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Yet another type of medication used to improve respiratory function is Methylxanthines. Some examples of these include Theophylline. These types of agents work similarly to bronchodilators which open the airway passage, in part by relaxing the bronchial or smooth muscles in the air passage ways. They also help promote greater circulation and engage the central nervous system so it can more actively work to provide oxygen throughout the body. Because these medications may result in increased cardio activity, most doctors recommend patients with a history of cardiovascular problems use them with caution, or not at all.
Singulair or Montelukast and Accolate or Zafirlukast are agents that like the Methylxanthines act on receptors in the air passageways of humans called the "leukotrien receptors" especially D4 and E4. These receptors are responsible for what is known as an anaphylactic reaction in the body, where they immune system hyper or overreacts…
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espiratory System: High Elevations and the Blood
Why do people experience shortness of breath at high altitudes? Why does tendency clear off after several days?
Humans experience two main types of environmental stresses at high altitudes. First, they experience rapid dehydration as a result of the strong winds and low humidity; and secondly, they could have shortness of breath as a direct result of the low air pressure (Boga, 1997). The estimated altitude of the Alps is 15,700 ft above sea level. The altitude of the U.S. is commonly taken at sea level owing the effect of the Atlantic Ocean. Air pressure and the concentration of oxygen in the air both decrease with increases in altitude, particularly because at high altitudes, the air is thinner and the molecules are farther apart. At sea level, the air pressure happens to be at around 14.7 pounds; at 10,000 feet, it is around…
Boga, S. (1997). Orienteering: The Sport of Navigating with Map and Compass. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books.
Ward, J.P., Ward, J. & Leach, R. (2011). The Respiratory System at a Glance (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Fishes to Frogs: espiratory Adaptation
espiration Evolution: Fishes to Frogs
The energy needed to sustain life depends on the reduction of oxygen during glycolysis, thereby producing ATP, water, and carbon dioxide. As multicellular organisms began to evolve and grow in size, the ability of the inner-most cells to receive enough oxygen to carry out cellular respiration was compromised. The absorption of oxygen through the outer cellular layers, called cutaneous respiration, evolved to become an important method for obtaining enough oxygen to sustain the evolution of larger organisms (Farmer, 1997).
Ancient fishes depended on cutaneous respiration to survive in oxygen-poor aquatic habitats, such as rivers, swamps, and tidal pools (reviewed by Farmer, 1997; Taylor, Leite, Mckenzie, and Wang, 2010). Cutaneous respiration was sufficient as long as these fish remained small in size, but the need to avoid predation would have increased the evolutionary pressure to grow larger. The combination of size…
Farmer, Colleen G. (1997). Did lungs and the intracardiac shunt evolve to oxygenate the heart in vertebrates? Paleobiology, 23(3), 358-372. The author offers evidence to support her theory that hypoxic aquatic conditions caused cutaneous respiration-dependent fishes to evolve lungs, in order to oxygenate cardiac tissue.
Farmer, Colleen G. (1999). Evolution of the vertebrate cardio-pulmonary system. Annual Review in Physiology, 61, 573-592. Building upon her earlier scholarship concerning respiratory system evolution from fish to amphibians, Farmer expands her thesis by suggesting that the evolution of lungs enabled the myocardium to benefit from the increase supply of oxygen made available through vascularization.
Gargaglioni, Luciane H. And Milsom, William K. (2007). Control of breathing in anuran amphibians. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A, 147, 665-684. The authors provide a comprehensive review of what is known about ventilation anatomy and control in the best studied amphibians. Particular attention is paid to central nervous system control.
Janis, C.M. And Keller, J.C. (2001). Modes of ventilation in early tetrapods: Costal aspiration as a key feature of amniotes. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 46(2), 137-170. The authors argue for an alternative theory that suggests the evolution of dry skin came after the emergence of costal ventilation, thereby reducing the need for cutaneous respiration and enabling habitation of dry niches.
Human Respiratory System
The drive to breathe is involuntary and generally automatic, although one can change breathing patterns, and they change when we sleep or are doing different activities. The lungs and respiratory system function to move air 24/7/365 because the body cannot 'store' oxygen that it needs for cellular respiration and energy production. Thus air is constantly flowing in and out of the lungs (Healthline Editorial Team).
Respiration, in terms of human physiology, has more than one definition: it includes cellular respiration, a process ongoing within the mitochondria, where glucose is broken down to ultimately produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate), providing energy to the body. As well, the body is capable of brief periods of internal anaerobic respiration, which produces lactate in muscles for example. However, the focus of this report is on respiration as the process through which air moves into and out of the lungs, in processes of…
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination (DTBE). http://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/default.htm . n.d. 27 April 2015.
DiGiovanna, G. Augustine. "The Respiratory System." DiGiovanna, G. Augustine. Human Aging: Biological Perspectives. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2000. 93-114.
Healthline Editorial Team. http://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/respiratory-system . n.d. 27 April 2015.
Nall, Rachel. http://www.healthline.com/health/tuberculosis#Overview1 . 27 September 2013. 27 April 2014.
Evolution of Respiratory Organ System
Respiratory system functions in providing oxygen into cells and transferring the remains of metabolism. The basic respiratory system happens in two main ways: internal and external respiratory system. In internal respiration, organism experience gaseous exchange through the cellular surface, while in the external respiration, every organism has developed typical organs to carry out the process, like fetal membranes, skin surface, and lungs (Campbell, 2001).
Early organism (amoeba) carries out the metabolism process within the cell's organelle. In the mitochondria, organism converts glucose into energy (ATP) with oxygen, and releases CO2 and water. The respiratory process exists as gas exchange through cell's phospholipid membrane. This process continues for internal respiration principle in higher organisms.
Through the evolution, organisms have developed different types of respiratory organs, which suit their needs. The organs vary from gills (in fish), lungs (terrestrial organism), and skin (amphibians). Certain organisms may also…
Campbell, Jonathan A. Respiratory System. 2001. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. University of Texas at Arlington. Web site: http://www.uta.edu/biology/restricted/3452resp.htm
Case Study 1
Primary Diagnosis: Viral Pneumonia
Pneumonia, in basic terms, leads to the inflammation of the lung’s air sacs. It could be caused by a wide range of organisms such as fungi, viruses, as well as bacteria. Some key symptoms of pneumonia, according to the American Lung Association (2018), include but they are not limited to: “cough, which may produce greenish, yellow or even bloody mucus; fever, sweating and shaking chills, shortness of breath; rapid, shallow breathing; sharp or stabbing chest pain; loss of appetite, low energy, and fatigue; nausea and vomiting; confusion.” The symptoms Patient X (a 35-year-old Asian male) presents are consistent with the early symptoms of viral pneumonia. This is more so the case in reference to the mild intermittent fever, productive cough, and occasional nausea and muscle pain. It is also important to note that during examination, one is likely to identify rales and rhonchi…
American Lung Association (2018). Pneumonia Symptoms and Diagnosis. Retrieved from https://www.lung.org/lung-health-and-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/pneumonia/symptoms-and-diagnosis.html
American Lung Association (2018). Acute Bronchitis Symptoms, Causes and Risk Factors. Retrieved from https://www.lung.org/lung-health-and-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/acute-bronchitis/symptoms-causes-risk-factors.html
Myint, S. & Robinson, D.T. (Eds.). (2012). Viral and Other Infections of the Human Respiratory Tract. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.
Structure and Function of the Respiratory System
Forty-five-year-old Brad has, ever since the age of 20, been working in the mines in the post of coal cutter. He is happy with his job as he earns a good wage and his father also worked in the very same mine. Akin to several co-workers of his, he suffers from chronic cough. However, Brad has neglected going for yearly health checks as is required for mine workers owing to his fear of being diagnosed with “black lung” (i.e., coal worker pneumoconiosis). This ailment results in fibrosis, lasting dilation of the small airways, and reduced diffusing capability. At more advanced stages of the disease, alveoli, airways and pulmonary capillaries get destroyed.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
COPD has been described as a persistent inflammatory lung ailment which obstructs flow of air from the patient’s lungs. Disease symptoms include difficulties in breathing, wheezing,…
It has also been suggested that low-level viral replication associated with SV may be a driver in chronic inflammation in some sufferers of chronic lung disease, although this is so far uncertain (Openshaw, 2005). It is estimated that infants who develop a wheeze as a result of SV contraction develop a recurring wheeze in around two thirds of all cases. It is also estimated that around half of these children will develop some form of asthma (Lehtinen et al., 2007). It is unclear why there are some who experience delayed onset of SV, although both immune 'imprinting' and viral persistence have been implicated (Openshaw and Tregoning, 2005).
