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health and reproductive rights, the issues at stake are women's physical health and their physical autonomy. One of the main arguments that the authors make is that women's health has been compromised because of their inability to exercise autonomy. For example, the debate over reproductive rights, whether access to safe and legal abortion or access to birth control, has endangered women's physical safety. However, the ability to exercise autonomy in health control decisions is not limited to reproductive decisions; approximately one in five women between the ages of 18 and 64 lack health insurance, which strips them of the financial ability to make important health decisions (Shaw & Lee, 2009). This leads to discussions of social factors surrounding health.
In chapter seven, which focuses on family systems and family lives, the issues at stake are how family is defined by society. There has been a significant change in society from…… [Read More]
Still, in the real world, there is a need for a solution: Who has the higher ground, those who would do whatever is needed at whatever cost to conceive? Or those who contend that if a baby cannot be conceived in the usual way, nothing further should be done, whether for religious or ecological reasons?
One solution, obviously, is to refrain from classifying infertility as a disability. That would save enormous amounts of insurance money and also prevent the need for government to support infertility treatments through Medicaid or other entitlement programs. If a woman or couple wanted treatment, they would have to pay for it themselves in this case, which would doubtless limit treatment to the well to do. That, of course, opens the issue of economic fairness in an open Western-style society.
A better solution is refusal to refuse to classify infertility as a disability, and to also…… [Read More]
While even those most supportive of a woman's right to choose understand that a fetus does acquire fundamental human rights at some point relatively early in the third trimester, opponents of autonomous reproductive rights hold the position that personhood begins at the moment of conception (Mappes & Zembaty, 2008).
This is the main source of legal controversy precisely because it reflects a religious belief defining human life as being created at the moment of fertilization (Mappes & Zembaty, 2008). While that is a perfectly acceptable belief within the framework of religious philosophy, it is a fundamental violation of the concept of separation of church and state to impose that belief on secular laws.
The First constitutional amendment prohibits both the establishment and the prohibition of religion by the government. Going back even further, religious freedom was one of the principle motivations of the original Settlers who left British rule, precisely…… [Read More]
In oe v. Wade, the Court applied those privacy rights to the abortion controversy to settle it once and for all on a national level.
There are two specific lines of argument typically used to argue against the right to seek an abortion: (1) religious values that condemn abortion as a "sin"; and (2) ethical concern for the fetus (eiman, 1999). The first basis for objection is absolutely impermissible under modern U.S. Constitutional law (Dershowitz, 2002; Edwards, Wallenberg, & Lineberry, 2008). That is simply because the First Constitutional Amendment expressly prohibits the government from making any laws of religion. The religious beliefs that "life begins at conception" or that "every human life is created in the image of God" are perfectly acceptable beliefs that are (also) protected under the 1st Amendment. However, no religious beliefs of any kind may be used as the basis for secular law in the U.S.…… [Read More]
Reproductive Potential and Paternity Certainty: Factors Determining Mate Preferences among Males & Females
Dear So Bummed Out in Berkeley,
You described yourself as a "sleek, young California mouse." Indeed, your irritation over Guy Next Door/Dull Dude for choosing his "totally ugly" wife over you has to do with your physical traits/attributes. That is, you base your judgment that Dull Dude will prefer you, a young and sleek California mouse, with the assumption that he prefers physically attractive mice over 'totally ugly' ones. Unfortunately, due to the diverse characteristics that your specie (California mice) possess, it is not a guarantee that biological traits, specifically, desirable biological traits, becomes the sole basis for mate preference among male California mice (particularly Dull Dude).
It is important for you to remember that your specie does not only look at physical or biological traits, but it also looks at social and cultural interactions among species…… [Read More]
Studies have shown that the mean maternal age of motherhood has been increasing since 1980, which although may suit many modern careers and life styles, it puts women at a greater risk of declining fertility. The fundamental manifestation of ovarian aging is not just because of a decrease in the number of oocytes, but also because of a decline in its quality. Moreover, women of advanced maternal age are at a greater risk of developing aneuploidy in embryos. This contributes to their inability to bear a child by increasing both implantation loss and pregnancy failure. (Judy et al., 2012)
In Vitro Fertilization, IVF is one of the forms of assisted reproductive technology that enhances the chances of conception. In IVF, ovaries are stimulated to produce mature oocytes which are retrieved transvaginally under sonographic guidance. Oocyte retrieval is normally an outpatient procedure, performed with adequate analgesia. The sperm and…… [Read More]
" (International Conference on Population and Development ICPD) (ibid)
However the meaning of reproductive right extends into other areas. For example, this includes the right to non-discrimination based on sex/gender and the right to privacy as well as the right to information. The issue of the reproductive rights for women becomes problematic and often fraught with controversy when it is applied to those infected with the HIV virus. This dilemma has far-reaching implications for the millions of women with HIV throughout the world.
