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Kant's refutation of the Ontological
Proof of God's Existence
In the Critique of Pure Reason, Immanuel Kant set out a framework intended to refute the ontological argument. It is said that the critique was directed at Descartes and Leibniz. And oddly, Pierre Gassendi expected such a criticism from Kant, even going so far as to write about it in his Objections to Descartes' Meditations. Kant's framework consisted of a number of interrelated but separate arguments.
Three main arguments are the backbone of Kant's refutation of the ontological argument. Primary is the argument that existence, or being, is not a real predicate. Second, Kant argues that it is possible to deny the subject and the predicate of a judgment in order to avoid contradiction. Kant theorizes that there are no claims about existence that can be termed analytic -- that is to say, tautological, as a result of the…
McCloskey's refutation of te arguments of existence of God and illustration of ow God (and metapysics) can be perceived in different ways and tat tis precludes us from making any final judgments regarding His existence and manner of rulersip.
Te Cosmological argument maintains tat God's existence can be deduced from te fact tat every act of creation needs an initiator. Te world ad a beginning -- after all it is an act of creation -- someone ad to create it. Tis someone was God.
Tere are various classical arguments against te cosmological arguments but McCloskey's refutation is straigt and to te point: te world sows cruelty and unjustness. Positing tat te world as a creator, we ten inferentially transfer tese attributes to te Creator and posit tat He in turn is unjust and cruel. Not muc ope for a believer and certainly someting tat doesn't make us wis to accept…
Before "individual murders" were used to terrorize "esterners" and their "lackeys" into submission. (hite, 2002, p.114) These individuals were not "inflamed" with a specific revolutionary passion, a la Che Guevara, but possessed of a more diffuse anger, with a nostalgic gaze upon the past, paradise like structure of Islamic unreality. But unlike the 'tupamaros' the fear such terrorism instigates in people is not the fear of walking the street everyday. These new factors influence the urban model by making fear both more diffuse, and also more concentrated not upon every day events, but on travel and upon respected institutions.
In the new model, what seems most safe and impregnable, like governmental and financial institutions, now seem most destabilized, reducing the overall level of confidence in the structures and institutions of governance and one's system of life. The tupamaros saw social violence as a way of enacting social change -- the…
White, Jonathan. (2002) Terrorism: An Introduction.
Following Aquinas's argumentation, we will reasonably ask ourselves, at a certain point, what the cause of what was considered to be the First Cause is. However, with the temporal cause, we may not assume an extra cause, because there will have been no prior time at which this cause may have occurred. As such, this "definition implies that the universe cannot be caused to begin to exist since there is no earlier time at which the cause could occur."
Resuming, in order to reject the argument of efficient causation summarized by Aquinas, we would need to either assume that all objects are contingent (first of Russell's argumentations) or to assume that there was a temporal cause, in the sense that the First Cause simply could not have existed because there was no prior time.
1. Russell, ertrand. Why I am not a Theist. On the Internet at http://jumper52.cjb.cc/russell.htm
1. Russell, Bertrand. Why I am not a Theist. On the Internet at http://jumper52.cjb.cc/russell.htm
2. Saint Thomas Aquinas. The Existence of God. On the Internet at http://jumper52.cjb.cc/aquinas.htm
3. Smith, Quentin. CAUSATION and the LOGICAL IMPOSSIBILITY of a DIVINE CAUSE (1996). Philosophical Topics, Volume 21, Number 1, Spring 1996, pp. 169-191. On the Internet at http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/quentin_smith/causation.html
4. Depoe, John. DOES the COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENTREALLY ASSUME the ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT?. Baylor University. December 2002. Excellent description on Russell's failed refutations. On the Internet at www.johndepoe.com/cosmo_argument.pdf
This is really the extent of Gorgias attempting to remove himself from Socrates' argument, but instead, pulls him deeper into the intellectual trap, for Gorgias has only one misgiving about the entire situation . . . he fears that the crowd of onlookers might be disinterested in two men trying to outdo each other in being wrong (458b-c). Thus, Gorgias proves two things: he cannot intellectually handle a multi-layered discussion and he needs an audience in order to perform -- the basics of dialog and intellectual discourse are lost upon him. If then, Gorgias needs an audience, Socrates must be correct in that rhetoric is a craft -- designed not for serious intellectual combat, but for pure entertainment value.
2.Explain and critically evaluate Socrates reasoning for the apparently preposterous claim that tyrants like orators have no great power (Gorgias 466a-468e). You should make sure that you take into account Socrates…
Plato. Translated and revised by E.R. Dodds. (2003). Gorgias. Oxford University Press.
In Euthyphro, Socrates' questioning centers on discovering the true definition of piety -- but it is geared towards arriving at a sense of reasonable judgment (after all, he himself is about to go before the judges, and he would like to receive a judgment that is reasonable from them). hat he meets in Euthyphro is willfulness and subjectivity. Socrates attempts to show why it is important to remain objective about the law and to what extent we can judge others: in fact, it is Socrates who is searching for an objective standard -- an absolute outside himself by which he may judge: "Tell me what is the nature of this idea, and then I shall have a standard to which I may look, and by which I may measure actions" (6e). Euthyphro happily engages in the dialogue and states that "piety, then, is that which is dear to the…
Plato. "Euthyphro." Internet Classics Archive. Web. 14 May 2012.
Plato. "Apology." Internet Classics Archive. Web. 14 May 2012.
Plato. "Crito." Internet Classics Archive. Web. 14 May 2012.
Plato. "Gorgias." Internet Classics Archive. Web. 14 May 2012.
Citizens Should Be Allowed to Carry Concealed Handguns
Gun control laws punish the innocent.
Gun control laws lower the crime rate.
Third Paragraph refutation paragraph
Rough Draft - Citizens Should be Allowed to Carry Concealed Handguns
Gun control laws are a hot topic of controversy. Currently, there is not enough legislation that supports the right for people to carry handguns.
Thesis Statement) There should be appropriate legislation and laws passed to allow for citizens to carry concealed handguns.
Gun control laws punish the innocent.) Many people feel that in order to prevent criminals from using guns that improved legislation should be passed to provide tougher laws which restrict the purchase of a handgun and stricter punishment if the laws are broken. People who are against stricter gun control laws feel that the average citizens' constitutional rights would be invaded. To allow citizens the right to carry…
2nd paragraph-(Lowers crime rate). Currently there are 31 states that have enacted "shall issue" concealed weapon laws. The rest of the states should also adopt this legislation and allow citizens to carry concealed weapons. Laws to allowed concealed weapon permits to anyone over 21 who has completed a gun-safety program, has no criminal record, and is mentally sound. Statistics prove the safety of men, women, and minorities increase when laws allow for concealed weapons. A study shows that when state concealed-handgun laws went into effect in a county, murders fell by about 8%, rapes fell by 5%, and aggravated assaults fell by 7%. Lott (1997) states that criminals are less likely to attack a weaker victim, such as a woman or an elderly person, if there is a possibility that there might be a concealed weapon. JAMA reports studies which show a 15% drop in homicides in areas where adults are allowed to carry concealed weapons (Mitka, 1998).
3rd paragraph -- the (refutation paragraph). Thirty states have lenient concealed-weapons laws, but only in Vermont can anyone carry a hidden handgun without a license or permit (U.S. News and World Report, 2003). Citizens should have the ability to carry a concealed weapon, but this action alone will not ensure their safety. Crimes will still happen and even those who carry handguns will not always act responsibly. However, by having the right to legally carry concealed weapons, people will be able to better protect themselves against the possibility of a fatal crime. The presented statistics from Lott's study show strength in the argument for use of concealed handguns and should at least give pause to those who oppose concealed handguns. Crime fighting methods that potentially offer over an eight percent drop in murder rates are difficult to ignore.