The condition is diagnosed through rapid antigen-detection tests. It is difficult to diagnose SV in adults as the tests are insensitive in persons other than children, and practitioners rarely request tests for SV in adults. This means that it is difficult to…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) Respiratory Syncytial Virus. National Center for Infectious Diseases: Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/revb/respiratory/rsvfeat.htm .
Feltes, T.F. And Sondheimer, H.M. (2006) Palivizumab and the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus illness in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 7(9): 1471-1480.
Flynn, J.D., Akers, W.S., Jones, M., Stevkovic, N., Waid, T., Mullett, T. And Jahania, S. (2004) Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus pneumonia in a lung transplant recipient: Case report and review of literature. Pharmacotherapy. Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/482817?src=mp .
Health-Cares.net (2005) "How is RSV infection diagnosed?" Retrieved on November 11, 2007, at http://respiratory-lung.health-cares.net/rsv-infection-diagnosis.php .
2008).. This points to the ethical responsibility of nurse educators -- it is not enough to treat the disease, bit one must treat the patient.
Failure to provide the proper level of education to a patient is certainly one way to fail them both ethically and medically, bit the opposite can also be true. That is, it is possible to provide too much care -- what is deemed "medically futile care" -- and this also raises very serious ethical issues in the realm of respiratory illnesses (Sibbald et al. 2007). This particular stuffy found that insufficient communication among the medical team was one of the primary causes for prolonging futile care, which often means increasing and/or prolonging a patient's discomfort without any reasonable expectation of an improvement in their condition (Sibbald et al. 2007).
The ethical choice here, of course, is to end care (with the consent of the patient…
Efraimsson, E.; Hillverik, C. & Ehrenberg, A. (2008). "Effects of COPD self-care management education at a nurse-led primary health care clinic." Scandinavian journal of caring sciences, 22(2), 178-85.
Selecky, P.; Eliasson, A.; Hall, R.; Schneider, R.; Varkey, B. & McCaffree, D. (2005). "Palliative and end-of-life care for patients with cardiopulmonary diseases." Chest 128(5), pp. 3599-610.
shiao, J.; Koh, D.; Lo, L.; Lim, M. & Guo, Y. (2007). "Factors predicting nurses' consideration of leaving their job during the SARS outbreak." Nursing Ethics, 14(1), pp. 5-17.
Sibbald, R.; Downar, J. & Hawryluck, L. (2007). "Perceptions of 'futile care' among caregivers in intensive care units." Canadian medial association journal, 177(10), pp. 1201-8.
e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…
Bailey, R. (2011). Muscle tissue. About.com Guide. Retrieved from http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/a/aa022808a.htm
Carpi, A. (1999). Basic anatomy - tissues & organs. Retrieved from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm
Lakatta, E.G. (1994). Cardiovascular reserve capacity in healthy older humans. Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, 6(4): 213-23.
Courtesy of Musculartory System BlogSpot
More unfavorable publicity came in June when Jintao had to undergo medical checkups to ensure he was SARS-free when meeting President Bush and other G-8 leaders in France. There is little doubt that China's international standing was clearly badly damaged by its government's mishandling of the SARS epidemic.
On July 21, 2004, Dr. Bates Gill, Freeman Chair in China Studies Committee on House International Relations Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, stated official Chinese estimates show China now has roughly 840,000 persons living with the HIV virus and as of the end of 2003, only 62,159 persons had been tested and officially confirmed to be HIV-positive. "The remaining HIV-positive individuals in China, estimated at 780,000 persons or more, are not known to public health authorities, and the individuals themselves probably do not know their status, posing significant risks for the further spread of HIV." Yet, outside observers believe that…
China. World Health Organization. http://www.wpro.who.int/chips/chip01/chn.htm . Accessed 16 November 2004 review of evidence: China's path to better health and development. World Health
Organization. http://www.google.com/u/who?q=cache:dMwKxNx4q4YJ:www.who.int/entity/macrohealth/action/en/ShanghaiPaperRevJuly2004.pdf+china's+health+care+system&hl=en&ie=UTF-8. Accessed 16 November 2004
The Specter of SARS: China's failure to contain severe acute respiratory syndrome has economic causes and consequences. World and I. 01 July 2003; Pp.
Rask, Kolleen J. Healthcare Reform in Transitional China: Its Impact on Accounting and Financial Management. Research in Healthcare Financial Management. 01 January 2001; Pp.
"An electrical analogue of the entire human circulatory system ." Medical Biological and Engineering and Computin 2.2 (1964): 161-166. SpingerLink. eb. 15 Nov. 2010.
Inlander, Charles B.. The people's medical society health desk reference: information your doctor can't or won't tell you - everything you need to know for the best in health care. New York: Hyperion, 1995. Print.
Jodrey, Louise, and Karl ilbur. "Studies on Shell Formation. IV. The Respiratory Metabolism of the Oyster Mantle." Biological Bulletin 108.3 (1955): 346-358. JSTOR. eb. 15 Nov. 2010.
Ruppert, E.E., and Karen Carle. "Morphology of metazoan circulatory systems." Zoomorphology 103.3 (1983): 193-208. SpringerLink. eb. 15 Nov. 2010.
Southgate, Paul C., and John S. Lucas. The pearl oyster . Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, 2008. Print.
"The onders of the Seas: Mollusks." Oceanic Research Group. N.p., n.d. eb. 15 Nov. 2010. .
eight, Ryan, John Viator, Charles Caldwell, and Allison Lisle. "Photoacoustic detection of metastatic…
Arnaudin, Mary, and Joel Mintzes. "Students' alternative conceptions of the human circulatory system: A cross-age study." Science Education 69.5 (2006): 721-733. Wiley Online Library. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.
De Pater, L, and JW Van Den Burg. "An electrical analogue of the entire human circulatory system ." Medical Biological and Engineering and Computin 2.2 (1964): 161-166. SpingerLink. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.
Inlander, Charles B.. The people's medical society health desk reference: information your doctor can't or won't tell you - everything you need to know for the best in health care. New York: Hyperion, 1995. Print.
Jodrey, Louise, and Karl Wilbur. "Studies on Shell Formation. IV. The Respiratory Metabolism of the Oyster Mantle." Biological Bulletin 108.3 (1955): 346-358. JSTOR. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.
An organization can achieve a competitive edge only and only with the help of its employees. Therefore, it is necessary that right employees are selected then trained and developed and a performance-based reward system. The question then comes to the performance measurement system. In a furniture retail store where I work they stick to the old practice of a meeting of top managers and supervisor who sit down annually and critically review the performance of all customer service personnel. They carry out a thorough examination of employee performance with respect to the goal set for them by the management. In this setting where only goals are there to guide employees and performance appraisal system is vague and subjective, most employees are just interested in meeting their targets and they do not strive to exceed their employers expectations. Performance evaluation should be an evaluation and development tool with the…
Sims, R. (2002). Organizational Success through Effective Human Resources Management. Quorum Books. Westport, CT.
Kreiner, J. (2000). Examining the human Body. The Washington Times. March 18.
Prasad, S., Tata, J., & Thorn, R. (1999). The Influence of Organizational Structure on the Effectiveness of TQM Programs. Journal of Managerial Issue. Vol. 11.
The circulatory or cardiovascular system is responsible for moving nutrients, wastes and gases between body cells, transporting blood across the whole body and battling disease (Circulatory System). Its principal elements are the heart, numerous blood vessels, and blood.
The heart forms the circulatory system's core. This 2-sided, 4-chambered pump which distributes blood to various arteries comprises of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria. The ventricles, situated within the heart's lower half, are responsible for pumping blood to the whole body (away from our heart), whilst the atria, situated within the heart's upper half are in charge of receiving blood from different parts of the human body. The right and left ventricles pump de-oxygenated and oxygenated blood, respectively; de-oxygenated blood is pumped to lungs while oxygenated blood is pumped to the remainder of the human body (smith, 2013). These 4 chambers are connected to one another by…
Exercise and Cardiac/Respiratory Health
Heart health is positively correlated with exercise and, according to the research, physical activity can be a good way to diagnosis, detect or treat emerging heart conditions in individuals. Connections are also made in general research between exercise and both aerobic and anaerobic gains for individuals. Indeed, as the discussion hereafter will show, exercise is among the most consistently effective and proven methods of preventing heart disease and such causal conditions as obesity or hypertension. Research points to a host of indicators that suggest exercise should in some form be a regular part of every individuals lifestyle. Chief among these indicators is the evidence demonstrating that exercise and physical activity are directly related to cardiovascular and respiratory health.
e find that there are a wide array of methods to diminishing the risk of heart disease, which can be associated with a sedentary lifestyle, a poor…
Blair, S.N. & Church. (2004). The Fitness, Obesity, and Health Equation: Is Physical
Activity the Common Denominator? The Journal of the American Medical Association,
Brannagan, M. (2010). The Effect of Exercise on the Cardiac Cycle. Live Strong.com.