3.2. Different perspectives
The different views on the subject of reproductive rights range from the more conservative view that all reproductive rights should be denied in Women with HIV to more perceptive views that links the denial of reproductive rights to other human rights issues. For example, one view from a survey conducted by the International Community of Women Living with HIV / AIDS (ICW) states that,…… [Read More]
Furthermore, this brief introduction details the different types of legislation regarding men and women that Wollstonecraft supported. Next, this chapter moves onto Wollstonecraft's own life and actions, as well as a brief description of the time period in which she lived. These descriptions allow the reader to understand how Wollstonecraft was both revolutionary and conventional, in addition to how society encouraged and discouraged her various roles. Furthermore, I introduce these ideas to personify the struggle in which Wollstonecraft operated every day. It is this struggle that I emphasize during this chapter, giving the reader an idea of the challenging nature of Wollstonecraft's life because of it, in addition to its contribution to her struggle on paper. This chapter also introduces the reactions that others had to her work, as well as a tribute to its lasting contributions. I remark that Wollstonecraft is a strong voice among other female writers and…… [Read More]
It is apparent that the queer identified in Zimbabwe has not yet been socially accepted enough to even begin to look at the ways marriage laws discriminate against them. The most basic rights that are assumed when looking at the discrimination of LGB community and what are thought of as given human rights seen through a North American lense do not exist. The most basic laws of protection from active discrimination in public do not exist. Thus, to try and apply our notion of equal marriage rights within this society would be like trying to run before learning to walk. There are more pressing rights that need to be addressed, such as changing the laws that make ____ punishable by death for the LGB people who live within Zimbabwe before marital status and how the laws surrounding marriage are oppressive can begin to be examined.
From the previous three examples,…… [Read More]
right to privacy is wrongly assumed to be expressly protected by the Constitution; in fact no right to privacy clause exists but is implied in the Bill of Rights. Privacy is implied, for example, in the freedom of religious beliefs and practice guaranteed in the First Amendment. The Fourth Amendment's provision against unlawful search and seizure refers to the right to privacy, as does the Fifth Amendment right to remain silent. Privacy is broadly believed to be a natural extension of other rights in the Constitution.
In Griswold v. Connecticut the court described the right to privacy as part of a "penumbra" or zone encompassing at least the First, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Amendments ("Griswold v. Connecticut and the Right to Contraceptives"). The Griswold case provided the foundation for the later case Roe v. ade, which used the same penumbra analogy to show that childbearing choices fall within the presumed…… [Read More]
WOMEN'S IGHTS: EQUALITY IN THE WOKFOCE, EQUAL PAY
Women's ights: Equality in the Workplace, Equal Pay
Legislative background. The word "sex" is always an attention-getter, and when used in legislation, it can be polarizing. Public Law 82-352 (78 Stat. 241) was passed by Congress in 1964 as a civil rights statute. The Law made it a crime to discriminate in all aspects of employment on the basis of race and sex. epresentative Howard W. Smith (D-VA) added the word "sex" at the eleventh hour (O'Neill, 2011), reported to keep the bill from being passed. As a conservative Southerner, Smith was seen as an opponent of federal civil rights legislation. But Smith defended his action, explaining that he had amended the bill because of his work with the National Women's Party and his efforts to support Alice Paul. The effort to retain the word "sex" in the bill was led by…… [Read More]
omen struggles in EL
The rights of women in society have always been a topic shrouded in a great deal of discussion. In many ways women are still struggling for equality within society and will likely continue to struggle for some years to come. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on how this theme of women's rights has informed English Literature and the manner in which it has been expressed including those thing that have changed and those things that have remained constant. More specifically the research will focus on women's rights in English literature from the Romantic Age until the 21st century.
The Romantic Age
In the real of English literature the Romantic age (1789-1830) was an extremely important time because it marked a new birth in the type literature that was written and the manner in which readers were exposed to the literature. As it pertains…… [Read More]
political, social, and civil rights as they are, the notion of possible futures haunts nearly everyone. Potential political realities in the present and not-so-distant future are examined in Margaret Atwood's Handmaid's Tale and Marge Piercy's Woman on the Edge of Time. These novels have become modern classics precisely because of their poignant relevance to real-world social and political affairs. Although both Atwood's and Piercy's novels are at least in part set in future times, both tales are devoid of any significant characteristics that distinguish them from the present day reality. Thus, both The Handmaid's Tale and Woman on the Edge of Time eerily depict life in modern-day America even as they bridge gaps in time. In particular, issues related to gender and to political power are salient in both books. Through the core elements of their narratives, The Handmaid's Tale and Woman on the Edge of Time reveal that male-dominated…… [Read More]
executive office should influence women's rights largely depends on the political climate. The executive can and should balance the powers of the legislature and the judicial branch, as per the Constitution. Moreover, women's rights are universal and immutable. If any one branch infringes on the rights of women, it is up to one or both of the other branches to curb that infringement and ensure that gender discrimination is fully abolished. Unfortunately, the current political climate in the United States is frightfully unbalanced. The same political party is in control of the legislative branch and executive, and is poised to skew the judicial branch towards its conservative and sometimes misogynistic views. In the case of Trump, the executive can technically and legally pass executive orders like the global gag rule. This does not make the executive's powers right or ethical, but legally it is difficult to challenge Trump when Obama…… [Read More]
Passing judgment on the reasons that women choose to have CVS is unwise under all circumstances. According to the belief systems of some individuals, all abortion is morally wrong and the use of CVS merely encourages sex-selective abortion or aborting fetuses because the resulting child is more likely to have genetic diseases associated with one gender (such as hemophilia in males). But once the principle is established that women have a right to choose to have an abortion, it is not the medical profession's right to decide what is a 'good' reason or a 'bad' reason to have an abortion, so long as the center is in compliance with the law regarding fetal viability.
