Richard Wright Essays (Examples)

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Race in Faulkner & Wright

Words: 1065 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91659987

The fact that he is black in no way detracts from Faulkner's message about racism and social control. For example, Faulkner hints that Nancy may have been raped by a white man; her skin color renders her subhuman in the eyes of many white southerners. To Jubah, his masculinity is called into question on two accounts: he must assert himself not only as a man, but as a black man whose wife had been violated by whites. Jubah's violent and aggressive persona corresponds with Dave's. Dave, like Jubah, are powerhouses of male potency, pushed to the boiling point out of a sense of powerlessness and anger. right directly alludes to the potential of male aggression because the mule Dave shoots is named Jenny. hen Jenny bleeds from the gunshot wound, right describes the "hole" and the "blood" using overtly female symbols. Dave never alludes to having sex with women, however.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Faulkner, William. "That Evening Sun Go Down." Retrieved Aug 1, 2006 at  http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA01/White/anthology/faulkner.html 

Wright, Richard. "The Man Who Was Almost A Man." Retrieved Aug 1, 2006 at  http://xroads.virginia.edu/~DRBR2/wright.htm
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Authentic Manhood in Wright's The

Words: 1009 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57035762

At the end of the story, we see the big windows, "bags of peat moss and aluminum lawn furniture stacked on the pavement" (1421) as Sammy walks away from the only world outside his home the he knew. These images successfully allow us to see the boys as boys rather than men.

Language becomes a significant aspect of both stories in that it allows us to see the boys and the worlds in which they live. Dialect in "The Man ho as Almost a Man" gives us a clear image of Dave's world and, by doing so, provides additional reasons for him to become a man. He wants to be respected in a town where African-Americans work for white people and a sense of equality is absent. hen Dave comments that he wants respect, what he wants is to be considered a man regardless of color. In "A and P,"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Updike, John. "A&P." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1981. pp. 1416-21.

Wright, Richard. "The Man Who Was Almost a Man." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1981. pp. 1470-80.
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Modernism in Faulkner and Wright

Words: 1194 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99188116



Both short stories also contain an estrangement of place -- neither young man can seem to find a home in either the North or South. At the beginning Faulkner's tale, Samuel is utterly lost to the South. He does not sound like a Southerner to the census taker at the beginning of the tale, and his clothing suggests a Northern dandy. (Faulkner 351) Later, Samuel's grandmother Mollie's insists that her grandson has been sold into Egypt, like a Israelite slave from the Old Testament, as if the North were more of a place of bondage than the divided South. At "The Man ho as Almost a Man" the end of the sorry tale may seem to give the reader some higher hope, as it ends on a theme of flight from the South. The protagonist makes a decision to flee the area he has been bound to, as a result…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Faulkner, William. "Go Down Moses." From Go Down Moses. Vintage, 19991.

The Man Who Was Almost a Man: Historical Context." Short Stories for Students. Vol. 9. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Ed. Marie Rose Napierkowski. October 2003.

18 April 2005 http://www.enotes.com/man-almost/20020.

Modernism." Answers.com, 2005.  http://www.answers.com/topic/modernism
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Why Wright Does Not Always Understand God

Words: 3052 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43727356

God I Don't Understand: Reflections on Tough Questions of Faith

Preface and Introduction

The Preface explains why Wright chose to write this book. He felt that it could be a more personal and humble approach to God than that achieved in his other books, which were about "knowing God." In this book, Wright wants to address some of the more confusing aspects of God. He justifies this approach by showing how God Himself points out that His ways are not our ways in Scripture. This is a valid point, and what Wright is doing is drawing attention to the fact that we are not God's equals and therefore should not try to humanize Him but rather should try to understand that He knows and sees all and therefore has a good reason for why He commands and does things that might seem disturbing or odd to us.

However, in Wright's…… [Read More]

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Buggin' Out Tells Mookie to

Words: 1573 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11817284

Mookie's frustrated acts show that violence is sometimes justified as a means of "self-defense," in Malcolm X's words. Bigger did not have access to the words of wisdom of either Malcolm X or Martin Luther King Jr. More importantly, Bigger did not have access to a community of like-minded African-Americans who could sympathize with if not totally condone the use of violence to preserve cultural integrity and pride.

Mookie and Bigger are remarkably similar, proving that little has actually changed for African-Americans in terms of gaining social and political power even after the Civil Rights movement. Richard Wright's novel Native Son illustrates the extent of racial discrimination during the early half of the twentieth century; Spike Lee's movie "Do the Right Thing" reveals the extent of racial discrimination during the latter half of the century. The protagonists in Native Son and "Do the Right Thing" live in different times and…… [Read More]

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Black Experience in American Culture This Is

Words: 2599 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17779611

Black Experience in American Culture

This is a paper that analyzes the black experience in American culture as presented by Hughes, Baldwin, Wright and Ellison. It has 20 sources in MLA format.

African-American authors have influenced American culture as they have come forward to present issues that the society would rather have forgotten. Authors such as ichard Wright alph Ellison, Langston Hughes and James Baldwin have come under fire as they have written about the racial and biased experiences throughout their life [Capetti, 2001] and through their narratives they have forged a link between the past, the present (themselves) and their future (the unborn generation).

These literary works are an effort on their part to prove to their nations that regardless of the perceived realities their existence and lives have valuable. The slave past some of these authors have had created a void in their lives that at times left…… [Read More]

Reference:

1] Sundquist, Eric J. who was Langston Hughes? Relevancy: 100; (Commentary) 12-01-1996

2] Buttitta, Anthony. "A Note on Contempo and Langston Hughes." London: Cunard, 1934. 141.

3] Langston Hughes on Scottsboro. College Literature, 10-01-1995, pp. 30(20). Vol. 22

4] Okafor-Newsum, Ikechukwu, of Dreams Deferred, Dead or Alive: African Perspectives on African-American Writers.. Vol. 29, Research in African Literatures, 03-22-1998, pp. 219(12).
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Man Who Almost Was a Man by

Words: 2251 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61177068

Man Who Almost Was a Man," by Richard Wright, explains how the non-literary dimension changes one's understanding of the story.

The Man Who Was Almost a Man"

Richard Wright was one of the greatest African-American writers; he was also the first African-American to have produced one of the famous novel of racism and its psychological affect on the individuals in his masterpiece "Native on." Born in 1908 in Mississippi, Wright father left the family when he was only six years old and when he was ten his mother had a paralytic stroke and was unable to work. Wright after a formal education was forced to seek employment in order to support his family. The first half of the twentieth century was a crucial period for the African-Americans, the discrimination against them had taken a different form and shape and there were little jobs available for the black people. Wright worked…… [Read More]

Sources:

Caron, TP. [1996]. "The Reds Are in the Bible Room': Political Activism and the Bible in Richard Wright's Uncle Tom's Children." Studies in American Fiction 24.