There will always be the debate concerning concealed handgun laws. Those supporting the stricter gun control laws will continue oppose legislation and lobby the government to restrict the use of handguns. However, with citizens being more concerned about their safety and the wave of increased terrorism there should be more support and better legislation to allow citizens the right to lawfully carry concealed
hen a president of the United States begins incorporating religious rhetoric into his speeches, alarm bells must sound. hen that same president allocates taxpayer monies to religious groups, then citizens should be experiencing widespread panic.
Bush's No Child Left Behind Act is no less frightening than the faith-based initiative. Hiding behind good intentions, the No Child Left Behind Act fails to take into account a major factor: reality. Jim Donlevy notes, "It simply is not reasonable to continue to identify thousands of failing schools throughout the United States and then to see through to completion the sanctions written into the Act." The Act includes provisions for annual testing for schools, with progress requirements in core subjects such as English, math and science. "The idea is to be sure that all students are learning at higher standards," (Donlevy). However, the Act demands too much too soon. Forcing some schools to shut…
Anders, Christopher E. 2001. They must remain separate. The World & I. Washington: Jul 2001.Vol.16, Iss. 7; pg. 55 http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=74767508&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=12334&RQT=309&VName=PQD .
Dobbins, James. 2005. Iraq: Winning the Unwinnable War. Foreign Affairs. New York: Jan/Feb 2005.Vol.84, Iss. 1; pg. 16 http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=7&did=805099671&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1114122900&clientId=12334 .
Donlevy, Jim. 2003. Teachers, Technology and Training: No Child Left Behind: Failing Schools and Future Directions. International Journal of Instructional Media. New York: 2003.Vol.30, Iss. 4; pg. 335, 4 pages http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=549016431&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=12334&RQT=309&VName=PQD .
Patterson, Thomas E. We the People. 5th edition. McGraw-Hill.
More especially, neither observation nor reason can be described as a source of knowledge, in the sense in which they have been claimed to be sources of knowledge, down to the present day. (1962, p. 4).
Clearly, discerning "the truth" is a complicated endeavor in any setting, and applying rigid rules of analyses will not always succeed. This point is made by Thomas Kuhn (2000), who advises, "Does it really help to imagine that there is some one full, objective, true account of nature and that the proper measure of scientific achievement is the extent to which it brings us closer to that ultimate goal?"; according to Larmore (2004), Kuhn's answer was no, since "no Archimedean platform is available for the pursuit of science other than the historically situated one already in place" (p. 47).
The research showed that the search for what is true and knowable has received…
Feyerabend, P. (1975). Against method. London: New Left Books.
Kuhn, T.S. (2000). The road since structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lamb, D., Munevar, G., & Preston, J. (2000). The worst enemy of science? Essays in memory of Paul Feyerabend. New York: Oxford University Press.
Polanyi, M. (1997). Personal knowledge: Towards a post-critical philosophy. London: Routledge.
Currently children and families who are in this country illegally are entitled to the following programs.
Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) nutrition program: Agency workers do not ask for a client's immigration status"(Benefits, 2006).
Outpatient medical care: Only at clinics designated as federally qualified health centers - those helping needy communities - where clients receive medical care if they demonstrate financial need "(Benefits, 2006).
Prenatal care: Only at federally qualified health centers"(Benefits, 2006).
Emergency medical care: Paid by Medicaid if patient shows financial need"(Benefits, 2006).
Labor and delivery care in hospitals: Paid by Medicaid if patient shows financial need (Benefits, 2006)."
Immunizations: Health departments and clinics generally do not ask for immigration status. They prefer to vaccinate as many people as possible to prevent disease outbreaks (Benefits, 2006)."
Business license: The state does not ask for proof of immigration status.
Public defender: equired by the U.S. Constitution for those charged…
____. Benefits off-limits to illegals Undocumented can get only limited range of taxpayer-funded services." Denver Rocky Mountain News (2006)
Brinkley, John. "ILLEGAL IMMIGRANT NUMBERS UP STATE'S UNDOCUMENTED POPULATION GREW BY 28.6% FROM 1992-96" Denver Rocky Mountain News (2007)
Cohn, Dvera. "Report Details Growth in Illegal Migration; Undocumented Immigrants Outnumbered Legal Ones From 2000 to 2004, Study Says." The Washington Post; (2005)
Fears, Darryl. "For Illegal Immigrants, Some Aid Is Too Risky; Fears Abound as Government Won't Promise Immunity From Deportation." The Washington Post; (2005)
Evolution be Taught in Schools?
Introduction / Thesis (Part One)
The debate between those that believe in creationism -- or "intelligent design," a refined offshoot of the creationism theory -- and those who believe in the science of evolution, spilled over into the schools in the United States many years ago. Conservative Christians and others who are in denial vis-a-vis Charles Darwin's research and theory argue that at the very least their religious-based theories should be placed side-by-side in public school textbooks. Scientists, biologists, teachers, scholars and others who accept the empirical nature of scientific evolution have battled to keep creationism and intelligent design (ID) out of the science textbooks -- with some degree of success albeit in certain conservative communities and states politicians and school board members have overruled logic by those insisting that ID be part of science textbooks. Some objective scholarship sees this debate as another example…
Antolin, Michael F., and Herbers, Joan M. (2001). Perspective: Evolution's Struggle for Existence in America's Public Schools. International Journal of Organic Evolution, 55(12),
Armenta, Tony, and Lane, Kenneth E. (2010). Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution
Controversy in Public Education. The Clearing House, 86(3), 76-79.
Euthyphro and Piety
An Analysis of Euthyphro with an Alternative Definition of Piety
Euthyphro gives three definitions of piety which fail to satisfy Socrates. Socrates' goal in this dialogue is to reveal the shallowness of Euythyphro's argument and obtain a better understanding of truth. In other words, Socrates' objective is the same as always: To point out, as udebusch (1999) states, "that one who is aware of one's ignorance is in a better position to learn the truth than one taking oneself to know" (p. 13). This paper will provide Euthyphro's three definitions of piety, Socrates' refutations, my own definition of piety and what I think Socrates' response would be to it.
Piety, Euthyphro explains in his first definition to Socrates, is "doing as I am doing; that is to say, prosecuting any one who is guilty of murder, sacrilege, or of similar crime -- whether he be…
Napolitano, A. (2010). Lies the Government Told You. Nashville, TN: Thomas
Plato. (n.d.). Last Days of Socrates. Retrieved from http://socrates.clarke.edu/
Rudebusch, G. (1999). Socrates, Pleasure, and Value. UK: Oxford University Press.
Winston Smith is the hero of the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) by George Orwell. Winston's ultimate failing is not the failing of a human being, instead it is a symbol of the ultimate power of the society.
Persuasive technique - definition, personal observation)
In literary terms a hero can be vaguely defined as the main character. However, further to this the character needs to be superior, of good character or extraordinary in some way (aldick 98). Winston Smith is the main character in 1984 and he is extraordinary. What is most important in understanding this is realizing that we must not compare Winston with modern man in this society, but with modern man in the society of 1984. This is one of the key aspects to understanding, to first understand the society he is existing in. This society is one where the people are completely controlled, with the people having…
Baldick, C. Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Gardner, A. George Orwell. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1987.