The same is true regarding the availability of CVS, given that the center's view of abortion rights seems to be clearly tied to its policy. The center presumably does not take a position on…… [Read More]
The majority of women can return to their normal routine the next day ("In Vitro Fertilization"). In most cases total bed rest is not required unless there is some risk associated with the development of OHSS ("In Vitro Fertilization").
The NIH further explains that women who utilize IVF must take the hormone progesterone for at least two months following the embryo transfer ("In Vitro Fertilization"). The hormone is taken through daily shots or pills. Progesterone is a naturaly produced hormone produced that assists in thickenign the lining of the uterus ("In Vitro Fertilization"). This thickening makes it easier for the embryo to implant to the wall of the uterus. If there is ot enough progesterone the woman will miscarry ("In Vitro Fertilization").
In additon to the risks associated with this type of reproductive technology, IVF is very expensive ("In Vitro Fertilization"). The NIH explains that many states require that insurance…… [Read More]
science marches forward, reproductive cloning of humans will likely become a reality. It has already been accomplished with dogs, cats, cows and monkeys. This means that one day a person will be able to have a child with his/her own cells. hat do you think some of the family law issues will be as this form of alternative reproduction becomes a reality?
As soon as Dr. Ian ilmut made a breakthrough announcement that he, and his team, had successfully cloned an adult sheep in 1997, the salience of the controversy about cloning humans and genetic modifications in the human genome virtually erupted (Rose, 1999). It became clear at this point that it was feasibly possible to conduct a range of scientifically assisted reproduction such as human cloning for example. There could also be a mix of genetic information bestowed on a child. For example, family planning could resemble something along…… [Read More]
In 1963, the Equal Pay Act equalized pay between men and women by law, but did not apply to many types of employment such as administrators, professionals, and executives. The following year, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed discrimination based on gender (and race), in conjunction with the creation of the Equal
Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to enforce employment rights and redress violations of law in that regard.
Homophobia, Limitations of Equality, and Room for Future Improvement:
Today, American women enjoy most of the same rights and privileges and men, although certain inequalities still persist. In a practical sense, female wages still lag substantially behind many of their male counterparts in wages in non-regulated employment areas. One of the areas in which civil rights and privileges still reflect considerable inequality is in the realm of same-sex unions. While some states recognize the equality of same-sex couples…… [Read More]
(Deuteronomy 22:28-29). hile these Biblical endorsements of unequal treatment may seem historical and antiquated to a modern, estern audience, the fact is that many parts of the world still treat women in a similar fashion, so that the Bible would be useless in helping to determine a standard of human rights for women.
In addition, many human rights activists believe that the death penalty is a de facto violation of human rights, regardless of the guilt or innocence of the person to be executed and the nature of the crime committed by that person. However, the Bible clearly endorses the application of the death penalty. Moreover, the Bible endorses the use of the death penalty in areas where most of the modern world has determined its use to be inappropriate. Amaziah executed his father's assassins, and the Bible described him as doing "what was right in the eyes of the…… [Read More]
But sometimes the victims themselves are afraid to voice their grievances in the public because speaking up entails shame, ostracization, and even extra-judicial killings. The victims can express their grievances in public "only at certain times and in certain ways" because their rights are infringed on social and cultural levels (Dewey).
The fact that cultural and traditional beliefs and attitudes contribute to violations of women's rights in a systematic manner can be observed by reading literature on the practice of dowry. Many Indian legal and philosophical thinkers use relativistic terms to contest the notion that the practice contributes to the abuse of women. They contest the notion because they argue the concept of human rights is a estern notion, sometimes disregarding cultural variations and sensibilities of the Indian nation (Gupta). The general critique of the concept of human rights as a western notion may be valid in some matters, but…… [Read More]
International Human ights, Women and Gender
International Human ights: Women and Gender
Women are the most assaulted segment of the human society. A shocking statistic reveals that a majority of the females are subjected to violence and sexual violence by the time they reach their late teens (Fergus, 2012).
Definitions of Violence against women, constitutes the mental and physical torture they are subjected to by way of restricting their right to freedom in the broader sense of the term. The crimes and exploitation against younger girls implies, by definition, violence based on gender discrimination. It has been observed that this act of violence is fallout of the negligence shown towards equality of the female child and womenfolk in general (Fergus, 2012).
The act of violence exposes the women and specifically the younger female child to isolation, loss of identity, unhealthy overall development, psychological and social stigma (WHO, 2006) and hence…… [Read More]
The next objection of IVF separating the procreation and marital aspects of marriage and in the end damaging the marital relationship was totally untrue in this case. This couple had a very strong relationship and going through the process of gestational surrogacy strengthen their martial relationship as opposed to damaging it. The last objection of adoption is a better answer to the trouble of childlessness may very well be true for a lot of people. One cannot argue the fact that there are a lot of children out there that need to have good homes and there are many couples that could benefit tremendously from this avenue. But in the case of the couple in this article the idea of having a biological child was something that was very strong from them, thus making the path that they took the best one for them.
