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Clinical interventions put in place include, counseling of those teenagers who are already using tobacco and provide them with tobacco cessation. While, one of the community intervention strategies are, increase in the unit price of tobacco increased to hinder teenagers from buying hence, decreased tobacco use initiation among them. Also, there are efforts to restrict access of tobacco for minors, aided by community support to stop teenage access to tobacco. Worksite / school health promotion has also been enhanced to enlighten the students on the effects of tobacco use (Myers, 2000).
Another strategy which might be employed is the use of other teenagers as behavior change agents amongst their peers. This is where; selected teenagers are trained to act as peer educators and anti-tobacco use ambassadors within their neighborhood's and at school. These peer educators are to be selected from different ethnic groups to deal with the cultural factors that…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. Reducing tobacco use: A report of the Surgeon General. (2000). Atlanta: CDC Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/sgr_2000/index.htm .
Colby, S.M., Tiffany, S.T., & Shiffman, S. (2000). Are adolescent smokers dependent on nicotine? A review of the evidence. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 59, S83 -- S95.
Derek Yach, & Douglas Bettcher. (2000). Globalisation of Tobacco Industry Influence and New Global Responses. Tobacco Control, 9(2), 206-216
Myers, M.G., Brown, S.A., & Kelly, J.F.A. (2000). smoking intervention for substance abusing adolescents: Outcomes, predictors of cessation attempts, and post-treatment substance use. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse 9, 77 -- 91.
isk Factors Associated With Alcohol
Over the years, many experts have noticed a strong correlation between children anxiety and alcohol dependence of one or more parent in the family. Alcohol dependence is a problem that has plagued our society since a long time. It is a known fact that alcohol not only affects the alcohol but also the people around him. Tubman (1993) went onto inquire that in more detail when he carried out this research project. In this study, 53 families were chosen from one community. The division was almost equal such that half of the families were the ones that had alcohol dependent men and the other half were comparison families. It was noted that the structure of the families was similar in both groups. There needed to be an ongoing marriage in the family and the age of the child that was going to be studied…
Tubman, J. (1993). Family risk factors, parental alcohol use, and problem behaviors among school-age children. Family Relations, pp. 81 -- 86.
In fact, 29% of fatalities occurring between 1991 and 1993 involved parental substance abuse" (American Humane Association, 2010).
There are other characteristics of those with abusive tendencies that are also worth discussing. The American Journal of Public Health article insists that although substance abuse plays a huge role in helping to shape abusive personalities and fuel abusive rages, there are other factors worth considering, as well. "Societal and environmental factors have been considered primary to the development of both child maltreatment and parental substance abuse," say Kelleher, Chaffin, Hollenberg, & Fischer. "Social class is strongly linked to both reported child maltreatment and a wide range of mental disorders, including drug and alcohol disorders" (Kelleher, Chaffin, Hollenberg, & Fischer, 1994).
They also go on to suggest that statistics for child abuse and neglect have been found to be higher among families with lower income. This while proves that while the abuse…
American Humane Association, (2010). Fatalities due to child abuse and neglect Retrieved from http://www.americanhumane.org/about-child-abuse-neglect.html
Kelleher, K, Chaffin, M, Hollenberg, J, & Fischer, E199. (1994). Alcohol and Drug Disorders
Among Physical Abusive and Neglectful Parents in a Community-Based Sample,
American Journal of Public Health, 84(10), 1586-1590.
As noted above, family conflict is a single risk factor, but when combined with early childhood sexual abuse, the likelihood for teen pregnancy is increased another 50% (Queensland Health, 2004). Further, teens whose mother is uneducated, or undereducated, are also more likely to become pregnant. Finally, those teens from homes where the father is absent are also more likely to experience early pregnancy (Queensland Health, 2004).
It is important to note the reasons for concern in term of teen pregnancy, and one strategy to prevention of the problem is the dispersal of such information to teenage females. The children of teens who become pregnant often experience premature birth, low birth weight, increased physical impairment, an increased likelihood of substance abuse, physical abuse, and an increased risk in becoming pregnant early themselves (Queensland Health, 2004). In addition, pregnant teens themselves are less likely to finish school, experience increased anti-social behaviors, and…
Hawkins, J.D., Catalano, R.F., and Miller, J.Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 64-105.
Queensland Health. (2004). Young people. In C. Harper (Ed.), Health Determinants (pp.16-18). Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Health.
isk factors for developing diabetes
Three major factors can increase the risk for diabetes. Some of them are genetic and so are with us always, but some can be reversed to help prevent diabetes. Genetics, obesity, and age are the most discussed risk factors.
Obesity: The leading risk factor for diabetes if obesity. According to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), approximately 30% of adults are obese. Overweight implies a higher risk of insulin resistance, as fat disrupts the ability of the body to use insulin. CDC cites that the number of overweight children has been tripling since 1980 (Silverstein & Silverstein, 2009). As a result, the number of children examined with the disorder has been rising.
Genetics: People with relatives suffering from diabetes are at a higher risk of developing the disease. Native Americans, Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans, all have the highest rates of diabetes. However, having…
Kahn, A.P. (2008). Diabetes: Causes, Prevention & Treatment. New Delhi: Orient Paperbacks.
Silverstein, A., & Silverstein, V.B. (2009). The Sugar Disease: Diabetes. Philadelphia: Lippincott
Health, Healthcare, and Emergency Preparedness Needs of a Defined Population
Many of the patients at my healthcare institution -- a suburban New Jersey hospital in New Jersey specializing in rehabilitating patients from brain traumas -- have suffered a stroke or aneurysm. Because adults over the age of 65 are universally covered by Medicare (although some may also have private insurance or Medicaid), most geriatric patients within my practice have access to insurance. Although most of the younger patients are also insured in some form, given that they did not expect such a traumatic event to occur at such a young age, many have less comprehensive insurance and may face high medical bills due to high deductibles or copays.
Not all patients have made adequate preparation for themselves and their families should they be incapacitated. Discussing end-of-life care is a difficult issue that may be challenging for families to raise with…
6 steps for preventing falls among your older loved ones. (2017). NCOA. Retrieved from:
Preventing pressure ulcers. (2016). Medline Plus. Retrieved from:
Five main risk factors for criminal victimization
Cohen, Kluegel, and Land in their article Social inequality and predatory criminal victimization: An exposition and test of a formal theory adopts the interpretation of five factors in association with criminal victimization risks. These factors include
Exposure: The three authors define this risk factor for victimization as the "visibility and accessibility of persons or objects to potential offenders at any given time and place" (Cohen et al., 1981). This represents the capacity of the criminal offender to encounter the victim of the crime. The more frequently this factor (exposure) occurs, the more chance or opportunities to harm the victim or his or her property by the offender. For this factor to be effective, the victim must experience physical relationship or distance with the offender for the crime to occur. Accessibility of the victim would determine if he or she is in danger…
Blau, J.R., & Blau, P.M. (1982). The cost of inequality: Metropolitan structure and violent crime. American Sociological Review, 47(1), 114 -- 129.
Cohen, L.E., Kluegel, J.R., & Land, K.G. (1981). Social inequality and predatory criminal victimization: An exposition and test of a formal theory. American Sociological Review, 46(5), 505 -- 524.
Heart disease and stroke are also major conditions commonly associated with the bad habit of smoking. The research shows that your chances of heart disease or stroke can double when compared to nonsmokers' chances. Heart disease is one of the most common conditions smokers face. It is a serious condition which can strike at any time, and leave you completely helpless, or worse off dead. Moreover, smoking is a major cause of respiratory diseases, like emphysema, which is "a lung disease that has no cure" (Jacobs 1997). Such respiratory diseases can severely restrict the quality of life for those suffering through them. They force patients to have to stop a number of activities they love, because they no longer have the lung capacity to continue doing them. According to the research, "a person with this disease has difficulty breathing because the walls of the small air sacs in the lungs…
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Health effects of cigarette smoking, Smoking & Tobacco Use. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/#children
Jacobs, Marjorie. (1997). The dangers of smoking cigarettes for smokers. From the First to the Last Ash: The History, Economics & Hazards of Tobacco. Web. http://healthliteracy.worlded.org/docs/tobacco/Unit4/3other_health.html
Helpguide. (2012). How to quite smoking: A guide to quitting and kicking the habit for good. Mental & Emotional Health. Web. http://www.helpguide.org/mental/quit_smoking_cessation.htm
In Oklahoma there is a state-wide effort known as the Oklahoma Physical Activity and Nutrition Program (OKPAN). This is an effort to avert obesity and other chronic diseases by way of healthy eating and increased physical activity. Its task is to reduce the frequency and occurrence of obesity and related chronic diseases through the improvement of organizational capacity and development and implementation of a comprehensive State Plan. This program focuses on five key areas:
Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption
Increasing breastfeeding initiation and length
Balancing food intake with energy expenditure
educing screen-time on television, computer use, and video games (Overweight and Obesity in Oklahoma and the U.S., 2007).
