Clinical interventions put in place include, counseling of those teenagers who are already using tobacco and provide them with tobacco cessation. While, one of the community intervention strategies are, increase in the unit price of tobacco increased to hinder teenagers from buying hence, decreased tobacco use initiation among them. Also, there are efforts to restrict access of tobacco for minors, aided by community support to stop teenage access to tobacco. Worksite / school health promotion has also been enhanced to enlighten the students on the effects of tobacco use (Myers, 2000).
Another strategy which might be employed is the use of other teenagers as behavior change agents amongst their peers. This is where; selected teenagers are trained to act as peer educators and anti-tobacco use ambassadors within their neighborhood's and at school. These peer educators are to be selected from different ethnic groups to deal with the cultural factors that…… [Read More]
isk Factors Associated With Alcohol
Over the years, many experts have noticed a strong correlation between children anxiety and alcohol dependence of one or more parent in the family. Alcohol dependence is a problem that has plagued our society since a long time. It is a known fact that alcohol not only affects the alcohol but also the people around him. Tubman (1993) went onto inquire that in more detail when he carried out this research project. In this study, 53 families were chosen from one community. The division was almost equal such that half of the families were the ones that had alcohol dependent men and the other half were comparison families. It was noted that the structure of the families was similar in both groups. There needed to be an ongoing marriage in the family and the age of the child that was going to be studied…… [Read More]
In fact, 29% of fatalities occurring between 1991 and 1993 involved parental substance abuse" (American Humane Association, 2010).
There are other characteristics of those with abusive tendencies that are also worth discussing. The American Journal of Public Health article insists that although substance abuse plays a huge role in helping to shape abusive personalities and fuel abusive rages, there are other factors worth considering, as well. "Societal and environmental factors have been considered primary to the development of both child maltreatment and parental substance abuse," say Kelleher, Chaffin, Hollenberg, & Fischer. "Social class is strongly linked to both reported child maltreatment and a wide range of mental disorders, including drug and alcohol disorders" (Kelleher, Chaffin, Hollenberg, & Fischer, 1994).
They also go on to suggest that statistics for child abuse and neglect have been found to be higher among families with lower income. This while proves that while the abuse…… [Read More]
As noted above, family conflict is a single risk factor, but when combined with early childhood sexual abuse, the likelihood for teen pregnancy is increased another 50% (Queensland Health, 2004). Further, teens whose mother is uneducated, or undereducated, are also more likely to become pregnant. Finally, those teens from homes where the father is absent are also more likely to experience early pregnancy (Queensland Health, 2004).
It is important to note the reasons for concern in term of teen pregnancy, and one strategy to prevention of the problem is the dispersal of such information to teenage females. The children of teens who become pregnant often experience premature birth, low birth weight, increased physical impairment, an increased likelihood of substance abuse, physical abuse, and an increased risk in becoming pregnant early themselves (Queensland Health, 2004). In addition, pregnant teens themselves are less likely to finish school, experience increased anti-social behaviors, and…… [Read More]
isk factors for developing diabetes
Three major factors can increase the risk for diabetes. Some of them are genetic and so are with us always, but some can be reversed to help prevent diabetes. Genetics, obesity, and age are the most discussed risk factors.
Obesity: The leading risk factor for diabetes if obesity. According to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), approximately 30% of adults are obese. Overweight implies a higher risk of insulin resistance, as fat disrupts the ability of the body to use insulin. CDC cites that the number of overweight children has been tripling since 1980 (Silverstein & Silverstein, 2009). As a result, the number of children examined with the disorder has been rising.
Genetics: People with relatives suffering from diabetes are at a higher risk of developing the disease. Native Americans, Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans, all have the highest rates of diabetes. However, having…… [Read More]
Health, Healthcare, and Emergency Preparedness Needs of a Defined Population
Many of the patients at my healthcare institution -- a suburban New Jersey hospital in New Jersey specializing in rehabilitating patients from brain traumas -- have suffered a stroke or aneurysm. Because adults over the age of 65 are universally covered by Medicare (although some may also have private insurance or Medicaid), most geriatric patients within my practice have access to insurance. Although most of the younger patients are also insured in some form, given that they did not expect such a traumatic event to occur at such a young age, many have less comprehensive insurance and may face high medical bills due to high deductibles or copays.
