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Richard M. Nixon: The Transformation from Disgraced President to Senior Statesman have chosen a plan for peace for Vietnam. I believe it will succeed. If it does succeed, what the critics say now won't matter. If it does not succeed, anything I say then won't matter. - Richard M. Nixon, televised address to the nation, 1969
hile no one would likely call America's long-term involvement in Vietnam as "success" by any measure, historians record that Richard Milhous Nixon set the stage for ending American's involvement in a war he did not start. Today, Nixon occupies a unique place in American history as both the only president to resign the office in disgrace (over the events surrounding the atergate cover-up and the resulting scandal), as well as being the statesmanlike "foreign policy president" who opened relations with Red China and helped to guide the nation through the miasma that was Vietnam…
Bochin, Hal W. Richard Nixon: Rhetorical Strategist. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.
Evans, Rowland, Jr. And Robert D. Novak
Nixon in the White House: The Frustration of Power. New York: Vintage Books, 1972.
Flippen, J. Brooks. Nixon and the Environment. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2000.
Richard Nixon (1913-1994) was the 37th president (1968-1974) of United States of America. (Nixon foundation) He was only president who resigned from the presidency of U.S. He was elected to the office in 1968. His second term as president was over shadowed by scandals like Water Gate. He resigned from the office in 1974.
Richard Nixon was born in California on Jan. 9, 1913 from wedlock of Hannah Milhous Nixon and Francis A. Nixon. The Nixon's were Scots-Irish and the Milouses, of Irish and English descent. They had five sons and Richard Nixon was second amongst his brothers. When Richard was nine they shifted to Whittier Calif. His father Francis owned a country store and a gasoline pump . They were a devoted religious Christian Quaker family. Richard often visited the Friends Churches along with his mother. His mother brought him up as a conservative Quaker and hoped…
The Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace. Accessed from the web 9th Nov. 2003
The White House Past Presidents Accessed from the web 9th Nov. 2003
His actions were atypical because he actually committed these crimes to the highest extent, going so far as to avoid accountability even when presented with evidence that indeed, he was heavily linked to Watergate break-in. However, his behavior towards his political rivals and towards politics, in general, was typical in the sense that he became paranoid and insecure, and his commitment of these crimes reflected his need to verify whether he still wields power and influence over his political allies and the citizenry. Thus, he felt the need to "spy" against his rivals and abuse his power by avoiding accountability and doing his responsibility to pay his taxes. He became consumed by the power and influence embedded in his position as President that he forgot the extent of his accountability to the people -- that these privileges of power and influence are duly given by the people, and not his…
("Cambodia and Laos," n.d.)
Then, when Nixon begins talking about peace negotiations with the North, is when he is providing a glimpse into a shift in strategy. Where, the U.S. will play China and the Soviet Union against one another. This is important because, American forces were restricted from conducting air strikes in the North. The ability to forge an alliance with China allowed Nixon to begin bombing Hanoi. This is significant because the Christmas bombings of Hanoi (in 1972) were arguably one element that helped pushed the North Vietnamese to sign the Paris Peace Treaty of 1973. ("Linebacker II ombing Raids," n.d.)
In one aspect, Nixon is correct in that the future of his strategy will bring the North Vietnamese to the bargaining table. However, the North would not give up on their ambitions for a unified Vietnam, as they would wait until Nixon was no longer in power.…
Address to the Nation on Vietnam. (1971, April 7). Retrieved April 11, 2010 from American Rhetoric website: http://americanrhetoric.com/speeches/richardnixonvietnamsituation.html
Cambodia and Laos. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2010 from Spartacus website: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/VNcambodia.htm
Linebacker II Bombing Raids. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2010 from Centennial Off Flight website: http://www.centennialofflight.gov/essay/Air_Power/Linebacker/AP41.htm
Nixon before the presidency
Congress & Senate seat
1972 election and illegal activity
Pardon and Conclusion
Richard Nixon holds the distinction of being the only United States president to resign the office. Had he not done so, in all likelihood he would have been impeached and forced out of the hite House. hile in office President Nixon performed a myriad of activities which were at the very least immoral, but often also illegal. hat started out as a regime supposedly dedicated to exploration, expansion, and a pledge to end the Vietnam ar ended in shame and disgrace. Before Nixon, Americans more or less bought into the words of the politicians in the country. Although there were instances of corruption and distrust, these were considered to be in the minority. It was felt that most politicians wanted to help their constituents and do right by the…
Black, Conrad. Richard M. Nixon: a Life in Full. New York, NY: Public Affairs. 2007. Print.
Gellman, Irwin. "The Richard Nixon Vice Presidency: Research Without the Nixon
Manuscripts." A Companion to Richard M. Nixon. Ed. Melvin Small. Oxford, England: Wiley-Blackwell. 2011. 102-20. Print.
Roark, J., Johnson, M., Cohen, P., Stage, S., Lawson, A., and Hartmann, S. The
It took two months after the signing of the Vietnam peace agreement, for the last of the American prisoners to be released by Hanoi and American troops to exit South Vietnam. The closing of an eight-year long war in Vietnam ended. Saigon had an estimated 7,000 American Department of Defense civilian workers remain to assist South Vietnam against communist North Vietnam. The Vietnam War was a taxing experience for everyone in the United States. It took over five presidencies with the last presidents Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon, and Gerald R. Ford having to deal with the ongoing struggle and aftermath of the war.
Former President Lyndon B. Johnson became engulfed in the war as it became the major initiative in his presidency. President Nixon had to deal with public outcry from American citizens and pulling back of American troops. Former President Gerald R. Ford declared a formal end…
American History. (2017). American Military Strategy in the Vietnam War, 1965–1973 - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Retrieved from http://americanhistory.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199329175.001.0001/acrefore-9780199329175-e-239
Anderson, D. L. (1999). The Military and Diplomatic Course of the Vietnam War. Retrieved from http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/vietnam/anderson.htm
Chase, J. (1985, April 7). How America \\'Lost the Peace\\'. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/06/14/specials/nixon-vietnams.html?mcubz=3
History Staff. (2010). Vietnamization - Vietnam War - HISTORY.com. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/vietnam-war/vietnamization
Sema, F. P. (2015, April 28). Nixon’s Retrospective on the Vietnam War | The Diplomat. Retrieved from http://thediplomat.com/2015/04/nixons-retrospective-on-the-vietnam-war/
They were spying on Democratic camp with the intent of providing evidence to the president. Nixon's authorization of such illegal surveillance was apparently common in the hite House, as Nixon kept a famous "enemies list" of all of the people whom he disliked in America, and taped most conversations that took place in the Oval Office. Capone similarly, as 'Boss' used underlings to do his dirty work. A "typical Capone murder consisted of men renting an apartment across the street from the victim's residence and gunning him down when he stepped outside. The operations were quick and complete and Capone always had an alibi." ("History Files: Al Capone," The Chicago Historical Society, 1999) Capone was only finally incarcerated on charges of tax evasion, not orchestrating murders, which most law enforcement officials thought merely scratched the surface of his evildoings, much as many of Nixon's critics felt that his spying activities…
Biography of Richard Nixon." Watergate Info. 1995. [8 Dec 2006] http://www.watergate.info/nixon/
History Files: Al Capone." The Chicago Historical Society. 1999. http://www.chicagohs.org/history/capone/cpn2.html
Seize the Moment -- Richard Nixon
Nixon's Life and Legacy
The book by Richard Nixon, Seize The Moment, was published eighteen years after Nixon had resigned the presidency of the United States. The former president was caught up in a cover-up of the atergate scandal in 1973, and even though he had asked for the resignation of his two top aides, as the investigation into the botched burglary at atergate continued it was clear Nixon was part of the cover-up, and he had to resign -- the first president in the history of the U.S. To resign his position.