In Tulsa County, Oklahoma there is a current push to increase fruit and vegetable consumption because it is thought to be an economical way to control many health-related issues such as obesity and diabetes (Working together for help, 2010).
All about obesity. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.obesityaction.org/aboutobesity/obesity/obesity.php
Defining Overweight and Obesity. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/defining.html
Healthy People 2020. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/default.aspx
Obesity in America. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.drkalsweightlosstips.com/obesity-in-america.html
A growing pool of evidence points to the fact that chronic ailments such as obesity commence at life’s early stages. Early childhood facets and the intrauterine atmosphere potentially play a role in adulthood obesity onset via several pathways like prenatal diet, fetal metabolic programing, postnatal development, breast-feeding, infancy/toddlerhood behavior and adiposity rebound. The life-course theory’s abstract foundation stresses illness and health’s developmental origins, concentrating especially on long-run health impacts of fetal and babyhood exposures (Hu, 2008).
Of late, one can witness the alarming issue of the childhood obesity pandemic. It is alarming due to the fact that it has short- as well as long- run negative impacts. Risk factor determination forms the main solution to preventing it. While scant literature on childhood obesity risk factors can be found, experts are becoming increasingly aware of the significance of early life settings. However, hardly any risk factor identified is proven; most…
Cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors are the two study groups in this study.
The total risk score at 4.14 is the greatest relative difference and is significant because it is greater than the
As the percentage of older Americans continues to increase, the need for timely and accurate assessment screens and the formulation of effective clinical interventions will become even more pronounced. Fortunately, the research also showed that there are a number of assessment tools that are available to facilitate the process, including sophisticated multifactor instruments with proven validity and reliability. One of the more important issues to emerge from the research concerned the need for individualized interventions that draw on strengths and interests in order to minimize the risk factors that are involved.
Faber, M., Bosscher, .J. & Van Wieringen, P.C. (2006). Clinimetric properties of the performance-oriented mobility assessment. Physical Therapy, 86(7), 944-954.
Functional assessment. (2012). NursingLink. etrieved from http://nursinglink.monster.com / training/articles/331-functional-assessment-the-key-to-geriatric-care-in-the-21st-
Gates, S. & Smith, L., Fisher, J.D. & Lamb, S.E. (2008, October 1). Systematic review of accuracy of screening instruments for predicting fall risk among independently living older…
Faber, M., Bosscher, R.J. & Van Wieringen, P.C. (2006). Clinimetric properties of the performance-oriented mobility assessment. Physical Therapy, 86(7), 944-954.
Functional assessment. (2012). NursingLink. Retrieved from http://nursinglink.monster.com / training/articles/331-functional-assessment-the-key-to-geriatric-care-in-the-21st-
Gates, S. & Smith, L., Fisher, J.D. & Lamb, S.E. (2008, October 1). Systematic review of accuracy of screening instruments for predicting fall risk among independently living older adults. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 45(8), 1105-1113.
There are discrepancies encountered in conducting the valuation and risk of a private company. There arises these factors that if investigated can impact the process accordingly. The first research question that I suggest is investigating if the tax risk and equity market value exhibit a concave association, which is consistent with the optimal tax risk level from a valuation of equity standpoint. The second topic that can be researched upon is the changes facing the risk and value valuation service area for businesses and how they impact the practice. Finally, a study on how the Merger and Acquisitions revised standards are impacting business deals.
Chandra, U., & o, B.T. (2008). The role of revenue in firm valuation. Accounting Horizons,
22(2), 199-222. etrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/208923683?accountid=35812
Darrough, M., & Ye, J. (2007). Valuation of loss firms in a knowledge-based economy. eview of Accounting Studies, 12(1), 61-93. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11142-006-9022-z
Chandra, U., & Ro, B.T. (2008). The role of revenue in firm valuation. Accounting Horizons,
22(2), 199-222. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/208923683?accountid=35812
Darrough, M., & Ye, J. (2007). Valuation of loss firms in a knowledge-based economy. Review of Accounting Studies, 12(1), 61-93. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11142-006-9022-z
Bernier, G., & Ridha, M.M. (2010). On the economics of postassessments in insurance guaranty funds: A stakeholders' perspective. Journal of Risk and Insurance, 77(4), 857-892.
Europe's more liberal drug policies are not the right model for America.
Most non-violent drug users get treatment, not jail time. (Legalization, 2010).
There are no benefits for society in the legalization of marijuana. The money from the taxing of the marijuana will end up being use to regulate and enforce the dispensaries. The money to treat the addiction will be another source of lost revenues from the taxation.
Increased usage by underage teens will be the same as cigarettes and alcohol and will increase as the price drops as it did in the Dutch experiment. Kids will be introduced onto the drug culture that leads to the use of the harder narcotics as a result of the increased access to the marijuana. The benefits will be just moved from one area to other areas of criminalization.
DEA website. 2010. etrieved on May 10,…
DEA website. 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/jan-june01/drugs_marijuanaharm.html
"Feature: Hundreds of Los Angeles Medical Marijuana Dispensaries Face Closure Under New Rules Passed by Council" 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle/618/los_angeles_medical_marijuana_dispensary_ordinance_approved
Joffe, a. & Yancy, W. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." 2004. PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 6 June 2004, pp. e632-e638. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/113/6/e632
"Legalization- Arguments Pro and Con." 2010 Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://www.libraryindex.com/pages/2395/Legalization-ARGUMENTS-PRO-CON.html
isks of Using Computer-Based Procurement
Every complex project requiring the collaborative effort of an organization involves the use of materials, goods, and services that are integrated within the overall project design. The procurement process used to obtain these vital resources is central to the successful accomplishment of project objectives, because every aspect of the management process, from sourcing supplies to shipping products to customers is contingent on procuring the most productive third-party partnerships. The vendor selection process is used to aid project managers in the effective procurement of essential items and services, with a rigorous screening methodology used to identify the most competent and qualified shipping companies, manufacturers, distributors, and equipment suppliers. Another way project managers have refined the procurement process is through the implementation of computer-based tools, with advances in technology enabling researchers to identify a project's critical path through a complex series of algorithms, software programs, and other…
Morris, P. And Pinto, J. (2007) The Wiley guide to project technology, supply chain, & procurement management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Sollish, F. And Semanik, J. (2011) Strategic Global Sourcing Best Practices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc..
Phishing Spea Phishing and Phaming
The following is intended to povide a vey bief oveview of examples of some the most dangeous and pevasive secuity isks in the online and netwoked wold. One of the most insidious of identity theft is known as phishing. The tem 'phishing' efes to the pactice of "fishing fo infomation." This tem was oiginally used to descibe "phishing" fo cedit cad numbes and othe sensitive infomation that can be used by the ciminal. Phishing attacks use "…spoofed emails and faudulent websites to deceive ecipients into divulging pesonal financial data, such as cedit cad numbes, account usenames and passwods, social secuity numbes etc." (All about Phishing) . Thompson ( 2006) clealy outlines the basics of a phishing attack.
A typical phishing sends out millions of faudulent e-mail messages that appea to come fom popula Web sites that most uses tust, such as eBay, Citibank, AOL, Micosoft…
references the CISA Review Manual, 2006.
Thompson, S.C. (2006). Phight Phraud: Steps to Protect against Phishing. Journal of Accountancy, 201(2).
This study by Thompson provides some significant aspects that the business owner and customers in online commerce should pay attention to. These include basic but important aspect that should include in e-training; for example, never e-mail personal or financial information or never to respond to requests for personal information in e-mails. This provides useful background to the issue of risk identification and is also related management of this threat.
Wetzel R. ( 2005) Tackling Phishing: It's a Never-Ending Struggle, but the Anti-Fraud Arsenal Continues to Grow. Business Communications Review, 35, 46+.
