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Ralph Ellison is as celebrated today as one of America's finest authors as he was fifty years ago. This is quite a legacy for a man who only wrote one novel during his lifetime. "If I'm going to be remembered as a novelist, I'd better produce a few more books," Ellison once acknowledged to an interviewer (Bark 1C). There is little doubt that this author will ever be forgotten. Half a century after its publication in 1952, "Invisible Man" remains a constant staple on reading lists at colleges across the country and Ellison remains one of the most celebrated authors of the Twentieth Century (Bark 1C). Professor Clyde Taylor of New York University says, Ellison "showed us that you could do with black life what Homer did with Greek life, what Joyce did with Irish life" (Bark 1C).
Ellison paved the way for writers as diverse as At a time…
Bark, Ed. "Ellison's legacy still alive." The Dallas Morning News. February 19, 2002; pp
Corliss, Richard. "Obituary: Invincible Man Ralph Ellison 1914-1994." Time. April 25
1994; pp 90.
The literary work of Ralph Ellison is among the most studied and the most controversial. In the context of African-American writers Ellison is both revered and despised for the manner in which he wrote (or failed to write) concerning the question of race. His essay "The orld and the Jug" written in 1963 explores the important topic of race and the functions of literature. The purpose of this discussion is to explain how Ellison relates to my concepts of the Civil Rights and the Black Arts Movements.
"The orld and the Jug"
Ellison's "The orld and the Jug" is basically a response to criticisms written by Irving Howe about Ellison's perceived failure to write protest fiction. This criticism is one that Ellison received throughout his lifetime. The criticism was mainly present because of the way that other writers such as Richard right and James Baldwin wrote about race in…
Baldwin J. (1949) "Everybody's Protest Novel"
Benston K.W. (1978) Ellison, Baraka, and the Faces of TraditionAuthor(s): Source: boundary 2,. 6(2), pp. 333-354Published
Ellison, R. "The World and the Jug." "The Norton Anthology of African-American Literature"2nd edition, by Henry Louis Gates Jr. And Nellie Y. McKay.
Johnson, C. (1995) Race, Politics and Ralph Ellison. http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/04/05/specials/johnson-intellectual.html
Ralph Ellison "A Party Down at the Square"
In the short story, "A Party Down at the Square," by Ralph Ellison, a very sad piece of history is illustrated. Ellison wrote about the first time he had witnessed a lynching as a youth. In those days, lynchings were town events, as it was in this case and even called "a party." This type of event not only involved just about the entire community, but it also silenced those who wanted to speak out or be kept in their "place."
There was one central theme developed within Ellison's story. Through showing how just about an entire community had gathered in the town square for a "party," a tradition of hate was illustrated. It was evident that this type of behavior has been accepted for generations. Not only did a "...bunch of men [come] by [his] Uncle's house," but once at the…
Clifton, Lucille. "Jasper Texas 1998"
Ellison, Ralph. "A Party Down at the Square"
Hayden, Robert. "Night, Death, Mississippi"
alph Ellison's " Battle oyal," and Flannery O'Connor's " evelation."
Specifically, it will look at the prejudices of some of the characters in both stories. One protagonist faces blind, hateful prejudice in "Battle oyal," and the other perpetrates it in "evelation." Prejudice is ugly, and each story presents it as horribly as possible, to get that message across to the reader.
PEJUDICE IN TWO SHOT STOIES
Battle oyal" by alph Ellison is the first chapter of his legendary book "The Invisible Man." This Prologue to the story introduces us to the protagonist, and graphically illustrates the prejudices Black people faced (and still face) in the South after the Civil War. I am not ashamed of my grandparents for having been slaves. I am only ashamed of myself for having at one time been ashamed" (Ellison).
The main character of "Battle oyal" is a young black man, who undergoes violent "hazing"…
Du Bois, W.E.B. "Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others."
Ellison, Ralph. "Battle Royal." The Invisible Man.
O'Connor, Flannery. "Revelations."
Washington, Booker T. "Atlanta Exposition Address."
Ralph Ellison was the grandson of slaves. He was born in Oklahoma in 1914, where he was also raised (Tulsa). He developed a love for jazz music at a very young age, and Ellison maintained a circle of friends that included many jazz musicians. He studied two instruments - the coronet, and the trumpet, with intentions of becoming a "jazz man" himself. He studied music at the prominent black college founded by Booker T. Washington, the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. After a three-year period, he left Alabama for New York, where he became friends with such African-American writers as Richard Wright, and Langston Hughes. He worked as an editor of an African-American newsletter before serving during World War II as a Merchant Marine. After his stint in the war, Ellison received a fellowship, which he used to fund his only novel ever completed - Invisible Man. The full, complete manuscript…
short analysis of the major theme found in Ellison's Battle Royal, supported by a literary criticism dealing with the tone and style of the story.
Ralph Ellison's short story, Battle Royal, is mainly an account of the African-American struggle for equality and identity. The narrator of the story is an above average youth of the African-American community [Goldstein-hirlet, 1999]. He is given an opportunity to give a speech to some of the more prestigious white individuals. His expectations of being received in a positive and normal environment are drastically dashed when he is faced with the severity of the process he must deal with in order to accomplish his task.
The recurrent theme of Battle Royal is that of a struggle for one's rights against overwhelming odds. Instances of this struggle are found throughout the story. Ellison highlights the enormity of the problems faced by the African-American community…
1) Ellison, Ralph. The Invisible Man, 1952.