IVF, just like many other things…… [Read More]
This is called "reproduction worship." According to this belief the world originated from Yin and Yang life force. This has had a great impact on Chinese culture and its view of reproduction. Yin is considered a male life force with many powerful positive attributes while Yang is assigned mainly weaker attributes. eproduction is given much importance because of its power to move the universe ahead and to expand the same. The forces of Yin and Yang are both needed for actions to have impact. There are other beliefs that seem to have an impact on reproductive behavior among Chinese couples. (Tang, 1995)
Since Confucianism advocates sexual restraint and asceticism, marriage is seen as a vehicle for reproduction rather than a means of enjoying sex. Secondly families are considered very significant because of ancestor worship. Since ancestors are revered in Chinese culture, having a family is always the motivating force behind…… [Read More]
(Brownmiller 470) Hemorrhaging blood, Brownmiller was afraid -- but her fear did not make her question her choice.
Of course, pro-life activists like Dew would argue that no matter how desperately women might want abortions, they have no right to end another human being's life, regardless of their circumstances. But Dew's line of argumentation raises serious questions about the ethics of forcing another human being to subject their bodies to the rigors of pregnancy (which has far greater risks than a legal abortion) and to harbor another human being within their body against their will. Of course, a woman might choose to have sex -- but the ability of a young girl to fully understand the implications of her decision to have intercourse, and the fact that the male in question does not have to endure a pregnancy, suggests that the 'fairness' of outlawing abortion, regardless of the status of…… [Read More]
In addition to that sex tourism occurs in a manner that is generally difficult to legitimately police efficiently. Tourist will come to a country on business and while there they engage the locals in any number of activities.
Economically both sex and romance tourism provides income for the persons engaged in the practice. In Jamaica where the "rent a dread" practice is dominant many young men depend on the largess of foreign women for their successful living. Many also tie their future fortunes to the women falling in love with them and taking them back to Europe or America. In depressed areas sex is a major income earner for persons who have nothing else to trade.
The sex trade in its multiple manifestations provides income for some and pleasure for others. The immediate challenge is that it represents the bankruptcy of the individual and the country when the last resort…… [Read More]
Contemporary Feminist Advocacy
Although there is not absolute consensus, popular writings about feminism suggest that there have been three waves of feminism: (1) The first wave of feminism is said to have occurred in the 18th through the 20th centuries and was characterized by a focus on suffrage; (2) The decades spanning 1960 to 1990 are said to encompass the second wave of feminism, to which a concern with cultural and legal gender inequality is attributed; and (3) The third wave of feminism began in the early 1990s partly in response to the conservative backlash the second wave engendered, and partly in recognition of the unrealized goals of the second wave of feminism up to that time ("NOW," 2009). This third wave of feminism made salient a more subjective voice that pointed at the intersection of race and gender with greater resolve than would have been possible when…… [Read More]
If we look at one of the absolutes, such as abortion in cultures in which choice is at least generally available about reproductive options abortion is at least relatively unstigmatized and access to it is legal and there are no significant economic barriers, a woman may still have religious or ethical or emotional reasons why she would perceive abortion negatively.
A woman, for example, who has suffered through a number of miscarriages of wanted pregnancies may find herself for various reasons unable or unwilling to carry a pregnancy to term. In such a case, having an abortion may be the right choice for that woman but may still be very painful.
In general, the ways in which sexuality and fertility shapes a woman's relationship with self -- as well as with family and the larger community -- is largely determined by the degree of choice that she has over having…… [Read More]
After all, it remains within the female's best interest to mate with a newly dominant male, even if he has killer her infant. Ultimately, this is because the female, having lost her offspring, needs to remain reproductively competitive and to mate with a male. Additionally, if she mates with a non-dominant male, who has not killed her offspring, she runs the risk of the dominant male repeating his actions. Accordingly, she is obligated to mate with the dominant male in order to decrease the risk that her infant will be killed again. It may also be the case that the mothers who are victims of infanticide are physically incapable of preventing the guilty males from mating with them because of the differences in size between the sexes.
In human societies, however, we see less infanticide perpetrated by males relative to our population. There are many reasons for this: there are…… [Read More]
Abortion: An Argument in Favor
Abortion is one of the most controversial topics of our day as it involves an entanglement of truly pressing issues that people generally feel incredibly passionate about: human life, religion, morality, and the rights of women. Historically, America has been a nation founded by and run by Caucasian men, which has meant that the bulk of legislation can be and has historically been harsh, unfair and unequal to women and minorities. Women (and minorities) have had to work harder and fight harder to receive rights that white men don't hesitate in giving themselves. For example, women have had to fight for the right to be reinstated to their jobs after maternity leave, for equal pay, and to fight against federal laws that have made it a crime to use contraceptives or birth control information (ACLU, 2012). Women have had to fight in certain states to…… [Read More]
The following table covers the websites:
National Women's Law Center
This org works to make changes in the legal environment concerning women and girls.