This study A sheds light on the implications in term of the costs of identity fraud to financial institutions. The study underscores the severity of the vulnerabilities faced by today's organizations in the online world. The author refers to the obvious cost to intuitions like banks and also discusses hidden costs that relate to the erosion of customer confidence as a result of ID theft.
isk of Committing Violence Among Individuals Suffering From Bipolar Disorder
Several studies argue that most psychiatric symptoms are closely correlated with criminality, since such symptoms impair judgment and violate societal norms. In this regard, several studies have been conducted regarding the risk of violence among individuals suffering from mental illnesses but few have highlighted the possibility of bipolar individuals engaging in criminal behavior. The common disorders known to be highly related to criminality include antisocial personality disorder, kleptomania, voyeurism and schizophrenia. Therefore, this study is meant to examine the possibility of bipolar individuals engaging in criminal behavior.
This paper aims at analyzing the likelihood of committing violence among individuals suffering from bipolar disorder as well as the factors that are likely to influence the degree to which these individuals are likely to commit violent acts.
Past studies have hinted that individuals suffering from bipolar disorder have…
Belfrage, H. (1998). A ten-year follow-up of criminality in Stockholm mental patients. British Journal of Criminology, 38, 145-155.
Fazel, S., Lichtenstein, P., Grann, M., Goodwin, G.M., & Langstrom, N. (2010). Bipolar Disorder and Violent CrimeNew Evidence From Population-Based Longitudinal Studies and Systematic Review. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(9), 931-938.
Feldmann, T.B. (2001). Bipolar Disorder and Violence. Psychiatric Quarterly, 72(2), 119-129.
Link, B.G., Monahan, J., Ann, S., & Cullen, F.T. (1999). Real in Their Consequences: A Sociological Approach to Understanding the Association between Psychotic Symptoms and Violence. American Sociological Review, 64(2), 316-332.
hile many articles tend to deal with the fact that victims of child abuse tend to become abusers, I wanted to go in another direction, looking at how child abuse can actually affect the life of the abused. In order to consider this, I contemplated Belik et al.'s study, "Relation Between Traumatic Events and Suicide Attempts in Canadian Military Personnel." In this article, the authors' purpose wanted to "determine whether exposure to particular types of traumatic events was associated with suicide attempts in a representatives ample of active military personnel" (Beilik et al. 93). In order to test the connection between certain traumatic events and suicide attempts, the authors drew data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, which asked respondents to mark whether they had been victims of 28 different traumatic events during their lives. One of these events was child abuse. The survey was representative of such variables including…
Belik, S., Stein, M.B., Amudson, G. JG., and Sareen, J. "Relation Between Traumatic
Events and Suicide Attempts in Canadian Military Personnel." La Revue canadienne de psychiatre. 54.2. (2009): 93-104.
Kim, Min Jung. Tajima, Emiko A., Herrenkohn, Todd I., and Huang, Bu. "Early Child
Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model." Social Work Research. 13.1 (2009): 19-28.
isk management is aimed at determining possible problems beforehand in order to plan and invoke risk-handling activities, as required, across the project's or product's life, for mitigating negative effects on attaining objectives. The process of risk management constitutes a key part of technical and business management systems; it is constant and forward-thinking. isk management must deal with problems that threaten the attainment of key aims. A constant risk management strategy is adopted for successfully predicting and reducing risk elements, which critically affect a venture. A sound risk management plan entails timely and forceful risk identification by way of participation and collaboration of concerned stakeholders. Effective leadership is required across all concerned stakeholders for cultivating an environment conducive to honest and uninhibited discovery and analysis of risk. While technical problems constitute a major concern in the early stages as well as all through the course of the project, risk management has…
Allnutt, S., O'Driscoll, C., Ogloff, J. R., Daffern, M., & Adams, J. (2010). Clinical risk assessment and management: a practical manual for mental health clinicians.
Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2010). Rehabilitating criminal justice policy and practice.Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 16(1), 39.
Andrews, D. A., Bonta, J., & Wormith, J. S. (2011). THE RISK-NEED-RESPONSIVITY (RNR) MODEL Does Adding the Good Lives Model Contribute to Effective Crime Prevention?. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38(7), 735-755.
Douglas, K. S., Hart, S. D., Webster, C. D., Belfrage, H., Guy, L. S., & Wilson, C. M. (2014). Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20V3): Development and Overview. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 13(2), 93-108.
The major difference between standard deviation and the beta is that the former measures the volatility against the asset's own mean, whereas beta measures the asset's volatility against the market. Standard deviation, therefore, allows the user to understand the asset's specific risk on its own, and can use this information to compare returns against historical average returns. This is valuable because the risk profile of an investment can be significantly different than that of the market, so the returns will be expected to be significantly different as well.
Standard deviation can also be used to measure against other means, for example against historic market returns. However, the beta coefficient is more effective as a measure against the market. Standard deviation and beta are both often used as measures on their own, without any model, because they communication the information clearly. In the capital asset pricing model, for example, the systematic…
Chosen Business: City estauant
Befoe discussing what the coe activities the company undetakes to achieve its opeational objectives, it is vital to highlight these opeational objectives. The following section gives a bief oveview of these objectives:
The stategic objective of Taste Inn is to become the most liked band among its customes, a financially and opeationally stong company in the eyes of its investos, and a competitive paticipant in the food and hospitality industy of Austalia. The majo opeational objectives of the company include:
A stong custome base:
The most impotant opeational objective of the company is to stengthen its custome base by attacting moe and moe customes towads its poduct offeings. It aims to build a stong public image in the eyes of its customes and the society in which it opeates.
Become a financially and opeationally stong copoation:
The second most impotant…
Introduce products with innovative taste and new ingredients, use extensive marketing campaigns
Introduce products with innovative taste and new ingredients,
Even though users of light therapy are often advised not to look directly at the light source, the mechanisms of the eye focus incoming light onto the macula, the small region of the retina where vision takes place, and where age-related macular degeneration occurs. Since blue light wavelength make up only a small percentage of the light in white light, any form of light therapy using a high proportion of blue light therefore risks subverting a variety of defensive mechanisms that protect the retina against blue light hazard. These defensive mechanisms include the anatomical positioning and structure of eye and its surrounding features, as well as human posture, which makes it awkward for humans to gaze upwards for long periods of time. Sunnex iotechnologies, 2008)
The work of David H. Sliney entitled: "Ocular Hazards of Light" presented at the International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop states the following risks and…
Figueiro, M.G., J.D. Bullough, R.H. Parsons, and M.S. Rea. Preliminary Evidence for Spectral Opponency in the Suppression of Melatonin by Light in Humans. Neuroreport, Vol. 15, 2004, pp. 313-316 in: Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7
Figueiro, M., et al. Demonstration of additivity failure in human circadian phototransduction. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 493-498.
Ingling, C.R., E. Martinez, and a.L. Lewis. Tonic-Phasic-Channel Dichotomy and Crozier's Law. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 73, 1983, pp. 183-189 in Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7 Report
Lack, Leon, Bramwell, Toby, Wright, Helen, and Kemp, Krystyn (2007) Morning blue light can advance the melatonin rhythm in mild delayed sleep phase syndrome
Conditions Associated ith a Lack of Exercise/Physical Activity
Health is one of the most important things in people's lives, but individuals often fail to focus on this aspect because they concentrate on diverse tasks that they wrongly consider to be more important. As a consequence, many end up suffering greatly as a result of their irresponsible behavior. In addition to causing significant health problems in people's lives, sedentary living is also responsible for costing society billions of dollars every year. The fact that the masses often trick themselves into thinking that they are eventually going to start exercising is extremely worrying and leads to numerous health problems.