Nixon was born on January 9, 1913, in Yorba Linda, California. According to the Encyclopedia of orld Biography his father mistreated Nixon physically and his mother was "manipulative," who, the biography points out, resulted in Nixon's "drive to succeed" that included his willingness to "pretend to be 'good' while using any…
Encyclopedia of World Biography. "Richard Milhous Nixon." Retrieved October 5, 2011, from GaleGroup.com / Gale Biography in Context.
Nixon, Richard. Seize the Moment: America's Challenge in a One-Superpower World. New York, 1992.
1962, Americans didn't have Richard Nixon to kick around anymore. Nixon, disillusioned at having lost California to the Democrats after having battled for the White House two years earlier, was on the retreat alongside most of the old-guard conservatives in America. This trend is one that had favored only moderate Republicans like Eisenhower after the anti-communists of the early 50's had squandered the Grand Old Party's last congressional majority. Kennedy was a centrist that wished to modify his party's "New Deal" legacy for a more middle-class electorate while continuing to champion the traditions of America as an alternative to olshevism. y 1980, the conservative movement came to dominate the governments of the United States and United Kingdom as it employed rhetoric that appealed to traditional Christians and to libertarians who wished to curtail government spending. An analysis of what took place between these two events reveals an electorate disillusioned with…
Rick Perlstein. Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus. New York: Hill and Wang.
Lisa McGirr. Suburban Warriors: The Origins of the New American Right.
Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Matthew Dallek. The Right Moment: Ronald Reagan's First Victory and the Decisive Turning Point in American Politics. New York: The Free Press.
While Nixon may not represent or symbolize the height of the Cold War, he does represent an era in American history plagued by government corruption and large-scale public dissatisfaction with the government in general. Nixon came to power on the heels of four politically motivated assassinations: JFK in 1963, Malcolm X in 1965, and MLK, Jr., and RFK in 1968. Robert Kennedy had been running against Nixon in the 1968 election, and his brother had beaten Nixon in the 1960 election. The deaths of both Kennedys were a reminder that something was not right in the state of Washington, D.C.—and Nixon seemed to be right in the thick of it. His famous words, “I am not a crook,” became lampooned in pop culture, and his presidency came to an early end with his resignation in the wake of the Watergate scandal. Nixon has been the subject of several films,…
Adorno Theodor and Max Horkheimer. The Culture Industry. Routledge, 1944.
Bell hooks. “Cultural criticism and transformation.” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQUuHFKP-9s
Cahn, S. Classics of Western Philosophy. Indianapolis, IN: Hacket, 2012.
Dean, John. The Nixon Defense: What He Knew and When He Knew It. NY: Viking, 2014.
Elliott, William; Schenck-Hamlin, William. “Film, Politics and the Press: The Influence of ‘All the President’s Men’.” Journalism Quarterly, vol. 56, no. 3 (Fall 1979): 546-555.
Funderburk, Charles. “Politics and the Movie.” Teaching Political Science, vol. 6, no. 1 (1978): 111-116.
Griffin, G. Edward. The Creature from Jekyll Island. Westlake Village, CA: American Media, 1995.
Hougan, Jim. Secret Agenda. NY: Random House, 1984.
Nixon and the Legacy of the War in Vietnam
Nixon & Vietnam
President ichard Nixon set out policy goals for the conflict in Vietnam in a speech to the nation on November 3, 1969. At the time the country was deeply divided over the question of our presence in the region. In this speech Nixon claimed a nation cannot remain great if it betrays its allies and down its friends and that a unilateral withdrawal of all United States forces would humiliate our nation and promote recklessness in the councils of those great powers who have not yet abandoned their goals of world conquest and spark violence wherever the nations commitments helped to keep the peace. A withdrawal of American forces would in the final analysis cost more lives and not bring peace, but more war. Nixon asserted that for these reasons he would not end the war…
Kerry, J. (1971, April 22). Vietnam war veteran John Kerry's testimony before the senate foreign relations committee, April 22, 1971. Ernest Bolt (Ed.). University of Richmond, Online ACS Course Fall 1999. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from https://facultystaff.richmond.edu/~ebolt/history398/JohnKerryTestimony.html
Nixon, R. (1969, November 3). Nixon's 'silent majority' speech. Watergate.info Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://watergate.info/1969/11/03/nixons-silent-majority-speech.html
Nixon, R. (1973, January 23). Nixon's 'peace with honor' broadcast on Vietnam. Watergate.info Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://watergate.info/1973/01/23/nixon-peace-with-honor-broadcast.html
Then he continued to express his understanding towards those who had been so vehement in their opposition of the war during the previous years.
After he explained the current state, he returned to the past in order to further prove his point. He began speaking about the origin of the war and America's early involvement in the overseas conflict, which many had no idea why we would have begun our involvement in the first place. He uses specific examples based on the actions of previous presidents, who were extremely popular within the eyes of the American public. He explains the actions of President Eisenhower and President Kennedy, who were both adored by the American public, as a way to show that his actions were just a follow through of those executed by previous great men.
Then after he has set up the justification for his plan, he explains what he…
American Rhetoric. "Richard M. Nixon's 'The Great Silent Majority.'" http://americanrhetoric.com/speeches/richardnixongreatsilentmajority.html.2008.
Center for History and New Media. "Silent Majority." The Hard Hats Riots. http://chnm.gmu.edu/hardhats/silent.html.2008
Rowland, Robert C. "The Ethos of Rhetoric." Argumentation and Advocacy. Vol. 41.
Terada, Rei. "Pathos (Allegories of Reading)." Studies of Romanticism. Vol. 39. 2000.
Most Americans know that former President Clinton just had his library dedication in Arkansas. He was a popular president and even the Monica Lewinski scandal was not enough to taint his legacy. Unfortunately, Richard Nixon's library does not seem to have the same prestigious following as Bill Clinton seems to have. Consider that just after Christmas of last year; the Nixon's Foundation and Library won an award that almost no American on the street knows anything about. I have to admit that before I saw the Dimitri Simes who is the current President of the Nixon Center in ashington, D.C., I never even considered that there was a Nixon Foundation. "The Nixon Center is the Nixon Foundation's programmatically independent public policy institute. It recently celebrated its 10th anniversary by acquiring The National Interest, a prestigious foreign policy journal, and by presenting its Distinguished Service Award to Mikhail Baryshnikov at…
C-Span. Interview with Simes, Dimitri. Nixon Center Chief On C-SPAN: Simes Enters Ring on Boxing Day. Washington, D.C. December 23, 2004.
Nixon, Richard M. RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. New York: Touchstone, 1990.
Reeves, Richard. President Nixon: Alone in the White House. New York: Touchstone, 2001.
President Nixon also was personally fascinating with this area of policy has hand-written notes to astronauts are enclosed in plastic for reading and review. What's fascinating about this exhibit is the budget for the space programs including NASA is also posted. By today's figures, it looks quite small, and it's deliberately posted to show how small the investment is for how much value is generated as a result. This is one of the most patriotic exhibits there are in the entire library and museum.
Richard Nixon's involved in Watergate is lightly touched on; there is not that much investigative analysis of the events as there is an exhibit which was closed. Domestic policy including the Vietnam War and the plight of prisoners of war is shown graphically. The anti-war protests are also given equal presentation. The curators of the library and museum attempt to show how complex and…
She writes, "The tendency among modern leaders to ignore constitutional or legislative restrictions when it suits their personal convictions on particular issues and to take secret actions, especially on foreign policy matters, is a serious problem for all mature Western democratic nations" (Hoff 13). Perhaps she is more intuitive than first expected. Her comments seem extremely relevant during a time when foreign countries are ignoring sanctions on nuclear weapons and genocide, and the U.S. is in turmoil over the war in raq and other human rights issues. Hoff seems to understand the nature of the modern president in great detail, and it would be interesting to read more of her work and opinions on current and recent presidents like Clinton, Reagan, and G.W. Bush.
n conclusion, author Joan Hoff offers an intimate and fascinating look inside the life and thoughts of former President Nixon. Nixon was one of the most…
In conclusion, author Joan Hoff offers an intimate and fascinating look inside the life and thoughts of former President Nixon. Nixon was one of the most notable and disliked American presidents, but this book shows many of his accomplishments and successes. She quotes another historian, "If we have peace over the next fifty years, I think Nixon will go down in the history books as one of our truly great Presidents. The Watergate episode will then receive a mere footnote in the history books. -- Arthur Burns, remarks at a public forum, October 29, 1985" (Hoff 329). This may not be the conclusion of many other historians, but Hoff uses her research to present and prove her thesis, backs it up with examples, and even though she may have some bias on the issues, she does not allow them to cloud her conclusions entirely. There may be a more balanced view of Nixon and his presidency, but Hoff's research outweighs her bias and indicates that perhaps Richard Nixon is one of the most misunderstood presidents of the modern era. His accomplishments just may outweigh the Watergate affair, but unfortunately, that is what most people remember about Richard M. Nixon. Perhaps if they read this book, they would have a different opinion of the man and his legacy.