Orwell, G. Nineteen Eighty-Four. London: Penguin Books, 1989.
hile these are some of the more famous elements of rhetorical theory, they do not require extensive discussion here for two reasons. Firstly, they are fairly well-known. Secondly, and more importantly, they actually do not provide much insight into the uses of rhetoric, because Aristotle implicitly inserts an ethics into his discussion of rhetoric that precludes it from having as robust an application to the real world as would be desired, due to the fact that rhetoric does not equally "target the emotional and rational attitudes and convictions" of the audience (Martina 567). In particular, Aristotle's theory suffers from assumptions regarding human beings receptivity to logic and a belief that rhetoric is ultimately "a means of attaining truth and knowledge" (Hugenberg 1). In fact, rhetoric is more often than not deployed as a means of avoiding or otherwise obscuring the truth, and but Aristotle's moralizing attitude precludes him from effectively…
Archer, Lauren Renel. "The Rightful Place of Science: Understanding the Intersection of Rhetoric, Politics, and Science in President Obama's First 100 Days." Communication,
2010. United States -- Colorado: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT).
Aristotle. On Rhetoric: Book 1. 29-53.
Aristotle. On Rhetoric: Book 2. 118-191.
Buddhism vs. Quine vs. Crowley
The research intends to compare Buddhism, vs. Quine vs. Crowley by examining some of the philosophy put across by the two Buddhist and other two contemporary philosophers. The research will spell out each philosophy one by one giving each a critical analysis and interpretation. The research intends to start by looking at Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory to be followed by the other Buddhism philosophy of Nagarjuna known as the philosophy of the middle way of Persons. The third and the fourth section will look at Quine's relativism, and Crowley's idea of crossing the abyss respectively. Lastly after a thorough look at each of the four philosophies the conclusion will give the comparison between each of the philosophy so as to satisfy the objective of the research.
Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory of Persons
Vasubandhu own contribution is the refutation or proving of the theory of self…
Bechert, Heinz & Richard Gombrich the World of Buddhism: Thames & Hudson, 1984.
David Kalupahana, (Ed) Nagarjuna, and Nagarjuna: Albany: State University Press 1986.
Davidson, Ronald M. Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Donath, Dorothy C. Buddhism for the West: Theravada, Mahayana and Vajray-na; a comprehensive review of Buddhist history, philosophy, and teachings from the time of the Buddha to the present day. Julian Press, 1971.
When we ask ourselves what is knowledge (as we do when we are engaged in the process of philosophy) we are effectively asking what is our relationship with the world. V.S. amachandran - as is the norm for philosophers - asks the question about our relationship to the world by using what at first might seem to be a relatively trivial issue, or at least one that very few of us shall ever actually have to worry about, which is the question of phantom limbs, the subject of both amachandran's interest and our own.
The desire to know and the desire to discover are essentially active, even aggressive actions taken on the part of consciousness to acquire pieces or aspects of the world. When we seek knowledge, we seek to take into our minds (and so to take into our bodies physically) something that exists in the world.…
Anderson, J.W. (1991). Freud or Jung. Chicago: Northwestern University.
Aristotle.(1989). Poetics. Trans. S.H. Butcher. New York: Hill and Wang.
Carnap, R. (1995). An Introduction to the philosophy of science. New York: Dover.
Descartes, R. (1999). Discourse on method and meditations on first philosophy (4th ed.). New York: Hackett.
" After describing his peaceful but forced departure from the casino, the author considered the similarity of the "hernia" chant with the mainstream elements of the crabs tables: " Every casino in Las Vegas is, among the other things, a room full of craps tables with dealers who keep up a running singsong that sounds as though they are saying 'hernia hernia hernia' and so on. & #8230; What they have to say contains next to no useful instruction." Wolfe here indicates that, despite the prejudice of the crabs table dealers, they were in fact more similar to the man they threw out than different. The only difference was that he was not imitating their chants in their way, although the sound "hernia" could be easily distinguished in the casino by anyone who would care to try. The prejudice is therefore socially imposed, but entirely unjustified.
Finally, Barbara Tuchman argues…
Nash's wok may have contibuted to the wide eading ou moden texts include, athe than the evisionist vesion which paaphases down to 'the Noth had to accept slavey against its will because the South would have balked fom the new epublic.' Ou selection of texts, paticulaly the pimay mateial, conside this dynamic with moe balance than in the centuy and a half pio to Nash, if his histoiogaphy is tue. Nash applauds DuBois paticulaly as one of the fist to contovet such mythologization (p. 72), and we have ead some of his pimay woks. Nash suppots and expands upon DuBois and the othe eadings; what Nash does contadict is the assetion that "We hold these tuths self evident," and poves the authos of those wods had thei finges cossed when they signed at the bottom of that page.
What I took most fom Race and Revolution was a wide undestanding…
references, is the inherited wisdom I mostly encountered in public education. Nash's version that the North bore equal responsibility, and that this aggregate responsibility was caused by individuals who constituted and perpetuated abstract institutions forming the new nation, helps balance the Southern separatist explanation as perhaps history as revised by the victors (p. 3). This is a valuable perspective for all who would understand a national identity where slavery and then segregation comprise seven-eighths of our history rather than the nominal equality only one generation has experienced for an entire lifetime so far.
..]we are not on that account, by any means guilty" (p. 71). The British response to this, however, was extreme -- eventually in the expulsion and mass migration of the Acadians, but more immediately in the reaction of the council to the Acadians' memorials. They determined that the Acadians who had presented the memorials were "arrogant and insidious[...]and were severely reprimanded for their Audacity in Subscribing and Presenting so impertinent a Paper" (p. 73). The council determines that it should again read the memorials point-by-point, but not in an effort to understand and negotiate with the Acadians, which would be beneath the dignity of the monarchy, but rather this process was undertaken to "shew them the falsity as well as Impudence of the Contents of their Memorial" (p. 73). This systematic refutation and condemnation of the memorials, and the resultant decision to once again offer the oath of allegiance and…
Socrates asked them to come forward with their thoughts if they were "still doubtful about the argument." The two proceed to make a sophisticated argument, contrary to Socrates' points, that were counterexamples to the points about the body and the soul that Socrates had been making with such eloquence. It was cross-examination, but it was also a series of new hypotheses that Cebes and Simmias presented to the philosopher whom they held in the highest regard, of course.
Basically, they argued that the existence of the soul during the bodily period has been sufficiently proved; but as to what happens to the soul after death, is "unproven," Cebes offered. And it went on for awhile, convincingly; and when the narrator Phaedo brought the story back to real time, he recounted that the listeners to Socrates "had been so firmly convinced" and yet after the cross-examination (elenchus) by Cebes and Simmias,…
American University Washington College of Law. 2006. "The Law School Approach (or, 'How
To Live with and Learn to Love the Socratic Method')." Available at http://www.wcl.american.edu/pub/handbook/approach.html .
Furlani, Andre. 2002. 'The Sacred Fount in Plato's Cave', University of Toronto Quarterly, vol.
71, no. 3. Available at: Academic Search Elite.
Patrick Henry's Speech
Slavery had existed for a very long time. It is still existent; however, the form may have changed. Anti-slave laws and abolitionist movement had been there in the past to stop slave trade in Africa. Provisions had been there but there has been no significant impact. This report focuses on Henry's speech in which he has argued how the masters (British) used to control their slaves (American colony). Henry holds the view that British should be thrown away from their executive power and Americans should fight for their freedom. Hence, the Thesis Statement is:
Patrick Henry was imageries, metaphors and analogies to persuade his audience to join the freedom struggle against the British.
Analysis of Henry's speech
Henry stresses in the first paragraph on the need to fight for freedom by saying, "I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery." In Henry's…
Sue, G. (2005) Rhetorical Analysis of Persuasion: Patrick Henry's Speech to the Virginia Convention. Language Arts and Social Studies
Plato and the Platypus
Philosophers in the Enlightenment era would come up with various new means to popularize ideas. Denis Diderot conceived the first encyclopedia in this period, which was an attempt to systematize all world knowledge in an accessible way. But also, in another innovation, Voltaire would offer as a refutation of the optimistic philosophy of Leibniz -- which held that "this is the best of all possible worlds" -- a new form of philosophical argument: the extended comedy (Cathcart and Klein, 17). Voltaire's short book Candide is essentially an extended refutation of Leibniz's view of God (or perhaps any view of God), but it makes its points through satirical humor. In some sense, Thomas Cathcart and Daniel Klein are following in the footsteps of Voltaire by attempting to shed light on philosophical ideas through the medium of humor in their work Plato and a Platypus alk Into A…
Cathcart, Thomas and Klein, Daniel. Plato and a Platypus Walk Into A Bar: Understanding Philosophy Through Jokes. New York: Penguin Books, 2008. Print.