DeCoste, DM. [1998]. "To Blot It All Out: The Politics of Realism in Richard Wright's Native Son." Style 32.1.

Rampersad, A. [1995] "Introduction." Richard Wright: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Arnold Rampersad. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995.

Abdul R. [1997]. Negating the Negation as a Form of Affirmation in Minority Discourse: The Construction of Richard Wright as Subject. Cultural Critique 7, 245-66.
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American Culture Studies

Words: 1513 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46929669

Racial Exclusion in America

When one thinks of racial exclusion, they usually think of the reconstruction period of the late 1800s and the Jim Crow Laws. The Jim Crow laws prohibited blacks from drinking from the same water fountains, eating in the same restaurants, and ride in the back of the bus. Most ideas of racial exclusion are targeted at blacks, however, many other ethnic groups were the victims of racial exclusion as well. They may not have had laws condoning it, as was the case with blacks and Native Americans, but exclusion was there never the less. The books "Black Boy" by Richard Wright and "America is in the Heart" by Carlos Bulosan are two of the best examples illustrating the effects of racial exclusion from an insider's perspective. This paper will compare these two books both from historical perspective and from a contemporary standpoint.

Everyone knows about the…… [Read More]

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The Moral Landscape of Pre

Words: 6045 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57381349


On the threshold of the Civil Rights movement, Baldwin would publish
Notes of a Native Son. Though 1953's Go Tell It On The Mountain would be
perhaps Baldwin's best known work, it is this explicitly referential
dialogic follow-up to right's
Native Son that would invoke some of the most compelling insights which
Baldwin would have to offer on the subject of American racism. This is,
indeed, a most effectively lucid examination from the perspective of a
deeply self-conscious writer enduring the twin marks in a nation of
virulent prejudice of being both African American and homosexual. The
result of this vantage is a set of essays that reaches accord with right's
conception of the socially devastating impact of segregation on the psyche,
conscience and real opportunity but also one that takes issue with the
brutality of Bigger, a decidedly negative image to be invoked of the black
man in America.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Baldwin, J. (1955). Notes of a Native Son. Beacon Press.

Gilliam, F.D. (2002). Farther to Go. University of California at Los
Angeles

Wikipedia. (2009). James Baldwin. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.
Wright, R. (1940). Native Son. Chicago: First Perennial Classics, edition
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Judging a Book by Its

Words: 1360 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44041271

(Norvell)

This is revealed at the end of the story when Olaf realizes that Jim never intended to kill him but simply do something nice for him. It is interesting to note that while Jim drinks and spends time with prostitutes, he is the one that offers a nice gesture toward Jim. Olaf would appear to be the nicer of the two men, given that he does not drink and carry on like Jim does. Olaf seems nice and keeps most of his thoughts to himself; this is precisely why we should not trust him. Jim might be perceived as the more aggressive and frightening of the two because he towers over six feet tall. right uses these images to illustrate how looks can, and usually are, deceiving. right keeps us guessing about Jim until the end of the story; he leads us on with Olaf's thoughts and fears.

The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alsen, Bernhard. "Richard Wright." African-American Authors. The African-American Experience Resource Database. Information Retrieved December 03, 2008. http://aae.greenwood.com

Ellison, Ralph. Modern American Literature. Vol. III. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. 1969.

Marshall, Margaret. Modern American Literature. Vol. III. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. 1969.

Spiller, Robert. Literary History of the United States. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1974.
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Man Who Killed a Shadow Comments on

Words: 603 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18087797

Man Who Killed a Shadow comments on a short story written by Richard Wright

The short story, "A Man Who Killed a Shadow," was first printed in the Spring, 1949 issue of Zero Magazine and is essentially based on an actual event which occurred a few years earlier. Of course, Wright fictionalized the names and some of the events to make his dramatic points.

I believe that "The Man Who Killed a Shadow" is a commentary on racism based upon the racial "universalities" which were very much present in 1949 in the South, including Washington, D.C. And Virginia.

The main character, Saul Saunders, finds out during the story that these "universalities" are impossible to escape. First, Saul realizes almost immediately that his being alone with a white woman, especially one who is screaming incessantly, is a situation a Black man should never find himself in. Wright's use of the unseen…… [Read More]

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Cultural Forms of Expression African-American

Words: 2857 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48259043

(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm)

Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a…… [Read More]

Resources

Cashmore, E. (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. New York: Routledge.

Cha-Jua, S.K. (Summer 2001) "Slavery, Racist Violence, American Apartheid: The Case for Reparations" New Politics, 8:3. At http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm

Dubois, W.E.B., (1987) Writings, New York: Library of America.

Davis, A. (1999) Blues Legacies and Black Feminism, New York: Vintage.
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American Lit Definition of Modernism and Three

Words: 3585 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58544512

American Lit

Definition of Modernism and Three Examples

Indeed, creating a true and solid definition of modernism is exceptionally difficult, and even most of the more scholarly critical accounts of the so-called modernist movement tend to divide the category into more or less two different movements, being what is known as "high modernism," which reflected the erudition and scholarly experimentalism of Eliot, Joyce, and Pound, and the so-called "low modernism" of later American practitioners, such as William Carlos Williams. Nonetheless, despite the problems of reification involved with such a task, I will attempt to invoke a definitions of at least some traits of modernism, as culled from the Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics:

First, [in modernism] "realization" had to replace description, so that instead of copying the external world the work could render it in an image insisting on its own forms of reality... [and] Second, the poets develop…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Preminger, Alex and Brogan T.V.F. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1993.
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Women Are Confined in Society as Depicted

Words: 1150 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42380582

women are confined in society as depicted in the stories by Steinback, Joyce and Oates.

Stories set in the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century often depict women as being confined to the norms of society even while they struggle to be free. Authors of literary works may they be short or long stories have often presented these women as being frustrated with the status imposed upon them and show the problems they face in a patriarchal society. In John Steinback's Chrysanthemums for instance, the female character Elisa Allen has been portrayed as "a strong, capable woman kept from personal, social, and sexual fulfillment by the prevailing conception of a woman's role in a world dominated by men" (Steinback, 306). Her appearance, manner and speech all suggest that she is a woman frustrated with the male dominated world. Her husband forever reminds Elisa that she…… [Read More]

References

Walker, Alice. "Everyday Use." The Norton Anthology, 4th ed., shorter. New York: Norton, 1995.