Figures associated with sedentary living are alarming, but this is still not enough to influence some people in changing their attitudes concerning the concept. On a yearly basis, "approximately 250,000 people die prematurely because they are inactive" (Corbin & Lindsay 43). Even with…
Corbin, Charles B., and Lindsay, Ruth, "Fitness For Life," (Human Kinetics, 01.06.2006)
Evans, Lisa, "Obesity in England: why is it increasing?," Retrieved October 30, 2012, from the Guardian Website: http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2012/feb/23/obesity-problem-increasing
Genuis, Stephen J., and Genuis Shelagh K., "Managing the sexually transmitted disease pandemic: A time for reevaluation," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2004) 191, 1103-12
"Half of UK obese by 2030'," Retrieved October 30, 2012, from the NHS Website: http://www.nhs.uk/news/2011/08August/Pages/half-of-uk-predicted-to-be-obese-by-2030.aspx
Childhood Obesity and Interventions
There is a strong relationship between childhood obesity and exposure to environmental factors -- most notably socio-economic status. There are exposures that trigger both positive and negative outcomes, and these have to be discussed along with the possible interventions that can be undertaken. Low socio-economic status (E) has been associated with a large number of problematic outcomes where health is concerned, including obesity and related issues in childhood (Kallem, et al., 2013). Despite this correlation, though, there are plenty of children with low E who grow up slim and apparently health, so it is clear that environment is not the only factor (Kallem, et al., 2013). The objective of the study by Kallem, et al. (2013) was to examine the "shift-and-persist" strategy and how (or if) it was what was protecting low E children from obesity in some cases. This strategy involves how a person deals…
Studies have found that racial and ethnic disparities can be just as significant as SES, diet, and exercise issues -- largely because SES and related concerns are often tied to specific racial and ethnic groups more than others (Carroll-Scott, et al., 2013). Preschool age children who are in minority racial and ethnic categories have a statistically higher prevalence of obesity when all other variables have been controlled for by researchers (Carroll-Scott, et al., 2013). That is a serious indication that there is more at play in the overall environment, and that study of all factors that could contribute to obesity is needed. That would include analyzing a larger area of environmental factors, because there are many causes for the tripling of obese children and adolescents throughout the last three decades (Dixon, et al., 2012). That much of a change in that short of a time period is a significant problem for society, and can raise the rates of health care for everyone.
If the obesity epidemic in children is not dealt with now, society can expect to see increases in the rates of many chronic diseases, and these diseases will be particularly obvious in populations that already have a disparity in their health (Dixon, et al., 2012). In the study conducted by Dixon, et al. (2012), the associations between SES and social characteristics of the residential environment were considered. Then, these were looked at as compared to diet, physical activity, and BMI (Dixon, et al., 2012). The participants consisted of students in the fifth and sixth grade at a school in New Haven, Connecticut (Dixon, et al., 2012). That was done to narrow down a population in order to determine the environmental factors associated with it (Dixon, et al., 2012). Multilevel modeling was used in order to collect information on the area and the students (Dixon, et al., 2012).
It was discovered that students living within a close walking distance of fast food outlets had higher BMI numbers than those who lived farther away (Dixon, et al., 2012). Additionally, high fast food outlet densities were linked to higher BMIs and more unhealthy eating (Dixon, et al., 2012). When students had close access to gyms, parks, and playgrounds, though, they were more likely to get exercise, helping to offset some of the unhealthy eating patterns (Dixon, et al., 2012). More affluent neighborhoods were also linked to healthier eating behaviors and better exercise regimens, where students who were on the low end of the SES scale ate poorly and got little exercise (Dixon, et al., 2012). One of the ways to help lessen the problems with childhood obesity could be to provide more parks, playgrounds, and other areas where students could get good exercise, and to lower the number of fast food establishments in residential areas.
Amato, P.R. (2005). The impact of family formation change on the cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of the next generation. arriage and Child Wellbeing, 15(2), 75-96. The author addressed two questions related to child development in single-parent households: (1) cognitive, social, and emotional consequences, and (2) etiology of outcome differences. This review of the research literature was up-to-date 2005. Overall, the author concluded that children of single-parent households will do more poorly throughout their life, but only modestly so. Protective variables included remarriage and cohabitation, in that order. The author pays careful attention to inconsistent and mixed findings within and between studies, thereby rendering the review credible.
Shook, S.E., Jones, D.J., Forehand, R., Dorsey, S., & Brody, G. (2010). The mother-coparent relationship and youth adjustment: A study of African-American single-mother families. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(3), 243-51. This study examined the impact of coparent relationship quality on child development outcomes…
McMahon, T.J., & Luthar, S.S. (2007). Defining characteristics and potential consequences of caretaking burden among children living in urban poverty. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(2), 267-81. This study examined the impact of caretaker burden imposed on children between the ages of 8 and 17, living in inner-city households with mothers abusing drugs or suffering from psychiatric problems. Doing household chores, caring for siblings, and/or caring for mother were significant predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and social competence. The authors mentioned continued controversy about how to measure caretaker burden in children, which could represent a significant limitation of this study.
Sagrestano, L.M., Paikoff, R.L., Holmbeck, G.N., & Fendrich, M. (2003). A longitudinal examination of familial risk factors for depression among inner-city African-American adolescents. Journal of Family Psychology, 17(1), 108-20. This longitudinal study followed children of inner-city, African-American single-parent household to better understand how family factors influenced the incidence of depression and anxiety among children and parents. Increased family conflict and reduced parental monitoring were both significant predictors of child depression, while increased positive parenting was protective. Interestingly, parental depression was increased by peer interactions with the child and decreased by positive parenting. The data was based on self-reports from child and mother and revealed significant differences in perceptions, which the authors attributed in part to the immaturity of the child.
Florsheim, P., Tolan, P., & Gorman-Smith, D. (1998). Family relationships, parenting practices, the availability of male family members, and the behavior of inner-city boys in single-mother and two-parent families. Child Development, 69(5), 1437-47. African-American and Latino families, with boys between 10- and 15-years of age and living in inner-city Chicago neighborhoods, were recruited to participate in a study examining possible predictors of externalizing behaviors. Externalizing behaviors by the boys in the study were reduced significantly by feelings of family cohesion, structure, discipline, affiliation, and the presence of a positive male influence. Although child self-reports were the source for much of this data, the externalizing data was based on child, parent, and teacher reports.
Race, Geography, Gender, Deviance, Oppression, and Social Stratification on Educational
Effects of Race, Geography, Gender, Deviance, Oppression, and Social Stratification on Education
High school dropout cases have occurred as a silent epidemic that has affected the nation. In the U.S., dropout cases have disproportionately affected young people, especially those from low-income families, ethnic minority groups, urban children, and single-parent children that join public schools. Statistics indicates that about 30% of public high school students in the U.S. fail to graduate (Heckman & LaFontaine 15). In this paper, we endeavor to demystify this high school dropout issue, an aspect that affects educational institutions. Identification of the prevalence and risk factors associated with high school dropouts facilitates the understanding of the reasons behind this issue and how best to solve them.
Research puts high school graduation rate at 68-71%. The rate at which minority students, including the Native Americans, Blacks, and…
Brait, Ellen. (2015, Dec 10). "Flotus on the Track: Michelle Obama's Rap Video Hypes Going to College." The Guardian. 10 Dec. 2015. Web. 16 Dec 2015.
Heckman, James. & LaFontaine, Paul. (May 2010). "The American High School Graduation Rate: Trends and Levels." NCBI (2010). doi: 10.1162/rest.2010.12366. Web. 16 Dec 2015
U.S. Department of Education. "Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 1972-2009." IES 2012-006 (2011). Web. 16 Dec 2015
Operational risks tend to focus on employees, and finding ways to ensure that employees are not a source of reduction in the wealth of the company. Among the operational risks that were identified in Horcher (2005) were those related to training, fraud, theft, as well as managing exposures to certain risks that arise in the course of operations. There have been many examples of operational failures over the years. While most fraud is going to occur at the highest levels of the organization (i.e. Enron), in other companies operating issues have been the problem.
One such instance was with Subway, which faced a salmonella outbreak in the UK (Poulter, 2008) in a major outbreak, but has also faced similar situations in Canada (Mickleburgh, 2011), and the U.S. As well (Blau, 2012; Falkenstein, 2010). Food poisonings increase the risk of legal action that could devastate franchisees and can have…
Blau, R. (2012). Subway restaurants have been closed for health violations more than any other chain in the city. New York Daily News. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/subway-restaurants-closed-health-violations-chain-city-article-1.1063271?localLinksEnabled=false
CDC. (2014). Overview of attribution of foodborne illness. Center for Disease Control. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/attribution/overview.html
Falkenstein, D. (2010). Subway lawsuits and food poisoning claims. Food Poison Journal. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from http://www.foodpoisonjournal.com/foodborne-illness-outbreaks/subway-lawsuits-and-food-poisoning-claims/
Horcher, K. (2005). Essentials of Financial Risk Management John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ.
isk Management Plan for Exxon Mobil
A risk management process is a systematic application of management policies for the purpose of identifying, analyzing, evaluating and mitigating any possible risks within an organization. The following paper focuses on formulation of risk management plan for Exxon Mobil, one of the world's most renowned oil and gas companies. The risks would be identified and selected applicable to this firm and after their evaluation, a risk treatment plan would be advised.