Not all patients have made adequate preparation for themselves and their families should they be incapacitated. Discussing end-of-life care is a difficult issue that may be challenging for families to raise with…… [Read More]
Five main risk factors for criminal victimization
Cohen, Kluegel, and Land in their article Social inequality and predatory criminal victimization: An exposition and test of a formal theory adopts the interpretation of five factors in association with criminal victimization risks. These factors include
Exposure: The three authors define this risk factor for victimization as the "visibility and accessibility of persons or objects to potential offenders at any given time and place" (Cohen et al., 1981). This represents the capacity of the criminal offender to encounter the victim of the crime. The more frequently this factor (exposure) occurs, the more chance or opportunities to harm the victim or his or her property by the offender. For this factor to be effective, the victim must experience physical relationship or distance with the offender for the crime to occur. Accessibility of the victim would determine if he or she is in danger…… [Read More]
Heart disease and stroke are also major conditions commonly associated with the bad habit of smoking. The research shows that your chances of heart disease or stroke can double when compared to nonsmokers' chances. Heart disease is one of the most common conditions smokers face. It is a serious condition which can strike at any time, and leave you completely helpless, or worse off dead. Moreover, smoking is a major cause of respiratory diseases, like emphysema, which is "a lung disease that has no cure" (Jacobs 1997). Such respiratory diseases can severely restrict the quality of life for those suffering through them. They force patients to have to stop a number of activities they love, because they no longer have the lung capacity to continue doing them. According to the research, "a person with this disease has difficulty breathing because the walls of the small air sacs in the lungs…… [Read More]
In Oklahoma there is a state-wide effort known as the Oklahoma Physical Activity and Nutrition Program (OKPAN). This is an effort to avert obesity and other chronic diseases by way of healthy eating and increased physical activity. Its task is to reduce the frequency and occurrence of obesity and related chronic diseases through the improvement of organizational capacity and development and implementation of a comprehensive State Plan. This program focuses on five key areas:
Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption
Increasing breastfeeding initiation and length
Balancing food intake with energy expenditure
educing screen-time on television, computer use, and video games (Overweight and Obesity in Oklahoma and the U.S., 2007).
In Tulsa County, Oklahoma there is a current push to increase fruit and vegetable consumption because it is thought to be an economical way to control many health-related issues such as obesity and diabetes (Working together for help, 2010).
Another…… [Read More]
A growing pool of evidence points to the fact that chronic ailments such as obesity commence at life’s early stages. Early childhood facets and the intrauterine atmosphere potentially play a role in adulthood obesity onset via several pathways like prenatal diet, fetal metabolic programing, postnatal development, breast-feeding, infancy/toddlerhood behavior and adiposity rebound. The life-course theory’s abstract foundation stresses illness and health’s developmental origins, concentrating especially on long-run health impacts of fetal and babyhood exposures (Hu, 2008).
Of late, one can witness the alarming issue of the childhood obesity pandemic. It is alarming due to the fact that it has short- as well as long- run negative impacts. Risk factor determination forms the main solution to preventing it. While scant literature on childhood obesity risk factors can be found, experts are becoming increasingly aware of the significance of early life settings. However, hardly any risk factor identified is proven; most…… [Read More]
Cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors are the two study groups in this study.
The total risk score at 4.14 is the greatest relative difference and is significant because it is greater than the… [Read More]
As the percentage of older Americans continues to increase, the need for timely and accurate assessment screens and the formulation of effective clinical interventions will become even more pronounced. Fortunately, the research also showed that there are a number of assessment tools that are available to facilitate the process, including sophisticated multifactor instruments with proven validity and reliability. One of the more important issues to emerge from the research concerned the need for individualized interventions that draw on strengths and interests in order to minimize the risk factors that are involved.
Faber, M., Bosscher, .J. & Van Wieringen, P.C. (2006). Clinimetric properties of the performance-oriented mobility assessment. Physical Therapy, 86(7), 944-954.
Functional assessment. (2012). NursingLink. etrieved from http://nursinglink.monster.com / training/articles/331-functional-assessment-the-key-to-geriatric-care-in-the-21st-
Gates, S. & Smith, L., Fisher, J.D. & Lamb, S.E. (2008, October 1). Systematic review of accuracy of screening instruments for predicting fall risk among independently living older…… [Read More]
There are discrepancies encountered in conducting the valuation and risk of a private company. There arises these factors that if investigated can impact the process accordingly. The first research question that I suggest is investigating if the tax risk and equity market value exhibit a concave association, which is consistent with the optimal tax risk level from a valuation of equity standpoint. The second topic that can be researched upon is the changes facing the risk and value valuation service area for businesses and how they impact the practice. Finally, a study on how the Merger and Acquisitions revised standards are impacting business deals.
Chandra, U., & o, B.T. (2008). The role of revenue in firm valuation. Accounting Horizons,
22(2), 199-222. etrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/208923683?accountid=35812
Darrough, M., & Ye, J. (2007). Valuation of loss firms in a knowledge-based economy. eview of Accounting Studies, 12(1), 61-93. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11142-006-9022-z
Bernier, G.,…… [Read More]
Europe's more liberal drug policies are not the right model for America.
Most non-violent drug users get treatment, not jail time. (Legalization, 2010).
There are no benefits for society in the legalization of marijuana. The money from the taxing of the marijuana will end up being use to regulate and enforce the dispensaries. The money to treat the addiction will be another source of lost revenues from the taxation.
Increased usage by underage teens will be the same as cigarettes and alcohol and will increase as the price drops as it did in the Dutch experiment. Kids will be introduced onto the drug culture that leads to the use of the harder narcotics as a result of the increased access to the marijuana. The benefits will be just moved from one area to other areas of criminalization.