Wright, Richard. "The Man Who Was Almost a Man" available at www.xroads.virginia.edu/~DRBR2/wright.htm

Oates, Joyce Carol. "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" accessed on 8-11-2002 at: www.usfca.edu/fac-staff/southerr/wgoing.html
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Real Men Explored Through Literature

Words: 2427 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4284794

In "The Secret Life of alter Mitty," Mitty escapes the reality of his manhood with daydreaming. He does this because his wife emasculates him. For Mitty, daydreams are better than dealing with a bothersome wife. Mitty is a real man in his mind as he fantasizes about saving the Navy hydroplane. Mitty is not happy and he argues with his wife over such things as overshoes. He is no doubt a curmudgeon, as we see when he calls the parking lot attendant "damn cocky" (Thurber 1361). Mitty is unlucky in life but we have to wonder how much of this is his fault. Many would look at him and see nothing that resembles a real man. His imagination is his escape, which makes Mitty happy, as he declares himself "undefeated" and "inscrutable" (1364). Mitty might know how to escape his awful world but he is taking a chicken's way out.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Thurber, James. (1981) "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty." The Norton Anthology of Short

Fiction. New York W.W. Norton and Company. Print.

Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning." The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Vol. II. Paul

Lauter, ed. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1990. Print.
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Seeing World Another Perspective Half a Day

Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12723853

Seeing orld Another Perspective." "Half a Day" Naguib Mahfouz "Big Black Good Man" Richard right "A Very Old Man Enormous ings" Gabriel Garcia Marquez.

Particularities have always served as a tool for discrimination, given that the contemporary society has grown accustomed to treat people on account of their background and depending on the way that they look. Gabriel Garcia Marquez's 1955 short story "A Very Old Man ith Enormous ings" puts across an episode in the life of a Hispanic community that has come to express its discriminatory and exploitative nature consequent to encountering a distressed creature. The Native American saying "Never criticize another until you have walked a mile in his moccasins" partly explains Garcia Marquez's account. Fueled by folklore and as a result of seeing the opportunity to make easy money, the Pelayo and Elisenda do not hesitate to take advantage of the angel's state of decay, regardless…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Garcia Marquez, Gabriel. (1955). "A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings."
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Sense of Realism

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47780127

Keepin' it real -- Real-ism, that is: Today's 'take' on John Singleton's 1991 film, "Boyz in the Hood"

The pummeling hip-hop soundtrack immediately sets the tone for "Boyz in the Hood." This film's musical sound signals to the viewer that it is produced by someone who knows the street, because it sounds like the street, screams like the street -- a particular kind of neighborhood street -- that of the 'hood.' The film's early use of quick cuts in a montage that introduces the main protagonists and the neighborhood to the viewer and its sharp, guttural dialogue suggest that the director is 'really' going to show to the viewer how people 'really' and authentically communicate in real, urban street life.

The use of short sentences and monosyllables in many films that attempt to seem realistic is often also used to show individuals who know each other well, like brothers and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Boyz in the Hood." Directed and written by John Singleton. 1991.
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Wallace Stevens -- the Idea

Words: 2447 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99644511



One of Wright's major works was Black Boy and one of the most poignant sections of that book was Chapter 12 in which Wright described the experiences of two southern black boys exploited by the "five dollar fight." Working for an optician in Memphis, Tennessee, the protagonist (Richard) hopes that his experiences with white people in Memphis will be better than in the small town of Jackson, Mississippi "The people of Memphis had an air of relative urbanity that took some of the sharpness off the attitude of whites toward Negroes & #8230;"

However, Richard finds that white people are just as exploitative and abusive of blacks in the big city as in small towns. Some of the white men where Richard works pay another black boy a quarter at a time to let them kick him in his rear end and even when white men seem to be nice…… [Read More]

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Personal and the Literary in American Literature

Words: 1917 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96749839

Blurring the Gap Between Fiction and eal Life

This is a paper that outlines how modern literature integrates personal experiences of the writers into works of fiction. It has 5 sources.

It is quite interesting to note the means by which eminent writers attract attention to their ideas and literary content. On closer examination, we may come to the conclusion that the means by which public attention may be grabbed has followed a definite pattern through the years. While writers like Shakespeare and his contemporaries used fiction to project their literary geniuses, modern day writers strive to catch the attention of the masses by presenting their own personal conflicts and tragedies to the public. The modern writer has lessened the gap between a literary piece of work and real life. However, literature in the classical period is known for its often unnatural and over-dramatized perspectives on life. Today, the stories…… [Read More]

References

Wright, Richard A., Black Boy, Perennial, September 1, 1998

Williams, Tennessee. The Glass Menagerie, New Directions Publishing; June 1999

Ward, Jerry, M. "Richard Wright-Black Boy," retrieved at  http://www.newsreel.org/guides/richardw.htm . On April 2, 2004

King Thomas, L. Irony and distance in the Glass Menagerie in Tennessee Williams. Ed. Harold Bloom, New York: Chelsea house, 1987, 85-94
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Race Class Gender and Power

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57440008

Harlem enaissance was a true flourishing of African-American arts, music, and literature, thereby contributing tremendously to the cultural landscape of the nation. Much Harlem enaissance literature reflects the experience of the "great migration" of blacks from the rural south to the urban north. Those experiences included reflections on the intersections between race, class, gender, and power. Many of the Harlem enaissance writers penned memoirs that offer insight into the direct experience of racism, such as ichard Wright's "The Ethics of Living Jim Crow." Poets worked with classic literary devices like symbolism and imagery to convey the intense emotions linked to experiences of prejudice and violence. Emerging in conjunction with social and political justice movements such as women's rights and labor rights, the movement to empower black communities through the arts also spilled beyond the borders of the African-American community. For example, F. Scott Fitzgerald's novels and short stories addressed class…… [Read More]

References

Brown, S. Bitter fruit of the tree. Retrieved online: http://www.ronnowpoetry.com/contents/brown/BitterFruit.html

Wright, R. The ethics of living Jim Crow. Retrieved online: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ma01/white/anthology/wright.html
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Women Authors and the Harlem

Words: 4238 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4923057

Some artists, such as Aaron Douglas, captured the feeling of Africa in their work because they wanted to show their ancestry through art. Others, like Archibald J. Motley Jr., obtained their inspiration from the surroundings in which they lived in; where jazz was at the forefront and African-Americans were just trying to get by day-to-day like any other Anglo-American. Additionally, some Black American artists felt more comfortable in Europe than they did in America. These artists tended to paint landscapes of different European countries. Most of the latter, however, were ostracized for this because many black politicians felt they should represent more of their African culture in their work (Campbell 1994, Powell and Bailey).

Whatever the case, most African-American artists during this period of time had a similarity that tied them together. Black art was often very colorful and vivacious; having an almost rhythmic feel to it. This was appropriate…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Allego, D. "Margaret Walker: Biographical Note." Modern American Poetry. 1997. Cited in:

 http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/s_z/walker/bio.htm 

Beaulieu, E. Writing African-American Women: An Encyclopedia of Literature by and About

Women of Color. Greenwood Press, 2006.
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Bigger Thomas's Descent Towards Being

Words: 1234 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19809767

Tracing these developments in the novel, the succeeding discussion illustrates the character transition of the protagonist through his relationships and interaction with other characters in the novel.