Establish the isk Context
Identifying the Context for isk Assessment
eviewing current organizational processes
Being in the gas and power marketing department of the company, there are certain risks applicable within my area of operation. In order to clearly determine those risks, first, a comprehensive look at Exxon Mobil's organizational processes along with a SWOT analysis is presented. The firm is dedicated to create and maintain an environmental policy that would protect the…
Bastian, B.L. & Tucci, C. (2010). An empirical investigation on the effects of political risk on technology strategies of firms, presented at Summer Conference 2010, London, 2010. London: Imperial College London Business School. Retrieved from http://www2.druid.dk/conferences/viewpaper.php?id=501908&cf=43
Exxon Mobil. (n.d.). About us: How we operate. Retrieved from http://lubes.ExxonMobil.com/Lubes/about_how.aspx
Green Peace. (2011). Risks and potential impacts of oil exploration in the Arctic. Retrieved from http://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/publications/climate/2011 / FinalArcticBriefing2011.pdf
Hirsch, A. (2011, June 17). Exxon Mobil accused of 'fraud' in Jacksonville gas spill trail. The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved from http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/baltimore - county/bs-md-co-exxon-trial-closing-20110617-story.html
isk, isk Management Strategies, and Benefits in Cloud Computing
SEVICE AND DEPLOYMENT MODELS
BENEFITS OF CLOUD COMPUTING
CLOUD COMPUTING ISKS
ISK Management STATEGIES
Centralized Information Governance
Other Organization-Level Measures
Individual-Level Security Measures
Cloud computing model
Cloud computing service and deployment models
ISO/IEC broad categories
The emergence of cloud computing has tremendously transformed the world of computing. Today, individuals, organizations, and government agencies can access computing resources provided by a vendor on an on-demand basis. This provides convenience, flexibility, and substantial cost savings. It also provides a more efficient way of planning disaster recovery and overcoming fluctuations in the demand for computing resources. In spite of the benefits it offers, cloud computing presents significant security concerns, which users must clearly understand and put strong measures in place to address them. Users are particularly…
Abiodun, A. (2013). A framework for implementation of risk management system in third party managed cloud. Journal of Information Technology & Economic Development, 4(2), 19-30.
Ahmed, N., & Abraham, A. (2013). Modeling security risk factors in a cloud computing environment. Journal of Information Assurance and Security, 8, 279-289.
Alali, F., & Yeh, C. (2012). Cloud computing: overview and risk analysis. Journal of Information Systems, 26(2), 13-33.
Alijani, G., Fulk, H., Omar, A., & Tulsi, R. (2014). Cloud computing effects on small business. Entrepreneurial Executive, 19, 35-45.
These were being make, passiveness or unassertiveness, and a father who avoids conflict with a teenage child. Parental guidance on safer sexual practices, skillful assertion, negotiation and resolution of conflicts all help improve dating communication between teenagers. ut parents' strategies in solving everyday conflicts and issues with teenage children may be the true basis for the safe-sex negotiations in their dating. Parents who actively engage in open disagreement with their teenage children may induce confidence in their children to assert themselves and communicate their preference with a sexual partner regarding the use of condoms. These strategies are likely to develop from safe-sex communication with parents (Feingold).
Parental Processes and Style
The Kaiser Family Foundation surveys suggested that teenagers whose parents monitor their children's whereabouts and particular behaviors tend to have only one sexual partner or avoid unprotected sex (Howell, 2001). A combination of high-level communication and parental monitoring works well…
Aspen (2009). Sexual promiscuity in adolescents. Fact Sheets. Aspen Education Group.
Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://www.aspeneducation.com/factsheetpromiscuity.html
Feingold, A. (2006). Parents can help reduce sexual risk-taking. PsychCentral:
PsychCentral.com. Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/parents-can-help-teens-reduce-sexual-risk-taking
Risks of Climate Change
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
Climate Change Impacts on Engineering Infrastructure
Key Impacts on Water and Resources
Risk Management Analysis Coping Methods Possibility And Probability
Recommendations And Guidelines For The Vulnerability Of Climate
Change Impacts Using Risk Management Methods And Analysis
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
This work examines climate change in relation to impacts upon infrastructure, utilities, and water in relation to the affects from projected sea level rise, flooding, and other related impacts expected to result from climate change. This work also reviews models used for risk assessment and analysis and examines their usefulness and the associated limitations with these models. Knowledge and expertise is growing in the risk-assessment and analysis field of study and reliable models are being developed although the primary effective and appropriate use for the majority of these models…
Adapting to Climate Change Impacts on Water Management: A Guide for Planner (2006) AEA Technology - Prepared for the South East England Regional Assembly. May 2006. Online available at http://www.southeastra.gov.uk/our_work/planning/sust_nat_res/planners_adaptation_guide/planners_adaptation_guide.pdf
Sandell, 2007) ABC News Report Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/Technology/GlobalWarming/story?id=3582433&page=1
Blakemore, Bill (2007) Greenland: Where Towering Icebergs Raise Sea Levels. 9 Sept 2007. ABC News Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/WN/story?id=3579084&page=1
Cities Should Plan Now for Effects of Global Warming on Infrastructure (2005) University of Maryland 21 Feb 2005 Science and Technology Online available at http://www.newsdesk.umd.edu/scitech/release.cfm?ArticleID=1036
isk-Taking Behavior and isk Management
isk Management Article eview
Dominic Cooper (2003) reviews the various factors that influence risk outcomes, with a focus on how personality can have a significant effect on risk-taking behavior. The first half of the article dives into the admittedly murky waters of the associations between personality types, group dynamics, and risk-taking behavior, while the second half discusses risk management and control strategies. Importantly, Cooper states explicitly that individual and group factors are hard to control or change. Despite this attitude, he puts considerable effort into describing the different personality types, their propensity for risk-taking behavior, and the likelihood of harm. In the final analysis, personality, task experience, promise of a reward, and group dynamics seem to have the greatest influence on risk-taking behavior. If the first half of the article were to have a summary, it would be that the sources of risk amenable to…
Baker, Dorothy I., Gottschalk, Margaret, and Bianco, Luann M. (2007). Step-by-step: Integrating evidence-based fall-risk management into senior centers. Gerontologist, 47(4), 548-554
Cooper, Dominic. (2003). Psychology, risk & safety: Understanding how personality & perception can influence risk taking. Professional Safety, November, p. 39-46.
This was because they were seeing one of their primary competitors (Travelers) merging with Citicorp (which created a juggernaut of: insurance, banking and brokerage activities). At which point, executives at AIG felt that in order to: maintain their dominance in the industry and offer new products they should become involved in similar activities. The difference was that they would grow the company by expanding into areas that were considered to be speculative to include: commodities, stocks, options and credit default swaps. The way that this was accomplished is by purchasing a host of businesses that were involved in these activities. This is significant, because it meant that a shift would take place in: how managers were accounting for risks and the kinds of activities that they were becoming involved in. With the newly acquired companies; bringing over executives that did not practice the same kind of strategies for dealing with…
Travelers, Citigroup Unite. (1998). CNN. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/1998/04/06/deals/travelers/
US saw 13 Bank Failures Every Month in 2010. (2011). Economic Times. Retrieved from: http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2011-01-02/news/28424370_1_medium-banks-bank-failures-problem-banks
Baum, C. (2009). The Impact of Macro Economic Uncertainty. Boston College, Boston, MA.
Byoun, S. (2007). Financial Flexibility. Baylor University, Waco, TX.
This can cloud your judgment, which as a trader or investor it is imperative to think with a clear head. When you are placing the hedge, it is set at a logical point that is determined without emotions. This increases the chances that you have reduced your risks by eliminating the emotionalism that accompanies the markets. (Carr, 2002)
Another reason why hedging is effective, is it allows you to protect your downside using as little working capital as possible. ecause hedging involves using options, means that the overall amounts of upfront costs are low. This means, that going into the hedge you know what your maximum down side will be (the premium). You can also reduce the amounts of risk by purchasing the options with expirations that are coming up, within the next 30 to 60 days. This is important, because the closer the option moves to the expiration date,…
Carr, P. (2002, October 1). Static Hedging of Standard Options. Retrieved February 27, 2010 from Fordham
University website: http://www.bnet.fordham.edu/crif/WorkingPapers/crifwp02010.pdf
Maynard, M (2008, October 1). Southwest Has First Loss in 17 Years. Retrieved February 26, 2010 from New York
Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/17/business/17air.html?_r=1
isks and Vulnerability Factors
The two counties I selected were Shelby County in Tennessee and Orleans County in Vermont. In 2011, Shelby County experienced $2,000,000,000 in property damage due to flooding on May 1, 2,470,000 in property damage due to severe storms and thunderstorms beginning on April 19, 150,000 due to flooding beginning on April 27, and $20,000 in property damage beginning April 26. During all of these disasters there were no injuries, fatalities, or crop damage.