2) Goldstein-Shirlet, David. Review: Cultural Contexts for Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man. Eric J. Sundquist.1999
3) Essay Bank notes on Ralph Ellison Battle Royal, 2003. http://www.essaybank.co.uk/free_coursework/2709.html
4) Carlson, Eric. Essay on the Invisible Man. 2000. http://www.*****/essays/THE_INVI.HTM
precise details of Ralph Ellison's life to see that he is expressing ideas and attitudes if not actual events from his own life in his story "Battle Royal," and a biographical strategy illuminates what Ellison has to say. Ellison shows the reaction of the white world to a black man with an education, such as he himself had, and he also shows how the black man is torn between justifiable pride in learning and the reality of what that learning means to the larger society of which he is a part. The action of the Battle Royal sequence, the people present, and different elements referred to in the text have symbolic power to show the nature of black-white relations, the particular role of the black man in society, and many of the traps that have been set for blacks by whites.
The main character in the Invisible Man is invisible…
Ellison, Ralph. The Invisible Man. New York: Vintage, 1980.
There are many characters in Shakespeare's The Tempest that could fit the characteristics of being the "little man behind the stove." The Tempest has a strong degree of dramatic irony, and Shakespeare even incorporates the breaking of the fourth wall in the final scene of the play. This means that the audience itself serves as the "little man behind the stove." However, there are clearer characters that represent the little man. For example, Caliban is "little" in the sense that he is a sort of subhuman creature. As the son of Sycorax, Caliban is portrayed as being a little bit odd and different. He is not like the spritely Ariel, who can also be considered as a "little man." Both Caliban and Ariel play roles that could be construed as being similar to that of Ellison's "Little Man at Chehaw Station." Caliban's role is even more like that of…
So by embracing the underground, as the narrator eventually does, he is attempting to regain a sense of his own identity by remaining separate from the falseness of that which occurs above him. Clearly, it is significant that he spends his time stealing electricity, writing his story, and listening to Louis Armstrong's "hat Did I Do to Be So Black and Blue" on a phonograph. The first, obviously, is his attempt to subvert the works of mainstream society; but the second two stand as the symbol for what jazz represents in the American experience. Jazz is this sense of individuality; so much so, that the narrator is able to create his own identity through words as he listens to music. Today, the invisibility of jazz has been lifted, but its importance to the meaning of the words "America" and "democracy" remains the same as Ellison understood it to be.
De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975.
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. New York: Random House, 1980.
Ostendorf, Berndt. "Ralph Waldo Ellison." New Essays on Invisible Man. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Peretti, Burton. "Speaking in the Groove: Oral History and Jazz." The Journal of American History, vol. 88, no. 2, September, 2001.
The concept of
miscegenation is explored as an avenue which is suppressed in order to
sustain passability in white culture. The Hardin article denotes that this
invisibility, essentially, "is about passing as white, and the resultant
challenge to stable notions of race; however, at the subtextual level, this
notion also seems to be about passing as heterosexual." (Hardin, 103) In
this work, we can find a connection between the narrator's dedication to a
constantly shifting identity and his desire to obscure either a racial or a
sexual identity of any type of impact on those around him.
Ellison levies a pointed criticism at a racially exclusionary society
while simultaneously recognizing the willful decisions on the part of the
protagonist to adopt this disposition. The author illustrates that the
invisibility which he describes is not necessarily always derived from
within the subject. One sentiment on the novel points to an elected…
Ellison, R.W. (1953). The Invisible Man. Random House.
Hardin, M. (2004) "Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man: Invisibility, Race and
Homoeroticism from Frederick Douglass to E. Lynn Harris." Southern
In Ralph Ellison's "Battle Royal" the narrator states that "all my life I had been looking for something, and everywhere I turned someone tried to tell me what it was" (442). The narrator admits that he accepted their answers even though he knew they were not logical -- and this compulsion to bow down to or to submit to an external force in a setting that is wholly antagonistic to him is the major theme that runs through the story. Indeed, the Battle Royal in which the young black man is humiliated by being forced to box in a ring is a setting that perfectly represents his internal and external struggles. He is obliges to pleasure the white elites and is compelled to deliver a speech in which he states that the role of the black is to submit and be deferential to whites -- a speech for…
Ellison, Ralph. "Battle Royal."
Trecker, Janice. "The Great Migration: Art as History in Ralph Ellison and Jacob
Lawrence." The Midwest Quarterly, vol. 56, no. 2 (Winter 2015): 169-185.
Yet perhaps no American author embraced the grotesque with the same enthusiasm as the Southern Flannery O'Connor. In "A Good Man is Hard to Find," O'Connor uses the example of a family annihilated by the side of the road by an outlaw named the Misfit to show the bankruptcy of American life. Instead of an evil serial killer, the Misfit is portrayed as a kind of force of divine justice, who unintentionally allows the grandmother of the family to experience grace. She says that she believes the man is like one of own her children before he kills her. In O'Connor's stories, the characters do not fight for their insight, rather it is given in mysterious, often deadly ways, and it always originates with the divine, not with the human will.
If O'Connor represents the most extreme version of grotesque American literature, Ralph Ellison represents perhaps the most balanced use…
opposite of a superpower, invisibility refers to the condition of not mattering, not qualifying, or not counting in the eyes of the dominant culture. Invisibility is the quality imposed upon by the oppressor and experienced by the oppressed. Those who do not conform to a white patriarchal standard are rendered invisible, and they may float through life never fitting into a social circle and never gaining access to the means whereby they can change their status. Invisible is what Miss Lily Bart experiences as she subverts gender norms in Edith harton's The House of Mirth. Invisibility is certainly what the narrator of Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man experiences as he navigates his way through early 20th century America. The disenfranchised are rendered invisible when they are positioned at intersections of race, class, gender, and power.