As a discriminated individual, Bigger had learned not to expect more from his community and society, limiting his dreams in life by earning just enough money to allow him and his family to eat for a day, as well as provide for some basic needs. right provides a glimpse of Bigger's psyche, which explained why his behavior and attitude towards life was full of bitterness and limitations (13):

He hated his family because he knew that they were suffering and that he was powerless to help them. He knew that the moment he allowed himself to feel to its fullness how they lived, the shame and misery of their lives, he would be swept out of himself with fear and despair. So he…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Wright, R. (1966). Native Son. NY: Harper & Row.
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Various Authors

Words: 1714 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66098104

Fiction:

Fou Stoies and thei Elements

A peson eads fiction fo many easons. Often times, as Richad Wight suggests, one chooses to escape one's life, and discove new ealities and states of being. Fiction is pehaps the most poweful medium that can tanspot a peson outside of eveything peviously known, as fiction challenges not only one's intelligence, but also one's imagination. Due to this eason, fiction is hee to say, so to speak, unchallenged in its complexity by such things as television o othe eceational activities, as compute o video games. The following pages will engage fou stoies in ode to descibe just how inticate a witten wok of fiction can be, and will examine vaious pats of these stoies in ode to link them to ways of thinking and daily existence.

An Act of Vengeance by Isabel Allende

This shot stoy by Isabel Allende is tuly a melange of…… [Read More]

references were taken from the documents which you provided, which included the four stories above, as well as the short segment on fiction by Richard Wright. No outside sources were utilized.
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Smith & Walker Both Smith and Walker

Words: 2888 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8404915

Smith & Walke

Both Smith and Walke who wite about the plight of black people and the feelings of inevitability and acism can invoke in Black people and in thei lives. A significant diffeence between the poem and the shot stoy is the geneation and age of the individuals. Wheeas Walke's shot stoy is concened with the acism and pain expeienced by an eldely Afican-Ameican woman in the post-civil ights ea, Smith is concened with a young woman in the same ea. The eldely woman is in ual county and the young woman, as evidenced by Smith's efeence to 'Motown' is in an uban setting. The disconnect both women feel fom both thei bodies and fom thei suoundings is the unifying thead that binds these two seemingly dispaate stoies. I am inteested in exploing the theme of alienation fom one's suoundings and fom one's body that lie at the heat…… [Read More]

references have left her feeling alien her own skin. Returning to the reference of the mirror in the poem, it is clear that the alienation is based on a belief that things should be otherwise and that the reflections failure to look like the acceptable image in the minds of the young women is seen as a betrayal. Whereas Walker's woman is triumphant in the end, even in death, Smith's woman, who may also be dead, is consumed by far more pedestrian matters of the heart.

In both pieces the very last image is one of death. Smith's death imagery manifests itself in the form of a male grabbing a woman and collapsing her into his fingers (Smith, line 20). On the other hand, the death of old woman in Walker's short story is far from metaphorical; her death is quite literal and very visceral. While there is room to interpret the story ending in the Smith poem as an ending which is related to heartbreak or the end of a relationship or the loss of a woman's identity in the context of the relationship, there is no alternative interpretation of the old woman's passing (Walker, 87). Her animation at getting to see Jesus even as she has been evicted from the lord's house as it would be called is metaphorical and literal at the same time. Her death, on the other hand, the one where there is a dead old woman's body on the side of the highway where she had been spotted walking is quite literal. In the end the similarities of both the authors and the characters outweigh the differences. Although, it must be said that one has a triumphant ending and the other one is darker.

Reference

Byrd, R.P. & Gates R., H. (2011) Jean Toomer's Conflicted Racial Identity. Chronicle of Higher Education, 57(23), B5-B8(3), pp. 31-46.

Macdonald, G. (2010) Scottish Extractions: Race and Racism in Devolutionary Fiction. Orbis Litteraium, 65(2), pp. 79-107.
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Criminal Justice Theory and Policy

Words: 2584 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20694471

The reduction occurs through allowing the counties to acquire other methods of jailing apart from the prisons. This includes out-of custody rehabilitative treatments, which could serve in reducing the number of the criminals taken to the prisons. However, the AB109 criminals must be individuals whose crime are not violent and not that serious as provided by the law. This means that that jailing of the A109 criminals in other alternative would involve selection from the other criminals. However the unstated implication is that it would be much difficult to rate a crime as either more serious or not serious. Consequently, the rationale provides higher chances of biasness of selecting some non-serious cases while leaving others.

Implication of the policy

The criminal justice implication of the policy will mainly affect the non-violent arrestees. The decision of keeping them in custody, would affect their ability to avoid recividism future. The social implications…… [Read More]

Reference

Kraska, P., & Brent, J. (2011).Theorizing Criminal Justice: Eight Essential Orientations (2nd

Edition). Long Grove

Hancock, B., & Sharp, P. (2004).Criminal Justice in America (3rd Edition).Upper Saddle River,

NY: Prentice Hall
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Heart Is a Lonely Hunter

Words: 2744 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29161399

Heart Is a Lonely Hunter by Carson McCullers is a tale involving five main characters that struggle against the isolation and despair brought on by circumstances in their lives. The story takes place during the late 1930's in an unnamed deep Southern town. McCullers begins the story by introducing the deaf-mute John Singer; he used to live with his friend Spiros Antonapoulos who was also a deaf-mute. Singer doted on his friend a great deal even though it was apparent that Antonapoulos never showed any appreciation towards it. Later Antonapoulos became mentally ill and was taken away to an insane asylum despite Singer's protestations. Due to this, Singer had to move out of the home he once shared with his friend and become a boarder at the house of the Kelly's.

Biff Brannon and Jake Blount are next introduced in the story. Biff runs a popular local restaurant named the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chojnowicz, Gaele. "Carson McCullers." The Carson McCullers Project. March 12, 1998. Retrieved April 26, 2005 from http://www.carson-mccullers.com/html/paper.html

Clark, Charlene Kerne. "Pathos with a chuckle: the tragicomic vision in the novels of Carson McCullers." (n.d) Retrieved April 25, 2005 from http://www.compedit.com/clark1.htm

McCullers, Carson. The Heart is a Lonely Hunter. New York: Bantam, 1983.

