Refutation Essays (Examples)

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Kant's refutation of the Ontological
Proof of God's Existence

Kant' Refutation

In the Critique of Pure Reason, Immanuel Kant set out a framework intended to refute the ontological argument. It is said that the critique was directed at Descartes and Leibniz. And oddly, Pierre Gassendi expected such a criticism from Kant, even going so far as to write about it in his Objections to Descartes' Meditations. Kant's framework consisted of a number of interrelated but separate arguments.

Three main arguments are the backbone of Kant's refutation of the ontological argument. Primary is the argument that existence, or being, is not a real predicate. Second, Kant argues that it is possible to deny the subject and the predicate of a judgment in order to avoid contradiction. Kant theorizes that there are no claims about existence that can be termed analytic -- that is to say, tautological, as a result of the predicate expressing something….

McCloskey's refutation of te arguments of existence of God and illustration of ow God (and metapysics) can be perceived in different ways and tat tis precludes us from making any final judgments regarding His existence and manner of rulersip.
Te Cosmological argument maintains tat God's existence can be deduced from te fact tat every act of creation needs an initiator. Te world ad a beginning -- after all it is an act of creation -- someone ad to create it. Tis someone was God.

Tere are various classical arguments against te cosmological arguments but McCloskey's refutation is straigt and to te point: te world sows cruelty and unjustness. Positing tat te world as a creator, we ten inferentially transfer tese attributes to te Creator and posit tat He in turn is unjust and cruel. Not muc ope for a believer and certainly someting tat doesn't make us wis to accept te….

Before "individual murders" were used to terrorize "esterners" and their "lackeys" into submission. (hite, 2002, p.114) These individuals were not "inflamed" with a specific revolutionary passion, a la Che Guevara, but possessed of a more diffuse anger, with a nostalgic gaze upon the past, paradise like structure of Islamic unreality. But unlike the 'tupamaros' the fear such terrorism instigates in people is not the fear of walking the street everyday. These new factors influence the urban model by making fear both more diffuse, and also more concentrated not upon every day events, but on travel and upon respected institutions.
In the new model, what seems most safe and impregnable, like governmental and financial institutions, now seem most destabilized, reducing the overall level of confidence in the structures and institutions of governance and one's system of life. The tupamaros saw social violence as a way of enacting social change -- the….

Following Aquinas's argumentation, we will reasonably ask ourselves, at a certain point, what the cause of what was considered to be the First Cause is. However, with the temporal cause, we may not assume an extra cause, because there will have been no prior time at which this cause may have occurred. As such, this "definition implies that the universe cannot be caused to begin to exist since there is no earlier time at which the cause could occur."
Resuming, in order to reject the argument of efficient causation summarized by Aquinas, we would need to either assume that all objects are contingent (first of Russell's argumentations) or to assume that there was a temporal cause, in the sense that the First Cause simply could not have existed because there was no prior time.

ibliography

1. Russell, ertrand. Why I am not a Theist. On the Internet at http://jumper52.cjb.cc/russell.htm

2. Saint Thomas Aquinas.….

This is really the extent of Gorgias attempting to remove himself from Socrates' argument, but instead, pulls him deeper into the intellectual trap, for Gorgias has only one misgiving about the entire situation . . . he fears that the crowd of onlookers might be disinterested in two men trying to outdo each other in being wrong (458b-c). Thus, Gorgias proves two things: he cannot intellectually handle a multi-layered discussion and he needs an audience in order to perform -- the basics of dialog and intellectual discourse are lost upon him. If then, Gorgias needs an audience, Socrates must be correct in that rhetoric is a craft -- designed not for serious intellectual combat, but for pure entertainment value.
2.Explain and critically evaluate Socrates reasoning for the apparently preposterous claim that tyrants like orators have no great power (Gorgias 466a-468e). You should make sure that you take into account Socrates….