Karl Popper / Allen Bloom
hy indeed would scholars, teachers, journalists, parents and other close observers of society be surprised that many young people are, as Bloom says, given to go along "day by day ... gratifying the desire" that occurs to them in serendipitous moments? The list of possible answers to the question of why many students are not "furnished persons" would be a long and complex one. Clearly there are a multitude of distractions and digital device addictions that today's young people are caught up in, and that is just one answer to the question posed in the sentence above. But moreover, this paper delves into the subjects raised by Karl Popper and Allan Bloom -- and how those messages relate to the way Plato approached teaching the young.
Allen Bloom's Approach to Young People and Democracy
Before delving into Bloom's ranting about education and students, in answer…
Edington, Robert V. "Allan Bloom's Message to the Stale Universities." Perspective on Political Science, 19.3 (136-148) 1990.
HuffPost College. "Today's College Students Self-Centered, Competitive: Study. Retrieved April 26, 2016, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com . 2011.
Lam, Chi-Ming. "A Popperian Approach to Education for Open Society. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 45.8 (845-859): 2013.
Rozema, David. "Plato's Theaetetus: What to do with an Honours Student." Journal of Philosophy of Education, 13.2 (207-221) 1998.
The nationalism furthered by Hamas is a direct salvo against oppression and occupation. Its foundation is premised on blame and hatred of the "other." Again, instability leads the uncertain from away from foreign and in the direction of the known, this being especially powerful, when meshed with the concrete assuagements of religion.
The efficacy of religion as an instrument of nationalist ideology can also be seen in the Islamist movement. hile lacking a state, there is still clearly an Arab nation which coheres to a distaste of foreign influence. The Al-Qaeda organization seems to be premised on exactly this, with Osama Bin Laden's impetus being derived from a scorn of estern presence in Saudi Arabia, and moreover, the Muslim world. Religion, here, is used to offer succor. It is analogous to the comfort provided in pre-ar Germany of through the idea of a superior kultur.
Muslim communities scattered about the…
Boose, Lynda E. 2002. Crossing the river drina: bosnian rape camps, turkish impalement, and serb cultural memory. Signs 28(1), 71-99.
Brinkman, Richard, L. (2008). Globalization and the nation-state: dead or alive. Journal of Economic Issues, 42(2), 425-434.
Kuzio, Taras. (2008). Democratic breakthroughs and revolutions in five postcommunist countries: comparative perspectives on the fourth wave. Demokratizatsiya, 16(1), 97-109.
Molchanov, Mikhail, A. (2000). Post communist nationalism as a power resource: a russia-ukraine comparison. Nationalities Papers, 28(2), 263-288.
To combat subjectivity, he called for interpretation to be subject to church authority, which was the voice of reason. Reardon (1981) echoes this interpretation: "Hooker sets out to refute the puritan contention that in religion holy scripture affords the sole and absolute authority and rule" (p. 280). Hooker shows that the narrow principle of sola scriptura "disregards the larger context of the divine law in creation within which even the scriptural revelation must be placed if we are to understand its proper scope and purpose" (Reardon, 1981, p. 280). Not far from the Reformers, they upheld the idea that the directly inspired written word contains supernatural revelation. There is perhaps less emphasis on preaching and proclamation in the Anglicans than in the Reformers.
hat is the status of the creeds and traditions? In Anglicanism, the Nicene, the Athanasius, and the Apostle's creeds are stressed as true because they are taken…
Aland, K. (Ed.). (2004). Martin Luther's 95 theses. Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House.
Avis, P. (2007). The identity of Anglicanism: essentials of Anglican ecclesiology. London and New York: T & T. Clark.
Bayer, Oswald. (2008). Martin Luther's theology: a contemporary interpretation (Trans T.H. Trapp). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Beckwith, R.T. (1988). "Anglicanism." In New dictionary of theology (S. B. Ferguson & D.F. Wright, Eds.), pp. 21-23. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
And he gained a following both among many Jews and among many of Greek origin. He was the Messiah. And when Pilate, because of an accusation made by the leading men among us, condemned him to the cross, those who had loved him previously did not cease to do so. For he appeared to them on the third day, living again, just as the divine prophets had spoken of these and countless other wondrous things about him. And up until this very day the tribe of Christians, named after him, has not died out (18.63-64)
This paragraph has also been very controversial, because many believe it would not be likely that Josephus would have written that Jesus "appeared to them on the third day, living again." Some scholars say that Josephus had given up all his Jewish leanings by this time, but others say that this was not the true…
Albright, William and C.S. Mann. The Anchor Bible. Matthew. New York: Doubleday, 1971
Benjamin, Jules R. A Student's Guide to History. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press, 2004
Broshi, Magen. The Credibility of Josephus. Journal of Jewish Studies: Essays in Honor of Yigael Yadin 1982 from Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies. http://www.centuryone.com/josephus.html Accessed 10 April, 2010
Carr, Edward Hallett. What Is History? Random House. New York. 1961.
Good people do not use their power as belonging to the dominant group in society to make those who are minorities -- because of their race or their gender, their religion or their ethnicity -- feel lesser.
Simple, right? Multiculturalism preaches tolerance, and this is a very good first step. But critical multiculturalism teaches tolerance plus the need to be honest with ourselves and others about who in any relationship or interaction has power. Simple, right? Well, not really. One of the striking things about the responses to Straw was that while many of his critics chastised (or excoriated) him for siding with Western values against the values of his Muslim constituents, some of those who supported him praised him for siding with Western values (such as freedom and self-autonomy) against patriarchy and sexism. When he said that veils were not a good thing for a society that includes Muslim…
Bennett, D. (Ed.) (1998). Multicultural states. London: Routledge.
Calhoun, C. (Ed.) (1994). Social theory and the politics of identity. Oxford: Blackwell.
Dallmayr, F. (1966) 'Democracy and Multiculturalism' in S. Benhabib (Ed.) Democracy and difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Parekh, B. (2000). Rethinking multiculturalism. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
" (4) it is unclear how to understand "things are because we see them." Traditionally perception is conceived as a passive process: we open our eyes and receive input from the world. Kant suggests that perhaps it is not so passive: we "organize" the world into temporal and spatial dimensions, attribute cause and effect, etc. But what Wilde suggests here is even more radical. The "things are because" suggests a causal relationship, such that what we see exists as an effect of seeing. It would be as if looking "paints" the world. But this is completely absurd. Onto what would seeing "paint" the world? and, even weirder, notice that it wouldn't be that seeing paints the world so that we could then look at what was painted. Rather, it would be that seeing is painting, so that we always see and paint simultaneously, always just "creating" whatever we see, under…
1. Wilde, Oscar. Intentions. New York: Prometheus Books, 2004. 1-55. Print.
2. Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray and Other Writings. New York: Pocket Books, 2005. 241-365. Print.
The Decay of Lying was first published in 1889; the Golden Stair is from 1880.
[…] With the U.S. now mired in a Mesopotamian morass because of what is described as a 'unilateralist' foreign policy, the UN's multilateralist approach is gaining unearned prestige and unwarranted credibility" (Grigg, 2006). While the UN might not have masterminded the war, they certainly participated in the events that led up to the invasion, so they did play an important role in arguments for the invasion, and now they are benefiting, which does not seem right, somehow.