Hypoventilation and hyperventilation are respiratory conditions related to differential intakes of air. Hypoventilation refers to the inadequate (hypo) intake of air, causing decreased levels of oxygen and increased levels of carbon dioxide in the body. The necessary gas exchanges for maintaining equilibrium become upset. Hypoventilation is caused and characterized by shallow and/or excessively slow breathing. As a result of inadequate gas exchange, carbon dioxide cannot be properly removed and levels of CO2 in the blood become elevated, a condition called hypercapnia. When levels of CO2 in the blood change, the body's pH changes too. Hyperapnia causes the blood to become more acidic, a condition called espiratory Acidosis. A person who has lost control over his or her respiratory system may not be able to self-regulate by breathing deeper or faster (Agrawal, n.d.).
Hyperventilation is the opposite of hypoventilation. Too much (hyper) air is being taken in and cannot be…
Agrawal, S. (n.d.). Understanding hypoventilation and its treatment. Retrieved online: http://www.articles.complexchild.com/april2010/00197.pdf
American Society for Hematology (n.d.). Clots and travel. Retrieved online: http://www.hematology.org/Patients/Clots/Travel.aspx
"Hyperventilation And Hypoventilation," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.nataliescasebook.com/tag/hyperventilation-and-hypoventilation
"Hypoventilation and Hyperventilation Syndromes," (n.d.). Providence. Retrieved online: http://oregon.providence.org/health-library/h/hypoventilation-and-hyperventilation-syndromes/
Respiratory Issues Complicated by Economic Disadvantage
Socio-economic status, commonly referred to as SES can be describes as the economic or social standing of an individual, and is a measure of the person’s economic or social position in a social group. SES is a composition of different measures such as education, earnings, location of housing or job. According to studies, a lower socio-economic status can be related to unequal access to healthcare in several illnesses. There exists emerging data and information on respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, pulmonary hypertension, cystic fibrosis and other pulmonary ailments which suggest a similar observation also noticed in other chronic ailments (Sahni, Talwar, Khanijo & Talwar, 2017).
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory illness that presents permanent condition with varying severity levels all through the life of the affected persons. It affects individuals of all ages and presents its highest frequency in childhood. Latest data gathered…
new respiratory drugs that have been approved for medical use over the past decade. The paper will highlight the diagnoses of the drugs i.e. when and why it is prescribed, how it is meant to be used and how often, its side effects, the impact for a missed dose or an overdose along with any other relevant information that will add depth to it appropriate use.
The main purpose for the respiratory drugs is to help cure the ailments directly or indirectly related to the functioning of lungs or general breathing of an individual. There are numerous sectors where studies on new respiratory drugs can be carried out and some of the most recent studies to include this particular aspect include allergies, asthma attacks, Acute espiratory Distress Syndrome (ADS), pneumonia and sinus infections.
In this paper we will focus on the following new respiratory drugs: Arcapta, Daliresp, Dulera, Tyvaso, Alvesco,…
Beeh, K.M., Derom, E., Kanniess, F., Cameron, R., Higgins, M., van As, A. (2007). "Indacaterol, a novel inhaled beta2-agonist, provides sustained 24-h bronchodilation in asthma." Eur. Respir. J. 29 (5): 871 -- 8.
Cerner Multum, Inc., (2010). Dulera Inhaler. Accessed 02-02-12 from: http://www.drugs.com/dulera.html
Cerner Multum, Inc., (2010a). Tyvaso. Accessed 02-02-12 from: http://www.drugs.com/tyvaso.html
Cerner Multum, Inc., (2010b). Alvesco. Accessed 02-02-12 from: http://www.drugs.com/alvesco.html
Batteries are common in individual household systems. Inverters could help, though their technology is not standardized. Automated demand response using smart meters with microclimate forecasting research is well funded (St. John). Building dedicated (express) feeders for larger PV systems with bidirectional voltage regulators is one response. Avoiding fixed capacitator banks and having the PV system absorb volt-ampere reactives are two other possible solutions (Katiraei and Romero Aguero 69-70). On the other hand, PV can be useful to a utility by improving the voltage profile and reducing electrical line losses (Srisaen and Sangswang 855), as well as "relieved transmission and distribution congestion, environmental impact reduction, peak shaving, and enhanced utility system reliability" (Ramakumar and Chiradeja 722-723).
PV has environmental issues. Making solar cells is an energy-intensive process, using significant amounts of water and toxic chemicals. Most good monocrystalline silicon is produced by the highly inefficient (80% waste) trichlorosilane (SiHCl3) distillation and…
BrighterEnergy.org. SunPower offers solar modules boasting 19% efficiency. 3 May 2010. Web. 20 October 2011.
Chen, Hong Wen. "Exposure and Health Risk of Gallium, Indium, and Arsenic from Semiconductor Manufacturing Industry Workers." Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (2007): 5-9.
Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency (DSIRE). Home. n.d. Web. 20 October 2011.
Edelman, Philip. "Environmental and Workplace Contamination in the Semiconductor Industry: Implications for Future Health of the Workforce and Community." Environmental Health Perspectives 86 (1990): 291-295.
Designing a Safety System
Safety management system is a management policy to prevent or minimize injury within a workplace. Top organizations across the United States are increasingly investing in safety management because of the general believe that safety is central precondition to market competitiveness and "an integral part of high quality business operations." (Tervonen, Haapasalo, & Niemela, 2009 P. 17). Safety is defined as a state where all the business related risks are managed at acceptable level. Typically, safety management is a management policy used to protect workers from undetermined accidents. Safety management is very similar to corporate safety where corporate safety is a holistic management strategy to protect an organization as a whole against accidents, misuse, harm and crime.
Objective of this project is to design safety management system for Hobart Brothers Co. To design safety management system for the company, the paper provides essential components that could prevent…
Azadeh M.A.(2000). Creating highly and reliable manufacturing systems: an integrated approach. Intern J. Reliabil Saf Eng. 7(3): 205-22.
Honkasalo A. (2000). Occupational health and safety and environmental management systems. Environ Sci Policy. 3(1): 39-45.
Miettinen J. (2002). Corporate Safety Manual Jyvaskyla: Gummerus Printing Ltd. .
New South Wales Government (2012).Unit 2: Managing Workplace Hazards, and Consultation in the Workplace. NSW Education and Communities.
In fact it has been proposed that the positive impact observed of PBL on motivation may come from these academically talented individuals rather than the intervention itself (Hwang & Kim, 2006). GPAs and demographic characteristics were not found to be correlated to PBL (Ceconi et al., 2008).
White et al. (2004) found in a study regarding that PBL was not shown to be superior to other learning styles in assisting students to acquire or retain knowledge regarding asthma management. This finding is consistent with the majority of research that has not found greater knowledge acquisition or retention amongst PBL students vs. traditional teaching methods (Albanese, 2000; Beers, 2005; Rogal & Snider, 2008). However, it is not that PBL produces inferior results, most studies have found that there are no significant differences between PBL students and those from traditional curricula on standardized knowledge tests (Beachey, 2007). Beers (2005) points out that…
Many studies have shown that PBL students experience greater motivation toward learning than their traditional counterparts (Hwang & Kim, 2006; Beachey, 2007, Rogal & Snider, 2008). Further PBL has been associated with greater satisfaction in the learning process by physicians than its traditional counterpart (Beachey, 2007; Op't Holt, 2000; Rogal & Snider, 2008). Evaluations of PBL programs have found that not only do students take pleasure in the process, they also believe that they have the capacity to out perform their peers from traditional curricula in clinical settings (Op't Holt, 2005; Kaufman & Mann, 1996). Studies have shown that the teaching method has little bearing on the learning of academically talented students (Hwang & Kim, 2006; Distlehorst, Dawson, Robbs, & Barrows, 2005; Op't Hoyt, 2005). In fact it has been proposed that the positive impact observed of PBL on motivation may come from these academically talented individuals rather than the intervention itself (Hwang & Kim, 2006). GPAs and demographic characteristics were not found to be correlated to PBL (Ceconi et al., 2008).