Introductory Philosophy
PAGES 7 WORDS 2483

Socrates
In Euthyphro, Socrates' questioning centers on discovering the true definition of piety -- but it is geared towards arriving at a sense of reasonable judgment (after all, he himself is about to go before the judges, and he would like to receive a judgment that is reasonable from them). hat he meets in Euthyphro is willfulness and subjectivity. Socrates attempts to show why it is important to remain objective about the law and to what extent we can judge others: in fact, it is Socrates who is searching for an objective standard -- an absolute outside himself by which he may judge: "Tell me what is the nature of this idea, and then I shall have a standard to which I may look, and by which I may measure actions" (6e). Euthyphro happily engages in the dialogue and states that "piety, then, is that which is dear to the gods,….

Citizens Should Be Allowed to Carry Concealed Handguns
First Paragraph

Gun control laws punish the innocent.

Second Paragraph

Gun control laws lower the crime rate.

Third Paragraph refutation paragraph

Rough Draft - Citizens Should be Allowed to Carry Concealed Handguns

Gun control laws are a hot topic of controversy. Currently, there is not enough legislation that supports the right for people to carry handguns.

Thesis Statement) There should be appropriate legislation and laws passed to allow for citizens to carry concealed handguns.

Gun control laws punish the innocent.) Many people feel that in order to prevent criminals from using guns that improved legislation should be passed to provide tougher laws which restrict the purchase of a handgun and stricter punishment if the laws are broken. People who are against stricter gun control laws feel that the average citizens' constitutional rights would be invaded. To allow citizens the right to carry concealed handguns will discourage violent crimes. Many states have….

Gw Bush Less Than Six
PAGES 4 WORDS 1386

hen a president of the United States begins incorporating religious rhetoric into his speeches, alarm bells must sound. hen that same president allocates taxpayer monies to religious groups, then citizens should be experiencing widespread panic.
Bush's No Child Left Behind Act is no less frightening than the faith-based initiative. Hiding behind good intentions, the No Child Left Behind Act fails to take into account a major factor: reality. Jim Donlevy notes, "It simply is not reasonable to continue to identify thousands of failing schools throughout the United States and then to see through to completion the sanctions written into the Act." The Act includes provisions for annual testing for schools, with progress requirements in core subjects such as English, math and science. "The idea is to be sure that all students are learning at higher standards," (Donlevy). However, the Act demands too much too soon. Forcing some schools to shut….

More especially, neither observation nor reason can be described as a source of knowledge, in the sense in which they have been claimed to be sources of knowledge, down to the present day. (1962, p. 4).
Clearly, discerning "the truth" is a complicated endeavor in any setting, and applying rigid rules of analyses will not always succeed. This point is made by Thomas Kuhn (2000), who advises, "Does it really help to imagine that there is some one full, objective, true account of nature and that the proper measure of scientific achievement is the extent to which it brings us closer to that ultimate goal?"; according to Larmore (2004), Kuhn's answer was no, since "no Archimedean platform is available for the pursuit of science other than the historically situated one already in place" (p. 47).

Conclusion

The research showed that the search for what is true and knowable has received an enormous….


Currently children and families who are in this country illegally are entitled to the following programs.

Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) nutrition program: Agency workers do not ask for a client's immigration status"(Benefits, 2006).

Outpatient medical care: Only at clinics designated as federally qualified health centers - those helping needy communities - where clients receive medical care if they demonstrate financial need "(Benefits, 2006).

Prenatal care: Only at federally qualified health centers"(Benefits, 2006).

Emergency medical care: Paid by Medicaid if patient shows financial need"(Benefits, 2006).

Labor and delivery care in hospitals: Paid by Medicaid if patient shows financial need (Benefits, 2006)."

Immunizations: Health departments and clinics generally do not ask for immigration status. They prefer to vaccinate as many people as possible to prevent disease outbreaks (Benefits, 2006)."

Business license: The state does not ask for proof of immigration status.

Public defender: equired by the U.S. Constitution for those charged with criminal offenses (not available in civil court….