For the invisible man in Ellison's book, invisibility is ironic because a black man is very…
Callahan, John F. "Before Publication." In Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man: A Casebook. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Franklin, Anderson J. "Invisibility Syndrome and Racial Identity Development in Psychotherapy and Counseling African-American Men." The Counseling Psychologist, Vol. 27, No. 6 (Nov 1999), p. 761-793.
Goldner, Ellen J. "The Lying Woman and the Cause of Social Anxiety: Interdependence and the Woman's Body in The House of Mirth." Women's Studies, Vol. 21, Issue 3, 1992.
Hardin, Michael. "Invisibility, Race, and Homoeroticism from Frederick Douglass to E. Lynn Harris." The Southern Literary Journal. Vol. 37, No. 1 (2004), pp. 96-120.
Invisible Man, by Ralph Ellison. Specifically, it will contain a brief biography of the author; address the topic of alienation as it pertains to the work, and include some critical reviews of the novel. Many critics consider novelist Ralph Ellison's "The Invisible Man" a classic in American literature, and a treatise on how blacks have been treated by white society throughout the decades. His story is a tale of alienation, prejudice, and the strength one man has to rise above these obstacles to become the best man he can be.
The Invisible Man - The Author, Ralph Ellison
Ralph Ellison was born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on March 1, 1914. His parents, Lewis and Ida Ellison, were from the South, but had moved to Oklahoma searching for racial equality they could not find at home (Watts 33). His father died when Ellison was three, and his mother raised her two…
American Ethnic Literature
There are so many different voices within the context of the United States. This country is one which is built on cultural differences. Yet, for generations the only voices expressed in literature or from the white majority. Contemporary American ethnic literature is important in that it reflects the multifaceted nature of life in the United States. It is not pressured by the white majority anymore, but is rather influenced by the extremely varying experiences of vastly different individuals, as seen in the works of alph Ellison's Invisible Man, Gloria Anzaldua's "How to Tame a Wild Tongue," and Cathy Song's poem "Lost Sister." American ethnic literature speaks for minority voices, which have long been excluded in earlier generations of American society.
American ethnic literature has developed enormously over the last few centuries, and especially within the context of just the last few decades. In today's literary world, it…
Anzaldua, Gloria. "How to Tame a Wild Tongue." Borderland / La Frontera. Web. http://wolfweb.unr.edu/homepage/calabj/282/how%20to%20tame%20wild%20tongue.pdf
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. Vintage International. 1995.
Franco, Dean J. Ethnic American Literature: Comparing Chicano, Jewish, and African-American Writing. University of Virginia Press. 2006.
Lee, Robert A. Multicultural American Literature: Comparative Black, Native, Latino/a and Asian-American Fictions. University Press of Mississippi. 2003.
Alice Walker & Ralph Ellison
Character Analysis of Dee in Alice Walker's "Everyday Use" and the Narrator in Ralph Ellison's "attle Royal"
Works of literature by black American writers have evoked feelings of hopelessness and suffering of their fellow black Americans by putting them into context with the social changes happening in the American society. Take as an example the short stories "Everyday Use" by Alice Walker and "attle Royal" by Ralph Ellison. oth stories depict racial discrimination in subtle, yet meaningful ways. In Walker's short story, discrimination is subtly expressed by through symbolic representations of the characters' demonstrated disregard or value put into their African heritage. In Ellison's work, years of racial prejudice and discrimination are depicted in a pseudo-battle where the harsh realities faced by black Americans are uncovered and laid bare for the Narrator to see and witness.
These manners of discussing racial prejudice and discrimination are…
Ellison, R. E-text of "Battle Royal." Available at: http://www.geocities.com/cyber_explorer99/ellisonbattle.html.
Walker, A. E-text of "Everyday use." Available at: http://www.bow.k12.nh.us/jmcdermott/everyday_use__by_alice_walker.htm.
ar at Home in Ellison, ar Abroad in O'Brien
The inhumanity of war is a common theme in literature, as brilliantly illustrated in Tim O'Brien's "The Things They Carried," a tale that functions as a short story but is actually an excerpt from his great novel about the Vietnam ar Going after Cacciato. In O'Brien's story, several soldiers fighting in Vietnam are defined by the objects they carry in their pockets, such as photographs of loved ones, as well as their military gear and outfits. Yet the battles of individuals oppressed by society, such as African-Americans, may be equally, if not more, soul destroying, when conducted on the home front of America, on daily basis. This fact is evidenced by the evisceration of the spirit of the young African-American men in an excerpt from Ralph Ellison's seminal novel Invisible Man, entitled, "Battle Royal."
In "Battle Royal," the best and brightest…
Ellison, Ralph. "Battle Royal." From Literature An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Eight Edition. 2001.
O'Brien, Tim. "The Things They Carried." From Literature An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Eight Edition. 2001.
Black Experience in American Culture
This is a paper that analyzes the black experience in American culture as presented by Hughes, Baldwin, Wright and Ellison. It has 20 sources in MLA format.
African-American authors have influenced American culture as they have come forward to present issues that the society would rather have forgotten. Authors such as ichard Wright alph Ellison, Langston Hughes and James Baldwin have come under fire as they have written about the racial and biased experiences throughout their life [Capetti, 2001] and through their narratives they have forged a link between the past, the present (themselves) and their future (the unborn generation).