DEA website. 2010. etrieved on May 10,…… [Read More]
isks of Using Computer-Based Procurement
Every complex project requiring the collaborative effort of an organization involves the use of materials, goods, and services that are integrated within the overall project design. The procurement process used to obtain these vital resources is central to the successful accomplishment of project objectives, because every aspect of the management process, from sourcing supplies to shipping products to customers is contingent on procuring the most productive third-party partnerships. The vendor selection process is used to aid project managers in the effective procurement of essential items and services, with a rigorous screening methodology used to identify the most competent and qualified shipping companies, manufacturers, distributors, and equipment suppliers. Another way project managers have refined the procurement process is through the implementation of computer-based tools, with advances in technology enabling researchers to identify a project's critical path through a complex series of algorithms, software programs, and other…… [Read More]
Phishing Spea Phishing and Phaming
The following is intended to povide a vey bief oveview of examples of some the most dangeous and pevasive secuity isks in the online and netwoked wold. One of the most insidious of identity theft is known as phishing. The tem 'phishing' efes to the pactice of "fishing fo infomation." This tem was oiginally used to descibe "phishing" fo cedit cad numbes and othe sensitive infomation that can be used by the ciminal. Phishing attacks use "…spoofed emails and faudulent websites to deceive ecipients into divulging pesonal financial data, such as cedit cad numbes, account usenames and passwods, social secuity numbes etc." (All about Phishing) . Thompson ( 2006) clealy outlines the basics of a phishing attack.
A typical phishing sends out millions of faudulent e-mail messages that appea to come fom popula Web sites that most uses tust, such as eBay, Citibank, AOL, Micosoft…… [Read More]
isk of Committing Violence Among Individuals Suffering From Bipolar Disorder
Several studies argue that most psychiatric symptoms are closely correlated with criminality, since such symptoms impair judgment and violate societal norms. In this regard, several studies have been conducted regarding the risk of violence among individuals suffering from mental illnesses but few have highlighted the possibility of bipolar individuals engaging in criminal behavior. The common disorders known to be highly related to criminality include antisocial personality disorder, kleptomania, voyeurism and schizophrenia. Therefore, this study is meant to examine the possibility of bipolar individuals engaging in criminal behavior.
This paper aims at analyzing the likelihood of committing violence among individuals suffering from bipolar disorder as well as the factors that are likely to influence the degree to which these individuals are likely to commit violent acts.
Past studies have hinted that individuals suffering from bipolar disorder have…… [Read More]
hile many articles tend to deal with the fact that victims of child abuse tend to become abusers, I wanted to go in another direction, looking at how child abuse can actually affect the life of the abused. In order to consider this, I contemplated Belik et al.'s study, "Relation Between Traumatic Events and Suicide Attempts in Canadian Military Personnel." In this article, the authors' purpose wanted to "determine whether exposure to particular types of traumatic events was associated with suicide attempts in a representatives ample of active military personnel" (Beilik et al. 93). In order to test the connection between certain traumatic events and suicide attempts, the authors drew data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, which asked respondents to mark whether they had been victims of 28 different traumatic events during their lives. One of these events was child abuse. The survey was representative of such variables including…… [Read More]
isk management is aimed at determining possible problems beforehand in order to plan and invoke risk-handling activities, as required, across the project's or product's life, for mitigating negative effects on attaining objectives. The process of risk management constitutes a key part of technical and business management systems; it is constant and forward-thinking. isk management must deal with problems that threaten the attainment of key aims. A constant risk management strategy is adopted for successfully predicting and reducing risk elements, which critically affect a venture. A sound risk management plan entails timely and forceful risk identification by way of participation and collaboration of concerned stakeholders. Effective leadership is required across all concerned stakeholders for cultivating an environment conducive to honest and uninhibited discovery and analysis of risk. While technical problems constitute a major concern in the early stages as well as all through the course of the project, risk management has…… [Read More]
The major difference between standard deviation and the beta is that the former measures the volatility against the asset's own mean, whereas beta measures the asset's volatility against the market. Standard deviation, therefore, allows the user to understand the asset's specific risk on its own, and can use this information to compare returns against historical average returns. This is valuable because the risk profile of an investment can be significantly different than that of the market, so the returns will be expected to be significantly different as well.
Standard deviation can also be used to measure against other means, for example against historic market returns. However, the beta coefficient is more effective as a measure against the market. Standard deviation and beta are both often used as measures on their own, without any model, because they communication the information clearly. In the capital asset pricing model, for example, the systematic…… [Read More]
isk Analysis Financial Markets Main Techniques isk Analysis
isk analysis in the financial markets
This essay mainly intends to outline and explain the objective of risk analysis in the financial market and the main techniques used in risk analysis. In a bid to answer this question the study will first of all include a summation of the types of risks that are found in the financial markets. The financial market here has been classified into three groups that are; the stock market where company stock and shares are traded, the bond market where the Australian government usually sell its' treasury bills and bonds and lastly the international financial market.
Different risk analysis technique will spelt out in the two markets and then the objectives of risk analysis will then be mentioned before the essay concludes.
Types of risk in the financial markets
In his studies Jensen (2009) noted that there…… [Read More]
Chosen Business: City estauant
Befoe discussing what the coe activities the company undetakes to achieve its opeational objectives, it is vital to highlight these opeational objectives. The following section gives a bief oveview of these objectives:
The stategic objective of Taste Inn is to become the most liked band among its customes, a financially and opeationally stong company in the eyes of its investos, and a competitive paticipant in the food and hospitality industy of Austalia. The majo opeational objectives of the company include:
A stong custome base:
The most impotant opeational objective of the company is to stengthen its custome base by attacting moe and moe customes towads its poduct offeings. It aims to build a stong public image in the eyes of its customes and the society in which it opeates.