Many members of NATO, including France, Germany, and Belgium opposed the war, and they protested sending any NATO troops into Iraq for any cause. Another writer notes, in July during a trip to Washington, obertson told U.S. lawmakers that NATO would not go beyond providing logistical support for the Polish-led force in Iraq" (Dettmer, 2003). The Polish forces were peacekeepers sent in to assist British and American forces. While NATO seems to have…
Dettmer, J. (2003). NATO suffering from identity crisis. Retrieved 7 May 2010 from the FindArticles.com Web site: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_2003_Sept_16/ai_107543546/ .
Editors. (2004). The invasion of Iraq. Retrieved 7 May 2010 from the Frontline Web site:
Grigg, W.N. (2006, January 9). Bring 'em home! The New American, 22, 12+.
The modern discourse on marriage holds that roles are shifting in many ways within the context of a romantic relationship. In the case of this study, speaking particularly on the subject of heterosexual romantic partnerships, the roles which are assumed by partners are often based on certain preconceptions regarding gender and the social and/or biological distinctions which are a function of gender. Likewise, partners may have certain expectations of a spouse which proceed from these proscribed gender roles or from their own familial experiences.
That said, it is increasingly an emphasis on discourses about marital satisfaction that these roles should be more fully explored rather than presumed. More egalitarian or complementary roles are emerging based on the premise that such dynamics promote more healthy and equal context through which both partners feel valued, respected and satisfied. The research brings us into confrontation also with refutations of this correlation such as…
Amato, P.R. & Booth, a. (2001). The legacy of parents' marital discord: consequences for children's marital quality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(4), 627-638.
Eggerichs, E. (2004). Love & Respect: The Love She Most Desires; the Respect He Desperately Needs. Integrity Publishers.
Gunter, J.S. (2004). An Examination of the Dimensions of Commitment and Satisfaction Across Years Married. University of Oklahoma Graduate Facility.
Parker, S. (2009). Marital satisfaction and religiosity: A comparison of two measures of religiosity. Dissertation Abstracts. Temple University.
In examining these arguments, one must admit that Brett makes a good point. There are indeed no fossil records, ancient accounts, or indeed current evidence from our considerable technological searching devices to suggest that worlds beyond our own exist. Once again, however, evidence in this regard pertains only to one type of reality -- our own. The second part of the Lewis's assertion, as quoted above clearly indicates that the philosopher is not considering other possible worlds only in our universe and our reality. Instead, he appears to consider the existence of possible worlds as indeed being possible across a wide spectrum of realities. The fact that they are not part of our reality makes them no less real.
When the apparently paradoxical statement regarding other worlds is taken into account: "They are not far in the past or future, nor for that matter near," Lewis is clearly not referring…
Brett, Michael. Review of on the Plurality of Worlds. In the Philosopher. Retrieved from http://www.the-philosopher.co.uk/reviews/lewisworlds.htm
Lewis, David. (2001). On the Plurality of Worlds. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Al-Ghazali, through his investigations, showed that both certainty of sense-perceptions (e.g. though the shadow of a stick that seems to imply that the stick is moving when it is not) and certainty of alleged intellectual truths (i.e. The possibility of judging an alleged fact in opposing and diverse manners) could be questioned.
Turning to dreams, al-Ghazaali illustrates that wakefulness is simply a higher consciousness of the dream state. Might there not be, therefore, (he questions), a state beyond that of habitual living that denotes a higher consciousness to that of life itself, hence, nullifying whatever beliefs we might cherish in this mundane world of ours? A hadith supports his supposition: "The people are dreaming, (but) when they die, they become awake." The ufis call this a special mystic state of ecstasy when we have withdrawn into ourselves and are distinct from our senses.
imilarities and Differences between Al-Ghazali and Descartes…
Descartes, R. Meditations on first philosophy: with selections from the Objections and Replies. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996
Samsudin, M.Z. Al-Ghazali: Skepticism and Denial of All Knowledge. Psychology, Religion, & Politics. 2008. Available at: http://zakisamsudin.blogspot.com/2008/08/al-ghazali-skepticism-and-denial-of-all.html
Finally, the sestet ends with a question about whether any moral lessons can be learned from this little scene in nature: "[w]hat but design of darkness to appall/if design govern in a thing so small." In other words, the speaker is asking whether he should even try to draw any conclusions from the spider's destruction of the beautiful moth.
The final lines of the poem not only call into question the beneficence of nature; they also call into question the ability of human beings to draw lessons from nature. (Bagby, pp. 73-74). Ultimately, the poem raises questions about the Darwinian metaphor more than it does about the Darwinian theory. (Hass, p. 62). Frost is trying to suggest that there is a limit to what human beings can learn from nature and to their ability to draw their own moral lessons from it.
In the final analysis, "Design" is a poem…
Bagby, George F. Frost and the Book of Nature. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1993.
Burt, Stephen & Mikics, David. The Art of the Sonnet. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 2010.
Cramer, Jeffrey S. Robert Frost Among His Poems: A Literary Companion to the Poet's Own Biographical Contexts and Associations. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., Inc., 1996.
Frost, Robert. "Design," Rpt. In the Norton Introduction to Literature. Ed. Allison Booth, et al. Shorter 9th ed. W.W. Norton & Company. New York, 2005. 810.
The ultimate House vote was two hundred and twenty to two hundred and seven. The senate vote was fifty three to forty three. The republicans were collectively opposed in both chambers (3 June 2010, 3).
The Future of the Health Care ill
Subsequent to disagreements as political enemies for more than a year, the Obama administration and the health insurance industry realized that they require one another.
oth have huge stakes in the success of the new health care law (14 May 2010, 1)
The political destiny of President Obama and Congressional Democrats rely on their capability to interpret it's assurance into realism for voters. This can be attained by restraining health expenses and making insurance accessible to everybody at reasonable price. Similarly, the fiscal future, in fact the continued existence, of the health insurance industry relies on the government. That is on set of laws being written by federal…
1. "Critics Question Study Cited in Health Debate, " New York Times, 2 June 2010, sec. a, p. 1.
2. "Health Reforms," New York Times, 26 March 2010, sec. a, p. 1.
3. "Two Health Care Adversaries Find a Need to Collaborate, " New York Times, 3 June 2010, sec. B, p.3.
4. "Companies Try to Shape Rules, " New York Times, 15 May 2010, sec. a, p.22
The expansion of the article then proceeds to logically and statistically provide strength to the authors' arguments.
The authors minimize the probability of bias by carefully considering both the historical and current opposition views: 1) That the welfare reform legislation would result in disaster in terms of poverty and hunger; and 2) that any results to the contrary is connected to the financial stability of the country rather than directly to the reform program.
The authors, however, disprove both of these opposition views by means of historical and statistical fact. Their views are strengthened by the use of legitimate and highly respected sources such as the U.S. Census Bureau and USDA Economic Research Service. They use data from these and other entities to prove irrefutably that no historical period of financial stability can be compared to the results…
ole-based EP systems are critical for the siloed, highly inefficient architectures of legacy EP systems to be made more relevant, contribute greater financial performance, and lead to higher levels of overall customer satisfaction.
c. Purpose of the study
The purpose the study is evaluate how enterprises who adopt role-based EP system implementations are able to attain higher levels of financial and operations-based performance vs. those that rely on silo-based, more functionally defined EP structures. ole-based EP systems have been proven to lead to greater order accuracy, velocity and customer satisfaction as a result. The ability to gain greater visibility throughout supply chains, better manage pricing, discounts, implement and maintain contract management systems, and also deliver consistently high customer service have all been attributed to role-based EP systems. Conversely siloed EP systems that are managed strictly to functional areas have been shown to severely limit the ability of enterprises to be…
Aberdeen Research (2005) -- New Product Development: Profiting from Innovation. Aberdeen Research. Boston, MA. December 2005
Abrams and Andrews 2005, Management Update: Client Issues for Service-Oriented Business Applications, 2005. Gartner Group. 20 July 2005.