These literary works are an effort on their part to prove to their nations that regardless of the perceived realities their existence and lives have valuable. The slave past some of these authors have had created a void in their lives that at times left…
1] Sundquist, Eric J. who was Langston Hughes? Relevancy: 100; (Commentary) 12-01-1996
2] Buttitta, Anthony. "A Note on Contempo and Langston Hughes." London: Cunard, 1934. 141.
3] Langston Hughes on Scottsboro. College Literature, 10-01-1995, pp. 30(20). Vol. 22
4] Okafor-Newsum, Ikechukwu, of Dreams Deferred, Dead or Alive: African Perspectives on African-American Writers.. Vol. 29, Research in African Literatures, 03-22-1998, pp. 219(12).
One of Wright's major works was Black Boy and one of the most poignant sections of that book was Chapter 12 in which Wright described the experiences of two southern black boys exploited by the "five dollar fight." Working for an optician in Memphis, Tennessee, the protagonist (Richard) hopes that his experiences with white people in Memphis will be better than in the small town of Jackson, Mississippi "The people of Memphis had an air of relative urbanity that took some of the sharpness off the attitude of whites toward Negroes & #8230;"
However, Richard finds that white people are just as exploitative and abusive of blacks in the big city as in small towns. Some of the white men where Richard works pay another black boy a quarter at a time to let them kick him in his rear end and even when white men seem to be nice…
(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm)
Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a…
Cashmore, E. (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. New York: Routledge.
Cha-Jua, S.K. (Summer 2001) "Slavery, Racist Violence, American Apartheid: The Case for Reparations" New Politics, 8:3. At http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm
Dubois, W.E.B., (1987) Writings, New York: Library of America.
Davis, A. (1999) Blues Legacies and Black Feminism, New York: Vintage.
political representation of African-Americans in the southern United States. The author explores many different theories as well as the ideas of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King to explore the under presentation of Blacks politically. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
African-Americans have come a long way since the nation's inception. From the days of slavery, to the present time many bridges have been crossed and many battles have been won. Gone are the days that Blacks were required to sit at the back of the bus.
No longer can Blacks be told they must eat at a certain restaurant. Black and white children go to school together daily, they grow up on the same streets and they marry into each other's race with increasing frequency. It is becoming the America that the founding fathers envisioned at the time the nation was created. One of the reasons…
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man
Cornell, Stephen. The Return of the Native: American Indian Political Resurgence
Oxford University Press; Reprint edition (October 1990)
Swain, Carol. Black Faces, Black Interests: The Representation of African-Americans in Congress
Emerson, he believed resistance to conformity and exploration of self, led to a kind of self-reliance that permeated the inner workings and imaginings of the human soul. What began as a simple analysis of self-explored concepts, took on the form of universal philosophy. This essay will examine Emerson's work, "Self-eliance" in a way that will not only analyze themes, but also provide a closer look into the context surrounding Emerson at the time as well as possible meanings behind the text.
alph Waldo Emerson wrote an 1841 essay titled "Self-eliance". An American essayist and transcendentalist philosopher, Emerson provides his most thorough statement of one of his ongoing themes: the avoidance of false consistency and conformity. Meaning, Emerson preached for people to follow their own ideas and instincts instead of relying on society's imposed rules and standards. His famous quote, "A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds, adored by…
Andrew C. Hansen. (2008). Reading Sonic Culture in Emerson's "Self-Reliance". Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 11(3), 417-437. doi:10.1353/rap.0.0053
Bloom, H. (2009). Ralph Ellison's Invisible man. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing.
Brown, L. R. (1997). The Emerson museum: Practical romanticism and the pursuit of the whole. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Emerson, R. W. (2012). Self-Reliance and Other Essays. Dover Publications.
They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].
The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:
The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal
Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.
It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did
James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at http://www.spcollege.edu/Central/libonline/path/shortstory.pdf .
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.
December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.
Strike has ethics, as shown in his behavior towards his 'boss' Roscoe, and his mentoring of the younger, more vulnerable young men. In a different social situation, Strike would likely have put his moral impulses to different and better use. Strike obeys the moral logic of his urban society with the same kind of adherence that an upstanding citizen might, who had been afforded ways to make a decent living in a law-abiding way. But Strike grew up in a neighborhood where the most noble and respectable persons were all drug dealers, and the person one could aspire to be like, at the highest level, was a criminal. Thus, although he does not wish to kill, and seeks an escape from the limits of his existence, because he has no role models around him (and unconsciously provides a bad example to younger members of his neighborhood) Strike becomes a dealer,…
Ellison, Ralph. (1995) Invisible Man. New York: Vintage.
Faulkner, William. (1991) Absalom, Absalom. New York: Vintage Reissue.
Price, Richard. (2001) Clockers. New York: Harper Paperbacks.
Sylvia Plath explores ambiguity from the perspective of a woman living in a man's world in The Bell Jar. Esther receives different messages about who she is and who she wants to be. Society tells her to be the good wife and mother but she never adapts well to this notion. She feels ambivalence toward most of the women she meets and ultimately feels pulled in different directions when it comes to expectations and desires. The conflict Esther experiences results from what society expects from "good girls." The article Mrs. Greenwood sends her exposes the hypocrisy she cannot ignore. The article explains how a "man's world was different than a woman's world and a man's emotions are different than a woman's emotions" (Plath 65). The notion of women being pure as the wind-driven snow and submitting to the will of their husbands becomes more of a burden than anything else…
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. New York: Signet Books. 1952.