White et al. (2004) found in a study regarding that PBL was not shown to be superior to other learning styles in assisting students to acquire or retain knowledge regarding asthma management. This finding is consistent with the majority of research that has not found greater knowledge acquisition or retention amongst PBL students vs. traditional teaching methods (Albanese, 2000; Beers, 2005; Rogal & Snider, 2008). However, it is not that PBL produces inferior results, most studies have found that there are no significant differences between PBL students and those from traditional curricula on standardized knowledge tests (Beachey, 2007). Beers (2005) points out that one would expect significant improvement in clinical knowledge and performance in order to advocate for the use of PBL in the classroom due to the extensive resources that are required to utilize PBL curricula.
One would expect that PBL students would be at a significant advantage over their traditional peers due to the clinical application in the classroom (Colliver, 2000). Some
The cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, Self-Aid uddy Care and the Fire Extinguisher training are mandatory to all fuel systems personnel. Initial and annual recertification is conducted during squadron block training. Each personnel must possess a current CPR card.
All personnel are trained to use and care for all protective equipment in the work center.
And they are trained to recognize potential hazardous symptoms while working in confined spaces and to immediately evaluate the confined space as directed by the attendant.
efore the start of fuel systems maintenance, the shift supervisor insures that the applicable aircraft checklist is accomplished, the required fuel systems equipment are inspected and maintained in serviceable condition, emergency communications established by radio or emergency phones, and the Fire Department of Job Control Department notified of fuel systems maintenance.
efore entering the fuel systems repair area, all non-fuel systems personnel shall check in and get briefed by the…
Baird, R.L. (1996). Fire protection and health program. Air Force Occupational and Environmental Safety. 58 pages. Retrieved January 31, 2007 at http://www.epublishing.af.mil/pubfiles/af/91/afi91-301/afi91-301.pdf
Breed, P. (1998). Respiratory protection program. Air Force Occupational Safety and Health 48-138. Aerospace Medicine. 37 pages. Retrieved January 31, 2007 at http://18.104.22.168/pubs/info_asp?shorttitle=30SWI48-103
Millar, J. Donald. (1986). Preventing occupational fatalities in confined spaces.
NIOSH Publications 80-110. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 9 pages. Retrieved January 31, 2007 at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/86110v2.html
Magnetic esonance System on patients
Magnetic resonance System (Imaging), here after referred to as (MS), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMI), is a medical imaging technique widely used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structure and limited function of the body. It provides great contrast between the different soft tissues of the body, making it particularly useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and ontological (cancer) imaging. MS uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body (Adams, 1989). To systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, adio frequency (F) fields are used, enhancing the generation of a rotating magnetic field by the hydrogen nuclei that can be detected using a scanner.
MS can detect the chemical composition of diseased tissue and produce color images of brain function. This signal can be controlled by more magnetic fields to build up adequate…
Adams, R.D. & Victor, M. (1989). Intracranial neoplasm: Principles of neurology. (4th Ed.) New
Clark, C.A., et al. (2003). White Matter Fiber Tracking in Patients with Space-Occupying Lesions of the Brain: A New Technique for Neurosurgical Planning? Neuroimage 20: 1601-1608.
Hammell K. (1994). Psychosocial outcome following spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 32: 771 -- 779.
Hypokalemia occurs when the blood plasma level of potassium is too low (below 3.5 mcg). This is the most common electrolyte imbalance. It effects cardiac conduction and function.
Calcium is a cation that is stored in the bone, plasma and body cells. In plasma, it binds with albumin. It is well-known that calcium is necessary for healthy teeth and bones. However, it is also necessary for blood clotting, hormone secretion, maintaining the integrity of cell membranes, cardiac conduction, transmission of nerve impulses and muscle contraction. Calcium levels in the body are regulated by bone resorption.
Hypercalcemia occurs when calcium levels rise above 5 mcg in the plasma. One of the most common symptoms is cardiac arrhythmia. X-rays will show calcium loss in the bones when blood plasma levels are high. This is frequently a symptom of and underlying disease with excess bone resorption and the release of calcium. It…
Levitsky, M. (2007) Pulmonary Physiology. Sixth Edition. New York, New York; McGraw Hill Professional. pp.163-187.
Each standardized nursing language is designed for use in a number of clinical settings, including home care, ambulatory care, and inpatient treatment, with certain languages providing decided advantages within particular circumstances. Although it is true that "improved communication with other nurses, health care professionals, and administrators of the institutions in which nurses work is a key benefit of using a standardized nursing language" (utherford, 2008), the proliferation of several nursing languages throughout the years has inevitably resulted in discrepancies, wherein the personal preferences of nurses, the policy of a hospital's corporate ownership, or other factors determine when, where, and why a specific language is used.
To address the growing concern over the inability of nurse's to communicate through a single standardized language system, the International Council of Nurses (ICN) commissioned a comprehensive study which resulted in the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) being selected as the most advantageous option.…
Cho, I., & Park, H. (2006). Evaluation of the expressiveness of an ICNP-based nursing data dictionary in a computerized nursing record system. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 13(4), 456-464. Retrieved from http://22.214.171.124/content/13/4/456.full
Rutherford, M. (2008). Standardized nursing language: What does it mean for nursing practice?. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 13(1), 57-69. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofProfessionalNursing/H ealth-it/StandardizedNursingLanguage.html
PBL vs. Traditional
Two of the methods of pedagogy that are currently employed in respiratory therapy are Problem-Based Learning and Traditional Teaching. Both instructional methods can provide a strenuous curriculum for the student interested in comprehensive training in the field of respiratory therapy, and each method has its advantages and (of course) its disadvantages. The focus of this study will be to determine which pedagogical methodology provides the most efficient and effective results in a respiratory therapy educational setting.
To accomplish that objective, the study will administer surveys in questionnaire form to students attending two separate schools that offer training in respiratory therapy. The questionnaires will provide a quantifying response to qualitative, and quantitative, information. Each school's pedagogy will represent either problem-based or traditional teaching methods and students from each school will be asked to complete pre and post training questionnaires and surveys. Additionally, students will be tested on their…
Albanese, M.A. & Mitchell, S. (1993) Problem-based learning: A review of literature on its outcomes and implantation issues, Academic Medicine, Vol. 68, Issue 1, pp. 52-81
Ali, M.; Gameel, W.; Sebai, E.; Menom, N.A.; (2010) Effect of problem-based learning on nursing students' approaches to learning and their self-directed learning abilities, International Journal of Academic Research, Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 188 -- 195
Allie, S.; Armien, M.N.; Bennie. K.; Burgoyne, N.; Case, J.; Craig, T.; (2007) Learning as acquiring a discursive identity through participation in a community: A theoretical position on improving student learning in tertiary science and engineering programmes, Cape Town, South Africa, accessed at http://www.cree, uct.ac.za., on January 15, 2011
Biggs, J. (2003) Teaching for quality learning at university (2nd ed.), Buckingham: The Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press
Others include delays in data accessibility, albeit shorter delays and the continued need for source data verification (Donovan, 2007).
Other obstacles have occurred in the developing of mobile healthcare applications. These have included mobile device limitations, wireless networking problems, infrastructure constraints, security concerns, and user distrust (Keng and Shen, 2006).
A third problem that has been encountered is that of a lack of education on not only the importance of the information technology but also training on how to use the specific pieces of equipment. The tools that are provided to people are only as good as the training that is provided on how to use them. The tools may be able to do wonderful things, but if those that are using them do not know how to get the best use out of them they will in the end be less efficient.
According to an Institute of…
Al-Assaf, Al F., Bumpus, Lisa J., Carter, Dana, and Dixon, Stephen B. (2003). Preventing Errors
in Healthcare: A Call for Action. Hospital Topics. 81(3), 5-12.
Brommeyer, Mark. (2005). e-nursing and e-patients. Nursing Management -- UK. 11(9), 12-13.