Hoff, Joan. Nixon Reconsidered. New York: Basic Books, 1994.
The empathy which comes through here is not fabricated either. Thompson's very approach in "Fear and Loathing," and another cornerstone to the gonzo movement, is the concept of full immersion into his own stories. The long-suffering tone that shrouds all of his work is the repercussion of Thompson's journalism-by-personal-experience, an ongoing quest to find America in himself and those around him. For better and worse, his writing illustrates that he succeeded in doing so.
The rebellion of the 1960's, guided as it was by an optimistic emphasis on peace, love and cultural freedom, would take on a far more militant imperative as the decade wound to a close. Thompson takes this transition head on, highlighting the violence which had invaded an insular world of counter-cultural ideology. The hostility of the mainstream, which the activist culture had rallied so hard to reject, had infected its thinking and its approach to action.…
Thompson, H.S. (1979). The Great Shark Hunt. Simon & Schuster.
Separation of Powers:
The United States Constitution protects the right to impeach public officials and provides the procedures and grounds for such measures. According to this constitution, civil servants in America shall be impeached for conviction of bribery, high crimes and misdemeanors, and treason. President Adam Johnson is one of the U.S. presidents who have been impeached while President ichard Nixon resigned before impeachment. President Bill Clinton faced impeachment during his tenure, which contributed to concerns that such an action could contribute to weakened presidency. The impeachment trials of these three presidents present some ethical dilemmas that were evident in the Senate's trial proceedings and political aspects. Moreover, these impeachment trials have certain similarities and differences that were fueled by the actions of the presidents in question.
Impeachment Trial of the Three Presidents:
President Adam Johnson was removed from office in May 1868 when the Senate voted unanimously to remove…
Brunner, B. (2007). A Short History of Impeachment. Retrieved September 10, 2013, from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/impeach.html
Linder, D.O. (n.d.). The Impeachment Trial of Andrew Johnson. Retrieved from University of Missouri-Kansas City -- UMKC School of Law website: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/impeach/imp_account2.html
"The Clinton Impeachment." (n.d.). Bill of Rights Institute. Retrieved September 10, 2013, from http://billofrightsinstitute.org/resources/educator-resources/lessons-plans/presidents/clinton-impeachment/
Whittington, K.E. (2000, March). Bill Clinton was No Andrew Johnson: Comparing Two
The domino theory which presumed that the fall of a nation such as Vietnam would cause an entire region to topple to communist influence would underscore Cold War foreign policy for generations, with presidents culturally required to affirm a commitment to the goals of protecting American interests and opposing Russian aims that appeared to be contrary to these interests. Regarding Kennedy, "from his Vienna interview with Khrushchev, through the Berlin crisis during 1961, to the Cuban missile crisis and therafter -- this commitment evidently deepened with experience as Kennedy responded to events." (Neustadt, 170) This is to note that regardless of the perspective which he took into office with him, his increased exposure to the insights and knowledge of the presidency would drive him to view Cold War policy refinement as the highest of priorities.
Accordingly, this mounting knowledge that would show Kennedy to be as much shaped by the…
Clinton's Lewinsky Speech
Presidential scandal speeches should be considered a unique form of discoursed that follow a common pattern and have similar elements. All of these may not be found in every single speech but most certainly will, including ichard Nixon's Second Watergate Speech (1973), onald eagan's Iran-Contra Speech (1987), and Bill Clinton's Monica Lewinsky Speech (1998). All the presidents used strong, direct and active voice when making these speeches, with Clinton seeming to be particularly prone to narcissism and use of the first-person singular. A standard feature of all such speeches is for the president to take responsibility for what went wrong, express regret, and then call on the country to move on so the government can return to dealing with the nation's 'real' business. Both Nixon and Clinton also had a strong tendency to blame their political enemies for their predicament, and with good reason, although in Nixon's…
Clinton, B. (1998). Monica Lewinsky Speech.
Nixon, R. (1973). Second Watergate Speech.
S. interests in that part of the world. Then, on January 17, 1991, the U.S. launched the first attack, with more than 4,000 bombing runs. After 100 hours, Bush called off the offensive, saying he wanted to minimize U.S. casualties.
Though Bush was criticized for this withdrawal being premature, the U.S. made a retreat from Kuwait after the successful offensive, and Bush's approval ratings reached new highs.
Bush announced in early 1992, that he would run again for President, and his reelection looked probable. However, higher taxes and uncontrolled economic problems brought his term to an end in 1992, and Bush lost to Bill Clinton. Bush was running as a conservative, but so were oss Perot and Pat Buchanan (who ran against him for the epublican nomination).
In order to defeat Pat Buchanan's bid for the epublican nomination, Bush declared even more conservative stances. Though he defeated Pat Buchanan, oss…
Farnsworth, S.J. And Lichter, S.R. (2004), New presidents and network news: covering the first year in office of Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush, Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 34:3, 29 Jul 2004, 674.
Frye, T. (1999). Changes in Post-Communist Presidential Power: Political Economy Explanation. A paper prepared for Ohio State University. Retrieved November 19, 2008 at http://kellogg.nd.edu/events/pdfs/Frye.pdf
Kelley, C.S., and Marshall, B.W. (2006). The Last Mover Advantage: Presidential Powers and the Role of Signing Statements, Chicago, IL. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved November 19, 2008 at http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p139737_index.html.
Mann, J. (2002). The ghost of the oval office, New York Times, October 4, 2002.
The Presidents accused of scandals in the history of American politics have been known to make memorable apology speeches. Even though, the speech that the Presidents made were done by different people and in different times, marked similarities and patterns have been noted. The Lewinsky scandal was basically a political sex scandal that occurred in 1999. This scandal came out because the President was accused of having a sexual relationship with an intern in the White House, Monica Lewinsky. The Watergate scandal occurred in 1970 because five men were caught at the Democratic National Committee and further investigations led to President Nixon being found guilty of committing fraud. Another fraud that highlighted a President as the causative agent was the Iran Arms and Contra Aid Controversy. This scandal occurred when President Reagan was in the administration and the officials in charge were accused of selling arms to Iran…
consult a minimum academically credible sources. Bibliographies citations Chicago Manual Style format. The subject: How account atergate scandal? hat significance?.
The atergate scandal is one of the most intriguing discussions in the history of the U.S. And it provided the whole world with the opportunity to see that corruption could reach unimaginable levels. President Richard Nixon's determination to win the 1972 presidential elections proved to be in disagreement with ethics and with the position that he wanted to keep. Nixon and his advisors practically chose the most effective way to gain an advantage over their opponents, despite the fact that such behaviors were clearly illegal. The atergate scandal was the materialization of Nixon's struggle to stay on top and this is why it had such an impact on the masses: people were unable to understand how a person chosen by the majority could be so corrupt.