Heller, Joseph. Catch 22. New York: Dell Publishing Co. 1961.
Plath, Sylvia. The Bell Jar. New York: Bantam Books. 1971.
Salinger, J.D. The Catcher in the Rye. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. 1951.
Blacks in Blues Music
Biographer Lawrence Jackson wrote that author Ralph Ellison was exposed to the blues and classical music from an early age, eventually playing the trumpet and pursuing a degree in music at Tuskegee (McLaren Pp). hen he moved to New York to pursue his writing career, Ellison was exposed to the musical developments in jazz and often attended the Apollo Theater, the Savoy Ballroom, and Cafe Society Downtown, and although he admired such figures as pianist Teddy ilson, Count Basie and Duke Ellington, he did not particularly admired Dizzy Gillespie's Bebop, considering its use of Afro-Cuban influences as a "strategic mistake" (McLaren Pp). Ellison, writes Jackson, was more concerned with the "homegrown idiom" (McLaren Pp). That homegrown idiom that Ellison referred to was the blues, a music born in the fields of the South by black workers who used their African musical heritage to give birth to…
McLaren, Joseph. "Ralph Ellison: Emergence of Genius."
Research in African Literatures; 12/22/2004; Pp.
Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans. W.W. Norton & Company.
1983; pp. 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 336, 338.
Some artists, such as Aaron Douglas, captured the feeling of Africa in their work because they wanted to show their ancestry through art. Others, like Archibald J. Motley Jr., obtained their inspiration from the surroundings in which they lived in; where jazz was at the forefront and African-Americans were just trying to get by day-to-day like any other Anglo-American. Additionally, some Black American artists felt more comfortable in Europe than they did in America. These artists tended to paint landscapes of different European countries. Most of the latter, however, were ostracized for this because many black politicians felt they should represent more of their African culture in their work (Campbell 1994, Powell and Bailey).
Whatever the case, most African-American artists during this period of time had a similarity that tied them together. Black art was often very colorful and vivacious; having an almost rhythmic feel to it. This was appropriate…
Allego, D. "Margaret Walker: Biographical Note." Modern American Poetry. 1997. Cited in:
Beaulieu, E. Writing African-American Women: An Encyclopedia of Literature by and About
Women of Color. Greenwood Press, 2006.
Yarbrough quotes Ihab Hassan, who describes postmodernism as the "literature of silence" in that it "communicates only with itself," a reference that initially astounds the rational mind. Then, reading further in Yarbrough, Hassan is quoted as saying the term postmodernism applies to "a world caught between fragments and wholes, terror and totalitarianism of every kind."
In Vonnegut's novel, characters reflect the deconstruction of American society in the 1950s, during the period of paranoia dominated by U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy's fascist-like search for "communist sympathizers," which created terror and loathing and reflected how morally shallow yet potent the hammer of temporary totalitarian authority can be.
On page 96, Chapter 44, it is revealed that Horlick Minton had once been fired by the State Department for allegedly being "soft on communism" - but the only "real evidence" used to justify his dismissal, his wife announced, was a letter she wrote to the…
Artson, Bradley Shavit. Synagogues as Centers for Social Justice, University of Judaism. Available at http://judaism.uj.edu/content/contentunit/asp?CID=1526&u=5403&t=0.
Bellow, Saul. 1964. Herzog, The Viking Press, New York.
Ellison, Ralph. 1952. Invisible Man, Random House, New York
James, Fredrick. 1991. Postmodernism, or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism, Duke
(197) He does not follow his grandfather's advise and continues to live the way most African-Americans do even though he knows passivity will get him nowhere. This is an example of the narrator's inner conflict.
The narrator experiences social struggles that also force him to realize certain things about himself. Much of the conflicts that African-Americans face comes from within their own communities. The white men in this tale understood that a certain group cannot succeed if they are constantly fighting among themselves. The narrator is not alone in this for he shares the experience with all of the other African-Americans he encounters. They failed at being aggressive for standing up for what they believed in. This is an important lesson because it is sometimes difficult to stand up for what is right but not standing up only means that things will never change. The discomfort of knowing that the…
Ellison, Ralph. "Battle Royal." Literature: A Portable Anthology. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's. 2004. pp. 196-208.
This is revealed at the end of the story when Olaf realizes that Jim never intended to kill him but simply do something nice for him. It is interesting to note that while Jim drinks and spends time with prostitutes, he is the one that offers a nice gesture toward Jim. Olaf would appear to be the nicer of the two men, given that he does not drink and carry on like Jim does. Olaf seems nice and keeps most of his thoughts to himself; this is precisely why we should not trust him. Jim might be perceived as the more aggressive and frightening of the two because he towers over six feet tall. right uses these images to illustrate how looks can, and usually are, deceiving. right keeps us guessing about Jim until the end of the story; he leads us on with Olaf's thoughts and fears.
Alsen, Bernhard. "Richard Wright." African-American Authors. The African-American Experience Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 03, 2008. http://aae.greenwood.com
Ellison, Ralph. Modern American Literature. Vol. III. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. 1969.
Marshall, Margaret. Modern American Literature. Vol. III. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. 1969.
Spiller, Robert. Literary History of the United States. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1974.
Social dissent and unrest should not be the result of multiculturalism, the authors point out, but nonetheless those are the social realities, in many instances, of the new global picture. There is now, like it or not, a "blurring of cultural borderlines," the authors report; and as a result, the notion of culture within the word "multiculturalism" no longer refers to habits and customs of a people in anthropological terms. Rather, "culture" in the term "multiculturalism" alludes to race, creed, sexual orientation, gender, and lifestyles of various and divers groups within the greater culture.