"Southern gothic" Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia. (n.d.) Retrieved April 26, 2005 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Gothic
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Compare and Contrast Essentialist Articulation of Race and Instrumentalist Articulation of Race

Words: 1562 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32902659

Race continues to play a role in American culture and policy in the 21st century. Average incomes in the United tates are demonstrably dissimilar, affirmative action policies allow campuses to use race as a determining factor when creating student bodies, and race continues to define media and culture to a significant degree. To some extent, these factors should escape our criticism, as it can't be considered desirable for all people from all races and cultural backgrounds to converge into a national monoculture. However, to the extent that people are excluded from opportunities as a result of race rather than merit, we have no choice but to find fault and look for solutions. As Richard Payne writes in Getting Beyond Race, "General racial classifications ignore the obvious biological reality that each individual within the human species, with the exception of identical twins, is genetically unique." (Payne, pg. 1)

The essentialist articulation…… [Read More]

Sources, and Historical Documents. Greenwood Press, 1998
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Alienation People at Odds With Society

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76717904

Invisible Man, by Ralph Ellison. Specifically, it will contain a brief biography of the author; address the topic of alienation as it pertains to the work, and include some critical reviews of the novel. Many critics consider novelist Ralph Ellison's "The Invisible Man" a classic in American literature, and a treatise on how blacks have been treated by white society throughout the decades. His story is a tale of alienation, prejudice, and the strength one man has to rise above these obstacles to become the best man he can be.

The Invisible Man - The Author, Ralph Ellison

Ralph Ellison was born in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on March 1, 1914. His parents, Lewis and Ida Ellison, were from the South, but had moved to Oklahoma searching for racial equality they could not find at home (Watts 33). His father died when Ellison was three, and his mother raised her two…… [Read More]

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Duke Ellington Symphony in Black African American

Words: 1392 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13743062

Duke Ellington: "Symphony in Black"

Symphony in Black, A Rhapsody of Black Life" is Duke Ellington's second motion picture. The film was directed by Fred aller at Paramount Pictures and then was released during the mid-1930s. One of the most thought-provoking features of this short film is the lack of stereotypical, racist representations of African-Americans which deface earliest jazz movies. This motion picture showed Ellington as composer that was on the same level as other famous composer of "Rhapsody in Blue." In the film, Duke Ellington and his Orchestra are depicted as skilled, and a dignified performer. ith that said, this essay will discuss how Richard right's characters in Down by the Riverside, or Long Black Song reflect both the version of history that Ellington describes, and the idea of history that Conn sees as so essential to 1930s American culture.

Richard right's characters in Down by the Riverside, reflect…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Schuller, Gunther. The Swing Era. New York:: Oxford University Press, 1989. p.94.

Springer, Mike. Duke Ellington's Symphony in Black, Starring a 19-Year-old Billie Holiday. 9 January 2015. http://www.openculture.com/2013/05/duke_ellingtons_isymphony_in_blacki_starring_a_19-year-old_billie_holiday.html. 13 March 2016.

Symphony in Black. Dir. Fred Walker. 1935. Paramount.
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Death Penalty as a Deterrent for Murder

Words: 6058 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25585782

Abstract

This paper examines the death penalty as a deterrent and argues that states have not only the right but the duty to apply the death penalty to criminal cases because it is incumbent upon states to back the law with force. The death penalty acts as a forceful and compelling consequence for those who should choose to violate the law and commit murder. For that reason it can be said to be a deterrent. This paper also examines the opposing arguments and shows that those would say it is not an effective deterrent cannot offer any quantitative proof for this argument because no measurements exist that could possibly render such a claim factual or provable. The paper concludes by showing that the death penalty should only be administered in states where there is harmony between social justice and criminal justice.

Introduction

While it may seem ironic that the death…… [Read More]

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Multi Ethnic Literature

Words: 3326 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33967127

Multi-Ethnic Literature

The focus of this work is to examine multi-ethnic literature and focus on treating humans like farm animals that can be manipulated for various purposes. Multi-Ethnic literature offers a glimpse into the lives of the various writers of this literature and into the lives of various ethnic groups and the way that they view life and society and their experiences. Examined in this study are various writers including Tupac Shakar, Dorothy West, Petry, and others.

A Rose Grows From Concrete

One might be surprised to learn that Tupac Shakar was the writer of many sensitive poems. Upon his death in 1996, Tupac's mother released a collection of poems entitled 'A Rose Grows From Concrete', which includes various love poems among the 72 poems in the collection. Tupac writes:

Things that make hearts break.

Pretty smiles

Deceiving laughs

And people who dream with their eyes open

Lonely children

Unanswered…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jones, SL (2012) Rereading the Harlem Renaissance: Race, Class and Gender in the Fiction of Jessie Fauset, Zora Neale Hurston and Dorothy West. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2002. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=NeRtokbeXDEC&dq=social,+political+and+economic+oppression,+created+a+climate+in+which+Dorothy+West+felt+compelled+to+refrain+from+completing+or+actively+pursuing+a+publisher+for+The+Wedding.+West%E2%80%99s+nearly+half-a-century+space+between+publication+of+The+Living+Is+Easy+(1948)+and+The+Wedding+(1995)+signifies+the+complexities+of+African+American+literature+and+the+debate+over+which+aesthetics%E2%80%94folk,+bourgeois,+and+proletarian%E2%80%94should+take+preeminence+at+a+given+time&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Edwards, Walter. "From poetry to rap: the lyrics of Tupac Shakur. " The Western Journal of Black Studies. 26.2 (Summer 2002): 61(10). Expanded Academic ASAP. Gale. College of Alameda. 17 Sept. 2008

Hale, JC (1985) The Jailing of Cecelia Hale. University of New Mexico Press. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=eW6RGpubQ9UC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

Pat Mora (2012) Artist Page. Retrieved from: http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/mora_pat.php
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Ellison the Literary Work of Ralph Ellison

Words: 1897 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25131489

Ellison

The literary work of Ralph Ellison is among the most studied and the most controversial. In the context of African-American writers Ellison is both revered and despised for the manner in which he wrote (or failed to write) concerning the question of race. His essay "The orld and the Jug" written in 1963 explores the important topic of race and the functions of literature. The purpose of this discussion is to explain how Ellison relates to my concepts of the Civil Rights and the Black Arts Movements.

"The orld and the Jug"

Ellison's "The orld and the Jug" is basically a response to criticisms written by Irving Howe about Ellison's perceived failure to write protest fiction. This criticism is one that Ellison received throughout his lifetime. The criticism was mainly present because of the way that other writers such as Richard right and James Baldwin wrote about race in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baldwin J. (1949) "Everybody's Protest Novel"

Benston K.W. (1978) Ellison, Baraka, and the Faces of TraditionAuthor(s): Source: boundary 2,. 6(2), pp. 333-354Published

Ellison, R. "The World and the Jug." "The Norton Anthology of African-American Literature"2nd edition, by Henry Louis Gates Jr. And Nellie Y. McKay.

