mestizaje, is a solution to the problem of race in Brazil. Burdick states that “in Brazil the social perception of race exists along a continuum that encourages passing toward whiteness, making it difficult to forge a unified nonwhite identity” (139). What Burdick implies is that many Brazilians lack a distinct racial identity because of race mixing. The Black Identity in particular is negligibly felt socially in Brazil, and Burdick’s research indicates as much, with thirty participants claiming “to have used, for most of their lives, one or more of the ‘middle-range’ color terms,” such as moreno, marrom, mulato, mestico or pardo (140). Another 42 participants identified in varying degrees of blackness, using terms like black, very black, or dark. In short, race as an identifier was relatively lacking in Brazil. What this shows…… [Read More]
Both what make up a race and how one recognizes a racial difference is culturally determined. Whether two individuals consider themselves as of the same or of different races depends not on the degree of similarity of their genetic make up but on whether history, tradition, and personal training and experiences have brought them to think of themselves as belonging to the same group or to different groups (Spickard, Fong and Ewalt, 1995).
Prejudices, stereotypes, insults, pejorative labels and other things are usually articulated in racist communications. Explicit racism helps to legitimize individual and collective action that creates and sustains inequality and oppression between social groups. The history of mankind provides thousands of examples of racist violence: genocide, colonialism, repressive immigration policies and all kinds of discriminatory behavior. This kind of racism is explicit and visible. Unfortunately, racism can also be invisible. acism is totally embedded in the social structures…… [Read More]
Race/Racism: Who are you?
Vietnamese Americans are Americans who have a Vietnamese heritage. Vietnamese people living in the United States make up close to have of the Vietnamese people leaving overseas. The Vietnamese Americans are one of the largest Asian American ethnicities. Other Asian ethnicities include the Indians, Filipinos, and the Chinese. The Asian Americans have a distinct characteristic from other Americans. I define myself as an Asian American. The media sources like the movies and television give little positives about the Asian Americans and neither are there many recognized role models of Asian American heritage (Mok). According to Mok the media fails to do justice to diversity of the American people and does not appreciate the culture of Asian Americans. The paucity of a conspicuous Asian image in the American society is responsible for affecting perceptions of the Asian Americans themselves, their race, and the broader society.
Mok examined…… [Read More]
loodlines and Racism.
Discuss Spriro, Defending the Master Race
The book Defending the Master Race by Madison Grant viewed history through an entirely racial lens. Rather than conceptualizing history as a series of clashes between different civilizations or class struggles, Grant characterized history as a series of divisive exchanges between persons of different 'racial' status. What is so interesting from a modern perspective is that many of the 'races' perceived by the author, such as the Macedonian race or the Gothic race, do not exist within our current conception of what defines 'race.' This highlights how, rather than being a static construction that exists outside history, race is a culturally-constructed notion.
Grant even speaks of the 'American race,' which he sees as fundamentally Nordic. This notion is particularly odd, given that America is such a diverse country. America is a nation of immigrants, with the exception of the indigenous tribes…… [Read More]
Some people - both black and white - would probably like it very much, and would probably think that Rowan is very realistic in what he has to say. However, it seems to me that he is only spewing hateful and ugly words most of the time, instead of really looking at the problems, whether they are actually real, and how they can best be solved. If he were expressing his upset in a more realistic manner more people would take his book seriously and be more likely to do something that the problems that may be out there. It is no secret that race relations are still not where they should be in this country, and there is still a lot of prejudice out there in American today.
The days of slavery are long past, but granting a race equal rights under the law does not mean that race…… [Read More]
hile the other characters wonder why Othello, once so strong and noble, acts horrifically to his wife before murdering her, the audience knows why: it is partially the mechanics of Iago's plot, but also Iago's cunning words and attitude that enable him to prey upon Othello's vulnerable mind. Othello has experienced slavery and discrimination from a young age, and although he tries to create the impression that peoples' racist attitudes do not matter to him, the fact that he is so easily swayed to become jealous and angry suggests that such attitudes do have an influence in shaping his mentality. "Is this the nature/hom passion could not shake?... Could neither graze nor pierce?" wonders those who observe Othello after Iago has used his deceitful persuasive strategies upon Othello's vulnerable psyche (IV.1).
alter Lee is similarly vulnerable because of his insecurities. He works all day in the service to rich individuals…… [Read More]
Black Reconstruction in America by .E.B. Du Bois
The Perpetuation of the "Color Caste" and Socio-economic Stratification in "Black Reconstruction in America" by .E.B. Du Bois
illiam E.B. Du Bois, American writer and historian, is known for his active participation in promoting Black Power movements in American society during the early 20th century, a period wherein society is dominated and controlled by the white American race. During this period also, there is a strong sentiment of racism and prejudice against black Americans, then called Negro slaves, wherein, Du Bois himself experienced the struggles and challenges his fellow black Americans had to go through in order to achieve emancipation from the bondage of slavery and racism.