Human ights Campaign
LGBT rights org. Civil rights org, raises awareness, launches campaigns, highlights issues
Fighting for LGBT rights, especially at the legal level
The status of women in the United States for most of its history has been quite poor, with respect to rights and opportunity. For most of the country's history, women were excluded from participation in the democratic process. To this day, no woman has ever held the highest office, while even repressive countries like Pakistan have had female leaders. For women, the fight for rights and equality is an ongoing battle. After being granted the right to vote, the next major advancements for the rights of women came in the 1960s with things like the…… [Read More]
Women in the United States faced many difficulties before the legalization of abortion. The case of oe vs. Wade is famous as this case allowed for the legalization of abortion K. Jones & Chaloner, 2007.
Before the legalization of abortion, there were women who still aborted illegally, and all that legalization provided for was a safe environment for the women to perform abortion. Legalization of abortion provided women with a choice in regards to keeping the pregnancy to term or terminating the pregnancy. This choice is and has been a controversial one, which results in many debates for and against abortion. The debates regarding abortion have not favored women as it was earlier thought, since there are women who still cannot access abortion services. Women of color were mostly disadvantaged before abortion was legalized, but the situation did not change after abortion was legalized. Colored women…… [Read More]
Schwartz (2006), many arguments are presented, most of which generally criticize the Western treatment of First Nations people or address women's rights issues. As an example, "Aboriginal Australia: Current Criminological Themes" by ick Sarre (2006) focuses on the affect of British colonialism in Australia on the Aborigines, connecting it to a vast overrepresentation of Aborigines in the Australian penal system. "The Left ealist Perspective on ace, Class, and Gender" by Walter S. DeKeseredy (2006) illustrates the fact that, in the United States, it cannot be said that there is 'justice for all;' "First Nations people and African-Americans are much more likely to be arrested, convicted and incarcerated than members of the dominant culture who commit the same crimes" (p. 49). Throughout most of the articles, different approaches to solving such attitudes are explored, such as the left realist theory and the postmodern perspective.
The Female Circumcision Controversy: an Anthropological Perspective…… [Read More]
political policy of interest and summarize that policy while contrasting it with my own position. In order to do this I have chosen ep. Nancy Pelosi of California and her position on the legality of abortion. Before contrasting Ms. Pelosi's comments with my own I will give background information about this policy and how it affects the citizens of our country.
oe v Wade was the Supreme Court decision that made abortion legal and women had a constitutional right to this practice. The decision was based on protecting the personal privacy of the pregnant woman and took their power from the 9th and 14th amendments of the Constitution. The court deemed that a fetus is not a person but merely a potential for life and therefore disqualifies that organism from having any rights of its own. There is some leeway within this law giving more potential rights to the potential…… [Read More]
However, Suzanne is a white woman. Obviously, a woman of color would have had a different experience in that same time period, because there were not darker skinned women in powerful roles in the media. When they did appear, they may have been relegated to subservient positions or be women with very Caucasian features, like Dorothy Dandridge. Therefore, it is important to keep in mind that Suzanne's experience is probably not reflective of all women of her time period.
In fact, to me it appears clear that media images are another issue that could be seen as a comparable harmless or less important inequality rather than an evil. For instance, "North American feminism, in particular, has focused on securing equal political and economic rights for women (inequalities) and prioritized these problems rather than focusing on domestic violence and traffic in women and girls (evils)" (Brennan, 2009, p. 146). While women…… [Read More]
DEFENDING a OMEN'S RIGHT TO CHOOSE ABORTION
Abortion, or the elective termination of pregnancy likely predates recorded human history, being practiced within virtually every society throughout the world.(6)
In 1973, the United States Supreme Court very specifically decided that the United
States Constitution affords a fundamental right to individual privacy that absolutely prohibits governmental interference with a women's autonomous right to seek medical termination of unwanted pregnancy, except where deemed necessary to safeguard the woman's health paternalistically.(4) Ever since the legal issue was decided by the Supreme Court in 1973, a so-called pro-life lobby, spearheaded by religious opposition to any type of abortion has campaigned for and funded the proposition of legislation and policies designed to undermine the rights recognized and established under constitutional law in the United States.
Ultimately, the United States Constitution requires that the appropriate guidelines for defining legally permissible abortion rights and relative concern for the…… [Read More]
Americans are aware that they are entitled to "their day in court" but may not fully understand the full range of due process protections that are contained in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a discussion concerning the meaning, history and importance of the constitutional concept of "due process" as contained in the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. A brief discussion analyzing the conflicting positions of Justices Hugo Black and Felix Frankfurter with respect to the incorporation of American citizens' rights under the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, and how these Justices' positions helped develop the concept of due process is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning due process in the conclusion.
.eview and Discussion
According to Black's Law Dictionary, "due process of law" means…… [Read More]
Going by history, the chain gangs found in America were mostly used as tools for humiliating, controlling and terrorizing the African-Americans. The chain gang reappeared in 1995 as a type of punishment in Alabama prisons, thus bringing back to life one of the most shameful and powerful symbol of America's bequest of institutionalized ethnic subjugation and racial prejudice. The 8th Amendment prohibits all punishments that are not in agreement with the evolving decency standards that exhibits the growth of an emergent civilization. Slavery was not abolished immediately as a consequence of implementation of the 13th Amendment.