Become a financially and opeationally stong copoation:
The second most impotant…… [Read More]
Market Entry and Exit Strategies and Decisions
Entering the market in a timely fashion is equally as important as exiting the market. Just as leaving the market, market entry can be planned. In any market, a business can make money by properly timing both the entry and exit. If one miscalculates any of these, then the business runs the risk of not getting the return on investment.
Entering a market sooner has the advantage of being a market pioneer (Bednarek, 2013). In contrast, late market entry can be advantageous since the products are cheap or improved unlike those already in the market. Already cluttered markets serve an opportunity for late arrival based on improved quality. For instance, a company may launch its product in German, Mexico, and Australia but at different times. The company may launch the product in one country at a time and will only enter the next…… [Read More]
Even though users of light therapy are often advised not to look directly at the light source, the mechanisms of the eye focus incoming light onto the macula, the small region of the retina where vision takes place, and where age-related macular degeneration occurs. Since blue light wavelength make up only a small percentage of the light in white light, any form of light therapy using a high proportion of blue light therefore risks subverting a variety of defensive mechanisms that protect the retina against blue light hazard. These defensive mechanisms include the anatomical positioning and structure of eye and its surrounding features, as well as human posture, which makes it awkward for humans to gaze upwards for long periods of time. Sunnex iotechnologies, 2008)
The work of David H. Sliney entitled: "Ocular Hazards of Light" presented at the International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop states the following risks and…… [Read More]
Conditions Associated ith a Lack of Exercise/Physical Activity
Health is one of the most important things in people's lives, but individuals often fail to focus on this aspect because they concentrate on diverse tasks that they wrongly consider to be more important. As a consequence, many end up suffering greatly as a result of their irresponsible behavior. In addition to causing significant health problems in people's lives, sedentary living is also responsible for costing society billions of dollars every year. The fact that the masses often trick themselves into thinking that they are eventually going to start exercising is extremely worrying and leads to numerous health problems.
Figures associated with sedentary living are alarming, but this is still not enough to influence some people in changing their attitudes concerning the concept. On a yearly basis, "approximately 250,000 people die prematurely because they are inactive" (Corbin & Lindsay 43). Even with…… [Read More]
Childhood Obesity and Interventions
There is a strong relationship between childhood obesity and exposure to environmental factors -- most notably socio-economic status. There are exposures that trigger both positive and negative outcomes, and these have to be discussed along with the possible interventions that can be undertaken. Low socio-economic status (E) has been associated with a large number of problematic outcomes where health is concerned, including obesity and related issues in childhood (Kallem, et al., 2013). Despite this correlation, though, there are plenty of children with low E who grow up slim and apparently health, so it is clear that environment is not the only factor (Kallem, et al., 2013). The objective of the study by Kallem, et al. (2013) was to examine the "shift-and-persist" strategy and how (or if) it was what was protecting low E children from obesity in some cases. This strategy involves how a person deals…… [Read More]
Amato, P.R. (2005). The impact of family formation change on the cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of the next generation. arriage and Child Wellbeing, 15(2), 75-96. The author addressed two questions related to child development in single-parent households: (1) cognitive, social, and emotional consequences, and (2) etiology of outcome differences. This review of the research literature was up-to-date 2005. Overall, the author concluded that children of single-parent households will do more poorly throughout their life, but only modestly so. Protective variables included remarriage and cohabitation, in that order. The author pays careful attention to inconsistent and mixed findings within and between studies, thereby rendering the review credible.
Shook, S.E., Jones, D.J., Forehand, R., Dorsey, S., & Brody, G. (2010). The mother-coparent relationship and youth adjustment: A study of African-American single-mother families. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(3), 243-51. This study examined the impact of coparent relationship quality on child development outcomes…… [Read More]
Race, Geography, Gender, Deviance, Oppression, and Social Stratification on Educational
Effects of Race, Geography, Gender, Deviance, Oppression, and Social Stratification on Education
High school dropout cases have occurred as a silent epidemic that has affected the nation. In the U.S., dropout cases have disproportionately affected young people, especially those from low-income families, ethnic minority groups, urban children, and single-parent children that join public schools. Statistics indicates that about 30% of public high school students in the U.S. fail to graduate (Heckman & LaFontaine 15). In this paper, we endeavor to demystify this high school dropout issue, an aspect that affects educational institutions. Identification of the prevalence and risk factors associated with high school dropouts facilitates the understanding of the reasons behind this issue and how best to solve them.
Research puts high school graduation rate at 68-71%. The rate at which minority students, including the Native Americans, Blacks, and…… [Read More]
Operational risks tend to focus on employees, and finding ways to ensure that employees are not a source of reduction in the wealth of the company. Among the operational risks that were identified in Horcher (2005) were those related to training, fraud, theft, as well as managing exposures to certain risks that arise in the course of operations. There have been many examples of operational failures over the years. While most fraud is going to occur at the highest levels of the organization (i.e. Enron), in other companies operating issues have been the problem.