A very poignant quote is offered in the conclusion of the editorial, a quote which cries out to be read to those reporting on, studying and/or dealing with today's dramatic cultural changes in estern societies; it is a statement by Aijza Ahmad, who reflects the perspective of "the less-well-to-do colonial states," according to the editorial. "It…
Fourny, Jean-Francois, & Ha, Marie-Paule. "Introduction: The history of an idea." Research in African Literatures 28.4 (1997): 1-8.
Frazier, Herb. "Basket making is historical link: Craft provide link between cultures." NABJ
Journal 13.5 (1995): 4-7.
Gikandi, Simon. "Chinua Achebe and the Invention of African Culture." Research in African
Civil Rights historian Steve Estes adds: "the ever-present threat of lynching for supposed sexual improprieties meant that their [Black male] survival could depend on their ability to mask their masculinity" (Estes, 2005). Being able to express one's sexuality and desire in an open, healthy fashion and not feel in danger of persecution, in Estes' view, is a critical, but often unacknowledged part of being a man.
Closely guarding the rights to claim the status of man is not particular to America's racial history. "The early modern Spaniards...also assumed that manhood was revealed, in large part, through a person's behavior," through what today might be called "machismo" (Behrend-Martinez, 2005). To be a man in Spain, included "keeping one's word, supporting one's family, heading a patriarchal household, demonstrating sexual prowess, sobriety, maintaining one's independence of thought and action, and defending family and personal honor" (Behrend-Martinez, 2005). Stressing the ability to keep one's…
Estes, Steve. "Introduction." From I am a Man: Race, Manhood, and the Civil Rights
Movement. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2005. [22 Feb 2007] Excerpted at http://uncpress.unc.edu/chapters/estes_i.html
Behrend-Martinez, Edward. "Manhood and the neutered body in early modern Spain."
Journal of Social History. 22 Jun 2005. [22 Feb 2007] http://www.encyclopedia.com/printable.aspx?id=1G1:133934746
Short story -- A brief story where the plot drives the narrative, substantially shorter than a novel. Example: "Hills like White Elephants," by Ernest Hemingway.
Allusion -- A casual reference in one literary work to a person, place, event, or another piece of literature, often without explicit identification. It is used to establish a tone, create an indirect association, create contrast, make an unusual juxtaposition, or bring the reader into a world of references outside the limitations of the story itself. Example: "The Wasteland" by T.S. Eliot alludes to "Paradise Lost" by John Milton.
epetition -- The repeating of a word or phrase or rhythm within a piece of literature to add emphasis. Example: The story of Agamemnon in The Odyssey by Homer.
Blank verse -- Unrhymed lines of ten syllables each with the even-numbered syllables bearing the accents, most closing resembling the natural rhythms of English speech. Example: "The…
Wheeler, Dr. L. Kip. "Literary Terms and Definitions." Web.
"Word List of Literary and Grammar Terms." Web.
black colleges/Tuskegee University
The psychological, economic, political importance of historically black colleges
In a workplace, the significance of scholarly and nourished atmosphere cannot be underrated in forming a stronger base for future success. (Historically Black Colleges - Letters to the Editor) Before the period of 1964, the 'Historically Black Colleges and Universities'- HBCU's, the postsecondary academic institutions were established and its educational purpose was to teach African-Americans. (The Importance of HBCUs) Historically, HBCUs came into being at a time when Black students were mainly barred from other institutions of higher education, and their purpose was to give these students with chances for scholarship and professional training. (Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Their Aspirations & Accomplishments) HBCU's have been a main basis in the growth of the African-American middle class. They offer a helpful social, cultural, and racial atmosphere for people of color who are looking for a college…
History of Tuskegee University. Retrieved from http://www.tuskegee.edu/Global/story.asp?S=1070392& ; nav=CcX4DGwrTuskegee Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Recognizing National Historically Black Colleges and Universities and the importance and accomplishments of historically Black colleges and universities. (Introduced in House). Retrieved from http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z-c108:H.RES.82.IH : Accessed on 16 February, 2005
Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Their Aspirations & Accomplishments. Retrieved from http://www.ets.org/research/pic/hbcprefa.html Accessed on 16 February, 2005
The Importance of HBCUs. The Common Sense Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.common-sense.org/?fnoc=/common_sense_says/99_february Accessed on 16 February, 2005
From Slavery to African-American
By the beginning of the Civil ar, there were some four million African-Americans living in the United States, 3.5 million slaves lived in the South, while another 500,000 lived free across the country (African pp). The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 granted freedom to all slaves in the Confederacy, and the 13th Amendment of 1865 freed the remaining slaves throughout the nation (African pp). During the Reconstruction Era, African-Americans in the South gained a number of civil rights, including the right to vote and to hold office, however, when Reconstruction ended in 1877, white landowners initiated racial segregation that resulted in vigilante violence, including lynchings (African pp).
This resulted in the Great Migration of African-Americans from the South to the North during the beginning of the twentieth century (African pp).
From this Great Migration came an intellectual and cultural elite group of African-Americans that grew…
Janie in Zora Neale Hurston's Their Eyes ere atching God and Celie in Alice alker's the Color Purple
The main character and narrator of Zora Neale Hurston's novel Their Eyes ere atching God (1937), Janie, has much in common with the narrator and main character Celie within Alice alker's novel The Color Purple (1982). Each speaks authentically, in her own voice: the too-often ignored voice of an African-American female in a white male-dominated society. For both characters, however, authenticity of voice has come at great cost, and through the surmounting of numerous obstacles, the greatest of these being the fears and the lack of confidence within themselves. I will discuss several common characteristics of Celie and Janie within these two novels by female African-American authors.