Johnson, C. (1995) Race, Politics and Ralph Ellison.  http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/04/05/specials/johnson-intellectual.html
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Oppose Capital Punishment

Words: 2154 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79163927

Capital Punishment: A Capital Offense in Today's Easily Misguided orld

The debate surrounding the usage of capital punishment in the modern era has raged for generations. hile there have always been arguments for the positive aspects of capital punishment, today's world is less optimistic about the death penalty -- and with good reason. The death penalty affects more than just the convicted, it affects all of society. In order to show why capital punishment should be avoided, it is helpful to draw lessons from history, literature, and psychology.

The historical case for capital punishment has long been made. Capital punishment has existed in every major society in one form or another throughout the centuries. As Michael Kronenwetter states, in every society "all punishment is based on the same simple proposition: There must be a penalty for wrongdoing" (1). Kronenwetter is correct in asserting as much: all major societies have had…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arriens, Jan, ed. Welcome to Hell: Letters and Writings from Death Row. UK: UPNE,

2005. Print.

Bacon, Francis. "Of Goodness and Goodness of Nature." Essays of Francis Bacon (The

Harvard Classics), 1909. Web.
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Jazz and the Blues The

Words: 1069 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31013756

Most large cities have a symphony orchestra, which may perform a dozen times during a season. Jazz and the blues, however, are usually available most of the time in small venues like bars and clubs, and often during the year at large festivals, such as the Monterey Jazz Festival in Monterey, California. Jazz is gaining in popularity on the radio too, and most larger cities have at least one jazz station, while they might not have a classical station. Classical music is accessible in a number of areas, but jazz and the blues are accessible in many more, and that is why today's listener has a wide choice of options when looking for live jazz and blues concerts.

Any trained musician knows all musical genres have similarities. They all use a distinct language of notes and rhythms, and they all use meter, tempo, and harmony. In this, jazz and blues…… [Read More]

References

Gioia, Ted. "The History of Jazz." WashingtonPost.com. 1997. 18 July 2006.  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/historyofjazz.htm 

Knight, Richard. "All That JAZZ." Geographical Oct. 2001: 14.

Porter, Eric. What Is This Thing Called Jazz? African-American Musicians as Artists, Critics, and Activists. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.

Shepard, T. Brooks. "Music Notes Earworthy." American Visions Oct. 1999: 48.
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Ralph Ellison Is as Celebrated Today as

Words: 1481 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72766552

Ralph Ellison is as celebrated today as one of America's finest authors as he was fifty years ago. This is quite a legacy for a man who only wrote one novel during his lifetime. "If I'm going to be remembered as a novelist, I'd better produce a few more books," Ellison once acknowledged to an interviewer (Bark 1C). There is little doubt that this author will ever be forgotten. Half a century after its publication in 1952, "Invisible Man" remains a constant staple on reading lists at colleges across the country and Ellison remains one of the most celebrated authors of the Twentieth Century (Bark 1C). Professor Clyde Taylor of New York University says, Ellison "showed us that you could do with black life what Homer did with Greek life, what Joyce did with Irish life" (Bark 1C).

Ellison paved the way for writers as diverse as At a time…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bark, Ed. "Ellison's legacy still alive." The Dallas Morning News. February 19, 2002; pp

1C.

Corliss, Richard. "Obituary: Invincible Man Ralph Ellison 1914-1994." Time. April 25

1994; pp 90.
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Down These Mean Streets

Words: 6074 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42314847

Down These Mean Streets believe that every child is born a poet, and every poet is a child. Poetry to me was always a very sacred form of expression. (qtd. In Fisher 2003)

Introduction / Background History

Born Juan Pedro Tomas, of Puerto Rican and Cuban parents in New York City's Spanish Harlem in 1928, Piri Thomas began his struggle for survival, identity, and recognition at an early age. The vicious street environment of poverty, racism, and street crime took its toll and he served seven years of nightmarish incarceration at hard labor. But, with the knowledge that he had not been born a criminal, he rose above his violent background of drugs and gang warfare, and he vowed to use his street and prison know-how to reach hard-core youth and turn them away from a life of crime.

Thirty years ago Piri Thomas made literary history with this lacerating,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anonymous. "Piri Thomas" (2000). 09 December 2003. http://www.peacehost.com

Coeyman, M. "In a Largely Minority School, Literature Helps Students Confront Complex

Issues of Race and Culture" (2002). The Christian Science Monitor. 10 December 2003. http://www.csmonitor.com

Fisher, S. "Mean Streets Author Launches Latino Month" (2003). 10 December 2003. http://www.advance.uconn.edu/htm
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Social Times and the Culture

Words: 4845 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5402298

They were followed in 1936 by the Harlem River Houses, a more modest experiment in housing projects. And by 1964, nine giant public housing projects had been constructed in the neighborhood, housing over 41,000 people [see also Tritter; Pinckney and oock].

The roots of Harlem's various pre 1960's-era movements for African-American equality began growing years before the Harlem Renaissance itself, and were still alive long after the Harlem Renaissance ended. For example:

The NAACP became active in Harlem in 1910 and Marcus Garvey's Universal

Negro Improvement Organization in 1916. The NAACP chapter there soon grew to be the largest in the country. Activist a. Philip Randolph lived in Harlem and published the radical magazine the Messenger starting in 1917.

It was from Harlem that he organized the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car

Porters. .E.B. DuBois lived and published in Harlem in the 1920s, as did

James eldon Johnson and Marcus Garvey.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." Online. Retrieved February 3, 2007, at http://www.spcollege.edu/Central/libonline/path/shortstory.pdf.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)'. Wikipedia.

December 7, 2006. Retrieved December 7, 2006, from: http://en.

A wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_v._Board_of_Education.html>.
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Value of Literature Must Apply

Words: 1491 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57886508

ith the link to the Bible, the story "…resonates with the richness of distant antecedents" and it no longer is "locked in the middle of the twentieth century"; hence, it never grows old, Foster concludes (56).

C.S. Lewis on the Importance of Reading Good Literature

C.S. Lewis, noted novelist, literary critic, lay theologian and essayist, advocates reading literature in his book an Experiment in Criticism. He is disappointed in fact when individuals only read important novels once. Reading a novel the second time for many on his list of incomplete readers is "…like a burnt-out match, an old railway ticket, or yesterday's paper" (Lewis, 2012, p. 2). Those bright alert people who read great works will read the same book "…ten, twenty or thirty times" during their lifetime and discover more with each reading, Lewis writes. The person who is a "devotee of culture" is worth "much more than the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Draughon, Earl Wells. A Book Worth Reading. Bloomington, in: iUniverse, 2003.

Files, Robert. "The Black Love-Hate Affair with the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 35.4 (2011): 240-245.

Foster, Thomas C. How to Read Literature Like a Professor: A Lively and Entertaining Guide to Reading Between the Lines. New York: HarperCollins, 2003.