Du Bois had written numerous discourses about black American prejudice throughout his lifetime. However, the essay "Black Reconstruction in America," written in 1935, provides an insightful and fresh perspective in looking at the socio-economic factors…… [Read More]
Patrick J. Buchanan is a conservative political leader in the United States. The article Deconstructing America was published in his 2007 book, Day of Reckoning. Buchanan says "America is today less a nation than an encampment of politics and power.." Although the rhetoric surrounding the creation of the nation did focus on themes such as equality, democracy, and diversity, in practice there were certainly more superficial ideologies at play.
"The United States, the greatest republic since Rome and the British Empire may be said to have risen from that three-cornered for the Jamestown settlers began to build the day they arrived. But that republic and that empire did not rise because the settlers and those who followed believed in diversity, equality, and democracy (Buckanan)."
The settlers were in no way worried about equality within their own groups or especially with the natives. The pilgrim's societies were based…… [Read More]
Industrialization in America
The process of industrialization can be categorized as the first step towards a social and economic transformation which affected the whole world in ways beyond comprehension. In a nutshell, the world we live in today was nowhere near what it is today before industrialization changed the face of the world. America too greatly adapted to this change and saw itself changing and advancing in the face of the new inventions and advancements. However, with the benefits of the phenomenon came some drawbacks which could not be ignored. The next sections focus on two ways in which industrialization proved to be a blessing for the Americans as well as two ways that it created problems (Alonso, 1994).
One industry that saw phenomenal changes after industrialization came about was the American agricultural industry. The farming techniques became greatly advanced and mechanization made things much easier and reduced the…… [Read More]
' The film suggests that assimilation does come at some cost, though, like to the lawyer Memo, who marries an Anglo woman and must play down his Mexican heritage to fit in with his in-laws. But overall the movie suggests that Latino participation in the American dream is both comparable to that of other ethnic groups. Living as a Mexican-American is possible, and the second generation does not have to entirely sacrifice family and heritage to become a part of the American mosaic, contrary to what was suggested in earlier Hollywood images, chronicled in "The Bronze Screen."
The film "Real omen Have Curves" (2002) even more convincingly demonstrates that Latino struggles with American identity are not necessarily always negative. The protagonist Ana must overcome images of the estern media to find a sense of peace and security. She is ambitious professionally, and does not just want to get married, as…… [Read More]
Minorities in America 1917-1929
Discrimination ran rampant throughout the era of World War I and the 1920s, having an enormous impact on the lives of minorities living in America and fighting abroad. Black servicemen in the military, though respected by some for their participation in the war effort, often served only in segregated units. They held no positions of command, rather served as mealtime aids, laborers and cargo holders (Azimuth, 2003). Also of significance during this time, a great migration of African-Americans occurred from southern farms to northern cities within the states, sometimes referred to as the "Great Migration" (Azimuth, 2003). Many were looking for bigger and better opportunities. Women, also considered minorities during the 1920s, revolted against their status in "servitude." The era of World War I can only be described as one of radical changes in the racial make up and cultural significance of America.
During the period…… [Read More]
acism has always been a defining feature of the American criminal justice system, including racial profiling, disparities in arrests convictions and sentencing between minorities and whites, and in the use of the death penalty. acial profiling against blacks, immigrants and minorities has always existed in the American criminal justice system, as has the belief that minorities in general and blacks in particular are always more likely to commit crimes. American society and its legal system were founded on white supremacy going back to the colonial period, and critical race criminology would always consider these historical factors as well as the legal means to counter them. From the 17th Century onward, Black Codes and slave patrols were used to control the black population, and keep them confined to farms and plantations. Blacks did not have the right to trial by jury or to testify against whites, and the law…… [Read More]
There are costs to bearing and believing in such a secret.
These costs are manifested in many ways. There are the psychosomatic costs Jesse endures, his impotence, his weakness around the black boy in the jail, his tremors at the thought of Otis, "Now the thought of Otis made him sick. He began to shiver." There are also the psychological costs that Jesse is plagued by, the self-delusion associated with believing racism is moral, the mental anguish, and the constant struggle over whether he can trust his coconspirators, "They were forced to depend on each other more and, at the same time, to trust each other less" (Baldwin). What Baldwin is underscoring with these psychological and psychosomatic burdens is that the path Jesse has followed, a path of racism and discrimination, has led him to a very troubled existence.
Baldwin wants the reader to understand that proponents for a Jim…… [Read More]