Aimi, G. (2005).- AMR Research (2005, October 25). Retailers Save Money by Controlling in-Bound Logistics. (Alert). Boston, MA
Akkermans, H., & van Helden, K. 2002. Vicious and virtuous cycles in ERP
However, psychology, even scientific psychology, presents falsifiability challenges not evident in the natural scientists. Some scientists might argue that Freud has been shown to be a poor theorist, given what has been revealed about the brain since Popper's day. If a depressive shows no improvement after years of Freudian therapy, but does show improvement after taking Prozac, that could be said to prove Freud wrong. Unfortunately, so many other external factors can affect a person's mood it is hard to attribute a single cause to a person's remission. It could be the drug or other conditions in the individual's environment. While large drug trials try to use large sample sizes as a way of reducing the influence of extraneous variables as well as use control groups who receive a placebo, the less observable and testable the phenomenon, the more difficult it is to measure. Even attempts to demonstrate improvement of…
Cohen, Patricia. (2007). Freud is widely taught at universities, except in the psychology department. The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/25/weekinreview/25cohen.htm
Good and bad theories. (2007, April 27). On Philosophy. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://onphilosophy.wordpress.com/2007/04/27/good-and-bad-theories/
Lutus, Paul. (2009, May 12). Is psychology a science? Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://www.arachnoid.com/psychology/
Marian, Lucian. (2008). Falsifiability. Debunking primal therapy. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://debunkingprimaltherapy.com/3_falsifiability-testable/
Nor would sexual saturation without challenge be the Heavenly solution to sexual frustration in life. In principle Heaven would provide the precise mix of success and failure that corresponded to maximum happiness; it would not provide unlimited success if that would detract from its value. In Heaven, one would have the opportunity to play only as much golf as would be maximally enjoyable; one would be precisely as proficient at the game as to reinforce rather than detract from its enjoyment. Likewise, if sexual encounters without any prospect of rejection would be unfulfilling, Heaven would provide the precise mix of success and failure to avoid reducing the subjective pleasure involved. Therefore, it is Barnes's lack of imagination rather than the limitations of Heaven that account for his conclusions.
The counterargument is that anything would become boring if one lived eternally, including even the perfect mix of success and failure,…
Rather, it was more a question of magical thinking: Ben-Gurion wanted a place for ews and his desire was sufficiently strong that it blinded him to the nature of Palestinian self-definition and identity.
Another point that I will examine in greater detail later that would change Ben-Gurion's views towards Arab nationalism was that he could not, in the 1930s predict the extent of the Holocaust. The death of so many ews so quickly would rewrite the equation -- for Ben-Gurion as well as others -- of the relationship between ews and Arabs.
At the same time that Ben-Gurion was pushing to create an increasingly powerful economic base of ewish workers and employers, Lockman writes, he was at the same time denying the legitimacy of Palestinians claims to Arab nationalistic authority and strongly arguing that ews had a far stronger claim to the land. This is perhaps the best-known understanding of…
Judea Pearl. "Early Zionists and Arabs," in Middle East Quarterly, Fall 2008, p. 75.
Martin Gilbert. Israel: A History. London: Black Swan, 1998, p. 16.
Colin Shindler. A History of Modern Israel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008, p. 12.
Yes, of course. But Hick too is making an important initial assumption here: He is assuming that a test of human goodness is a necessary part of the universe. But this is only the case if one assumes the presence of a certain type of God -- one that demands that people demonstrate their faith and their ability to make the choices that God wants them to make. If one concurs with this view, then Hick's argument is a sensible and entirely believable one. But if one -- and I do -- rejects this assumption of his, the entire argument falls apart.
Evil exists in the world. This is undeniable. Cruelty also exists, as does simple bad luck. Terrible things happen for many reasons. Both Hume and Hick take the presence of evil in the world as a starting point to discuss the presence or absence of a benign God.…
It is this murkiness that drives discord among employees and prompts articles such as Ms. Vara's.
Ultimately, the role of IT has moved far beyond the gatekeeper of bits flowing through the corporate IT networks. The profession must carefully define that role, however. In attacking Ms. Vara, Mr. Evans is attacking the messenger. He should pay more heed to the message.
Information technology can be critical to corporate strategy. The rapid, easy flow of information is central to the fulfillment of this role. The policies Ms. Vara mocks run counter to this fundamental element of IT. Security is important, but roadblocks should be justified, and in addition they should be communicated. Employees are not born to rebel against IT's policies, they do so because those policies do not fit any known strategic objective. If they do fit a strategic objective, nobody knows about it. The sooner IT departments stop obfuscating…
That being said, there are certain pitfalls that must be avoided, in order to reduce the controversy created by teaching these concepts but more importantly to avoid any indoctrination, however, subtle into certain beliefs or belief systems. That is, educators should make absolutely no value judgments concerning religion in their teaching of religious history, and in courses specifically geared towards developing a scholarly understanding of religion efforts must be made to include theological beliefs and practices of non-Christian and non-Western religions. This can become somewhat touchy when religious history is part of a general course on Western history; however politically incorrect it may sound, the historical development of Buddhism, Hinduism, and even Judaism simply did not have the same impact on the development of Western culture that Christianity did. This does not make Christianity in any of its forms the "right" religion, and this must be made clear in public…
Gutek, G. (2004). Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Education: A Biographical Introduction. New York: Prentice Hall.
Johnson, T. & Reed, R. (2007). Philosophical documents in education. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Similar to ERIC, the Chronicle of Higher Education website provides links to many articles and studies concerning tenure and post-tenure review on both sides of the issue. The vast majority of these articles were produced by the Chronicle itself, for its print and online subscribers. Given that most of the subscribers to the Chronicle are almost certainly employed in the realm of higher education, the balanced views presented by the collection of articles as a whole is perhaps unsurprising given a definite desire not to alienate readership. Though there are some very strong opinions on both sides represented in the articles and information found on the Chronicle website, there is nothing especially inflammatory or groundbreaking in any of the articles. Best used a source for recent developments in the tenure issue.
CE (2009). "Post-Tenure Review." merican council on education. ccessed 8
September 2009. http://www.acenet.edu/M/Template.cfm?Section=Home
Though the merican Council on…
APSA (2009). "Post-Tenure Review Analyzed." The American political science association. Accessed 8 September 2009.
Though this website does address the issue of post-tenure review both more specifically and more comprehensively than many other sites, it does nto provide a wide range of opinions or an abundance of resources. The description of various forms of post-tenure review and real world cases of their application is very useful for coming to an understanding of such reviews and how they are and will continue to alter tenured positions and higher education in general, but the obvious professorial bias in the site makes some of the conclusions and assertions drawn rather suspect. Excellent for providing an overview of ideas and suggesting avenues of future research.
Two belief systems, then -- true believe, and justified true belief (Hauser, 1992).
Humans, however, according to Pierce, turn justified true beliefs into true beliefs by converting them into axioms. Once we have proven something there is no need to prove it again, and we use the part that was proven before to further extend our study and the inquisition of knowledge. And so it becomes necessary to accept things as the truth without proving them at every single moment. However, does not mean that the belief is an unjustified belief, for it again is the conflictual nature of justified against unjustified that, for scholars like Pierce, outpours a reality he can view as "true" (Ibid).
ene' Descartes' purpose was to make humans analyze the introspective nature of being, and to postulate on the veracity of truth as a nature of thought -- if we think it, it is, and…
Ayer, A.J. (2001). David Hume: A Short Introduction .Oxford University Press.