Despite the constitutional provisions for the total prohibition of slavery; the remnants of slavery could still be found in several economic, political and social contexts. Under the disguise of criminal justice, slavery was almost unashamedly re-implemented. Before the 13th Amendment saw the light of the day, repressive labor practices were introduced into…… [Read More]
Jones relates that statement of Corrigan: "Our work suggests that the biggest factor changing stigma is contact between people with mental illness and the rest of the population. The public needs to understand that many people with mental illness are functioning, fully contributing members of society." (Jones, 2006) Jones states that "the social cost of stigma associated with mental illness is high because it translates into huge numbers of people with treatable mental illness not getting help." Jones relates the fact that the National Alliance of Mental Illness (NAMI) is a group of advocates that works toward fighting the "inaccurate, hurtful representations of mental illness" that are found in the media. Jang (2002) states that the National Health Law Program has a priority to access of healthcare. In fact, the Executive Order (EO 13166) was focused toward the implementation of guidelines in overcoming the language barriers. Jang states that LEP…… [Read More]
In this context the argument is made from a moral and religious point-of-view that the unborn child is alive and that abortion is tantamount to murder. As Bohan (1999) states in the House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human ights Issue, "No society that truly believes in human rights can fail to recognize the right to life of the unborn. Human rights are, by definition, rights, which inhere in one simply by virtue of being a human "(Bohan, 1999, p. 64).
From the religious perspective the main argument against abortion revolves around the view of the religious and spiritual value of human life. In Christianity this refers to the Commandant, "Thou shall not Kill." The sanctity of life applies as well to the unborn child and in many religions life begins at the moment of conception. Form this normative perspective the murder of a human being is seen to be…… [Read More]
Anger may also be directed at general society or circumstances that prevented the woman from having an optimally healthy pregnancy or from being able to provide a child with a healthy and wholesome environment in which to grow and flourish. All these issues could have severe post-abortion effects upon women who undergo the procedure. On the basis of these findings, the authors recommend that abortion should not be legalized.
Another version of the human rights argument is espoused by Pruss (2001), who focuses upon the fetus as a person with an identity. Pruss considers that the fetus, at the point of conception, is not a physical part of the mother's identity any more than it is part of the father's. In other words, the fetus is as separate entity, although for the first nine months of its life it is dependent upon its mother for its continued life. Although it…… [Read More]
Indeed, the most serious health issue related to domestic violence of course is mortality, and the California omen's Law Center (CLC) conducted a survey of 100 murders of women by their male intimate partners. The results are very germane for those interested in health-related gender fairness through the law in California.
CLC found that in 59% of the surveyed cases of women homicide victims the murder was not the first abusive episode; and a "history of threats to the victims' life" by the killer was available in 47% of the cases. Because seeking a "restraining order" and/or domestic violence services increases a victim's safety in many cases, 68% of abused murder victims "...never obtained, or attempted to obtain, a protective order against their abusive partner" (CLC, 2003). Just 20% of those women killed by intimate partners had an active restraining order against their abuser at the time they were murdered.…… [Read More]
But "few states with mandatory insurance for IVF still require couples to undergo three cycles of ovulation induction and artificial insemination before IVF" thus encouraging the use of a technology more likely to result in multiple births (Roan, 2007, p.4).
hen contemplating the use of fertility drugs or IVF, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology advocates discussing the possibility of selective reduction and the patient's comfort level with this practice before any procedures are performed. However, its guidelines, are not binding. For example, "the U.S. fertility industry has guidelines on how many embryos doctors can implant, with the number varying by age and other factors. The guidelines call for no more than one or two for a generally healthy woman under 35, and no more than three to five, depending on the embryos' maturity, for women over 40" (atkins & Neergaard 2008). Eight embryos would be "well beyond" these…… [Read More]
In order to understand the position of women in Iran as far as their roles, rights and empowerment is concerned, it is significant to understand the wider picture of the prevailing condition in the Middle East and the contrast that there is in the West. These two represent different polarities in the context of culture, perspective on women, roles assigned, rights granted and the positions that women hold in these two societies. There is a still not an in depth understanding of the lives of women in the Middle East and the roles that they are meant to play. In majority of the societies therein, women are hardly seen carrying out any meaningful role, let alone being heard. They are assigned a background role in this Muslim world and the persistent stereotypes and judgments about the social practices form a single dimensional depiction of women that rarely reflects the real…… [Read More]
y contrast, this was not found to be true for the Colombian couples. Instead, their level of relationship satisfaction was predicted by having a similar level of expressiveness between spouses, irrespective of whether the level was high, medium, or low (Ingoldsby, 1980). Likewise, Colombian women and men were determined to be are equally likely to say what they feel and to express themselves at the same level as North American males. In the United States, female spouses are typically significantly more expressive as a group than are their male counterparts (Ingoldsby, 1980).