In 2011, Orleans county incurred $500,000,000 in property damage from flooding beginning on August 28, $150,000 in property damage due to lightening beginning July 6, and $50,000 in property damage due to wind on August 28. There was also flooding on April 26 that accumulated $50,000 in property damage. Significantly, none of these hazards produced any injuries or fatalities. The only crop damage incurred was $250,000 attributed to flooding on August…
Hazards & Vulnerability Research Institute (2012). "The Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States, Version 10.0 [Online Database]." Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina. Retrieved from http://www.sheldus.org
Hazards & Vulnerability Research Institute. (2012). "Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI®) for the United States - 2006-10 Data." Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina. Retrieved from http://webra.cas.sc.edu/hvri/products/sovi.aspx
isk Management in Family Owned Businesses
A family business can be simply described as "any business in which a majority of the ownership or control lies within a family, and in which two or more family members are directly involved" (Bowman-Upton, 1991). In other words, it is a multifaceted, twofold structure consisting of the family and the business meaning that the involved members are both the part of a job system and of a family system (Bowman-Upton, 1991).
Most families seek stability, intimacy, a sense of community, and belonging through the family business (Hess, 2006). On the other hand, whenever family and business are mentioned together, a majority of people think of continuous conflict, competition and contention (Crenshaw, 2005). However, "successful family businesses do not let the family destroy the business or the business destroy the family" (Hess, 2006).
The family-owned businesses are the backbone of the world financial system.…
Barrese, J., & Scordis, N. (2003). Corporate Risk Management. Review of Business, 24 (3), Retrieved August 17, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-111508707/corporate-risk-management
Bodine, S.W., Anthony, P., & Walker, P.L. (2001). A Road Map to Risk Management: CPAs Can Help Companies Manage Risk to Create Value. (Consulting). Journal of Accountancy, 192 (6), Retrieved August 17, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-80750205/a-road-map-to-risk-management-cpas-can-help-companies
Bowman-Upton, N. (1991). Transferring Management in the Family-Owned Business. Retrieved August 14, 2012 from http://archive.sba.gov/idc/groups/public/documents/sba_homepage/serv_sbp_exit.pdf
Caspar, C., Dias, A.K., & Elstrodt, H. (2010, January).The Five Attributes of Enduring Family Businesses. Retrieved August 15, 2012 from http://www.businessfamily.ca/cert_register_files/Web Downloads/McKinsey Quarterly - Jan 2010.pdf
Risks From International Business
What are some risks of international business that may not exist for local business?
There are many risks inherent in competing on a global or internal level compared to being a local business. As the chapter suggests, there is a much greater level of economic and socio-political pressure on governments to work together for the common good of the global economy. Despite these best intentions, global macroeconomic factors often cause nations to restrict or unnecessarily increase the cost of transactions and trade based on fear over the trading partner's economies. Such is the case for American companies attempting to gain sales within China, whose government holds nearly $1.1 trillion in U.S.-based debt. China and the United States are two of the more powerful economic forces in the global economy, and as their economies go, so goes the world. What this means for international businesses is that…
isk management is the greatest benefit offered by a strategic, forward-thinking approach to management. In an uncertain economic environment, companies must constantly 'hedge their bets' as to what is the superior choice between mutually exclusive alternatives. Strategic management promotes the efficient use of resources by forcing companies to constantly anticipate the future, plan ahead, and make the best economic choices possible, given the company's current framework of knowledge. No company can predict everything that may happen but the consistent data-gathering that is required in a strategic management approach and trend-monitoring allows the company to be more flexible and responsive.
As well as avoiding bad decisions, effective strategic management also means knowing when to take advantage of possible opportunities and invest in good decisions. isk management entails knowing when to take calculated risks, even if this means a major allocation of organizational resources, such as for a new form of technology…
Wade, Mike. (2005). Resource-based view of the firm. York University: Theories used in research. Retrieved January 20, 2011 at http://www.istheory.yorku.ca/rbv.htm
Howeve, befoe giving the medicine, anesthesiologist caefully examines the condition of the pegnant woman to whom anesthesia is to be given. Epidual anesthesia duing labo and nomal delivey does not cause unconsciousness; thus, patients do not lose thei psychological aletness (Halpen and Douglas 2008).
Accoding to (Oebaugh 2011), epidual anesthesia is commonly administeed by injecting the medicine in the lumba egion of the back, specifically in the epidual egion. The detailed pocedue egading the administation of epidual anesthesia has aleady been discussed in the pevious section of the pape. Howeve, the anesthetic dug injected in the epidual space inteupts the passage of neve impulses that oiginate in epoductive ogans and tavel though neves to lowe spine and then to bain. This hindes the feeling of sensation/pain that is poduced in the lowe pats of the body.
The degee of insensitivity induced depends on few factos that include the…
To rebuild their image, the company would try a number of different strategies, none of which would prove to be successful. This would hurt the market share of Gap to the point that many analysts now believe that it may be advantageous to spin off the company's: Old Navy, anana Republic and Gap stores. What this shows, is how a company can begin to lose its way when it is not focused on adjusting to changes in consumer tastes and trends. In the case of Ann Taylor, they need to be aware of this hazard, as it can have an adverse impact on the long-term viability of their business. (Reingold)
A second challenge that Ann Taylor can be wrestling with is a lack of focus on the part of management. In this case, managers must understand the role that their decisions will have on their organization. Where, executives must clearly…
10Q. Ann Taylor, 2010. Print.
Ann Taylor Stores. Yahoo Finance, 2010. Web. 31 Oct. 2010
Ann Taylor Stores. Yahoo Finance, 2010. Web. 31 Oct. 2010
Ann Taylor Stores. Yahoo Finance, 2010. Web. 31 Oct. 2010
isk and Insurance Management
isk is believed to be a newly coined word of assurance (for example, Ewald, 1991: 198). One of the broadly shared suppositions regarding insurance is that it spins around an instrumental concept of risk. Possibility and the amount of influence make up a technical concept of hazard/risk and hazard administration is chiefly worried about reviewing these possibilities and influences (for an overview see Gratt, 1987). For instance, external profits of financial or political occurrences lay down thresholds for the availability of associated risk guesstimates or reckonings (Huber, 2002).
So, the range of the risk groups cannot be clarified by risk judgment single-handedly; peripheral circumstances that could be political, financial or inclusive of image, arts and manners, are also required to be taken into account. Therefore, if risks are not be present, per se, but are deliberately selected, we can go a step ahead and presume them…
Douglas, M. And Wildavsky, A. (1982) Risk and Culture. An Essay on the Selection of Technical and Environmental Dangers. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Evers, A. And Nowotny, H. (1987) Uber den Umgang mit Unsicherheit. Die Entdeckung der Gestaltbarkeit von Gesellschaft. Frankfurt / Main: Suhrkamp.
Ewald, F. (1991) 'Insurance and Risk' in Burchell, G., Gordon, C. And Miller, P. (eds.) The Foucault Effect: studies in governmentality . London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
Gratt, L.B. (1987) 'Risk Analysis or Risk Assessment: a proposal for consistent definitions' in Covello, V. And Lave, L. (eds.) Uncertainty in Risk Assessment, Risk Management and Decision Making, Advances in Risk Analysis (4). New York: Plenum Press.
Risk workshops allow for a strong modeling process of any project management problem. Risk workshops, when conducted effectively produce a prioritized list of risks that has an assigned action and stakeholders attached to that risk. As a project manager all risks rely on the details of the project. I would always expect to be briefed on any changes in budget, deadline or change in objective. Identifying risks that address these issues is important in assessing the value of risk workshops.
Prioritization of key principles and objectives is imperative in the project management way of business. Understanding the difference between a threat and a priority is essential for success. High-priority opportunities should always be addressed first since they compose the main objectives and goals for that project. Threats are important but should not cause the project to come off the tracks.
When disaster strikes in the middle of a…
Most developed economies, however, allow the market to set exchange rates, only influencing currency values through indirect means such as the increased or reduced sale of bonds to foreign entities and individuals, or through other means of international wealth exchange. Essentially, all manipulations of exchange rates and actions based on predictions of exchange rates are focused on the forward exchange rate, or the predicted rate of exchange between two currencies at a future point in time.