Damberg, Cheryl L., Ridgely, M. Susan, Shaw, Rebecca, Meili, Robin C., Sorbero, Melony E.,
Health Sciences 101
The Health Impact of Acetaminophen Overdose
Acetaminophen (APAP) is a common over-the-counter (OTC), antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic that is more commonly known as Tylenol®, a product of Johnson & Johnson1. Overseas the drug is called paracetamol and is manufactured and sold by countless generic drug makers.
A number of concerns regarding the safety of APAP have arisen over the past several years, including liver and kidney toxicity and adverse cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary effects. This essay will provide an overview of APAP, its uses, and safety issues, with an emphasis on the cardiopulmonary system.
Mechanisms of APAP Activity
The analgesic and antipyretic activity of APAP was thought to be similar to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications because it was believed to inhibit prostaglandin (PGE2) synthesis2,3. This assumption has not withstood the test of time, for either APAP or other popular OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The main evidence…
1. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Tylenol (TN): Substance summary (SID 7847284). PubChem 2011. Accessed 5 Nov 2011 at http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?sid=7847284
2. Hamza M, Dionne RA. Mechanisms of non-opioid analgesics beyond cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibition. Curr Mol Pharmacol 2009; 2(1):1-14.
3. Kaufman G. Basic pharmacology of non-opioid analgesics. Nurs Stand 2010; 24(30):55-61.
4. Chan AT, Manson JE, Albert CM, Chae CU, Rexrode KM, Curhan GC, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and the risk of cardiovascular events. Circulation 2006; 113(12):1578-1587.
health care system delivery with other nations (European/Canada) with emphasis on its relative strengths and weaknesses?
Michael Moore's Sicko reveals that nearly 50 million U.S. citizens are not insured, whereas many usually fall prey to insurance firm red tape and frauds. Interviews are carried out with individuals believed to be sufficiently covered; in truth, these individuals do not receive health services at all. Ex-workers of insurance firms explain cost-cutting efforts which provide insurance firm physicians and other individuals with excuses to avoid fulfilling the costs of policy holders' essential medical treatments, thereby increasing the companies' profitability (Heart, 2012).
The documentary-maker then moves over to Canada, where he introduces Tommy Douglas, the man voted in 2004 as the best Canadian citizen for the role he played in improving the nation's healthcare structure. The director interviews a Canadian micro-surgeon and emergency room patients at a public hospital in Canada. His interviews in…
Adams, M. (2007, June 19). Why Michael Moore's Sicko is a health care documentary every American must see. Retrieved from Natural News: http://www.naturalnews.com/021906_SiCKO_Michael_Moore.html
Black, S. (2009). "Sicko" and The Health Care Impact. Retrieved from Timbooktu: http://www.timbooktu.com/spence/healthcr.htm
Gowans, S. (2007, July 12). A Review of Michael Moore's "Sicko." Retrieved from Global Research: http://www.globalresearch.ca/a-review-of-michael-moore-s-sicko/6308
Heart, G. (2012, May 03). Sicko; Movie Compares Health Care Systems In U.S., Canada, United Kingdom, France And Cuba. Retrieved from A Green Road Journal: http://www.agreenroadjournal.com/2012/05/sicko-michael-moore.html
Nursing elated Case Study
Tom's vitals, in the emergency department, revealed an elevated respiratory rate, heart rate and blood pressure. His oxygen saturation was also considerably low. Tom's Body Mass Index (BMI) falls in the overweight category. He was also a-febrile, at presentation, indicating that infection was not a precipitating cause.
Initially the ABGs were normal, indicating an acute severe exacerbation or life threatening asthma. Later, when the ABGs were repeated, carbon dioxide levels were above normal. A raised carbon dioxide level is the differentiating bench mark between life threatening and near fatal asthma. The ABG analysis also reveals acidemia which cannot be solely attributed to a respiratory or metabolic cause alone, and hence can be safely classified as a mixed disorder.
Tom's history is typical of atopic asthma which usually begins in childhood and is triggered by antigens from the environment, such as pollen, animal dander or dust. Upper…
Brandis, K. (n.d.). The physiology viva. Retrieved from http://www.anaesthesiamcq.com/downloads/odc.pdf
Guyton, A., & Hall, J. (2011). Guyton and hall textbook of medical physiology. (12 ed.). Mississippi: Elsevier.
Kumar Abbas, & Robbins, (2007). Basic pathology. (8 ed.). London: Saunders Company.
Myron, K. (2005, May 10). Is obesity a risk factor for asthma. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/24118.php
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers
This review shows the literature and research available in the issue of respiratory diseases and the various occupations. The review shows that there is a pressing need to evaluate and conduct research in the known areas like coal, cement, and pesticides, but alarmingly agriculture and other industries have also to be included.
It is not only the factories that are hazardous. There are arguments to show that even farming can cause allergies. osenman (2012) in viewing "respiratory hazards that farmers and family members" argues that the grains that can be "contaminated with fungi, bacteria or microbial toxins; pesticides; solvents; gasoline and diesel fuels; and irritant gases such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia." This may lead to occupational asthma and the allergens in such cases could be grain dust, cow dander, cow urine, egg yolk proteins, alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium, meal worm, poultry mites, fungi,…
Attfield, Michael D; Hodous, Thomas K. (1992) "Pulmonary Function of U.S. Coal Miners
Related to Dust Exposure Estimates" Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med, vol. 145, no. 3, pp: 605-609.
Baumgartner, Kathy B; Samet, Jonathan M; Coultas, David B; Stidley, Christine A; et al.
(1999) "Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Multicenter Case-Control Study" American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 4, pp: 307-315.
However, it was 1953 that the formation of serotonin was from the lungs was substantiated. It is also observed that detoxification of the blood takes place in the lungs. Later, it was observed that one of the important activities of the lung is to provide chemical filtration by shielding the regular circulation of blood from the attack of vasoactive mixtures and other exogenous compounds present in the arteries. The physiology of the lungs and its location makes the lung exclusively suitable to perform these activities. (Wet; Moss, 1998)
The total output from the cardiac system is obtained by the lungs whereas other organs acquire only a very small quantity of output. The blood that circulates the lungs is subject to the vast capillary endothelial plane of the body which is of seventy square meters. This aspect of output and circulation enable the lung to perform the efficient function of biochemical…
Bennett, Taylor. B. (1996) "Essentials for Animal Research: A Primer for Research Personnel"
De Reuck, a.V. S; O'Connor, Maeve. (1962) "CIBA Foundation Symposium on Pulmonary
Structure and Function" a. Churchill Ltd.: London.
scientific effects of smoking on the human body especially on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We will give a brief analysis on how smoking affects the mentioned systems and see how the human body system works if the individual does not smoke. We will also support our paper with scientific and statistical evidence regarding the facts related to smoking.
Smoking and its effects
Before looking at smoking and its effects lets review on how the respiratory and cardiovascular systems work. When we breathe air it first enters Trachea/windpipe through which it enters on each of the bronchi present at both of the lungs. The bronchus is spread throughout the lungs like branches on trees and at its tips is as thin as a hair (bronchioles). Each lung has about thirty thousand bronchioles. At the tip of every bronchiole lies an area which leads to tiny air sacs known as alveoli.…
Timmins, William. (1989). Smoking and the workplace. New York: Quorum Books.
Klarreich, Samuel. (1987). Health and fitness in the workplace. New York: Praeger.
Weiss, Stephen. (1991). Health at work. New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.
Bunton, Robin. (2002). Health Promotion. London: Routledge.
Advance Nursing Practice
In order to sustain life, the human body has to have oxygen. When a person cannot breathe, or there is not enough oxygen coming into the body through the act of breathing, it is not possible for life to continue. The respiratory system is what provides the person with the opportunity to breathe and take in oxygen. Carbon dioxide is also expelled that same way. If oxygen is not received, the brain cells will start dying, followed by other cells, organs, and tissues. Addressed here is a case study dealing with the respiratory system, conditions it may face, and how those issues can be treated.
Patient Initials: Unknown Age: 65 yo Sex: Female
Client Complaints: The patient complains of a dry cough that is rarely productive. She has had the cough for two weeks, and for the last two days has also been running a…
American Lung Association (2014). COPD: Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Retrieved from http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/copd/about-copd/symptoms-diagnosis-treatment.html
Buttaro, T.M., Trybulski, J., Baily, P.P., & Sandburg-Cook, J. (2013). Primary care: A collaborative practice (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby.