Evolution be Taught in Schools?
Introduction / Thesis (Part One)

The debate between those that believe in creationism -- or "intelligent design," a refined offshoot of the creationism theory -- and those who believe in the science of evolution, spilled over into the schools in the United States many years ago. Conservative Christians and others who are in denial vis-a-vis Charles Darwin's research and theory argue that at the very least their religious-based theories should be placed side-by-side in public school textbooks. Scientists, biologists, teachers, scholars and others who accept the empirical nature of scientific evolution have battled to keep creationism and intelligent design (ID) out of the science textbooks -- with some degree of success albeit in certain conservative communities and states politicians and school board members have overruled logic by those insisting that ID be part of science textbooks. Some objective scholarship sees this debate as another example of….

Euthyphro and Piety
An Analysis of Euthyphro with an Alternative Definition of Piety

Euthyphro gives three definitions of piety which fail to satisfy Socrates. Socrates' goal in this dialogue is to reveal the shallowness of Euythyphro's argument and obtain a better understanding of truth. In other words, Socrates' objective is the same as always: To point out, as udebusch (1999) states, "that one who is aware of one's ignorance is in a better position to learn the truth than one taking oneself to know" (p. 13). This paper will provide Euthyphro's three definitions of piety, Socrates' refutations, my own definition of piety and what I think Socrates' response would be to it.

1st Definition

Piety, Euthyphro explains in his first definition to Socrates, is "doing as I am doing; that is to say, prosecuting any one who is guilty of murder, sacrilege, or of similar crime -- whether he be your father or mother,….

Winston Smith is the hero of the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) by George Orwell. Winston's ultimate failing is not the failing of a human being, instead it is a symbol of the ultimate power of the society.
Persuasive technique - definition, personal observation)

In literary terms a hero can be vaguely defined as the main character. However, further to this the character needs to be superior, of good character or extraordinary in some way (aldick 98). Winston Smith is the main character in 1984 and he is extraordinary. What is most important in understanding this is realizing that we must not compare Winston with modern man in this society, but with modern man in the society of 1984. This is one of the key aspects to understanding, to first understand the society he is existing in. This society is one where the people are completely controlled, with the people having no freedom….

hile these are some of the more famous elements of rhetorical theory, they do not require extensive discussion here for two reasons. Firstly, they are fairly well-known. Secondly, and more importantly, they actually do not provide much insight into the uses of rhetoric, because Aristotle implicitly inserts an ethics into his discussion of rhetoric that precludes it from having as robust an application to the real world as would be desired, due to the fact that rhetoric does not equally "target the emotional and rational attitudes and convictions" of the audience (Martina 567). In particular, Aristotle's theory suffers from assumptions regarding human beings receptivity to logic and a belief that rhetoric is ultimately "a means of attaining truth and knowledge" (Hugenberg 1). In fact, rhetoric is more often than not deployed as a means of avoiding or otherwise obscuring the truth, and but Aristotle's moralizing attitude precludes him from….

Buddhism vs Quine vs Crowley
PAGES 12 WORDS 3208

Buddhism vs. Quine vs. Crowley
The research intends to compare Buddhism, vs. Quine vs. Crowley by examining some of the philosophy put across by the two Buddhist and other two contemporary philosophers. The research will spell out each philosophy one by one giving each a critical analysis and interpretation. The research intends to start by looking at Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory to be followed by the other Buddhism philosophy of Nagarjuna known as the philosophy of the middle way of Persons. The third and the fourth section will look at Quine's relativism, and Crowley's idea of crossing the abyss respectively. Lastly after a thorough look at each of the four philosophies the conclusion will give the comparison between each of the philosophy so as to satisfy the objective of the research.

Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory of Persons

Vasubandhu own contribution is the refutation or proving of the theory of self to be untrue,….