As Henry Louis Gates, Jr. suggests, fear and hesitancy by African-Americans, male and female alike, to speak authentically, has deep roots: "For just over two…
Berlant, Lauren. "Race, Gender, and Nation in The Color Purple" in Modern
Critical Interpretations: Alice Walker's The Color Purple. Harold Bloom (Ed.).
Philadelphia, PA: Chelsea House, 2000. 3-11. Questia Online Library.
Retrieved May 22, 2005, from:
Assembling Southern Appalachian Belief Culture from the Foxfire Archive
This project looks at the belief structure of people in the Southern Appalachian mountains as recognized through the Foxfire archival project, documentary evidence and artistic interpretation. Through an examination of belief systems it is believed that unique cultural aspects of this isolated group of people can be determined. The Foxfire project is an archive that documents how the people lived prior to the mass introduction of outside influences that happened concurrent to the ability of residents to electrify their houses which occurred from approximately 1935 and into the 1950's. Prior to this time the residents of these southeastern mountains were isolated due to the remoteness of villages, and they were able to remain relatively self-contained even though some sections were being encroached by industry. The belief systems in this examination include religion and healing, but mainly relate to how…
Breton, Andre. Nadja. New York: Grove Press, 1960. Print.
Cheek, Angie, and Lacy Hunter Nix. The Foxfire 40th Anniversary Book: Faith, Family, and the Land. New York: Anchor Books, 2006. Print.
Cohen, Margaret. Profane Illumination: Walter Benjamin and the Paris of Surreal Revolution. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995. Print.
De Caro, Frank. The Folklore Muse: Poetry, Fiction, and Other Reflections by Folklorists, Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2008. Print.
Robert Hayden, one of the most important black poets of the 20th Century, was born in Detroit, Michigan in 1913 and grew up in extreme poverty in a racially mixed neighborhood. His parents divorced when he was a child and he was raised by their neighbors, illiam and Sue Ellen Hayden, and not until he was in his forties did he learn that Asa Sheffey and Gladys Finn were his biological parents. During the Great Depression he was employed for two years by the Federal riter's Project, and published his first volume of poetry Heart-Shape in the Dust in 1940. He taught English at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee for twenty-three years, and then at the University of Michigan from 1969 until his death in 1980. Among his other works were The Lion and the Archer (1948), Figure of Time (1955), A Ballad of Remembrance (1962), orks in Mourning Time…
Bloom, Harold. Robert Hayden. Chelsea House Publishers, 2005.
Fetrow, Fred M. "Middle Passage: Robert Hayden's Anti-Epoch" in Bloom: 35-48.
Gates, Henry Louis and Evelyn Brooks Higgenbotham. Harlem Renaissance Lives: From the African-American National Biography. Oxford University Press, 2009.
Kutzinski, Vera M. "Changing Permanences: Historical and Literary Revisionism in Robert Hayden's Middle Passage" in Bloom: 306-21.
America During the 1960's
The 1960's began well for America. President Kennedy appeared to have the social and economic aspects of the country under good control. After his assassination,
President Lyndon Baines Johnson took over and attempted to continue Kennedy's ideals. Policies such as the war on poverty as well as other implementations such as civil rights for all were to form part of Johnson's "Great Society." This appeared to improve things after the tragic death Kennedy. However, horrors such as the Vietnam ar and the subsequent economic crisis brought about a decline in the short-lived prosperity. Other elements such as violence resulting from resistance to new civil rights laws also contributed to decline where better administration may have resulted in progress. Below these elements are considered to arrive at a conclusion about the degree of progress and decline in America during this time.
The Great Society
Johnson's presidency began…
Garraty, J.A. & R.A. McCaughey. The American Nation: A History of the United States. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.
Make Love, Not War. http://www.cgsocialstudies.com/~dudley/coldwar2/reading/13-reading.pdf
Schultz, S.K. "The Almost Great Society." May 5, 2003. State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1997. http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture27.html
Racism as One of the More Relevant Causes of Poverty
The prime objective of this paper is wholly that it will address racism as one of the more instrumentally causal factor for the prevalence of poverty.
The exceptional advancement and development that we have attained within the contemporaneous parameters of the societies within which we survive and interact is something that is reflected within virtually all existing platform. It is quite apparent that the Legal, political, sociological and cultural frameworks as we presently know them, for instance, have all advanced and developed in accordance to the current day and age. This, moreover, is something that has primarily been due to the technologically oriented evolution that the global society has been undergoing at an uncharacteristically rapid rate for about two decades now. In spite this however; the global socio-community continues to be plagued by such sociological woes as economic…
Jackson, Andrew. Poverty and Racism. Perception. Volume 24, #4, March 21, 2001, Accessed at http://www.ccsd.ca/perception/244/racism.htm
Goldberg, Mark F. Lessons from Exceptional School Leaders Chapter 5. Discrimination, Racism, and Poverty, 2001 Accessed at http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/2001goldberg/chapter5.html
Shah, Anup. Causes of Poverty, Global Issues, July 20, 1998 ccessed f http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Poverty.asp
Cottin, Heather. Racism and poverty killing more babies. Report on infant mortality shows. Workers World Newspaper Feb. 26, 2004, Accessed at http://www.workers.org/ww/2004/infmort0226.php
The Cold War of the communist and the capitalist countries gay way to spying worldwide, together with the political and military meddling in the inside matters of the poor countries. Some of these developments led to a negative consequence which called for much of the distrust and uncertainty towards the government that came after the cold war. Examples of these outcomes are the serious reaction of the Soviet Union towards the famous uprising against communism, which included the Hungarian evolution of 1965, also the invasion in 1961 of the Cuban Bay of Pigs by the U.S. And the Czechoslovakia's Prague Spring in 1968. The lie of Dwight D. Eisenhower, president of the U.S. In 1960, about the extent of the U2 episode led to an even greater distrust amongst the public against the government (Eisenstadt, 1956).