In a significant recent paper, ailey (2006) focuses on biotechnological discoveries in birth control methods that offered women greater power to choose the timing of childbearing. This power may have translated into higher investments in education and increased labor force participation of women. In an excellent paper, among other things, Goldin (1995) focused on technological International Research Journal…… [Read More]
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…… [Read More]
139). When she is "taken for a man," she is "not fat," because of the different gendered social norms related to body size (Bergman, 2009, p. 139). Thinness is also a type of privilege, as is external or socially acceptable beauty. Beauty ideals and norms are also tied in with race, culture, and class. Economic class and social class often determine access to healthy food, which is why low-income people are more likely to be obese and have related problems. Although generally, African-American women have healthier body images than white women, white cultural hegemony has started to infiltrate black culture, especially in what iley (n.d.) calls "bourgeois black families," (p. 358). iley's (n.d.) experiences reveal the interconnectedness, or intersectionality, between race, class, and gender. Just as it is important to recognize different gendered identities for women from different cultural backgrounds, it is also important to acknowledge that not all women…… [Read More]
In other words, World War II produced an important shift in both mentality and reality. Although many of the women who had been employed during the war returned to being homemakers, there was also a significant percentage which managed to reconcile being a mother and a wife with work. Also, despite the fact that their wages were far from being equal to those of men, their contribution to the income of the household was welcome and in most cases, made a real difference as far as the economic demands of the family (essler-Harris: 280). Moreover this shift paved the way for the 1950s when a new set of ideas entered American society and seriously challenged both the labor market and social conventions. Gay bars started to appear, and although they were underground and hard to find even for members of the homosexual community, their emergence favored freedom of expression even…… [Read More]
As in most other places around the world, the demands of family - caring for children, keeping house, obtaining and preparing food for meals - fall predominantly on women. In the case of Cuba this situation is made worse by the distortions of the communistic economy:
People's motivation to work waned as there was little to work for. Money came to have little meaning in the legal economy - but not by design as, according to Marxism, it was supposed to do in a utopian communist society. There simply was little to buy through officially sanctioned channels, and the government provided most social needs gratis or for minimum fees. Under the circumstances, material as well as moral incentives became ineffective in the legal economy. The burdens of sheer survival and transport difficulties also led people to miss work with increased regularity, above all women on whom the burdens fell most.…… [Read More]
Arising out of the broader civil rights movements, the Second Wave of Feminism confronted a wide range of social and political issues. Because the agenda of the Second Wave of Feminism was diverse, it touched the lives of most women throughout the world. Included among the issues confronted by Second Wave feminists are reproductive rights, racial justice, homosexual rights, and economic and labor equity for women. Not all women can relate to each of these distinct causes, but the Second Wave of Feminism nevertheless made an impact on most women: the raising of consciousness of one group of women raises consciousness for all other groups. Likewise, the rise in social status of one group of women results in the eventual improvement in social status of all women. While not every individual female throughout the world has benefited from the Second Wave of Feminism and sexism still runs rampant throughout…… [Read More]
Feminist Blog Analysis: Feministing
While described in the assignment details as a blog, the website Feministing actually seems to go beyond the expectations of a mere blog. It considers itself an "online community run by and for young feminists,"[footnoteRef:1] and instead of offering just the social commentary one might expect going to a blog site, it actually offers a significant amount of reporting or, at least repackaging, of news, making it easily consumed by potential readers. Its stated goal is to provide an intersectional overview of feminist issues and to provide a way to connect emerging feminists with other activists and organizations. While the blog is not inappropriate for other people, its target audience is young feminists and one of its goals is clearly to help young people understand why feminism is still so critical to social equality, although this is not overtly stated in the blog's promotional materials. It…… [Read More]
Baer, 2002, p. xx)
Medical issues surrounding OCs:
Medical complications associated with the utilization of oral contraceptives are varied but in general stem from both known and unknown complexities associated with the ingredients that make up OCs, as all hormones are steroids and in many cases have multi-variant biochemical effects, some known and some unknown. The complexities of steroids, of which all hormones are, demonstrate the need for a great deal of further research with regards to their use. Some more common side effects of oral contraceptives, though they can vary slightly according to brand and dosage of active ingredients are:
nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, bloating, weight change and water retention. Water retention may cause swelling of fingers or ankles. Other side effects of oral contraceptives may include nervousness, depression, dizziness, change in appetite, loss of scalp hair, rash, vaginal infections, migraine headaches, missed menstrual periods and bleeding between periods.…… [Read More]
This legislation passed in 1999, this bill is one of 16 "basic laws" that are enacted in order to "address fundamental issues of the state system creating connections between the Constitution" in Japan and the legislative process itself. It clearly shows dramatic progress in the rights and power of women in Japanese society and government.