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8 Pages
Term Paper

Black Studies - Philosophy

Kant's Refutation of the Ontological Proof of

Words: 2038
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Kant's refutation of the Ontological Proof of God's Existence Kant' Refutation In the Critique of Pure Reason, Immanuel Kant set out a framework intended to refute the ontological argument. It is…

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5 Pages
Term Paper

Mythology - Religion

Mccloskey's Refutation of the Arguments of Existence

Words: 2142
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Term Paper

McCloskey's refutation of te arguments of existence of God and illustration of ow God (and metapysics) can be perceived in different ways and tat tis precludes us from…

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2 Pages
Term Paper

Terrorism

Terrorism An Introduction and Refutation

Words: 712
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Before "individual murders" were used to terrorize "esterners" and their "lackeys" into submission. (hite, 2002, p.114) These individuals were not "inflamed" with a specific revolutionary passion, a la…

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6 Pages
Term Paper

Black Studies - Philosophy

Aquines Russell Efficient Causes Come

Words: 1851
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Following Aquinas's argumentation, we will reasonably ask ourselves, at a certain point, what the cause of what was considered to be the First Cause is. However, with the…

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3 Pages
Essay

Black Studies - Philosophy

Socrates and Gorgias by Plato

Words: 1109
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

This is really the extent of Gorgias attempting to remove himself from Socrates' argument, but instead, pulls him deeper into the intellectual trap, for Gorgias has only one…

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7 Pages
Term Paper

Black Studies - Philosophy

Introductory Philosophy

Words: 2483
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Socrates In Euthyphro, Socrates' questioning centers on discovering the true definition of piety -- but it is geared towards arriving at a sense of reasonable judgment (after all, he himself…

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2 Pages
Term Paper

Law - Constitutional Law

Citizens Should Be Allowed to Carry Concealed Handguns

Words: 580
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Citizens Should Be Allowed to Carry Concealed Handguns First Paragraph Gun control laws punish the innocent. Second Paragraph Gun control laws lower the crime rate. Third Paragraph refutation paragraph Rough Draft - Citizens Should be…

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4 Pages
Term Paper

Government

Gw Bush Less Than Six

Words: 1386
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

hen a president of the United States begins incorporating religious rhetoric into his speeches, alarm bells must sound. hen that same president allocates taxpayer monies to religious groups,…

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5 Pages
Book Report

Black Studies - Philosophy

Epistemology and Meta-Theory the World

Words: 1665
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Book Report

More especially, neither observation nor reason can be described as a source of knowledge, in the sense in which they have been claimed to be sources of knowledge,…

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8 Pages
Term Paper

Healthcare

Government Aid to Undocumented Workers

Words: 2126
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Currently children and families who are in this country illegally are entitled to the following programs. Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) nutrition program: Agency workers do not ask for a…

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7 Pages
Thesis

Evolution

Evolution Be Taught in Schools Introduction

Words: 2286
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Thesis

Evolution be Taught in Schools? Introduction / Thesis (Part One) The debate between those that believe in creationism -- or "intelligent design," a refined offshoot of the creationism theory --…

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3 Pages
Essay

Black Studies - Philosophy

Euthyphro and Piety an Analysis of Euthyphro

Words: 1024
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

Euthyphro and Piety An Analysis of Euthyphro with an Alternative Definition of Piety Euthyphro gives three definitions of piety which fail to satisfy Socrates. Socrates' goal in this dialogue is to…

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3 Pages
Essay

Literature

Winston Smith Is the Hero of the

Words: 1206
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

Winston Smith is the hero of the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) by George Orwell. Winston's ultimate failing is not the failing of a human being, instead it is a…

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15 Pages
Term Paper

Black Studies - Philosophy

History of Rhetoric and Rhetorical

Words: 5731
Length: 15 Pages
Type: Term Paper

hile these are some of the more famous elements of rhetorical theory, they do not require extensive discussion here for two reasons. Firstly, they are fairly well-known. Secondly,…

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12 Pages
Research Paper

Black Studies - Philosophy

Buddhism vs Quine vs Crowley

Words: 3208
Length: 12 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Buddhism vs. Quine vs. Crowley The research intends to compare Buddhism, vs. Quine vs. Crowley by examining some of the philosophy put across by the two Buddhist and other two…

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