One such instance was with Subway, which faced a salmonella outbreak in the UK (Poulter, 2008) in a major outbreak, but has also faced similar situations in Canada (Mickleburgh, 2011), and the U.S. As well (Blau, 2012; Falkenstein, 2010). Food poisonings increase the risk of legal action that could devastate franchisees and can have…… [Read More]
isk Management Plan for Exxon Mobil
A risk management process is a systematic application of management policies for the purpose of identifying, analyzing, evaluating and mitigating any possible risks within an organization. The following paper focuses on formulation of risk management plan for Exxon Mobil, one of the world's most renowned oil and gas companies. The risks would be identified and selected applicable to this firm and after their evaluation, a risk treatment plan would be advised.
Establish the isk Context
Identifying the Context for isk Assessment
eviewing current organizational processes
Being in the gas and power marketing department of the company, there are certain risks applicable within my area of operation. In order to clearly determine those risks, first, a comprehensive look at Exxon Mobil's organizational processes along with a SWOT analysis is presented. The firm is dedicated to create and maintain an environmental policy that would protect the…… [Read More]
How does a clinical trial contribute to risk analysis?
In the UK, clinical Trials Toolkit offers realistic advice to researchers in structuring and carrying out publicly funded trials via the utilization of an interactive route map. The Toolkit is majorly centered on CTIMPs (Clinical Trials of Investigational Medicinal Products) and the regulatory needs and environment related with these. However, &D and researchers working in other fields shall also get significant data and guidance of relevance to the broader trials settings. isk evaluation and mitigation entails application of statistical methods to choose significant factors having high research predicative values or sites which might be prone to noncompliance. It is claimed that prospectively arranged data-motivated and model-founded advances could assist optimize resources usage with maximal impact. Although the modeling exercise initiates objectivity in the hunt for significant risk factors, it should not by itself be seen as the only determinant…… [Read More]
isk, isk Management Strategies, and Benefits in Cloud Computing
SEVICE AND DEPLOYMENT MODELS
BENEFITS OF CLOUD COMPUTING
CLOUD COMPUTING ISKS
ISK Management STATEGIES
Centralized Information Governance
Other Organization-Level Measures
Individual-Level Security Measures
Cloud computing model
Cloud computing service and deployment models
ISO/IEC broad categories
The emergence of cloud computing has tremendously transformed the world of computing. Today, individuals, organizations, and government agencies can access computing resources provided by a vendor on an on-demand basis. This provides convenience, flexibility, and substantial cost savings. It also provides a more efficient way of planning disaster recovery and overcoming fluctuations in the demand for computing resources. In spite of the benefits it offers, cloud computing presents significant security concerns, which users must clearly understand and put strong measures in place to address them. Users are particularly…… [Read More]
These were being make, passiveness or unassertiveness, and a father who avoids conflict with a teenage child. Parental guidance on safer sexual practices, skillful assertion, negotiation and resolution of conflicts all help improve dating communication between teenagers. ut parents' strategies in solving everyday conflicts and issues with teenage children may be the true basis for the safe-sex negotiations in their dating. Parents who actively engage in open disagreement with their teenage children may induce confidence in their children to assert themselves and communicate their preference with a sexual partner regarding the use of condoms. These strategies are likely to develop from safe-sex communication with parents (Feingold).
Parental Processes and Style
The Kaiser Family Foundation surveys suggested that teenagers whose parents monitor their children's whereabouts and particular behaviors tend to have only one sexual partner or avoid unprotected sex (Howell, 2001). A combination of high-level communication and parental monitoring works well…… [Read More]
Risks of Climate Change
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
Climate Change Impacts on Engineering Infrastructure
Key Impacts on Water and Resources
Risk Management Analysis Coping Methods Possibility And Probability
Recommendations And Guidelines For The Vulnerability Of Climate
Change Impacts Using Risk Management Methods And Analysis
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
This work examines climate change in relation to impacts upon infrastructure, utilities, and water in relation to the affects from projected sea level rise, flooding, and other related impacts expected to result from climate change. This work also reviews models used for risk assessment and analysis and examines their usefulness and the associated limitations with these models. Knowledge and expertise is growing in the risk-assessment and analysis field of study and reliable models are being developed although the primary effective and appropriate use for the majority of these models…… [Read More]
isk-Taking Behavior and isk Management
isk Management Article eview
Dominic Cooper (2003) reviews the various factors that influence risk outcomes, with a focus on how personality can have a significant effect on risk-taking behavior. The first half of the article dives into the admittedly murky waters of the associations between personality types, group dynamics, and risk-taking behavior, while the second half discusses risk management and control strategies. Importantly, Cooper states explicitly that individual and group factors are hard to control or change. Despite this attitude, he puts considerable effort into describing the different personality types, their propensity for risk-taking behavior, and the likelihood of harm. In the final analysis, personality, task experience, promise of a reward, and group dynamics seem to have the greatest influence on risk-taking behavior. If the first half of the article were to have a summary, it would be that the sources of risk amenable to…… [Read More]
This was because they were seeing one of their primary competitors (Travelers) merging with Citicorp (which created a juggernaut of: insurance, banking and brokerage activities). At which point, executives at AIG felt that in order to: maintain their dominance in the industry and offer new products they should become involved in similar activities. The difference was that they would grow the company by expanding into areas that were considered to be speculative to include: commodities, stocks, options and credit default swaps. The way that this was accomplished is by purchasing a host of businesses that were involved in these activities. This is significant, because it meant that a shift would take place in: how managers were accounting for risks and the kinds of activities that they were becoming involved in. With the newly acquired companies; bringing over executives that did not practice the same kind of strategies for dealing with…… [Read More]
isks and Vulnerability Factors
The two counties I selected were Shelby County in Tennessee and Orleans County in Vermont. In 2011, Shelby County experienced $2,000,000,000 in property damage due to flooding on May 1, 2,470,000 in property damage due to severe storms and thunderstorms beginning on April 19, 150,000 due to flooding beginning on April 27, and $20,000 in property damage beginning April 26. During all of these disasters there were no injuries, fatalities, or crop damage.