Cenzon, M. (2014). Emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Retrieved from http://www.symptomfind.com/health/emphysema-chronic-bronchitis/
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014). Oral thrush. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/oral-thrush/basics/basics/definition/con-20022381?_ga=1.193450093.1798610931.1412555487
Gordon's Functional Health Pattern (Teen)
Adolescent Summary - Gordon's Functional Health Pattern
Date of Visit: 8/31/2012, 10:30am.
ace/Gender Hispanic, Female
Weight: 34 kg.
Height: 4ft. 7 inches
BMI: Normal ange 16.6 kg/m2
eason for Visit: Evidence of exasperated asthmatic conditions. (Not an acute asthma attack). Became overexerted at school, 8/30/12. estless night and complaints of tightness in chest and inability to catch breath. Slight wheezing can be heard during exhales. Potential asthma complications; albuterol has proven slightly ineffective in easing symptoms and discomfort.
Financial History: Patient is fully covered under parent's insurance. Mother works; serving as informant and escort to physician. Single parent household.
Past Health History: Patient is fully immunized and receives all routine health and wellness physicals and exams as appropriate. Last physical exam 5/30/2011, prior to beginning of summer camp. History includes struggle with exercise-induced asthma (albuterol use via bronchodilator).…
Hull, J., Hull, P., Parsons, J., Dickinson, J., & Ansley, L. (2009). Approach to the diagnosis and management of suspected exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by primary care physicians. BMC Pulmonary Medicine, 929.
Veterinary Nursing Anesthesia and Analgesia Case Journal
The objective of this study is to address anesthesia needs in two specific cases with the first being a 12-week-old Jack Russell puppy and the second being a 12-year-old geriatric cat.
12-Week-old Jack Russell Puppy
This 12-week-old Jack Russell Puppy has eaten a babies dummy. This case study will highlight the anesthesia requirements and protocol and highlight the relevance of effect on renal function, speed of recovery, analgesia, emphasis on knowledge and understanding. Even at 12-weeks of age, this puppy is considered a pediatric patient according to the work of Gleed and Seymour (1991). This means that the patient has a higher oxygen requirement that the adult. The tongue of this patient due to his age is large and the airway is small in diameter. As well, there is a lower functional renal capacity in this age patient all of which make the…
Bennett, RC, et al. (2008) Comparison of sevoflurane and isoflurane in dogs anaesthetized for clinical surgical or diagnostic procedures. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 49, 392-397.
Gleed, R and Seymour C (Eds) (1991) Manual of Small Animal Anesthesia and Hall, LW Clarke KW Trim CM 2001 Veterinary Anesthesia 10th edition Myerscough College 2011 Drugs used for Premedication
HEDip CVN VN 2020 Veterinary Anesthesia: Anesthesia for Specific Scenarios. Session Introduction Myerscough College 2011.
Hollingshead KW & Mckelvey D (2000) Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia 3rd Edn Mosby Missouri
The Breath of Life
Throughout scripture the concept of breath represents life. Genesis 2:7
It is evident that we need to breathe to live and that without our respiratory system, we would die. But why is this? Can we know why other than to say that this is how our Creator designed us to be? Perhaps an understanding of our own respiratory system can help us to better understand our Creator? I think so.
What do we find in our nose? A kind of filter that keeps out of our lungs harmful particles and spores that would otherwise pollute them. This can be a symbol of how we should filter our minds of impure thoughts so as to keep our souls clean. It can also be a symbol of how important God's grace is in our souls -- it is to our souls as oxygen is to our bodies.…
South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Sheen, F. (1951). Three to Get Married. Princeton, NJ: Scepter Publishers.
Holy Bible, New Living Translation. (2004). IL: Tyndale House Publishers.
Fire Hazards of Trusses: Sample Report
Structures often play the important role when a building is on fire. Upon many reviews, there are a lot of fires claiming for lives of the inhabitants of the building, but there are also some cases, which had taken the firefighters' lives as well. Such cases should not have happened, but limited information of the building's structures and length of fire could have caused it.
Chesapeake automobile warehouse happened to be a fatal case of fire (NFPA, 2002). The 12-year-old building was constructed under lightweight wood trusses. There were two steel frames and another brick construction located at the building. The trusses were built using the combination of wood and metal plates that joined them altogether.
On Monday morning, March 18, 1996, the repair shop operated as usual. The employees were coming along to start their first day of the week, taking up service…
A&R Truss Company. Mar 2001. Frequently Asked Questions About Roof Trusses. A&R Truss Company. November 20, 2002. http://www.artruss.com/faqroof.htm
Brannigan, Francis. Brannigan on Building Construction. Dec, 2001. Know Your Enemy #17. Firehouse.com. November 20, 2002. http://www.firehouse.com/brannigan/2001/0712.html
Federal Alliance for Safe Homes. Blueprint for Safety Glossary. 2001. Federal Alliance for Safe Homes. November 20, 2002. http://www.blueprintforsafety.org/bluepages/glossary.html .
National Fire Protection Association. 2002. Truss Collapse. NFPA Homepage. November 20, 2002. http://www.nfpa.org/Research/FireInvestigation/AlertBulletins/TrussCollapse/TrussCollapse.asp
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease of animals and humans. The most common causative agent of the disease is a bacterium a mycobacteria known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This bacterium was first discovered by obert Koch in 1882. The physiology of this bacterium is aerobic and hence requires very high oxygen levels. This is primarily a pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system which infects the lungs. The most common methods used to diagnose tuberculosis are acid-fast stain, tuberculin skin test and chest radiations. M. tuberculosis requires oxygen in order for it to grow. Due to the presence of mycolic acid, M.tuberculosis has an waxy coating on its surface which is unusual making the cells impervious to Gram staining It can not retain any bacteriological stain as a result of a high lipid content on its wall therefore acid-fast staining or ziehl-Neelsen staining are used. Despite this M.tuberculosis is still…
Mandal, A. (2014). History of Tuberculosis. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from http://www.news-medical.net/health/History-of-Tuberculosis.aspx
Knechel, N. (2009). Tuberculosis: Pathophysiology, clinical Features, and Diagnosis. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from http://ccn.aacnjournals.org/content/29/2/34.short
Mathema, B., Kurepina, N., Bifani, P., & Kreiswirth, B. (2006). Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis: Current Insights. Retrieved October 18, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1592690/
S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…
Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.
Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC
Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall
Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
By continuing with a "business as usual" attitude, the terrorists would not have a long-term psychological impact on American society, culture and economic development.
hile the long-term psychological impact appears to be the most prominent value that a weapon of mass destruction has for a terrorist, it seems reasonable to argue that these weapons also serve as a means for terrorist groups to have their political voices heard. Terrorist attacks bring to light the activities, beliefs and values of a specific terrorist group. Although many in the U.S. were familiar with Osama bin Laden before 9/11, his implication in the terrorist attacks made him and Al-Qaeda household names. In this context, bin Laden was able to bring to light the organization's hatred of the United States and the organization's political agenda for the entire international community. The publicity gained from terrorist events clearly has value for terrorist groups.
The dynamic terrorist threat." RAND Corporation. . Accessed October 31, 2007 at http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/2005/MR1782.pdf .
Thornburgh, Dick. "Balancing civil liberties and homeland security." Albany Law Review, 68(4), (2005): 801-813.
Weapons of mass destruction." Global Focus. . Accessed October 31, 2007 at http://globalfocus.org/GF-WMDs.htm.
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
A way to better distribute the information that is being taught in the classrooms is also through the community so that the changes are also effecting the parents to the students, as a change on their part as well would be helpful in the battle against obesity. It would be useful to initially target pamphlets, an informational booth or table at grocery stores, where the foundation of the problem lies. It would be effective if information is given before families go grocery shopping so they are more conscious of the items that they are purchasing. Furthermore, information should also be initially presented on TVs, in newspapers and magazines and other mediums that would likely be used in the more low-key and sedentary setting in order to galvanize individuals to get outside. Once outside, in order to sustain the physical activity, it would be nice to have water and juice at…
Ahuja, Gitika, & Salahi, Lara. (11, February 2010). School nutrition program takes up obesity fight. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/OnCall/school-nutrition-program-takes-obesity-fight/story?id=9802468
CausesofChildhoodObesity.org, Initials. (2010). Causes of childhood obesity. Retrieved from http://causesofchildhoodobesity.org/
Facts about obesity in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/pdf/facts_about_obesity_in_the_united_states.pdf
Mayo Clinic Staff, Initials. (2011, May 06). Risk factors. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=risk-factors
Michael Lauren who is struggling with drug problem. Michele Lauren is twenty-one-year-old girl, single and a resident of New York City. Michele lives with her parents and is addicted to marijuana. She was arrested on various circumstances, each time for the violation of Health & Safety Code 11357 (Samaha, 2007) that is the possession of large quantity of drugs and was locked up behind the bars on trials during the years 2002 to 2008.