The atergate scandal involved…
Anderson, Dale, "Watergate: Scandal in the White House," (Capstone, 01.07.2006)
Bernstein, Carl, and Woodward, Bob, "Bug Suspect Got Campaign Funds," Retrieved July 10, 2013, from the Washington Post Website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/bug-suspect-got-campaign-funds/2012/06/06/gJQAyTjKJV_story.html
Stern, Sheldon, "Averting 'The Final Failure': John F. Kennedy and the Secret Cuban Missile Crisis Meetings," (Stanford University Press, 2003)
Remembering the U.S.A. And USSR Kitchen Debates of 1959
Before the bellicosity and belligerence exchanged by the United States of America (USA) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in the 1960s -- an era known today as the "Cold ar" -- the two recently emergent superpowers engaged in the delicate dance of diplomacy in the wake of their shared victory in orld ar II. One of the most interesting examples of the doomed diplomatic efforts between American and Russian leaders was known as the "Kitchen Debates," as U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev squared off in an often rancorous debate amidst a truly unique backdrop. On July 24th, 1959, the respective leaders of the world's dominant capitalist and communist economic powers met at the opening of the American National Exhibition -- which was held at Sokolniki Park at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow as…
Jakabovics, Barrie Robyn. "Displaying American Abundance Abroad: The Misinterpretation of the 1959 American National Exhibition in Moscow." Paper presented. 2007. Web.
Nixon, Richard M., and Nikita Khrushchev. Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs at Ashland
University. TeachingAmericanHistory.org. Kitchen Debate - Transcript. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1959. Web.
history of China's importance to the U.S., from Nixon's visit to China in 1972 to the present, which contributed to the implementation of Obama's 'U.S. Pivot to Asia Strategy'?
The Cold War represented one of the most important periods in the history of the world. It did not only changed the way in which the political world was configured following the end of the Second World War, but, at the same time, it marked a change in the perspective of the way in which relations among states and international actors are perceived. From this point-of-view, the end of this period marked the beginning of an era in which the political coordinates for international relations were uncertain and lacked a particular direction. The demise of the Soviet Union left the United States as the overall winner in the bipolar struggle. However, the entire state system was thrown into a state of…
BBC. Hu rejects China political reform. 15 September, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/3657906.stm
Bijian, Zheng. China's "Peaceful Rise" to Great-Power Status. "Foreign Affairs," September/October, 2005.
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. New York: Longman, 1987.
Daniels, Robert V., ed. A Documentary History of Communism. New York: Random House, 1960.
However, after years of distrust and internal conflict, China broke with the Soviets and established relations with the free world. hile there were many results from this visit, the most important was the effects on China's economy and society. China's opening up with the est would lead to major economic and political changes, when after the death of Mao, another leader assumed control and began a series of reforms. These reforms were directly responsible for the rise of China in the later years of the 20th century.
Mao Tse Dong, the leader of the revolution and subsequent People's Republic of China, died in 1976. His death marked the end of a period of leadership under the old, hard-lined Communists, and a new period of younger, more liberal leadership. After a short period of internal maneuvering, Deng Xiao Peng took assumed the leadership of the government and began to institute a…
Lin, Justin Yifu, Fang Cai, and Zhou Li. The China Miracle: Development Strategy and Economic Reform. Hong Kong: Published for the Hong Kong Centre for Economic Research and the International Center for Economic Growth by the Chinese UP, 2003. Print.
McMillan, John, John Whalley, and Lijing Zhu. "The Impact of China's Economic
Reforms on Agricultural Productivity Growth. Journal of Political Economy 97.4
(1989): 781. Print.
McGovern's failed candidacy reshaped the Democrats. His followers gave full convention voting expression to a gamut of groups who make up the "liberal coalition."
Despite the unpopularity of the Vietnam ar, President Richard Nixon won by an unprecedented landslide against his Democratic rival, Senator George McGovern. ("The Presidential Election of 1972," 2005) The incumbent Nixon received 61% of the popular vote and 520 votes in the Electoral College to McGovern's 17. The American electorate had apparently granted Nixon the popular mandate that he had always craved. After the debacle of the rioting that took place during the 1968 Democratic Convention, the Democratic Party had undergone internal reforms that had important repercussions in the 1972 campaign, resulting in the nomination of the liberal anti-war pacifist from South Dakota who had little popular appeal.
The traditional power brokers of the Democratic Party, such as big labor, lost representation in the 1972 convention,…
"Clinton: William Jefferson." Welcome to the American Presidency.2005. Retrieved 15 Nov 2005 at http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=0097755-00& templatename=/article/article.html
"John Ashbrook: 1972 Announcement Speech." (2005) 4 President Speeches. Retrieved 15 Nov 2005 at http://www.4president.org/speeches/johnashbrook1972announcement.htm
"Presidential Election of 1972." (2005) Elections. Retrieved 15 Nov 2005 at http://www.multied.com/elections/1972state.html
'The Twilight of Liberalism: The Nixon Years." 1999 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Retrieved 15 Nov 2005 at http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture29.html
would help alter the social and political landscape of the nation. However, Kennedy also engaged in controversial and potential volatile encounters such as the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba and the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War would prove to be one of the most tumultuous periods in modern American history and when Kennedy was assassinated in 1963 his vice president and successor Lyndon Baines Johnson continued the bloody and extended process of engaging and then withdrawing from Southeast Asia. Lyndon Johnson's problems in Vietnam were partially offset by the great strides his administration made in securing Civil ights laws. Moreover, Johnson would initiate other social service programs such as Medicare. Johnson's legacy would nevertheless be perpetually obscured by his more dynamic predecessor and successor: Kennedy and Nixon, respectively.
Johnson's successor, epublican ichard M. Nixon will probably be remembered most for his participation in the Watergate Scandal and his resignation…
Dwight D. Eisenhower." Wikipedia. Retrieved Aug 4, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwight_D._Eisenhower
Harry S. Truman." Wikipedia. Retrieved Aug 4, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_S._Truman
John F. Kennedy." Wikipedia. Retrieved Aug 4, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_F._Kennedy
Lyndon B. Johnson." Wikipedia. Retrieved Aug 4, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyndon_B._Johnson
Vietnam War: Its History and Harmful Effects
The Vietnam War is considered as one of America's failure to promote its containment policy in Southeast Asia during the latter 1950s until 1970s. The Vietnam War is a military conflict between South and North Vietnam during the period of 1959-1975, wherein the U.S. had actively participated and supported South Vietnam against the North Vietnamese, who are considered supporters of Communism.
Communism plays a big part for the escalation of and participation of U.S. In the Vietnam War. America's Containment Policy in Southeast Asian nations was implemented right after World War II, wherein the spread of Communism was prevented by fighting the elements that support and spread Communist principles and beliefs, as well as actively participating in a military arms struggle for the cause of Communism. The U.S. containment policy is implemented during Dwight Eisenhower's term s president of the U.S., wherein the…
Because of the extreme conditions of the 1930s depression, the New Deal under Franklin Roosevelt went further in expanding the powers of the federal government than any previous administration in history, certainly far beyond the very limited role permitted to it by the conservative administrations of arren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover in 1921-33. It was the worst depression in U.S. history, and led not only to the complete collapse of all Street and the financial system, but of industrial production as well, which fell 85% in 1929-33, while the Gross National Project fell by half and in some cities like Chicago the unemployment rate rose as high as 50-60%. At the same time, the entire banking system collapsed by 1933, as did agricultural prices, and money stopped circulating. John Maynard Keynes and other economists blamed this severe contraction on low incomes, unequal distribution of wealth,…
Clarke, P. Keynes: The Rise, Fall and Return of the 20th Century's Most Influential Economist. Bloomsbury Press, 2009.
Fine, S. Sit-down: The General Motors Strike of 1936-37. University of Michigan Press, 1960.
Heinrichs, W. "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.
Skidelsky, R. Keynes: The Return of the Master. Perseus Books Group, 2010.
At the same time it was the fatal mistake that provoked and legitimized resistance to the revolutionary presidency." The Watergate scandal and the events leading to it were, from the perspective of the components mentioned above, the manifestation of both an imperial presidency visible in the way in which Nixon tackled the issue of Vietnam, and a revolutionary presidency, as the resignation of the president marked the beginning of a new period in the history of the presidential administrations.