In 2011, Orleans county incurred $500,000,000 in property damage from flooding beginning on August 28, $150,000 in property damage due to lightening beginning July 6, and $50,000 in property damage due to wind on August 28. There was also flooding on April 26 that accumulated $50,000 in property damage. Significantly, none of these hazards produced any injuries or fatalities. The only crop damage incurred was $250,000 attributed to flooding on August…… [Read More]
This can cloud your judgment, which as a trader or investor it is imperative to think with a clear head. When you are placing the hedge, it is set at a logical point that is determined without emotions. This increases the chances that you have reduced your risks by eliminating the emotionalism that accompanies the markets. (Carr, 2002)
Another reason why hedging is effective, is it allows you to protect your downside using as little working capital as possible. ecause hedging involves using options, means that the overall amounts of upfront costs are low. This means, that going into the hedge you know what your maximum down side will be (the premium). You can also reduce the amounts of risk by purchasing the options with expirations that are coming up, within the next 30 to 60 days. This is important, because the closer the option moves to the expiration date,…… [Read More]
isk Management in Family Owned Businesses
A family business can be simply described as "any business in which a majority of the ownership or control lies within a family, and in which two or more family members are directly involved" (Bowman-Upton, 1991). In other words, it is a multifaceted, twofold structure consisting of the family and the business meaning that the involved members are both the part of a job system and of a family system (Bowman-Upton, 1991).
Most families seek stability, intimacy, a sense of community, and belonging through the family business (Hess, 2006). On the other hand, whenever family and business are mentioned together, a majority of people think of continuous conflict, competition and contention (Crenshaw, 2005). However, "successful family businesses do not let the family destroy the business or the business destroy the family" (Hess, 2006).
The family-owned businesses are the backbone of the world financial system.…… [Read More]
Risks From International Business
What are some risks of international business that may not exist for local business?
There are many risks inherent in competing on a global or internal level compared to being a local business. As the chapter suggests, there is a much greater level of economic and socio-political pressure on governments to work together for the common good of the global economy. Despite these best intentions, global macroeconomic factors often cause nations to restrict or unnecessarily increase the cost of transactions and trade based on fear over the trading partner's economies. Such is the case for American companies attempting to gain sales within China, whose government holds nearly $1.1 trillion in U.S.-based debt. China and the United States are two of the more powerful economic forces in the global economy, and as their economies go, so goes the world. What this means for international businesses is that…… [Read More]
isk management is the greatest benefit offered by a strategic, forward-thinking approach to management. In an uncertain economic environment, companies must constantly 'hedge their bets' as to what is the superior choice between mutually exclusive alternatives. Strategic management promotes the efficient use of resources by forcing companies to constantly anticipate the future, plan ahead, and make the best economic choices possible, given the company's current framework of knowledge. No company can predict everything that may happen but the consistent data-gathering that is required in a strategic management approach and trend-monitoring allows the company to be more flexible and responsive.
As well as avoiding bad decisions, effective strategic management also means knowing when to take advantage of possible opportunities and invest in good decisions. isk management entails knowing when to take calculated risks, even if this means a major allocation of organizational resources, such as for a new form of technology…… [Read More]
Howeve, befoe giving the medicine, anesthesiologist caefully examines the condition of the pegnant woman to whom anesthesia is to be given. Epidual anesthesia duing labo and nomal delivey does not cause unconsciousness; thus, patients do not lose thei psychological aletness (Halpen and Douglas 2008).
Accoding to (Oebaugh 2011), epidual anesthesia is commonly administeed by injecting the medicine in the lumba egion of the back, specifically in the epidual egion. The detailed pocedue egading the administation of epidual anesthesia has aleady been discussed in the pevious section of the pape. Howeve, the anesthetic dug injected in the epidual space inteupts the passage of neve impulses that oiginate in epoductive ogans and tavel though neves to lowe spine and then to bain. This hindes the feeling of sensation/pain that is poduced in the lowe pats of the body.
The degee of insensitivity induced depends on few factos that include the…… [Read More]
isk and Insurance Management
isk is believed to be a newly coined word of assurance (for example, Ewald, 1991: 198). One of the broadly shared suppositions regarding insurance is that it spins around an instrumental concept of risk. Possibility and the amount of influence make up a technical concept of hazard/risk and hazard administration is chiefly worried about reviewing these possibilities and influences (for an overview see Gratt, 1987). For instance, external profits of financial or political occurrences lay down thresholds for the availability of associated risk guesstimates or reckonings (Huber, 2002).