The spot exchange rate, on the other hand, is the rate of exchange at the current moment in time. It is through a comparison of the spot rate and the forward rate of exchange -- inasmuch as it can be predicted with any accuracy -- that companies and businesses make decisions that affect either the exchange rate itself (in the case of some governments, notably China in the modern period), or more often make…
Christofferson, Peter F. Elements of Financial Risk Management. San Diego: Elsevier Sciences, 2003.
Comptroller of the Currency Administrator of National Banks. Interest Rate Risks. 1997. Accessed 19 March 2010. http://www.occ.treas.gov/handbook/irr.pdf
Cusatis, Patrick and Martin R. Thomas. Hedging Instruments and Risk Management. New York: McGraw Hill, 2005.
Dun & Bradstreet. Financial Risk Management. New Delhi: McGraw Hill, 2008.
ISK Management - CAPM and APT
Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory
The contemporaneous business community is extremely competitive, meaning as such that the organizational leaders strive harder than ever to overcome the competitive forces. Virtually, they have to hire and retain the best skilled staff members; they have to develop and offer the best quality products and services and they must be able to raise the interest of a vast and large customer base. All these constitute competitive advantages.
Yet, another element which has to be granted the adequate attention is that of the management of assets. The specialized literature offers a multitude of definitions of the concept of asset, yet the underlying idea is basically the same. Stickey, Weil and Schipper (2009) for instance argue that an asset is "a probable future economic benefit that a firm controls because of a past event or transaction" (p.108).…
Bailey, R.E., 2006, The Economics of Financial Markets, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052184827X
Cheng, B., Tong, H., 2008, Asset Pricing: A Structural Theory and Its Applications, World Scientific, ISBN 9812704558
Fabozzi, F.J., Markowitz, H., 2002, The Theory and Practice of Investment Management, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471228990
Fabozzi, F.J., Focardi, S., Kolm, P.N., 2006, Financial Modelling of the Equity Market: From CAPM to Cointegration, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471699004
Often an entire structural reassessment may be need to reach optimal temperature control for the workplace, To improve temperature control, insulation may be required to keep hot and cold air in and keep the outside temperature and humidity from affecting the workers inside. Air-conditioning is the solution of most workplaces to long, hot summers, but having windows that open can cut down on air-conditioning costs and enable workers to still work even when the temperature control system has been shut down. Having blinds to shield the light from hot windows, minimizing exposure to direct sunlight in general and providing ample water and cooling beverages can also help. If no internal cooling systems are available, allowing employees to take breaks or even to work different shifts (such as avoiding the hotter times of the day) can be valuable (Thermal comfort for office work, 2014, CCOHS). This may be necessary in outdoor…
Employers guide. (2014). HSE. Available:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/temperature/thermal/managers.htm [3 May 2014]
Martinez, I. (2014). Human thermal comfort. Available:
http://webserver.dmt.upm.es/~isidoro/Env/Human%20thermal%20comfort.pdf [3 May 2014]
isk Analysis and the Security Survey
The following risk analysis and security survey report will be centered on the hospital as an organization. Vulnerabilities can be classified as crime opportunities, opportunities for breaking rules and regulations, opportunities for profiting and also for loss. By definition, vulnerability can be a gap or a weakness inside a security program that might be exploited by opponents to acquire unlawful access. Vulnerabilities include procedural, human, structural, electronic as well as other elements that offer opportunities to damage assets (Vellani and Owles, 2007).
A vulnerability assessment can be classified as a systematic method utilized to evaluate an organization's security position, assess the efficiency of current security infrastructure, as well as, recognize security limitations. The basic approach of a Vulnerability Assessment (VA) first measures what precise assets require protection. Subsequently, VA recognizes the protection measures previously being used to protect those assets, as well as what…
Brandon Region Hospital. (2012). Evacuation plan.
Brandon Region Hospital. (2012). Risk management plan.
Chung, S., & Shannon, M. (2005). Hospital planning for acts of terrorism and other public health emergencies involving children. Archives of disease in childhood, 90(12), 1300-1307.
Code Green Networks. (2009). Protecting Healthcare Organizations from Patient Data Loss. Retrieved from: www.codegreennetworks.com/resources/downloads/wp_patient_dlp.pdf
isk Management of Terrorism in the UK
The issue of designing a risk management strategy for terrorism in the UK is dependent upon understanding and identifying the commensurate risks attendant with the various extremists groups that are perceived as threats to the UK's safety and infrastructural stability. Challenges include adopting an intelligence and surveillance system, educating the public regarding attendant trouble spots (such as retaliatory violence and discrimination as well as purpose of surveillance) and adopting a position in the global network that facilitates the overall mitigation of threats. The benefits are evident in control and prevention results and good practice recommendations are provided in the conclusion. This study gives a contextual assessment of the risks facing the UK, analyzes the components of risk management that can be utilized to alleviate these risks, defines the term "terror," examines the historical challenges that coincide with these components, and discusses the benefits…
Ciftci, S. (2012). Islamophobia and threat perceptions: Explaining anti-Muslim
sentiment in the West. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 32(3): 292-309.
Forst, B., Greene, J., Lynch, J. (2011). Criminologists on Terrorism and Homeland
Security. UK: Cambridge University Press.
. Research Design Rationale
1. Question format: In order to allow the research study to become embedded in the field of economics, the research question will use an applied question format. The purpose of the study is to develop a predictive method regarding player choices in the Prisoner's dilemma. It will explore the association of risk and cooperation or defection in the Prisoner's
2. Research design: The research will use a deductive approach where the theory will be presented and tested through the methodology. The research will use quantitative research methods, which are suited for research where the information can be reduced to a numerical format. This is the case in the proposed study as both risk tolerance and the decisions made in the Prisoner's Dilemma can be reduced to numerical data and standard statistical methods applied.
III. Data/Information from Previous research
A. Literature Review
The literature review for…
Agarwal, J. & Feils, D. (2007). Political Risk and the Internationalization of Firms: an Empirical
Study of Canadian-based Export and Fdi Firms. Canadian Journal of Administrative
Sciences. 24 (3): 165+. Questia Database.
Ansell, C. & Gash, a. (2008). Collaborative Governance in Theory and Practice. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 18 (4): 543+. Questia Database.
Similarly, the staff who conducted the interviews were neither psychologists nor psychiatrists, again leaving room for error. ithin the scope of the study's goals, however, the researchers controlled for the majority of the potential drawbacks.
This study provides educators with a rough series of guidelines for evaluating at-risk students. It can be used to create a checklist of behaviors and circumstance that can point to children which are at higher risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems, and give some objective measures which can be applied to any student, with less risk of personal bias on the part of the educator. However, there is also a possibility of using these findings to pigeonhole students that these findings may indicate are at risk, even if those students have other influencing factors that mediate their risks. Students that display the behaviors noted are not guaranteed to develop disorders, but the guidelines are…
Achenbach, T.M. (2001). Manual for the child behavior checklist/4-18 and 2001 profile.
Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
Nelson, J., Stage, S., Dupong-Hurly, K., Syhorst L., and Epstein, M. (2007). Risk Factors
Predictive of the Problem Behaviors of Children at Risk for Emotional and Behavioral
Project isk Management
isks associated with projects successful completion
A project is an undertaking of human beings towards satisfying world needs. Projects are endeavors with a defined beginning and an end. Projects suffer from scope, time, cost and quality constraints. It is necessary for project managers to manage the risk of developing weak scope. Scope of a project incorporates the objectives of a project, the target population, the output and impact of that endeavor. Therefore, managers of project need to do a problem analysis, stakeholder analysis, environment analysis to know if the project is sustainable (Cleland & King, 1988). On the risk of time, managers need skills on time management. Management of projects requires one to be well versed in developing schedules. Time management involves developing systems that has a specific time of completion and start time.
Scheduling of projects includes hiring of individuals for the accomplishment of projects. There…
King, W.R. (Eds.) & Cleland, D.I., & (1988). Project management handbook (Vol. 2). New
York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Anbari, F. T & Kwak, Y.H., (2009). Analyzing project management research: Perspectives from top management journals. International Journal of Project Management, 27(5),
The project manager should at all times be present to monitor and ensure that it's the correct mixing of materials being done, it's the right quality of material being used, and it's the right amount of time being given to the treatment process in the different construction phases. In the event that this is not observed, and the building is erected, there's a high probability that the building will deteriorate at an early stage before its lifespan or even collapse as witnessed almost daily Zwikael and Ahn, 2011()
As a construction is ongoing, a major contribution to its success is the relationship between the different stakeholders. This includes the architect, the engineer, the owner, the contactor and the workers. In order to smoothly run the project and limit malice and incorporation, there should be a union and set goals and objectives between all these parties so as to ensure everyone…
BUYS, A., BENDEWALD, M. & TUPPER, K. 2011. Life Cycle Cost Analysis: Is it Worth the Effort? ASHRAE Transactions, 117, 541-548.