The example of the Vietnam War is probably one of the most representatives for the issue under discussion, the idea of imperial presidency. In this sense, the author considers the right of Nixon to wage war against the authorization of the Congress. The main justification for the continuation of the war in Vietnam was the title of the president as Commander in Chief
Overall, the perspective offered by the book is…
McDonald, Forrest. The American Presidency: An Intellectual History. Lawrance: University Press of Kansas, 1994.
Rudalevige, Andrew. The New Imperial Presidency: Renewing Presidential Power after Watergate. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005.
Schlesinger, Arthur Jr. The Imperial Presidency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1973
Arthur Jr. Schlesinger, the Imperial Presidency. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1973), 299
In international relations theory, realists generally follow the rational choice or national actor with the assumption that states and their leaders make policy on the basis of calculated self-interest. They follow a utilitarian and pragmatic philosophy in which "decision makers set goals, evaluate their relative importance, calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs" (Goldstein and Pevehouse 127). Individual leaders will have their unique personalities, experiences and psychological makeups, and some will be more averse to risk than others, but essentially they all follow a rational model of policymaking. American presidents are generally skilled politicians as well or they would never have achieved such high office in this first place, and this means that their rational calculations will always include public opinion, the needs of their electoral coalitions and the wishes of various interest…
Goldstein, Joshua and Jon C. Pevehouse. International Relations, 10th Editon. Longman, 2002.
Heinrichs, Waldo, "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.
McDermott, Rose. Presidential Leadership, Illness, and Decision Making. Cambridge, 2008.
Waite, Robert G.L. The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler. De Capo Press, 1993.
The strengths and deficiencies of Helter Skelter, Vincent Bugliosi's account of Charles Manson, his followers, and his trial and subsequent conviction both stem from one single fact about the author. Vincent Bugliosi was the Prosecutor who tried the state's case against Manson, a trial which he ultimately won. Yet we must recollect that Manson -- recently making his obligatory appearance in the tabloid press after announcing his engagement to a much younger woman, an engagment later called off -- remains in prison in California for a number of murders that he himself did not actually commit. Bugliosi in the courtroom was required to paint the picture so that Manson could be tried for conspiracy, and succeeded. He intends to do the same thing in Helter Skelter. I hope to examine Bugliosi's book as a way of considering Manson as a historical figure.
This seeming emphasis on Manson's criminality…
Fred I. Greenstein, The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style from FDR to Barack Obama, Third Edition. Princeton University Press, 2009.
Fred I. Greenstein's central point The Presidential Difference is that in the modern U.S. political system since the Great Depression and Second World War, the presidents are now they key actors, far more so than the pre-1933 period when Congress was the most important branch of government. Because the role of the executive expanded exponentially in both foreign and domestic affairs, the leadership style of the presidents became a crucial factor in policymaking and policy failures. He analyzes the leadership style of the thirteen presidents from Franklin Roosevelt to Barack Obama, including their communication abilities (or lack thereof), personality and emotional makeup, cognitive/intellectual abilities, and organizational talents. If Roosevelt set the pattern and served as the template for the modern chief executive -- and there seems to be little doubt that…
Did she on some subconscious level realize this irony and dichotomy? She does not deal with it in her book, but on some Freudian level it is certainly possible that she did.
To recap, both of the authors Elaine Tyler May and Ann Moody see the institution of the family as something that was a mixture of limiting and liberating influences both for men and women during the 1940s, 1950s, and early 1960s, but much less so in the case of Moody's book for blacks. Even the experience of the Civil Rights movement was bittersweet. These limitations were a mixture of good and bad, depending on a person's perspective. As the May book points out, the families that were established by marriages in the 1940s were especially stable.
Moody's family experience was also essentially stable. Religion gave her some succor, but essentially the issues that plagued her due to racial…
May, Elaine Tyler. (1990). Homeward bound: american families in the cold war era. New York City: Basic Books.
Moody, Anne. (1992). Coming of age in Mississippi. New York City: Dell.
S. actions in Vietnam. His main mission turned into destroying Vietnamese communism before his troops left the country. The war spread to Laos and Cambodia as the U.S. had been attempting to damage the communist resource routes. In spite of the fact that heavy bombings continued throughout North Vietnam, the government there did not show any signs of being overcome.
In addition to his citizens lobbying for the war to be ended and the North Vietnamese keeping their strength, Nixon also had to deal with the atergate scandal. This meant that he had lesser time to deal with the problem in Southeast Asia or to assist the South Vietnamese government.
The Paris Peace Agreement from the 27th of January, 1973, had put an end to the fighting between the U.S. And the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. In spite of the peaceful character of the situation, matters did not change much,…
1. Cheng Guan, Ang, "Singapore and the Vietnam War," Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 40.2 (2009).
2. Liebovich, Louis W., Richard Nixon, Watergate, and the Press: A Historical Retrospective (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003) iii.
3. Mueller, John, Retreat from Doomsday: The Obsolescence of Major War (New York: Basic Books, 1989) null3.
4. Schulzinger, Robert D., A Time for War: The United States and Vietnam, 1941-1975 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997) 299.
On the other hand, hittaker Chambers was "a contributing editor of Time (...) from 1925 to April 1938, (he) had been a Communist, a writer of radical literature, an editor of the Communist Daily orker. He had also been what was then vaguely known as a Communist courier."
The major starting point of the case was Chambers' disappointment with the communist doctrine and the dual attitude Stalin had when signing the 1939 pact with the Nazi leadership. Therefore, according to Time Magazine, he "abandoned the party in revulsion and despair, and became a determined enemy of Communism." Consequently, outraged by the dramatic turn that the soviet politics had taken, he began expressing his views on the collaborators of the soviet regime in the U.S. It is in this way that Chambers contacted Berle, who, after the discussion he had with the former communist partisan, wrote in his notes from September…
Abrahamsen, David. Nixon vs. Nixon: An Emotional Tragedy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1976
Adolf Berle's Notes on his Meeting with Whittaker Chambers. Responses, reflections, and occasional papers. Avaliable on Internet, http://www.johnearlhaynes.org/page100.html#_ftnref3 . Accessed 15 October 2006
Crowell, William P. Remembrances of Venona. Available from Internet, http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/text/coldwar/venona-crowell.html. Accessed 15 October 2006
Excerpts from Grand Jury Hearings Relating to the Alger Hiss Case December, 1948. Available from Internet, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/hiss/hissgrandjury.html. Accessed 15 October 2006.
Lessons Learned From the Vietnam ar
In terms of the diplomatic relations that the Johnson and Nixon Administrations had with representatives from North Vietnam and from South Vietnam, the two most appropriate words to describe those relations are failure and futility. But the failed pattern of diplomacy vis-a-vis Vietnam and Southeast Asia really began in 1954, when then Secretary of State John Foster Dulles was sent by President Eisenhower to negotiate the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). hen Dulles "…circumvented the provisions of the Geneva Accords" by unilaterally including Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia into the SEATO pack, Dulles was on thin ice in terms of American credibility (Moss 52). Dulles' subversion of the "letter and the spirit of the Geneva Accords" gave an open door to the U.S. intervention into Vietnam's affairs, an intervention which in hindsight was an absolute ethical and military disaster (Moss 53). Meanwhile fast-forward…
McNamara, Robert S. (1996). In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam. New York:
Random House Digital.