The establishment in the U.S. was disintegrated into political and military framework after…
Bellah, Robert. "New Religious Consciousness and the Crisis of Modernity." In The New Religious Consciousness, edited by Charles dock and Robert Wuthnow, 1976.
Braungart, Margaret M. And Richard C. Braungart. "The Life-Course Development of Left- and Right-Wing Youth Activist Leaders from the 1960s." Political Psychology, 1990, 11:243-82.
DeMartini, Joseph R. "Social Movement Participation, Political Socialization, Generational Consciousness, and Lasting Effects." 1983, Youth atul Society 15:195-223.
Dunham, Charlotte Chorn, and Vern L. Bengtson, "The Long-Term Effects of Political. Activism on Intergenerational Relations." Youth and Society, 1992, 24:31-51.
OZ and Transition
The izard of Oz provides Americans with a text that helps them make the transition from the country to the city and sets the stage for the commodified American popular culture of the 20th century. This paper will show how, thanks to its pristine (Emerald) beauty and adventurous episodes, Oz makes "the city" much more appealing than the muted, old-fashioned of America. It will also explain why Dorothy returns to Kansas (someone has to take back home the message of how amazing "the city" is).
Baum's Oz shows that everyman can become a king if he pursues his own desires: thus, the Scarecrow is awarded leadership over the Emerald City, the Tinman leadership over inkie County, and the Cowardly Lion kingship over the forest. Each character, of course, rises to meet his own personal challenge -- but, nonetheless, these are clear examples of how the American Dream…
Baum, F. The Wizard of Oz. Chicago, IL: George M. Hill Company, 1900.
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. NY: Random House, 1952.
Jones, E. Michael. Sexual Liberation and Political Control. South Bend, IN: St.
Memoirs are effective forms of writing to use for a number of reasons. As a 20th Century American, one can look upon memoirs as both a telling of a time past and a time present; memoirs show a piece of our history, and thus by extension a piece of one's own identity as an American.
A less effective form of writing is that of social science argumentation, which asks us to believe various results of tests, polls, and studies. While an effective means of persuasion, it is not quite as stirring as that of the 'simple' memoir, or story of our 'own' people.
This paper will examine two writings which have been studied this year- that of Margaret Meade's "Coming of Age in Samoa" as well as Whittaker Chambers's "Witness." These two memoirs show different sides of America, and Americans. Meade's "Coming of Age" speaks of a time when she…
Hollinger and Capper. The American Intellectual Tradition Volume II: 1865 to the Present, Fourth Edition.
Meade, Margaret. "Coming of Age in Samoa."
The American Intellectual Tradition Volume II: 1865 to the Present, Fourth Edition.
Chambers, Whittaker. "Witness" The American Intellectual Tradition Volume II: 1865 to the Present, Fourth Edition.
Social Analysis of the lues Music in the American Society
The blues, or blues music, has been considered an important and popular music genre in the history of American music. Its history goes back many years ago, during the black slavery period in the American history. lues music was said to have traced its roots in the cotton plantations commonly found in the South, and that blues music sang by the African-American slaves were their forms of protest against the slavery system that the white American society encourages. However, blues music did not proliferate and became prevalent among the black and white American society until after the Emancipation period, wherein most African-American slaves were now freed from bondage to slavery legally, and slavery was now abolished and prohibited to practice in the society, especially in the white American community.
The blues is defined as a "musical style created in response…
David, Angela. "Blues Legacies and Black Feminism." 1998. George Washington University Newsletter Web site: "Women Writers Talk History, Feminism, and Politics." 3 November 2002 http://www.gwu.edu/~wstu/newsletter/spring98/writers.htm .
Douglass, Frederick. E-text of "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave." 1845. Afro-American Almanac Web site. 3 November 2002 http://www.toptags.com/aama/books/book10.htm .
Evans, David. "Demythologizing the Blues." 1999. Institute for Studies in American Music Newsletter. 3 November 2002 http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/isam/evans.html.
Herman, Hawkeye. "History of the Blues."
Gnostics believed that they belonged to the "true church" of an elect few who were worthy; the orthodox Christians would not be saved because they were blind to the truth.
Part E -- Content - if we then combine the historical outline of the "reason" for John's writings with the overall message, we can conclude that there are at least five major paradigms present that are important in a contextual analysis of John.
John 5:13 - I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life. This seems to point that John saw a clear difference between those who believed in Jesus as the Son of God, but were unsure about eternal life. However, if we look back at other parts of his Gospel, we do find repetition of this theme. In John 1:5-7,…
Raymond Brown, "Does the New Testament Call Jesus God?" Theological Studies.26: 1,
Clark, N. Interpreting the Resurrection. (London: SCM Press, 1967).
Hamilton, James. God's Indwelling Presence: The Holy Spirit in the Old and New Testaments.