Lately, she had been arrested three times in a month for the violation of such law. Michele had also encountered the problem of alcohol along with her problem of smoking pot and marijuana, but she has not been arrested for excess drinking and violation of Health and Safety laws related to alcohol. She had not been arrested for any other related crimes, as she normally filched her mother's purse for money whenever needed.
a) Casual drinks…
Samaha, J. (2007). Criminal Procedure, Seventh Edition, Cengage Learning, USA.
Nursing and Issue of Falls
Falls are responsible for considerable morbidity, immobility, and mortality among older persons, especially those living in nursing homes. Falls can occur in a home, community, long-term rehabilitation, or acute care Setting (Laurence Z.. et.al, 1994). The risk of falls can be related mostly to mobility status, exposure to hazardous environments and risk-taking behaviors such as climbing ladders for seniors living in the community setting. Factors for a fall in hospitalized adults are greatly influenced by acute illness that often has a marked, albeit temporary, impact on physical and cognitive function compounded by care provided in unfamiliar surroundings in the long-term care setting, the risk factors for falls are influenced by impaired cognition, wandering or impulsive behavior, use of psychotropic medications, incontinence and urgency, lack of Exercise, unsafe environments, and low staffing levels. Patient falls are serious problems
In acute care hospitals and are used as…
Anuradha Thirumalai, (1998). Nursing Compliance with Standard Fall Prevention
Protocol Among Acute Care Hospital Nurses. Retrieved September 26, 2012 from http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1191&context=thesesdissertations&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.co.ke%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3Dnursing%2520compliance%2520with%2520standard%2520fall%2520preventionprotocol%2520among%2520acute%2520care%2520hospital%2520nurses%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D1%26ved%3D0CCAQFjAA%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fdigitalscholarship.unlv.edu%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D1191%2526context%253Dthesesdissertations%26ei%3Dg-NiUPW8CuLB0QW_r4DgAw%26usg%3DAFQjCNE6__5zNu8vjRxc-jIFBXbBfKVIng#search=%22nursing%20compliance%20standard%20fall%20preventionprotocol%20among%20acute%20care%20hospital%20nurses%22
Dykes, P.C., Carroll, D.L., Hurley, A.C., Benoit, A., & Middleton, B. (2009). Why do patients in acute care hospitals fall? Can falls be prevented? Journal of Nursing Administration, 39(6), 299-304. doi:10.1097/NNA.0b013e3181a7788a
Laurence Z. Rubenstein, Karen R. Josephson & Alan S. Robbins, (1994). Falls in the Nursing
Howeve, befoe giving the medicine, anesthesiologist caefully examines the condition of the pegnant woman to whom anesthesia is to be given. Epidual anesthesia duing labo and nomal delivey does not cause unconsciousness; thus, patients do not lose thei psychological aletness (Halpen and Douglas 2008).
Accoding to (Oebaugh 2011), epidual anesthesia is commonly administeed by injecting the medicine in the lumba egion of the back, specifically in the epidual egion. The detailed pocedue egading the administation of epidual anesthesia has aleady been discussed in the pevious section of the pape. Howeve, the anesthetic dug injected in the epidual space inteupts the passage of neve impulses that oiginate in epoductive ogans and tavel though neves to lowe spine and then to bain. This hindes the feeling of sensation/pain that is poduced in the lowe pats of the body.
The degee of insensitivity induced depends on few factos that include the…
Airway Pressure on Cardiovascular Performance
The Influence of Mean Airway Pressure on Cardiovascular Performance
reathing, also known as pulmonary ventilation, is the basic connection between the heart and lungs (Williams & Whitney, 2006). The connection allows air between the lungs and the atmosphere and the exchange of gases between the air and the alveoli in the lungs. ody receptors can detect changes involved in the movement of air and the pressure that accompanies it. These receptors can either increase or decrease breathing rate. They encourage slower breathing when blood pressure rises and faster breathing rate if the blood pressure goes down. Meanwhile, an exchange of gases between body tissues and capillaries is needed to maintain life. It brings in the gases living tissues need for survival. lood carries oxygen molecules when leaving the heart and distributes it throughout the body. Very small capillaries coordinate in the flow and…
Byrd, R.P. And Mosenifar, Z. (2010). Mechanical ventilation. Medscape: WebLLC.
Retrieved on August 18, 2011 from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/304068-overview
Daoud, E.G. (2007). Airway pressure release ventilation. Vol 2 (4) Annals of Thoracic
Medicine: Pub Med Central. Retrieved on August 12, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2732103
Mold Spore Trapping
Current Scientific Knowledge
People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.
Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.
Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a…
Brinton, W.T., Vastbinder, E.E., Greene, J.W., Marx, J.J., Hutcheson, R.H., Schaffner, W. (1987). An outbreak of organic dust toxic syndrome in a college fraternity. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:1210-1212.
Ceigler, A., & Bennett, J.W. (1980). Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses. Bio-Science 30:512-515.
CDC. 1994. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, January 1993-November 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 1994; 43:881-3.
CDC. 1997. Update: Pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. MMWR 1997; 46:33-35.
"The IOM report recognized the therapeutic benefits of medical marijuana and urged that marijuana be made available to individual patients while research continued on the development of new drugs developed from marijuana" (Zeese).
In conclusion, there are two schools of thought on this issue. One view sees very little difference in terms of health implication between marijuana and cigarette smoking. However, there is some resistance to the idea that marijuana is as unhealthy or as dangerous as cigarettes. This had led to the notion that marijuana is less harmful to the user than tobacco. However, many reports and studies tend to stress that while the effects of each substance on the individual differ, in the long - term both have negative effects that should be emphasized. (Vlahov et al., 2004)
While there is a strong case for the benefits of marijuana in certain instances and for certain conditions, this…
Bock, a.W. (2000). The Politics of Medical Marijuana. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks.
Executive Summary: Institute of Medicine (1999). Retrieved July 3, 2008, from http://www.nap.edu/html/marimed/es.html
Fact Sheet Cigarette Smoking-Related Mortality. (2006) Retrieved July 3, 2008, at http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/factsheets/cig_smoking_mort.htm
Gieringer D. (1994) Marijuana Health Mythology.
However, recently, anesthesiologists have suggest a low to mid thoracic epidural combined with adequate general anesthesia. This anesthetic technique will allow for adequate inter-operative monitoring. After the operation, the anesthesiologist must continue to monitor the patient for either hypertension, hypotension and hypoglycemia. The presence of either of these conditions may alter the course of the medication given to the patient once the patient is removed from the anesthesia.
Neurofibroma can cause systemic problems within the various components of the Respiratory System. As has already been presented, Neurofibromas can cause partial blockages within upper parts of the trachea. However, Neurofibromas can also pose challenges or the anesthesiologist when dealing with nasal, sinus or maxilofacial cavities with Neurofibromas present within. One example of how devastatingly complex the Neurofibroma can become is seen when a benign neurofibroma can cause a superior vena cava compression. Such was the case of a 21-year-old…
" (Murphy, 2009)
This is held by Murphy to be what is wanted since high carbon dioxide levels help to maintain high quality silage." (2009) Simultaneously, the gas that is "odorless and colorless" is stated to be that which is dangerous. The gas is stated to replace the oxygen in the silo and since this gas is present in high concentrations the individual receives very little in the way of warning that the gas is about to overcome them. This gas is stated to be characterized by "…a strong bleach-like odor and low lying yellow, red, or dark brown fumes. Unlike carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide levels reach a peak about three days after harvesting and rapidly begin to decrease thereafter particularly is the silo is ventilated." (Murphy, 2009)
Sealed silos are specifically designed so that there is no necessity to enter them however, there are various gases present in convention…
Murphy, Dennis J. (2009) Silo Gases the Hidden Danger. College of Agricultural Sciences -- Cooperative Extension. Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Penn State E-16. Online available at: http://www.age.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/e/E16%20.pdf
Murphy, Dennis J. (2009) Farm Respiratory Hazards. College of Agricultural Sciences -- Cooperative Extension. Agricultural and Biological Engineering. Safety 26. PennState. Online available at: http://www.age.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/e/E26.pdf
The Dirt on Pennsylvania Agriculture (2004) Trends in Rural Pennsylvania. March/April 2004. Online available at: http://www.ruralpa.org/dirtonpaag.pdf
quality of indoor air has received and increasing amount of attention, including a large amount of discussion about sick building syndrome, which has been recognised since the 1970's. Certainly, most North Americans spend the majority of our lives indoors, and the quality of our indoor air environment has been shown to play a huge role on our health. A wide variety of indoor pollutants can have an effect on human health, including environmental tobacco smoke, volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and biological pollutants. iological indoor pollutants include dust mites, cockroaches, effluvia from pets like birds, rodents, dog and cats and mold.