Moss, G. (2010). Vietnam: An American Ordeal. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Werner, Jayne, and Huynh, Luu Doan. (1993). The Vietnam War: Vietnamese and American
Walter euther's German immigrant father was a socialist, pacifist and labor leader who did not wish his sons to fight in the Prussian Army, which is why he came to the United States in 1892. He brought up his sons in the socialist-labor tradition, and the entire family supported Eugene Debs and Norman Thomas in the years 1900-32. During the Great Depression, Walter and Victor euther traveled the world for three years. They were in Germany in 1933 when the Nazis took over and witnessed first hand the suppression of the labor and left-wing movements there, as well as the attraction some of their own relatives felt for Hitler and the Nazi regime. In 1933-35, the lived in the Soviet Union as "well-paid" foreign workers for ford, and unlike most ussians were allowed to travel freely around the country (Carew 1993, p. 12). After visiting Japan, the returned to the…
Barnard, J. (2004). American Vanguard: The United Auto Worker Union during the Reuther Years, 1935-1970. Wayne State University Press.
Carew, A. (1993). Walter Reuther. Manchester University Press.
Lichtenstein, N. (1995). Walter Reuther: The Most Dangerous Man in Detroit. NY: Basic Books.
Parenti, M. (1996). Dirty Truths: Reflections on Politics, Media, Ideologies, Conspiracy, Ethnic Life and Class Power. City Lights Books.
In the aftermath of the war, these acts would be called into
question given America's ultimate and necessary abandonment of the war.
Accordingly, Hickman reports that "on January 15, 1973, after pressuring
South Vietnam to accept the peace deal, Nixon announced the end of
offensive operations against North Vietnam." (Hickman, 1) And with Nixon's
scandalized resignation in 1973 and the passage of Congressional
legislation forbidding American military intervention in Southeast Asia,
the North Vietnamese were free to pursue the unification which the U.S. had
sacrificed so much to prevent.
And consideration that the United States might continue to support its
overall goals in Vietnam at least through aid to the South Vietnamese
forces that it had propped up for a decade would ultimately be fully
dismissed when "in 1975, Congress refused President Gerald Ford's last-
minute request to increase aid to South Vietnam by $300 million, just weeks
Hickman, K. (2008). Vietnam War: End of the Conflict. About Military
History. Online at
Kamps, C.T. (2003). Operation: Linebacker II. Air and Space Power
Journal. Online at
Foremost, when they occur, they generate massive financial setbacks for the institution implementing them as they generally require a large sum of money. "It is difficult to properly handle investments in public budgets. The rewards are spread out over an extended period of time while the cost or the pain of investing is immediate. That makes if difficult to finance public investments" (Penner, 2008).
For the state and local governments to be able to fund their investments, they should organize their incomes into two categories: current operating capital and capital component. A simple accounting method would help them benefit immediately from the investment. In this order of ideas, given that the investment is amortized and the amortization is registered as part of operating expenses, the users of the investments would immediately benefit from it, and also pay it at the same time (Penner, 2008).
Another means to deal with the…
Penner, R.G., June 10, 2008, Budgeting for Capital Investment, Statement before the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure
Rueben, K., McGuire, T., Kellam, S., October 2007, Navigating State and Local Finances, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy
Rueben, K., Rosenberg, C., April 28, 2008, State and Local Tax Policy: What are rainy day funds and how do they work? Tax Policy Center
Woolley, J., Peters, G., 1999, Richard Nixon, the American Presidency Project, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=3636last accessed on November 14, 2008
Graduate and the New Left
In the United States in the 1960s, the nation was going through a change both in the psychological and sociological makeup of the population. Everything about the country was changing quickly, right down to the very moral code which makes up the identity of a culture. The American Dream and the belief that everyone could become successful if they were willing to work hard and if they lived in America was proving to be a fallacy in the wake of oppression, disenfranchisement, and racially-biased or gender-based prejudices. A group emerged who not only wished to be entirely different from their parents, but they also desired to completely upset if not outright eradicate the status quo and change what it meant to be an American citizen with an American identity. One of the components of this movement was a decidedly liberal perspective and agenda. This group…
Bapis, Elaine M. Camera and Action: American Film as Agent of Social Change, 1965-1975.
Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2008. Print.
Casper, Drew. Hollywood Film 1963-1976: Years of Revolution and Reaction. Chichester, West
Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. Print.
Woodrow Wilson used the radio to appeal to the American public directly to support the nation's entry into the then-unpopular World War I. Franklin Roosevelt, of course, was the master of the fireside chat, and even after his demise, the rapid rise of the Soviet power and the Cold War enabled Harry Truman to "scare hell" out of the country by using the media.
Popular, collective fear of the Soviets tipped the balance even farther in favor of the powers of the chief executive. The Johnson Administration refused to spend the funds allocated to crucial agricultural programs, to bully Congress into accepting its deficit spending for the Great Society and the Vietnam War (87). These examples, along with the escalation of the Vietnam War, show how Democratic presidents were often just as guilty as Republican presidents of abusing the office's authority. In recent memory, the Clinton Administration went to court…
" Regan was able to discourage Congress' previous prohibitions for aid to UNITA and instead launched into the covert plan to leverage American weight on the side fighting the Marxist supporters. The Soviet Union reacted quickly; Cuban expeditionary forces were sent to the region in their satellite guerilla's aid and, in the bloody fight between ethnic groups in Angola, the larger Soviet-American conflict played out.
In 1987, the struggle came to a head. The United States assumed its supportive role for UNITA as reason preside over the tripartite negotiation that would end the civil war. At the bargaining table were also Cuban and South African forces, reaffirming the battle as one led by other issues more than directed by the cause of Angolan success. Cuba agreed to leave Angola, ultimately, but South Africa also agreed to relinquish its control over Namibia. Twenty years earlier, Marxist South-West Africa eople's Organization launched…
As was expected, the epublicans took the House and Senate in the 2014 mid-term elections, shifting the balance of power in the United States government. The election was viewed by many as a referendum on President Obama's policies. The President said it (Martosko, 2014), conservative talking heads said it (Krauthammer, 2014), and voters in exit polls said as much, too (aedle, 2014). This argument makes for fine political rhetoric, this ignores the fact that Obama ran for re-election in 2012. The ACA had been passed but nobody had seen its benefits yet, only heard the fearmongering. The economy was going nowhere fast in 2012, versus two strong quarters in 2014, and the unemployment rate has been declining for four straight years. If there was a time when a referendum on Obama's policies was going to cost him, it would have been in 2012, not the 2014 midterms. Unless of…
Edsall, T. (2014). Election 2014: What do the midterms tell us about 2016? New York Times. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/04/opinion/what-does-2014-tell-us-about-2016.html
Judis, J. (2014). Here's why Democrats got crushed -- and why 2016 won't be a cakewalk. The New Republic. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://www.newrepublic.com/article/120138/2014-election-results-heres-why-democrats-lost-senate-gop
Krauthammer, C. (2014). U.S. midterms represent a referendum on White House competence. National Post. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://fullcomment.nationalpost.com/2014/10/31/charles-krauthammer-u-s-midterms-represent-a-referendum-on-white-house-competence/
Martosko, D. (2014). Obama says midterm election is a referendum on the economy. The Daily Mail. Retrieved December 6, 2014 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2777470/Obama-speak-economy-Northwestern-U.html
He seems to draw easy causal connections between policy and personality that deny the exterior circumstances of history. For example, he suggests that Hoover's rigid personality made him unable to accept changes in classical economic theory during the beginning of the Great Depression, and to adopt a more Keynesian approach. Barber asserts that it was not the conventional wisdom of the time that hampered Hoover as much as his own character, despite the fact that few people really could assuredly state they had the 'answer' to the financial crisis at that time. The adaptive-negative aspects of Johnson's personality made that president similarly resistant to the idea of pulling out of Vietnam, and his egoism made him unwilling to be seen as 'losing' the war -- but what about the pressures of the Cold War during that era? Historians also might find some objection to Barber's psychoanalyzing so many major presidential…
Lessons Learned by the Americans Experience of the Vietnam War
The Vietnam War is one infamous war in the history of America. It was the first war that America took part in an international stage and lost terribly. War statistics shows that the America lost a total of 58,000 lives and over 350,000 casualties. The war also ran into millions of dollars dispensed to finance the war. The war also injured the international reputation of the country among the peers of great nations such as the Soviet Union (Westheider, 2011). To this effect, many lessons were drawn upon which the American nation have formulated their external war strategies to date.