Billington, M. (2007). Harold Pinter. Faber and Faber.
Cottingham, J., ed. (1992). The Cambridge Companion to Descartes. Cambridge Gould, J. And R. Mulvaney. (2008). Classic Philosophical Questions, 13th ed.. Prentice-
Knowledge and truth were considered absolute and immutable by these two, though for very different reasons, which is the complete antithesis to the empirical theories of Popper, Peirce, Kuhn, and James. The progression of knowledge in the face of such certainty could only result in pure growth from previously established claims, as no truth could ever be said to exist that was not thoroughly and absolutely proved by careful extrapolation from a priori conclusions.
Several interesting anthropological occurrences have convinced me that the empirical method, with its possibility for the adjustment of truth based on the framework or paradigm from which the determination of truth is made, is a much better way of understanding truth and the concept of "absolute certainty." Cultures exist that have no concept of, or words for, time. "Yesterday" and "today" are meaningless concepts that do not exist. The extreme difficulty of communication that this presented…
Burch, Robert. "Charles Sanders Peirce." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. http://plato.stanford.edu /entries/peirce/#dia' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Maria Helena, another woman from later in Patai's book, shows a much more direct rejection of masculine dominance, particularly in the context of a marriage. She admits to being something of a lapsed Catholic, which could be seen to tie into her statement that "when I was married, my husband always liked to tell me what to do, but I wouldn't let him. For example, he didn't want our boys to go to school...hen he dies, most of them were already in secondary school" (Patai 195). Maria Helena did not completely reject her Church or her husband, but she refused to let either of these institutional structures make decisions for her, or to influence or even dictate what she felt would be most important and advantageous for her family.
These stories also illustrate the increasing importance the women of Brazil felt, perhaps unconsciously at first, in having the ability to…
Patai, Daphne. Brazilian Women Speak. New York: Rutgers University Press, 1988.
5. Kant's "Copernican Revolution" in philosophy is in his genius use of the positive aspects of Rationalism (Descartes and so on) and Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley and Hume). How can you argue this out with the help of the "Critique of Pure Reason"?
The human experience of negotiating the universe as it seems to be presented to us is one governed by a great many assumptions. Our education of this process, and in particular our capacity to become adept or even talented in various faculties thereto, is created by experience. In experience, we gain the evolving abilities to relate to objects which we can perceive in our world. However, in order to accomplish this, there are any number of beliefs which must be possessed in us that will create a framework wherein such relating can occur. These beliefs -- and the practical, ideological and physiological experiences which are dependent upon them…
Berkeley, G. (1994). Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous. Arete Press, Claremont, CA.
Hume, D. (1738). A Treatise on the Human Nature. Escuela de Filosofia Universidad ARCIS.
Kidd, S.D. (1988). The Intersubjective Heart. Sorbonne.
Kline, A. (2009). Kierkegaard, Abraham, and the Nature of Faith. Soren Kierkegaard Biography. Online at http://atheism.about.com/od/existentialistphilosophers/a/kierkegaard_2.htm
Further Consideration of the Issues:
Actually, Singer's use of the term absolute affluence is not perfectly analogous (because the corresponding analog to the conditions of absolute poverty are those of extravagant wealth not working class wealth), but the idea itself is still valid just the same. The point is simply that once human society in part of the world reached the point where even most of those considered "poor" receive adequate nutrition, shelter, and the most basic emergency medical care (etc.), a moral duty arises whereby helping the less fortunate should be more important than self-centered concerns about increasing one's wealth relative to others in the manner that different levels of affluence are defined in wealthier nations.
It is important that Singer acknowledges the difference between ideals that people should uphold and ideals that people must uphold, because it is likely impossible to establish a logical justification for compelled charity,…
Ultimately, it is inconceivable why any God, much less a loving God, would ever conceive of a universe in which His creatures had no will of their own or were not free to accept His offer of love or to reject it. Salvation, therefore, cannot be predestined and must be a function of human choice or election, precisely because love without choice is not "love" at all.
Armstrong, Karen. 1993. A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Bennet, David. 2004. Predestined for Free ill. Online. Available from the Internet, www.freewill-predestination.com/,accessed18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009. http://www.freewill-predestination.com/,accessed18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009.
Capoccia, Tony. 2009. Bible Questions and Answers Part 19. Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.biblebb.com/files/macqa/1301-Q-11.htm. accessed18 March 2009.
Deem, Richard. 2008. Predestination vs. Free ill - Is it One or the Other? Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.godandscience.org/doctrine/predestination.html,accessed18 March 2009.
Armstrong, Karen. 1993. A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Bennet, David. 2004. Predestined for Free Will. Online. Available from the Internet, www.freewill-predestination.com/,accessed18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009. http://www.freewill-predestination.com/,accessed18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009. accessed 18 March 2009.
Capoccia, Tony. 2009. Bible Questions and Answers Part 19. Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.biblebb.com/files/macqa/1301-Q-11.htm . accessed18 March 2009.
Deem, Richard. 2008. Predestination vs. Free Will - Is it One or the Other? Online. Available from the Internet, http://www.godandscience.org/doctrine/predestination.html,accessed18 March 2009.
Obviously, those situations include survivors of ditches and crashes, but equally important is the degree to which cell phones offer solutions to flight emergencies.
Salven acknowledges that cell phone use of this nature is specifically prohibited by FCC restrictions but relates the views of an FCC spokesman who relates that.".. The FCC isn't aware of any enforcement action having been taken against pilots using cell phones in emergency situations during the past 30 years." Salven describes situations such as cell phone communications between pilot and controllers necessitated by emergency conservation (i.e. shutdown) of electrical power caused by acute ammeter discharge in flight.
Equipment, Flight Hours, and ule Priority Ambiguity:
The other components of emergency communications relate to the relative capability of equipment to prevent emergencies (particularly on the ground), various factors capable of reducing the efficiency of pilot responses to emergencies, and the inherent ambiguity and even apparent contradictions in…
Berge, Paul. "Think ahead of ATC: sow your plan in the mind of ATC and watch it grow into a thing of beauty. it's just a matter of knowing what to ask for and when.(SYSTEM NOTES)(air traffic control).." IFR. 24.2 (Feb 2008): 17(2). Doane, Stephanie M., Young Woo Sohn, and Mark T. Jodlowski. "Pilot ability to anticipate the consequences of flight actions as a function of expertise." Human Factors. 46.1 (Spring 2004): 92(12). EASA. "AIR TRANSPORT: PILOTS' FLIGHT TIMES TOO LONG, SAYS STUDY. (European Aviation Safety Agency).." European Social Policy. (Feb 12, 2009): 243326.
Marks, Paul. "Urgent call to end frequent runway near-misses: collision warning systems that rely on a response from air traffic controllers don't give pilots enough time to act." New Scientist. 188.2519 (Oct 1, 2005): 22(2).
Miller, Bob. "Getting no WX from ATC: thunderstorms can catch you sleeping any time of year. Don't expect the controller to give you a heads-up, either. (SYSTEM NOTES)(weather report, air traffic control).." IFR. 24.1 (Jan 2008): 6(5). Rozendaal, Doug. "Approaches in a hurry: sometimes you've got to get set up for the approach at lightning speed. The secret is to pretend there's no hurry at all. (TRICKS O' the TRADE).." IFR. 23.3 (March 2007): 20(3).