Lewis, C.S. An Experiment in Criticism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
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Electronic Music Instruments Techniques &

Words: 1798 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49604016

Carlos also proved that the music of ach was dimensionally ever-changing and could be expressed quite well through the use of electronics.

Pink Floyd, one of the most influential "psychedelic" groups from England, utterly transformed the entire spectrum of music in the late 1960's and early 1970's through the use of the synthesizer and other electronic devices. On their "Dark Side of the Moon" album, Pink Floyd, especially bassist/keyboardist Roger Waters and keyboardist Richard Wright, completely altered all previous ideas concerning how the synthesizer could take the listener on a new voyage of discovery into uncharted territories of sound. For Pink Floyd, the synthesizer was far more than just a tool -- it was a machine with the capabilities of transforming the landscape of sound into something cosmic in origin.

In conclusion, electronic music, from its humble beginnings in the 1940's and into the present day, has greatly influenced most…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Appleton, Jon H., ed. The Development and Practice of Electronic Music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975.

Darter, Tom. The Art of Electronic Music. NY: William Morrow & Company, 1984.

Electronic Music with the Theremin." Popular Electronics. April 1955: 19-26.

Horn, Delton T. Electronic Music Synthesizers. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab Books, 1980.
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U S Since the Civil War Has Reinvented Itself

Words: 527 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56065081

Civil ar

From Slavery to African-American

By the beginning of the Civil ar, there were some four million African-Americans living in the United States, 3.5 million slaves lived in the South, while another 500,000 lived free across the country (African pp). The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 granted freedom to all slaves in the Confederacy, and the 13th Amendment of 1865 freed the remaining slaves throughout the nation (African pp). During the Reconstruction Era, African-Americans in the South gained a number of civil rights, including the right to vote and to hold office, however, when Reconstruction ended in 1877, white landowners initiated racial segregation that resulted in vigilante violence, including lynchings (African pp).

This resulted in the Great Migration of African-Americans from the South to the North during the beginning of the twentieth century (African pp).

From this Great Migration came an intellectual and cultural elite group of African-Americans that grew…… [Read More]

Work Cited

African-American. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_American
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Ralph Ellison Was the Grandson of Slaves

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10637311

Ralph Ellison was the grandson of slaves. He was born in Oklahoma in 1914, where he was also raised (Tulsa). He developed a love for jazz music at a very young age, and Ellison maintained a circle of friends that included many jazz musicians. He studied two instruments - the coronet, and the trumpet, with intentions of becoming a "jazz man" himself. He studied music at the prominent black college founded by Booker T. Washington, the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. After a three-year period, he left Alabama for New York, where he became friends with such African-American writers as Richard Wright, and Langston Hughes. He worked as an editor of an African-American newsletter before serving during World War II as a Merchant Marine. After his stint in the war, Ellison received a fellowship, which he used to fund his only novel ever completed - Invisible Man. The full, complete manuscript…… [Read More]

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Gertude Stein Gertrude Stein it Is Difficult

Words: 1862 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94500404

Gertude Stein.

Gertrude Stein

It is difficult to think of 1920's Paris without recalling Gertrude Stein. A friend to some of the most prominent artists and writers of the 20th century, Stein is not only known for her own accomplished writing contributions, but also for her personal lifestyle.

Gertrude Stein was born in 1874 near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. She attended Radcliffe from 1893-1897, where she was a student of illiam James. One day Stein wrote, "Dear Professor James, I am sorry but really I do not feel a bit like an examination paper in philosophy today"...the next day James send her a postcard saying "I understand perfectly how you feel, I often feel like that myself," and then he gave her the highest mark in his course (orld pg). She then began premedical work at Johns Hopkins. In 1902, she decided to take a break from her studies, and went abroad,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Literature from 1860 to 1914." The Reader's Companion to American

History. January 01, 1991; pp 135.

Benfer, Amy. "Gertrude and Alice." http://www.salon.com/mwt/feature/1999/11/18/alice/index2.html.(accessed 03-09-2003).

Curnutt, Kirk. "Parody and Pedagogy: teaching style, voice, and authorial intent in the works of Gertrude Stein." College Literature. Volume 23. June 01, 1996; pp 1.
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Blacks in America

Words: 474 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10625838

United States is a country that thrives on the achievements of various people groups. The achievements of African-Americans in the United States are particularly significant. African-Americans have contributed greatly to the world of literature, medicine, and business. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the role that African-Americans have played in the formulation of American culture.

lacks in America

Although the history of blacks in America has been steeped in bigotry, hatred, and segregation, the culture has managed to face these adversities with courage and triumph. African-American's have fought for equal rights since their arrival in this country. Initially, they were forced to fight for the right to be free men and to end slavery. Eventually, African-Americans also struggled for integration during the civil rights movement. There were several individuals that were instrumental in ensuring that African-Americans were free from slavery and that they gained their civil rights. These…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bennet, L. 1989. The 50 most important figures in Black American history; experts list men and women who made indispensable contributions. Ebony. Volume: 44 Issue
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Protection of the Population and Resources

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9906735

Richard T. Wright, Dorothy Boorse, Population and Resources

Before sewer systems and water treatment plants, there were many people who were still able to live hygienically. Even today, there are a number of people whose homes are not attached to city sewer systems, and whose waste products do not make their way to a water treatment plant. These people generally have septic tanks buried in their yards, and a drain field extends from the tank, also buried in the yard. This allows the waste products to be safely and hygienically removed from the home, and these products eventually go back to the earth. This takes time, and there can be problems with the system. Tanks can crack, become too full, or the drain system can fail to drain properly. If the slope in the pipes from the sinks and other facilities to the septic system are not correct, there could…… [Read More]

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Political Science History

Words: 6252 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80408978

conservative intellectual movement, but also the role of William uckley and William Rusher in the blossoming of the youth conservative movement

Talk about structure of paper, who not strictly chronologically placed (ie hayek before the rest) - in this order for thematic purposes, to enhance the genuiness of the paper (branches of the movement brought up in order of importance to youth conservative revolt) For instance, Hayek had perhaps the greatest impact on the effects of the movement - uckley and Rusher. These individuals, their beliefs, their principles were extremely influential in better understanding the origins, history, and leaders of American conservatism.