A brief comparison of Japan policies with U.S. policies: In Chapter 3, Gelb compares Japan and the U.S. On the issue of domestic violence; in the U.S. (p. 66) in 1994, Congress passed the Violence Against omen Act, "the most significant law ever passed in this policy area," she asserts. The passage of this landmark act was due to "feminist advocacy, key congressional support, and widespread public discourse," she added (p. 69). In Japan, meanwhile, domestic violence legislation called the Law for Prevention of Spousal Violence and the Protection of Victims passed in 2001, which…… [Read More]
Infanticide in China
In 2007, the United Nations Population Fund published a study that argued there were 60 million "missing" girls in Asia, a direct result of female infanticide (Karabin, 2007). Infanticide, by definition, is the unlawful killing of very young children, and in some cultures this practice is conducted against female babies in particular. The result is that countries like China have a serious population imbalance, with many more males than females (BBC, 2012). This paper will examine the issue of female infanticide in China, its causes and what potential solutions there might be to this serious problem.
Lee (1981) notes that female infanticide has long been practiced in China. riting just after the introduction of the one-child policy in China, Lee notes that "this form of discrimination against women…persisted in varying degrees over hundreds of years." She outlines the techniques used to commit the crime: "drowning in…… [Read More]
Ethics of Human Cloning
In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James atson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, atson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (atson 8).
Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. atson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.
The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…… [Read More]
In 1976, three years after Roe v. ade, the Court ruled that a married woman did not have to have her husband's permission to get an abortion, if she wanted one (Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth).
Do the policies of the executive branch of government - the hite House - go past just merely being "pro-life" - and into the realm of sexism? That is a good question because military women serving overseas, under the Bush administration, cannot receive safe hospital abortions, even if they pay with their own personal funds, according to NO. hy? To make the point that this administration opposes abortions, Bush restored a Reagan-era policy, and now military wives and women in the service must "travel long distances" to have abortions. They must also get the permission of their commanding officer, which is almost always a man.
Abortion Law Homepage. (2006). Overview.…… [Read More]
Abortion: Ethical and Political Issues of RU 486
Abortion is a totally unacceptable, cruel and unethical practice and should be considered illegal except under some special cases and medical circumstances that indicate a danger to the mother. Our judicial system must consider the ethical and moral aspects of abortion as an intrinsic part of the problem when approaching this social issue. Even from the practical prospective the abortion pill RU486 has not been a breakthrough and instead of making abortion a private and safe method it has only increased the physical discomfort and the psychological ordeal for the woman.
Abortion is the one of the most debated social issues of this century. The controversy as to the right that man has over the life of a baby in the fetus and in controlling its entry into the world is a much-debated topic. Abortion is nothing but putting an end to…… [Read More]
History Of Fashion: Gloria Steinem -- Feminist Chic
The fashion style of Gloria Steinem is perfectly reflected in the photograph by Yale Joel as well as in the ideology which she promoted throughout the early days of the Feminist Movement.
Steinem's fashion style mirrored her Feminist advocacy history, when in the 1960s, she started Ms. Magazine, which addressed such topics as the problematic nature of the word "male" being in "female." "[footnoteRef:1] In Yale Joel's photograh, Steinem sits, Indian style (cross-legged), and holds a placard that reads "We Shall Overcome."[footnoteRef:2] The emphatic nature of this prophecy is apparent in the underscored verb and the clothing that Steinem wears indicates a kind of militaristic "chic" -- a fashionably elegant, streamlined radical femininity that a leader like Steinem could use advocate change. She would use this image to advocate abortions, as she did in a 2006 article entitled "We Had Abortions," which…… [Read More]
advertisements for Harley Davidson both have the overall message that Harley Davidson's are for rebellious individuals and that societies rules do not apply to the Harley Davidson owner.
The text of the first ad, "in some circles, paisley and florals have yet to catch on" sets the tone for the ad and also conveys the meaning. Firstly, the text has an air of importance to it as well as an air of indifference. The "in some circles" is patronizing and suggests that these 'some' are not as good as the rest. The humor associated with 'paisley and florals' takes the edge of this patronizing feel, so that overall the text has a humor that means it is not to be taken too seriously. This creates a humorous and ironic tone to the ad. This text, without the picture, also captures the meaning of the ad. These 'circles' that haven't caught…… [Read More]
The author of this report was given the choice of one of two assignments when it comes to the Johnna Fisher textbook offering on medical ethics. The author of this report has decided to seize upon one of the articles littered throughout the book and make a thesis argument and report about the same. The Fisher text is full of articles and ethical quandaries that are ripe for the picking. However, the author of this report has chosen to focus on the idea of sterilizing the "feeble-minded" as explained and argued by Grekul, Krahn and Odynak. The question of whether people could or should have full rights to procreate despite the social problems it can create or aggravate is a burning question for many people. hile choosing who can procreate and who should not are very Nazi-esque to some, the idea of controlling who can have kids and…… [Read More]
The actual effects of these new laws and codes have yet to emerge with as much optimism as that with which they were enacted, however.
At the same time, it cannot be denied that there have been some noticeable positive changes made due to changes in policies and codes in many countries. One of the major changes that has been both a result and a cause of increased equality for women -- and one that directly impacts economic productivity -- is the advent of micro-credit loans. Government support for such loans and the institutions that make them has shifted hugely in terms of finances and policy, according to the report, and programs that promote literacy, family life education and reproductive health as well as business ventures have been effective recipients (59). This type of loan is only achievable due to changes in social policy and general equality in the countries…… [Read More]