Lessons from diplomatic negotiations
The cause of the Vietnam War was something that could easily be solved diplomatically. Immediately after independence, Vietnam was divided into two regions: the north and the south. Each one of them operated independently with the…
Coward, R. (2014). A voice from the Vietnam War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
Salisbury, H. (2010). Vietnam Reconsidered: Lessons from a war. New York: Harper & Row
Westheider, J. (2011). The Vietnam War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
Michelle Alexander does not assume full credit for the striking title of her book The New Jim Crow, recounting having seen the slogan on a “bright orange poster” in 1998.[footnoteRef:1] Former ACLU attorney turned law professor, Michelle Alexander had always been aware of the need for justice system reform. Alexander worked headed the ACLU Racial Justice Project but it took that bright orange poster to help her draw the connection between drug policy and race-related social justice issues in America. Her initial research revealed that up to three quarters of the prison terms being served for drug offences are Black or Latino, even though the “majority of the country’s illegal drug users and dealers are white.”[footnoteRef:2] Alexander herself is bi-racial, with a white mother and a black father. She experienced discrimination from an early age, forcing her parents out of their community. Her childhood experiences spurned racial awareness, and prompted…
As Vickers (1989) notes, "…the size and intensity of U.S. intervention was met by escalation in the size and intensity of opposition to the war here at home'. (Vickers, 1989, p. 100) Vickers and many other critics state categorically that the anti-war movement in the country was "…a critical factor in preventing the U.S. from achieving victory over communist forces in Vietnam…" and that,
American public opinion indeed turned out to be a crucial 'domino'; it influenced military morale in the field, the long drawn-out negotiations in Paris, the settlement of 1973, and the cuts in aid to South Vietnam in 1974, a prelude to final abandonment in 1975." (Vickers 1989, p. 100)
As events in the war accelerated so did the public opposition to the war and protest changed into active resistance. A new stage of anti-resistance came into effect between 1967 and 1969 as a result of a…
Attarian, J 2000, 'Rethinking the Vietnam War, World and I, vol.15.
Bonier, D, Champlain S, and Kolly T. 1984, the Vietnam Veteran: A History of Neglect, Praeger Publishers, New York.
Bresler, R 2007, ' the Specter of Vietnam', USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), vol.135, no. 9.
Dinh, V 2000, How We Won in Vietnam, viewed 7 May, 2010,
Typically, applications for pardons are referred for review and non-binding recommendation by the Office of the Pardon Attorney, an official of the Department of Justice (Pardons and clemency in the United States http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pardon)."
Those who oppose the pardon power of the president point to the royal misuse of days gone by when the U.S. was still under English rule and pardoning power was abused by members of the royal family throughout history.
Those who support the power of a president to pardon believe it is an elected power with regard to the United States and as such the people have provided the power to their elected president to make pardons available to those he or she sees fit.
A pardon can be granted at any point following the commission of the crime including before a conviction has been handed down, but for the most part individual pardons are granted to…
Pardons and clemency in the United States (accessed 4-10-07)
PRESIDENTIAL PARDON POWER (accessed 4-10-07) http://commdocs.house.gov/committees/judiciary/hju71180.000/hju71180_0f.htm
Black, Eric (2001)Presidential pardoning power harks back to right of royalty; Presidential pardons were endorsed by the founding fathers and the U.S. Supreme Court.(NEWS)
" Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 Apr. 2009 .
Goldman, D. "The Generals and the Germs." Journal of Military History 73(2). Apr 2009: p. 531-569. Academic Search Complete. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Guillemin, J. "Germ arfare Under the Microscope." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Kelle, A. "Strengthening the Effectiveness of the BT Control Regime -- Feasibility and Options." Contemporary Security Policy 24(2) Aug 2003: p. 95-132. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Kellman, B. "Bioviolence: A Growing Threat." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 25-30. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Littlewood, J. "Biological eapons: Much Ado and Little Action." Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning & Policy 45(2) Apr 2007: p. 191-203. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of…
"Biological Weapon." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 Apr. 2009 .
Goldman, D. "The Generals and the Germs." Journal of Military History 73(2). Apr 2009: p. 531-569. Academic Search Complete. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Guillemin, J. "Germ Warfare Under the Microscope." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Kelle, A. "Strengthening the Effectiveness of the BTW Control Regime -- Feasibility and Options." Contemporary Security Policy 24(2) Aug 2003: p. 95-132. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Student Unrest and the Vietnam ar
It is certainly a fact that the widespread and sometimes violent student unrest in the 1960s was largely based on young people's objections to the war in Vietnam. But it should be noted that the youthful rage against the American involvement was not driven exclusively by moral, political and social issues. But that rage was also fueled the fact that during the 1960s young people could not vote until they were 21 years of age, but they could be drafted -- and they were by the hundreds of thousands -- at age 18. This paper reviews the relationship between student demonstrations and the war in Vietnam, and concludes with the political and social aftermath of the war.
Student-Led Demonstrations Against the Vietnam ar: As a brief background into the demonstrations against the Vietnam ar, the 1960s were a time when America experienced terrible events…
Franklin, Bruce H. (2000). Vietnam & Other American Fantasies. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Hagopian, Patrick. (2009). The Vietnam War in American Memory. Amherst, MA: University
of Massachusetts Press.
Halstead, Fred. (1978). Out Now! A Participant's Account of the American Movement Against
Decisions of ehnquist & Warren
The field of constitutional law, at least in the area of criminal procedure, has been an interesting study for the past fifty years. Unlike other areas of the law, the study of criminal procedure has undergone major transformations as a result of the decisions of the last three courts, the Warren, Burger and ehnquist courts. These three courts have changed the legal landscape in the cases involving criminal procedure and, in the process; have created a great deal of controversy (Bloom, 2010).
The application of the Bill or ights to the states has been an acrimonious issue in the U.S. Supreme Court for a number of years. It all began when the Warren Court began applying the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments directly against the states, under a doctrine that became to be known as selective incorporation. The Warren Court used the selective incorporation method…
Arizona v. Evans, 514 U.S. 1 (U.S. Supreme Court March 1, 1995).
Atwater v. City of Lago Vista, 532 U.S. 318 (U.S. Supreme Court April 24, 2001).
Bloom, R.M. (2010). Cases on Criminal Procedure. Riverwoods, IL: CCH .
California v. Minjares, 443 U.S. 916 (U.S. Supreme Court August 22, 1979).
In that book, which Munoz claims was just a "long interview with a fictitious journalist," Pinochet portrays himself as a life-long "anti-Communist," and he recounts an experience he had as an army officer in Pisagua, a prison where communists were incarcerated. "The more I knew those prisoners and listened to their thoughts, while, at the same time, I studied Marx and Engels, the more I became convinced that we were mistaken about the Communist Party," Pinochet wrote. "It was not just another party… it was a system that turns things on their heads, dismissing any loyalty…" he continued (Munoz, 2008, p. 28). As though justifying the cruelty he perpetrated on thousands of civilians -- in the name of him keeping a grip on his dictatorship -- he said he was "…troubled that these pernicious and contaminating ideas could continue and spread throughout Chile" (Pinochet quoted by Munoz, p. 28).
Amnesty International. "Libya: Rule of Law or Rule of Militias?" Retrieved July 19, 2012,
from http://www.amnesty.org .
Bellamy, Alex J. "Human Wrongs in Kosovo: 1974-99." The International Journal of Human
Rights. 4.3/4 (2000): 105-122.
Even if this were a philosophical correction to the varying degrees of utilitarianism we have seen in the 20th century, the simple fact is that Constitution has never defined the job of the President in the way it has been exemplified in modern times. Even Barry Goldwater, seen as a Hawk and a warmonger, commenting on this type of presidential job description: "This is nothing less than the totalitarian philosophy that the end justifies the means…. If there ever was a philosophy of government totally at war with that of the Founding Fathers, it is this one" (120).