Early investigations into sick building syndrome often gave a multi-factorial explanation for the symptoms of occupants. However, these investigations often could not explain the long duration of effects. Further, investigations into indoor air quality have historically ignored the problem of mold, and failed to give a clear history of water…
Ammann, Harriet M. Ph.D., D.A.B.T. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health? (20 May 2002). http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/oehas/mold.html
Carlile, M.J. The Fungi, 2nd ed. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 2001.
Indoor Air - Mold/Moisture. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (20 May 2002).
Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.
Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…
1. Alpha nutrition Programs. Indoor Air-More Contaminated Than Outdoor Air?
2. Ammann, Harriet M. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health?
Office of Environmental Health Assessments, Washington State Department of Health
enefits After Quitting Smoking
Among the many health risks that toll life, smoking is considered as the most preventable cause of mortality. Globally, smoking has been one of the principal factors that lead to diverse type of diseases, such as cancer, coronary heart disease, lung disease, and many others. The number of smokers worldwide grows everyday, both in developed and developing countries. According to Karl Fagerstrom's Epidemiology of Smoking, from a 1995 estimate, the rate of smoking-related mortality will grow from 3 million to 10 million annually by 2030.
In response to the risks that smoking causes to the increasing number of smokers', many health organizations worldwide conduct different programs that are hoped to minimize and prevent people from smoking. This includes the provision of enough information on the effects of smoking to one's health, as well as information on how to quit from the smoking habit.
Many research and…
Fagerstrom, Karl. "The Epidemiology of Smoking."
Fagerstrom Consulting (2002): 1-9.
Benefits of Quitting Smoking."
Texas Medical Association. 02 April 2004. http://www.texmed.org/cme/phn/ndt/benefits_quitting.asp
Physiological Effects of Endurance Training
Endurance training produces many physiological changes, both during training and after the training period is complete. These changes are biochemical and also involve changes in the cardio-pulmonary system. The correct way to perform endurance training has been a subject of controversy in recent years. There are many differences in training methods. These differences and the effects of endurance training will be the subject of this research. The jury is still out as to what constitutes the perfect duration and intensity of training program.
Studies have shown that a focused training program can increase maximum oxygen intake by 15-30% over a three-month period (7) and that can increase to 50% if the training is sustained for over 2 years. The body makes many metabolic adaptations as well. These adaptations drop rapidly in the first few weeks after training is stopped (1).
Duration and Intensity of Different…
1. Acevedo EO, Goldfarb AH. Increased training intensity effects on plasma lactate, ventilatory threshold, and endurance. Med and Sci in Sports Exercise, (21), 563-568, 1998
2. Finn, C, Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Training on Endurance Performance. Sportscience (5)(1), sport sci.org. Jour. 1-3, 2001.
3. Foss M.L., and Keteyian S.J. Fox's Physiological Basis for Exercise and Sport. WCB Boston, Mass., McGraw-Hill. 1998.
4. Hawley JA, Myburgh KH, Noakes TD, and Dennis, SC. Training Techniques To Improve Fatigue Resistance And Enhance Endurance Performance. Jour of Sports Sci, (15), 325-333, 1997.
In year 1799 anesthetic properties of Nitric Oxide were discovered by Humphery Davy (1778-1829) he advised that the by using nitric oxide, pain and shock of the surgical procedure can be negated. Third person who continue with Morton and ells philosophy was Charles T. Jackson. The Fourth man who contributed to anesthetics was Thomas Mortan (Blatner, 2009). In the year 1848 James Simpson used chloroform in obstetric surgery, he used diethyl ether to anesthetize a women with a pelvic deformity for delivery (kodali, 2009) and in year 1853 John Snow did a successful induction of chloroform to her Majesty Queen Victoria at the time of Prince Leopold's Birth and also on Fenny Longfellow who wrote to her poet brother that this use of ether is certainly the greatest blessing of this era (Longfellow, 1956). In the year 1885-illiam Halsted introduced the nerve block. In 1891 Heinrich Quincke demonstrated the process…
Bergman, Norman. History of Anesthesia. chua2.fiu.edu. http://ahahq.org/Bulletin/AHA_GB_1991-10.pdf .Retrieved from 14th Jan 2013.
Conquering surgical pain: Four men stake their claims. (2012). Massachusetts General
Blatner, Adam. The discovery and invention of Anesthesia. Blatner.com. http://www.blatner.com/adam/consctransf/historyofmedicine/4-anesthesia/hxanesthes.html . Retrieved on 14th Jan 2013.
Fadden, John. Cultural, Environmental and Genetical influences on drug therapy. Jbpub.com. http://samples.jbpub.com/9780763786076/86076_CH03_FINAL.pdf . Retrieved on 14th Jan 2013.
Confined Space, Electrodes, Chromium
A confined space is an enclosed or partially enclosed space that is not primarily designed or intended for human occupancy, it has a restricted entrance or exit by way and size, fined spaces as well poor ventilation. Confined spaces can be below or above ground, it can be found in almost any workplace. A confined space, despite its name, is not necessarily small. Examples of confined spaces include silos, vats, hoppers and utility vaults.
The AS defined confined spaces as having limited space and modes of ingress and egress as well as poor ventilation (American elding Society, 2003a). hile the NIOSH defined confined spaces as sufficient space enough for a person to enter and conduct work, limited means of entry and exit, and does not suit continuous employment. The AS definition is more restricted than that of the broader (Hammer & Price, 2001).
American Welding Society. (2003). Chromium and Nickel in Welding Fume. Safety and Health Fact Sheet No. 4. http://files.aws.org/technical/facts/FACT-04.PDF
Argonne National Laboratory. (2005). Human health fact sheet: Thorium. Retrieved November 21, 2008, from http://www.ead.anl.gov/pub/doc/Thorium.pdf
Goetschs, L.D. (2008). Occupational safety and health, for technologists, engineers, and managers (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
It is common knowledge that the human body consists of about 65% water. People cannot live any longer than five days without H20. Individuals of all ages love to sail the oceans, swim in the sea and soar under or speed across the waves. It comes as no surprise, then, that some part of the human psyche remembers millions and millions of years ago before animals came on shore. What is still questionable is how or why these animals made the move from water to land. The journal articles discussed below give some of the latest findings on this topic.
Early in the Devonian Era, close to 400 million years ago, all the continents were grouped closely together and surrounded by the seas. The climate ranged from dry weather to torrential rains as some tropical areas do today. Even flowers had not yet evolved on land, let alone vertebrates.…
Clack, J.A. "An Early Tetrapod from Romer's Gap." Nature (2002) 418: 72-76. [electronic version]
Clack, J.A. "From Fins to Fingers." Science 304.5667 (2004): 57-59. [electronic version]
Coates, M.I, and J.A. Clack. "Polydactyly in the Earliest Known Tetrapod Limbs"
Nature. (1990) 347: 66-69. [electronic version]
Interdisciplinary Care Providers
CABG or coronary artery bypass graft surgery is advised for individuals suffering from CHD (coronary heart disease), for alleviating symptoms, prolonging lifespan, and improving QOL (quality of life) (Bayoumi, 2015). Improvements in mechanical ventilation-supported cardiac operation patient management continues to be a major focus area for better optimizing clinical results. The FTE (fast-track extubation) theory applied in case of cardiac operation patients is growing in popularity, in a bid to offer more economical and superior-quality healthcare. A large number of research works have established that prompt extubation (i.e., between 6 and 8 hours after surgery) may be a safe step, whilst decreasing admission and resource use expenses (Cheng, Karski & Peniston, 1996). In spite of the aforementioned advantages, prompt extubation is not consistently performed, underscoring the need to adopt a protocolized strategy for decreasing setbacks and variations and linked to weaning mechanical ventilation. Time-guided extubation protocols’ benefits have been…