Salven, Valerie. "Cell Phone to the Rescue: In the Air or on the Ground, it Could Save
Socrates and Plotinus also have very similar ideas on how Beauty is recognized, which though intimately related to their ideas on the nature of Beauty are somewhat different, also. For both men, Beauty was connected to the eternal. Socrates, being at least somewhat (and perhaps completely) atheistic, does not immediately or necessarily connect the concept of the eternal with the concept of the divine, however, but rather recognizes the inherent Beauty in the only act of immortality that mortals can engage in -- procreation and generation, which leads to "beauty in birth." The physical act of love between a man and a woman is described by Socrates -- through the voice of Diotima -- as an act of supreme beauty, and its effects are equally beautiful, as it causes immortality and hence touches upon the eternal. Beauty is also connected to love because love cannot occur with deformity; the closer…
First, there is the combining of simple ideas into one single complex idea, "and thus all complex ideas are made" (Locke, 213). Humans also have the ability to look at two ideas simultaneously without combining the; Locke calls these ideas of relations. Finally, abstraction occurs when ideas are separated form all other ideas that generally accompany them in experience. In this manner, Locke believes he has completely described and defined all types and aspects of human thought.
Berkeley, like Locke, believes that it is only through sensation or experience that we can attain any knowledge about the world around us. He goes somewhat further, however, in describing the way these sensations work, claiming that most ideas that Locke would have called "simple" are really complex lists of simple ideas combined into one larger idea -- the idea of an apple, for instance, is a combination of many different ideas regarding…
Berkeley, George. A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge. Chicago: Open Court Publishing, 1904.
Hume, David. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. Chicago: Open Court Publishing, 1907.
Hooker, Richard. "Empiricism." Washington State University Website. 1996. Accessed 11 February 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GLOSSARY/EMPIRIC.htm
Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. New York: Macmillan & Co, 1894.
Thus, a theologian could attempt to refute Cicero by saying that God (or the gods) is (are) capable of anything, even working a miracle. A careful examination of Cicero's logic, however, reveals that he is not actually stating anything in any sort of refutable or even affirmable manner. This clause is not a true part of Cicero's argument at all, but merely a definition of the term "miracle" as he is using it (or whatever other Latin equivalent he actually wrote). If "what was capable of happening is not a miracle," then the converse must also be true; that is, what is a miracle is incapable of happening. There is no reasoning required for this, it is simply the definition of "miracle" as Cicero defines it -- his statement simply defines it in the negative ("a miracle is not capable of happening). Cicero's response to our hypothetical theologian, them would…
He briefly outlines the argument: at one point in the story, the older waiter says "She cut him down," referring to the old man's (a customer) niece. The disputed but of dialogue is a later line that according to convention would be attributed to the older waiter: "I know. You said she cut him down." In the one existing copy of the manuscript, this line appears to be a late addition, and some scholars believe that the publishers made an error in attribution. Smith counters this by claiming that "Hemingway read carefully whatever proofs he received of the publications in 1933" (Smith, 36). Smith then reveals that a typescript had recently surfaced which bridged the gap between penciled manuscript and published page, and that this typescript also attributes the line to the older waiter, exonerating the publishers (Smith, 38). He becomes embroiled in a reflection on who could possibly have…
He grew up and was educated in an era where scientific progress and rationality were seen as the most effective and promising paradigms for progressive thought and action and there was the cultural belief that science in particular could be the solution to a variety of social ills and problems. This ethos can also be related back to the Enlightenment, which was a period that was seen as a "... new stage in the evolution of humankind, and enabled people to claim a new confidence, a new authority through the operation of reason and its principles." (Traynor, 1999. p. 5) in many ways the theories that Ward propounded can be seen to have been engendered by the faith in progress stemming for the Enlightenment.
Wards extreme faith in human reason has been questioned in modern sociological theory and philosophy. The advent of the sociology of knowledge and the relativistic critique…
Biography: Lester Frank Ward. Retrieved November 18, 2008, at http://www.answers.com/topic/lester-frank-ward www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000369074
Civello, P. (1996). Evolutionary Feminism, Popular Romance and Frank Norris's 'Man's Woman.'. Studies in American Fiction, 24(1), 23+. Retrieved November 18, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000369074
Courtney. S. Social science and the making of adult education theory:
Influences on the study of participation, 1930-1960. Retrieved November 15, 2008 at http://www-distance.syr.edu/courtney.htm
According to the authors, this dynamic that many contemporary views consider to be a universal fact of life actually evolved only after the social changes introduced by the Industrial evolution. In fact, any so-called "modern" shift to a more egalitarian sharing of family responsibilities represents more of a return to the more natural state of families than any "radical" or "new" approach.
Branden (1999) agrees, again tying in excessive adherence to typical male and female roles as a potential source of unnecessary strain, especially where marital partners may be better suited to a different arrangement or sharing of responsibilities. Likewise, oberts (2007) also acknowledges the damage caused to marriage by dissatisfaction, especially among wives, as to the roles prescribed to them by society.
Myth # 4 - the Unstable African-American Family:
In their criticism of the notion that the African-American community reflects a lower level of marital and family stability…
Branden, N. (1999) the Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam.
Roberts, S. (2007) the Shelf Life of Bliss. The New York Times, July 1, 2007.
Schwartz, M.A., Scott, B.M. (2000) "Debunking Myths about Marriage and Families" in Marriages and Families: Diversity and Change.
Estimated Age of Employee
equested Alternative Benefit epresentative -- Yes/No
equested Alternative Benefit epresentative -- Yes/No
Figure 1. Number of employees requesting alternative benefit representative.
The results of the experiment failed to demonstrate any significant or conclusive findings concerning the hypothesis that age would have an adverse effect on the perception of the credibility of the younger benefit representatives for a variety…
"Engage Employees as Consumers in Benefits Enrollment." (2007). Managing Benefits Plans,
Little, a.C. & Perrett, D.I. (2007). Using Composite Images to Assess Accuracy in Personality
Attribution to Faces. British Journal of Psychology, 98, 111-126.
This helps to establish the case that a gap exists between that which science accepts about biofuels and that which politicians present on the subject.
This is complimented by Thornton's (2006) concise detraction of ethanol, this article serves as reinforcement for the recurring case that the process of yielding energy from ethanol is too consuming of time and energy, and thus, should be disregarded as a means to developing an alternative fuel source.
The certainty that the world community must attend with urgency to a transition to a clean-burning and effective alternative fuel source dominates discourse today on oil production and energy efficiency. And there is a dominance in this discussion, as well as in current implementation, of the endorsement of biofuels. A clear-burning energy source derived from the fermentation of sugars found in various plant-cellulous, for some time this has been sought as a possible alternative fuel to…
Butler, M. (2008). Lessons from Biofuels. Greentech. Online at http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/lessons-from-biofuels-10-768.html
Dien, B.; Bothast, R.; Nichols, N. & Cotta, M. (2002). The U.S. Corn Ethanol Industry: An Overview of Current Technology and Future Prospects. Agricultural Research Service, 104, p. 204-211.
Environmental Protection Agency. (2008). Renewable Fuel Standard Program. U.S. Government. Online at http://www.epa.gov/OMS/renewablefuels/ .
Freeman, S. (2008). $1 per gallon biofuel touted. The Republic. Online at http://www.masslive.com/springfield/republican/index.ssf?/base/news-13/1207725605294850.xml&coll=1 .
One of the key problems in the history of epistemological inquiry is that of skepticism. There are some moderate skeptics who have argued that knowledge is theoretically possible. There are some skeptics, however, who are more radical in their views. They feel that the attainment of true knowledge is not possible. Indeed, the deep truth that that the skeptic brings out is the fact that it is quite difficult to determine from whence knowledge comes. I believe that one finds the answer to this in Reid, who came to the conclusion that there was no real way of knowing how one attains knowledge - whether it derives from purely internal processes, the external world, or some combination thereof.
One of the key problems in the history of epistemological inquiry is that of skepticism. The philosophical argument behind skepticism is that one does not have knowledge…