So, the range of the risk groups cannot be clarified by risk judgment single-handedly; peripheral circumstances that could be political, financial or inclusive of image, arts and manners, are also required to be taken into account. Therefore, if risks are not be present, per se, but are deliberately selected, we can go a step ahead and presume them…… [Read More]
To rebuild their image, the company would try a number of different strategies, none of which would prove to be successful. This would hurt the market share of Gap to the point that many analysts now believe that it may be advantageous to spin off the company's: Old Navy, anana Republic and Gap stores. What this shows, is how a company can begin to lose its way when it is not focused on adjusting to changes in consumer tastes and trends. In the case of Ann Taylor, they need to be aware of this hazard, as it can have an adverse impact on the long-term viability of their business. (Reingold)
A second challenge that Ann Taylor can be wrestling with is a lack of focus on the part of management. In this case, managers must understand the role that their decisions will have on their organization. Where, executives must clearly…… [Read More]
Risk workshops allow for a strong modeling process of any project management problem. Risk workshops, when conducted effectively produce a prioritized list of risks that has an assigned action and stakeholders attached to that risk. As a project manager all risks rely on the details of the project. I would always expect to be briefed on any changes in budget, deadline or change in objective. Identifying risks that address these issues is important in assessing the value of risk workshops.
Prioritization of key principles and objectives is imperative in the project management way of business. Understanding the difference between a threat and a priority is essential for success. High-priority opportunities should always be addressed first since they compose the main objectives and goals for that project. Threats are important but should not cause the project to come off the tracks.
When disaster strikes in the middle of a…… [Read More]
Most developed economies, however, allow the market to set exchange rates, only influencing currency values through indirect means such as the increased or reduced sale of bonds to foreign entities and individuals, or through other means of international wealth exchange. Essentially, all manipulations of exchange rates and actions based on predictions of exchange rates are focused on the forward exchange rate, or the predicted rate of exchange between two currencies at a future point in time.
The spot exchange rate, on the other hand, is the rate of exchange at the current moment in time. It is through a comparison of the spot rate and the forward rate of exchange -- inasmuch as it can be predicted with any accuracy -- that companies and businesses make decisions that affect either the exchange rate itself (in the case of some governments, notably China in the modern period), or more often make…… [Read More]
ISK Management - CAPM and APT
Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory
The contemporaneous business community is extremely competitive, meaning as such that the organizational leaders strive harder than ever to overcome the competitive forces. Virtually, they have to hire and retain the best skilled staff members; they have to develop and offer the best quality products and services and they must be able to raise the interest of a vast and large customer base. All these constitute competitive advantages.
Yet, another element which has to be granted the adequate attention is that of the management of assets. The specialized literature offers a multitude of definitions of the concept of asset, yet the underlying idea is basically the same. Stickey, Weil and Schipper (2009) for instance argue that an asset is "a probable future economic benefit that a firm controls because of a past event or transaction" (p.108).…… [Read More]
Often an entire structural reassessment may be need to reach optimal temperature control for the workplace, To improve temperature control, insulation may be required to keep hot and cold air in and keep the outside temperature and humidity from affecting the workers inside. Air-conditioning is the solution of most workplaces to long, hot summers, but having windows that open can cut down on air-conditioning costs and enable workers to still work even when the temperature control system has been shut down. Having blinds to shield the light from hot windows, minimizing exposure to direct sunlight in general and providing ample water and cooling beverages can also help. If no internal cooling systems are available, allowing employees to take breaks or even to work different shifts (such as avoiding the hotter times of the day) can be valuable (Thermal comfort for office work, 2014, CCOHS). This may be necessary in outdoor…… [Read More]
isk Analysis and the Security Survey
The following risk analysis and security survey report will be centered on the hospital as an organization. Vulnerabilities can be classified as crime opportunities, opportunities for breaking rules and regulations, opportunities for profiting and also for loss. By definition, vulnerability can be a gap or a weakness inside a security program that might be exploited by opponents to acquire unlawful access. Vulnerabilities include procedural, human, structural, electronic as well as other elements that offer opportunities to damage assets (Vellani and Owles, 2007).
A vulnerability assessment can be classified as a systematic method utilized to evaluate an organization's security position, assess the efficiency of current security infrastructure, as well as, recognize security limitations. The basic approach of a Vulnerability Assessment (VA) first measures what precise assets require protection. Subsequently, VA recognizes the protection measures previously being used to protect those assets, as well as what…… [Read More]
isk Management of Terrorism in the UK
The issue of designing a risk management strategy for terrorism in the UK is dependent upon understanding and identifying the commensurate risks attendant with the various extremists groups that are perceived as threats to the UK's safety and infrastructural stability. Challenges include adopting an intelligence and surveillance system, educating the public regarding attendant trouble spots (such as retaliatory violence and discrimination as well as purpose of surveillance) and adopting a position in the global network that facilitates the overall mitigation of threats. The benefits are evident in control and prevention results and good practice recommendations are provided in the conclusion. This study gives a contextual assessment of the risks facing the UK, analyzes the components of risk management that can be utilized to alleviate these risks, defines the term "terror," examines the historical challenges that coincide with these components, and discusses the benefits…… [Read More]
. Research Design Rationale
1. Question format: In order to allow the research study to become embedded in the field of economics, the research question will use an applied question format. The purpose of the study is to develop a predictive method regarding player choices in the Prisoner's dilemma. It will explore the association of risk and cooperation or defection in the Prisoner's
2. Research design: The research will use a deductive approach where the theory will be presented and tested through the methodology. The research will use quantitative research methods, which are suited for research where the information can be reduced to a numerical format. This is the case in the proposed study as both risk tolerance and the decisions made in the Prisoner's Dilemma can be reduced to numerical data and standard statistical methods applied.