Momentous events shape the psyche of an individual as the person matures. A child grows up in poverty vows to never be like his parents, and keeps this inner vow to become a millionaire. A young woman experiences sexual trauma as a teen, and chooses a career that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

George Nash, The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945 http://www.nationalreview.com/22dec97/mcginnis122297.html. National review online The Origins of Conservatism George Mc Ginnis

Volume Library #2, p. 2146

Schneider, Cadres for Conservatism

McGinnis, National Review Online
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Is the European Union a State or What Else Distinguishes it From Other International Organizations

Words: 9068 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99365197

European Union a state, or what else distinguishes it from other International Organizations

The primary question concerning global organizations as a medium of global governance relates towards the quantity and excellence of this governance within an era where we now have an overdeveloped global economy as well as an under-developed global polity (Ougaard and Higgott, 2002). There's a powerful disconnect amid governance, being an efficient and effective collective solution-seeking process within a given problem-area, and governance being the democratic legitimacy of policy formation. It has made possible the debate regarding 'legitimacy shortfalls' in main global organizations. Furthermore, governance has turned into a hosting analogy determining non-traditional performers (non-condition performers for example NGOs and their local and international associations) that participate as portable agents extending and expanding policy understanding, which is far more advanced and sophisticated than the traditional, elitist, government activities. The interest in global (as well as the regional)…… [Read More]

References

Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. ( 1996) Introduction: dilemmas, contradictions and the future of European democracy, in: Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. (eds.) The European Union: how democratic is it?, London: Sage, 1-11.

Aziz, M (2006) 'Chinese whispers: the citizen, the law and the constitution', Chapter 10 in D. Castiglione et al.: The Convention Moment: An Experiment in European Constitutional Politics, Basingstoke: Palgrave-MacMillan, forthcoming.

Aziz, M. (2004) 'Mainstreaming the Duty of clarity and Transparency as part of Good Administrative Practice in the EU', European Law Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 282-95.

Bacchus, James (2005). A Few Thoughts on Legitimacy, Democracy, and the WTO: in Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann (ed.), Reforming the World Trading System. Legitimacy, Efficiency, and Democratic Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 429-436.
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Moral Animal

Words: 1980 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75445073

Darwin Comes of Age

o understand Robert Wright, it is first necessary to define evolutionary psychology, which is the foundation of Wright's theory. Evolutionary psychology contends that most, if not all, of human behavior can be understood by the interests of internal psychological mechanisms. hese internal mechanisms are adaptations, or products of natural selection that helped human ancestors survive and reproduce. Evolutionary psychology looks at the challenges early humans faced in their hunter-gatherer environments and the problem-solving they went through to meet those challenges. Based on these problem-solving adaptations, it then establishes the common roots of ancestral behavior and, especially related to Wright's book, how these common behavioral roots are observed and acted upon today. Human behavior, just like physical traits, has passed on from generation to the next. In their brains humans have specific knowledge that helps them adapt to the environment. he brain is subject to natural selection…… [Read More]

Though women today can better afford to economically take care of themselves, there is a throwback to the past. Even in the poorest societies, a father's social status translated into more advantages for the children. Although a modern woman can reflect on her wealth and independence and thus gauge her decisions accordingly, she still has to come to grips with the ingrained impulses from her early ancestral environment. In fact, women, says Wright, are not able to override their internal impulses. The tendency remains for them to place greater emphasis on a mate's financial prospects regardless of their income. As long as a society remains economically stratified, the challenge of reconciling lifelong monogamy with human nature will be significant.

This is despite the fact that most men are better off in a monogamous system and women are less better off. Wright gives the example of 2,000 people living in a monogamous society with each woman engaged to marry the man who shares her ranking. She'd like to marry a higher-ranking man, but they were taken by competitors. The men would like to marry up, too, but cannot for the same reason. If polygyny was legalized, at least one woman somewhat more desirable than average, with a rating of 400 for example, leaves male #400 and becomes a wife of a more successful lawyer, #40. Women thus become better off and most men worse off. Women have greater options; men have less. Polygyny would more evenly distribute the assets of men. However, monogamy gives men access to a supply of women that would otherwise be unattainable, even if it is only one. Monogamy is not a big plus for either side; it's a compromise for both men and women.

Wright, Robert. The Moral Animal. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994.
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Exegesis of Philippians Christians Throughout

Words: 5438 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25222076

This is the same in our lives, because if we remain steadfast in out faith, our suffering can only serve to further God's work in our lives. Paul's example also highlights our responsibilities to each other, because through our own example we can help other Christians that might be facing the same kind of difficulty as us.

In the next few passages, Paul goes on to discuss something that has undoubtedly crossed the mind of any Christian facing extreme difficult, which is the idea that it might just be better to be done with the world and live eternally in heaven. Paul says that "for to me, living is Christ and dying is gain," to the point that "I am hard pressed between the two: my desire is to depart and be with Christ, for that is far better, but to remain in the flesh is more necessary for you"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fowl, Stephen. Philippians. Grand Rapids: Wm. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2005. Print.

Gorman, Michael J. Inhabiting the Cruciform God: Kenosis, Justification, and Theosis in Paul's

Narrative Soteriology. Wm. Eerdmans Publishing Co.: Grand Rapids, 2009. Print.

Hays, Richard. The Moral Vision of the New Testament. T&T Clark: London, 1996. Print.
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WWII to the 60s the

Words: 1427 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99114644

Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself" (Wilson 235). The pendelum swung, though, and the government was blamed for many of the ills that caused the Great Depression. Franklin oosevelt, despite being called draconian, knew that he had to launch programs that would have a quick effect upon the struggling economy; resulting the New Deal -- a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce jobs, economic recovery, and fiscal reform of banking and Wall Street -- exactly what was needed, it seems to turn the Titanic in a new direction (Badger). Then, of course, came the war, which stimulated the economy like nothing else,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Badger, A. FDR - The First Hundred Days. New York: Macmillan, 2009.

Cooper, P. Public Law and Public Administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.

Fesler, J. "Public Administration and the Social Sciences: 1946-1969." Mosher, F. American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future. Washington, DC & Birmingham, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1975. 97-142.

Halberstam, D. The Fifties. New York: Ballantine, 1994.
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Joshua 24 Is First of

Words: 3138 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50454269

Here we have an account of the definitive formation of the twelve-tribe league incorporating people who may well have had ancient ties with Israelite tribes but who only now pledge their undivided allegiance to the God of Israel."

Thus, Shechem is, according to Hillers, one of the most important place for the Covenant renewal, since it was the first that was witnessed by the united Israelite tribes.

John Van Seters, on the other hand, offers a different explanation for the origins of the text in Joshua 24. He concludes that the resemblances in form between the Covenant at Shechem and the Deuteronomy Covenant makes it plausible that the Joshua 24 has to be just an addition to the Deuteronomy work:

There is only one solution to this dilemma and that is that Joshua 24.1-27 was composed as an addition to the Dtr. work. It is post-Dtr. And was inserted before…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boling, Robert G., and G. Ernest Wright. Joshua. AB 6. Garden City, New York.:Doubleday, 1982.

Harris, J. Gordon, Cheryl a. Brown and Michael S. Moore. Joshua, Judges, Ruth. NIBC. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2000.

Nelson, Richard J. Joshua: A Commentary.Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1997.

Nicholson, Ernest God and His People: Covenant and Theology in the Old Testament. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 1986.