How do we reconcile this reverence and responsibility for the American President with the cynicism, suspicion and apathy many Americans have about politics? Certainly, the consequences of the 1980s and the decade of greed enter into the calculation, as does the President who resigned while insisting "I am not a crook." Healy…
We may love to hear that a single candidate can restore American greatness -- if it was ever lost; that a candidate can turn around the economy by signing a few bills; or that a single president can change the geopolitical face of the globe -- but it simply isn't so. Instead, "a truly heroic president is one who appreciates the virtues of restraint- who is bold enough to act when action is necessary, yet wise enough, humble enough to refuse powers he out not have." Is this possible -- certainly, but until the American citizenry demands it, it cannot ever be.
Healy, G. The Cult of the Presidency. Washington, DC: The Cato Institute, 2008.
On the other hand, Israel, Jordan, and the United States were allied in their support of the Israeli state and Israel's land acquisitions during the Six-Day War. Eventually, the Sudan dropped out of the proposal, but, "By the end of 1971 the two leaders had taken soundings in Moscow, had appointed Egypt's war minister, General Muhammad Sadiq, supreme commander of both armies, and had reached agreement on broad strategy" (abil 22). They continued to gain support from the Soviet Union, knowing they needed support of a superpower to offset the military might Israel wielded in the area.
After the war, "Six Arab states, including Egypt, broke off diplomatic relations with Washington, and were subsequently drawn closer to the Soviet Union.28 Additionally, the 1967 war created another 200,000 Palestinian Arab refugees, and more than one million Arabs from this point on lived within Israeli borders" (Mork 21). This really changed the…
Ben-Ami, Shlomo. Scars of War, Wounds of Peace: The Israeli-Arab Tragedy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Cossali, Paul. "Arab-Israeli Relations 1967-2001." A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations 1947-2001. Ed. David Lea. London: Europa, 2002. 39-283.
Mork, Hulda Kjeang. "The Jarring Mission: A Study of the UN Peace Effort in the Middle East, 1967-1971." University of Oslo. 2007. 2 June 2008. http://www.duo.uio.no/publ/IAKH/2007/58588/HuldaxMxrkxxMasteroppgavexixhistorie.pdf
Rabil, Robert G. Embattled Neighbors: Syria, Israel, and Lebanon. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003.
This lead was accomplished through a partnership nearly a half-century old among government, industry and academia. I member of that partnership was the National Science Foundation (NSF). As Strawn noted, early on, scientists and engineers at American universities began to join the young APANet, as they worked on basic research funded primarily by the NSF. Acknowledging this, the NSF began supporting national supercomputing centers, in the mid-1980s, as a means of giving American scientists, engineers, and students greater access to high-performance computing that was state of the art, and developed Computer Science Network (CSNET).
Creation of these national supercomputer centers by NSF was critical to the development of the Internet. To further enhance U.S. scientists' access to these centers, NSF established the NSFNET national backbone network that connected the NSF supercomputing centers to U.S. universities. NSF also promoted the creation of regional networks to connect colleges and universities to the…
Bellis, M. Inventors of the Modern Computer. 2007. About.com. November 7, 2007 http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa091598.htm .
Brief History of the Internet. 10 Dec 2003. Internet Society. November 7, 2007 http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtml .
Cold War. 2003. National Park Service. November 7, 2007 http://www.nps.gov/archive/elro/glossary/cold-war.htm .
DARPA Over the Years. 27 Oct 2003. DARPA. November 7, 2007 http://www.darpa.mil/body/overtheyears.html .
Chinese Internet Culture
Decades after the reforms of Deng Xiaoping known as the "Four Modernizations," "a focus on development of agriculture, industry, science and technology and the military" (The University of Michigan. N.D.); China in 2011, grapples with the multiple dilemmas of internet information access, personal freedom, and government control over content. The rise of digital media, web access, and information availability over the past two decades has spread around the globe encompassing the world's second largest economy. As economic freedom continues to slowly evolve in China, so too does the call from its citizens for unfettered access to internet technology and content become more pervasive. The Chinese internet culture is particularly fascinating due to this inherent dichotomy between government control over content and individual demands for information access. How China's leadership confronts the challenges of information dissemination will be critical to China's long-term economic, social, and political future.
Bristow, M. (June 8, 2010). China Defends Internet Censorship. BBC News. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8727647.stm
Carr, D. (March 28, 2010). Not Creating Content. Just Protecting it. The New York
Times. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/29/business/media/29carr.html?_r=1&ref=sergeybrin
CNN: Larry King Live. (June 5, 2005). Encore Presentation: An Interview with Richard
Throughout our history incidents and occurrences remind us what it means to be an American. During this time of war, after the deadly terrorist attacks upon the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, our American ideals and identity have come into re-examination. But where to begin: hold up a mirror to this country and see a mosaic of people, culture, and opinions. Nearly four hundred years ago, the Europeans began colonizing this land to begin new lives and expand the riches of empires in the Old World. And in less than four hundred years, the descendants of those original colonists have created a superpower that defends the liberties of all free people through the creation of a democratic republic that is founded of inalienable rights bestowed by a Creator, and guaranteed by a Constitution of laws; a unique, non-oppressive empire has been created that has…
Nixon, Richard, Address, 12th Annual Alfred E. Smith Memorial Foundation Dinner, New York City, October 18, 1956.
Lincoln, Abraham, message to Congress, December 1862.
"Introduction." The "Average American" Book. Ed. Barry Tarshis. Atheneum/SMI. New York, 1979.
French, Warren. John Steinbeck. Twayne Publishing, Inc. New York, 1977.
Kansas? How Conservatives on the Heart of America (2004) by Tom Frank
The book: hat's the Matter with Kansas? How Conservatives on the Heart of America (Metropolitan Books, June 1, 2004) [Hardback] by Tom Frank, was entertaining; interesting, satisfying, and affirming In hat's the Matter with Kansas Frank's premise, in a nutshell, is that middle-to-low income citizens of Kansas (and by association other places in America as well) have been seduced for at least three decades (and counting; thus Frank's term "thirty-year backlash," although counting from 1968 and Richard Nixon's successful "silent majority" campaign, that actually understates the truth) by the Republican social agenda: e.g., abortion; gun control, 'family values', etc. Pithy pitches (of the conservative sort; Democrats seem to lack any knack for this) have seduced many Kansans (and others) who can ill afford to vote Republican, financially speaking, to do so anyway. The Republican key to election success…
Bennet [sic], James. "So Alike, Bush and Kerry Make It [sic] Personal." New York
Times. October 10, 2004. Retrieved January 25, 2007, from: http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/10/national/10memo.html?ex=1255147200&en=9c4277 ab1956ca2c&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland.html>.
Frank, Tom. What's the Matter with Kansas? How Conservatives Won the Heart of America. New York: Metropolitan Books. June 1, 2004. (United States House Elections, 2006). Wikipedia. January 26, 2007.
Retrieved January 27, 2007, from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_House_elections,_2006.html >.
The agents then formalize a data which helps them to stop the drug trafficking in future. By the end of year 1968, America's counter culture movement was at its peak and the trend of illegal drug use for the recreational purposes was rising. That was an alarming situation and then the President Lyndon Johnson introduced a legislation that ultimately combined the BDAC and Bureau of Narcotics into a single entity: Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs under the department of Justice (Kleiman & Hawdon, 2011).
As far as the core mission of the Drug Enforcement Administration is concerned, it is to enforce the laws and regulations regarding the controlled substances and to bring the law breakers to the criminal and civil justice system of the United States. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) operations are not only limited to the United States but its jurisdiction is across the world as a…
DEA History. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/history.shtml
DEA Mission Statement. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/mission.shtml
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). (2013). In Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Kleiman, M.A., & Hawdon, J.E. (2011). Encyclopedia of Drug Policy, Volume 1. USA: SAGE.