CHRIS HENDRICKSON 1998. Project Management for Construction. 2 ed.: Prentice Hall PTR.
EHRENFELD, J.R. 1996. Risk Assessment and Management: A Critique of Current Practices and Policy Implications. Organization & Environment, 9, 376-404.
GURCANLI, G.E. & MUNGEN, U. 2009. An occupational safety risk analysis method at construction sites using fuzzy sets. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 39, 371-387.
For instance, according to Begley, "Men who were promiscuous back then were more evolutionarily fit since men who spread their seed widely left more descendants. By similar logic, evolutionary psychologists argued, women who were monogamous were fitter; by being choosy about their mates and picking only those with good genes, they could have healthier children" (2009, p. 52). Although modern men and women may not look like Cro-Magnums, they all want to act like them deep down inside because of these primordial drives. In sum, Begley concludes that, "We all carry genes that led to reproductive success in the Stone Age, and that as a result men are genetically driven to be promiscuous and women to be coy, that men have a biological disposition to rape and to kill mates who cheat on them, and that every human behavior is 'adaptive' -- that is, helpful to reproduction" (emphasis added) (p.…
Begley, S. (2009, June 29). Why do we rape, kill and sleep around? Newsweek, 153(26), 52.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Druzin, B.H. & Li, J.C. (2011, Spring). The criminalization of lying: Under what circumstances, if any, should lies be made criminal? Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 101(2), 529-540.
Duke, S. (2009, April 27). Kinsey: Deviancy is the new normal. The New American, 25(9), 33-35.
(Van Voorhis, 2004) the presence of a dynamic risk factor tells us what we can do to reduce the offender's risk. For example, if an offender presents with the dynamic risk factor of unemployment, efforts can be made to assist him in finding employment.
onta (August 2002) discusses the need to continue to utilize the more accurate and reliable actuarial approaches to risk management in order to assess risk factors and determine criminogenic needs. He relays his professional dismay that correctional psychologists are using specific tests in their work that cannot be considered actuarial measures, meaning they are not "structured, quantitative, and empirically linked to a relevant criterion." (onta, August 2002) Van Voorhis et. al. (January 28, 2008) discusses the issues of developing gender-appropriate risk assessments for female offenders. They state that the current instruments are based on standards that were originally developed for men and then applied to women…
Bonta, James. (August 2002) Offender Risk Assessment: Guidelines for Selection and Use. Criminal Justice and Behavior. Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 355-279.
Van Voorhis, Patricia. (2004) an Overview of Offender Classification Systems. Correctional counseling and Rehabilitation. 5th Edition, Chapter 7.
Van Voorhis, P., Salisbury, E., Wright, E., and Bauman, a. (January 28, 2008) Achieving Accurate Pictures of Risk and Identifying Gender Responsive Needs: Two New Assessments for Women Offenders. Criminal Justice Research Center. Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.
In order to formulate effective early childhood development interventions, though, it is important to determine what risk factors are involved and what coping skills young children possess. In this regard, Pati and her associates add that, "Identifying critical risk and resilience factors is the first step in developing interventions to promote early school success" (p. 5). These recommendations, though, will not magically produce the resources needed to eradicate poverty, but they do emphasize the need to determine what specific factors must be addressed in order to develop effective interventions to address them. These recommendations also make it clear that all children and their families are unique and some may require more assistance than others in certain areas. This recommendation is congruent with Pati et al.'s observations that, "From a treatment perspective, separating patients into different service intensity levels is also commonplace in clinical practice" (p. 13).
No matter what other…
Aber, L. (2007, December). Changing the climate on early childhood: The science of early childhood development is as persuasive as the science of global climate change. The American Prospect, 18(12), 4-5.
Barnett, W.S. & Belfield, C.R. (2006). Early childhood development and social mobility. The Future of Children, 16(2), 73-74.
Bornstein, M.H., Davidson, L., Keyes, C.L. & Moore, K.A. (2003). Well-being: Positive development across the life course. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Brooks-Gunn, J. & Duncan, G.J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of Children, 7(2), 55-71. [Online]. Available: http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.memphis.edu / stable/1602387?cookieSet=1.
Nowadays, adolescent problem behavior is conceptualized as 2 empirically derived syndromes: externalizing problems (including delinquency and aggression) and internalizing problems (including depression, anxiety, and withdrawal) (Achenbach, 1991a, 1991b). Little is known about the structure of internalizing problem behavior. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to examine the structure of externalizing and internalizing problem behavior during adolescence. (eitz, Dekovic, & Meijer, 2005, ¶ 2).
At the end of their study, eitz, Dekovic, and Meijer (2005) recount that prior research primarily focused on externalizing problems, the structure of a limited range of problem behavior, and basically found support for a 1-factor structure. Their study, eitz, Dekovic, and Meijer assert, extended previoius research as it explored externalizing, as well as internalizing problems, examining whether both types of behaviors belonged to one single factor of general problem behavior (1-factor model), or whether the two types behavior ought to be deemed two separate…
Bartlett, R., Holditch-Davis, D. & Belyea, M. (2007). Problem behaviors in adolescents.
Pediatric Nursing. Jannetti Publications, Inc. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from HighBeam
Biglan, Anthony., Foster, Sharon L., Brennan, Patricia A., & Holder, Harold D. (2005). Helping
All personnel need to be fully informed regarding risk management, particularly in terms of disaster, terrorism, or other unknown factors. Employees and employers therefore need to maintain an open communication system, through which risk management occurs as a dynamic rather than static system. Management should for example provide workers with the opportunity to offer suggestions relating to the current risk management manual. These can be communicated via spoken or written communication. Such a measure provides the opportunity to establish mutual trust within the company, which is vital if risks are to be handled effectively once they occur.
Inherent and environmental risks can also be handled via communicating in this way. By trusting employees to provide accurate information regarding ongoing risk factors, the management of an organization also provides such employees with a sense of trust and perceived importance. Such employees can then be inspired to provide the company with their…
Nine-year-old Afro-Caribbean, Lennox, was referred by professionals and his teacher to the therapist. Those who suggested counseling were worried about the boy's conduct and behavior when at school. As Lennox's previous therapist resigned his job during the summer school-term, the boy was referred once again; by this time, he had reached the age of ten. Lennox was offered twelve months of one-on-one therapy. The problems cited in the original referral for counseling included lack of concentration in studies, attention-seeking behavior at school, persistent unpunctuality to class, and the boy's washed-out look. Another referral by an educator in the year 2009 cited the boy's weak concentration in class, poor social skills apparent in groups, defensive stance, need to remain "in control," lack of self-esteem, and failure to accept responsibility for his conduct. According to both referring educators' behavior rating, they were highly concerned about the boy. When he reached the age…
Internal entities therefore bear the burden of the company's interest, making the risk identification process subjective, and compromising it to the eventual disadvantage of the company. Here also it is advisable that entities from the outside be involved in the process.
The risk quantification process refers to assessing the scale of severity in the risks identified. When a risk is identified, resources need to be allocated in order to mitigate it. Severe risks will therefore require a greater amount of resources, while lower severity also means lower priority. Quantification therefore results in prioritizing. This is a process that can then mitigate the financial resources necessary for preventing the risk factors involved.
In the quantification process, however, ambiguity and subjectivity are also detrimental factors. Ambiguity for example means that there is uncertainty regarding which priority to assign to which levels of risk. Once again, subjectivity works in concomitance. Internal risk teams…
Corporate Risk Management - unknowns
Proactive and responsible risk assessment is one of the most important elements in managing a company. It is however also one of the most challenging aspects. The main reason for this is the factor of the unknown. Particularly, the "unknown," as defined by Donald Rumsfeld is particularly problematic in this regard.
Known risks are the easiest to handle and mitigate. Risks become known by means of investigation and assessment. These actions are essential, particularly in a business that poses substantial physical danger to its workers and/or to the public. Physical risks are probably the easiest to assess and mitigate, because of their fairly obvious nature. It does not take a large amount of investigation to investigate physical risks. Furthermore, legislation also provides a valuable framework for mitigating potential physical dangers. Protective clothing and other safety regulations such as sings and fencing are then used in…