III. Data/Information from Previous research
A. Literature Review
The literature review for…… [Read More]
Similarly, the staff who conducted the interviews were neither psychologists nor psychiatrists, again leaving room for error. ithin the scope of the study's goals, however, the researchers controlled for the majority of the potential drawbacks.
This study provides educators with a rough series of guidelines for evaluating at-risk students. It can be used to create a checklist of behaviors and circumstance that can point to children which are at higher risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems, and give some objective measures which can be applied to any student, with less risk of personal bias on the part of the educator. However, there is also a possibility of using these findings to pigeonhole students that these findings may indicate are at risk, even if those students have other influencing factors that mediate their risks. Students that display the behaviors noted are not guaranteed to develop disorders, but the guidelines are…… [Read More]
Determine which institutional and risk factors must be considered and whether they support entry or not.
The company needs to evaluate critically the risks and institutional factors before deciding on entering the foreign market. The institutional and risk factors must be relevant to the ambitions and expectations of the company. Institutional factors constitute three principal aspects. The first aspect of institutional factors is the political institutions for instance the nature of policymaking, regulations, and adjudications in the foreign market. The company intending to enter the foreign market must ensure that the political institutions support its mission and vision in the process of exploiting the scarce resources within the economy (Baek, 2011). The second institutional factor is the economic situation of the foreign country. Economic nature of the nation would be in the form of structure of the national factor markets and accessibility of the international factors of production.…… [Read More]
Project isk Management
isks associated with projects successful completion
A project is an undertaking of human beings towards satisfying world needs. Projects are endeavors with a defined beginning and an end. Projects suffer from scope, time, cost and quality constraints. It is necessary for project managers to manage the risk of developing weak scope. Scope of a project incorporates the objectives of a project, the target population, the output and impact of that endeavor. Therefore, managers of project need to do a problem analysis, stakeholder analysis, environment analysis to know if the project is sustainable (Cleland & King, 1988). On the risk of time, managers need skills on time management. Management of projects requires one to be well versed in developing schedules. Time management involves developing systems that has a specific time of completion and start time.
Scheduling of projects includes hiring of individuals for the accomplishment of projects. There…… [Read More]
Credit isk Management
Banks are an important part of the economy of any nation. Traditionally, the banks operate as financial intermediaries serving to satisfy the demand of people in need of various forms of financing. Through this, banks enable people to purchase home and businesses to expand. These financial institutions therefore facilitate investment and spending that are responsible for fueling the growth of the economy. In spite of their vital role in the economy, they are nevertheless prone to failure and just like other types of businesses, they also go bankrupt. Unfortunately, the failure of banks can have many and significant implications than any other type of business. As witnessed during the great depression, and in recent times following the global economic crisis and recession, the stability or lack of it in the banking system could trigger economic epidemics that would impact millions of people. With respect to this, it…… [Read More]
The project manager should at all times be present to monitor and ensure that it's the correct mixing of materials being done, it's the right quality of material being used, and it's the right amount of time being given to the treatment process in the different construction phases. In the event that this is not observed, and the building is erected, there's a high probability that the building will deteriorate at an early stage before its lifespan or even collapse as witnessed almost daily Zwikael and Ahn, 2011()
As a construction is ongoing, a major contribution to its success is the relationship between the different stakeholders. This includes the architect, the engineer, the owner, the contactor and the workers. In order to smoothly run the project and limit malice and incorporation, there should be a union and set goals and objectives between all these parties so as to ensure everyone…… [Read More]
For instance, according to Begley, "Men who were promiscuous back then were more evolutionarily fit since men who spread their seed widely left more descendants. By similar logic, evolutionary psychologists argued, women who were monogamous were fitter; by being choosy about their mates and picking only those with good genes, they could have healthier children" (2009, p. 52). Although modern men and women may not look like Cro-Magnums, they all want to act like them deep down inside because of these primordial drives. In sum, Begley concludes that, "We all carry genes that led to reproductive success in the Stone Age, and that as a result men are genetically driven to be promiscuous and women to be coy, that men have a biological disposition to rape and to kill mates who cheat on them, and that every human behavior is 'adaptive' -- that is, helpful to reproduction" (emphasis added) (p.…… [Read More]
High isk Family Type: Healthy People 2010
Homelessness: Health isks and Prevention
For the purpose of national census statistics and for clarification of this discussion, a homeless person is defined as one living on the street, in deserted apartment buildings or one who spends nights at a homeless shelter. Due to the difficulty of counting the homeless, statistics in recent years have been variable. According to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, there were 643,067 sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons nationwide as of January 2008. (Preston, 2008). Another approximation stems from a study conducted by the National Law Center on Homelessness and Poverty, which estimates that 3.5 million people, 1.35 million of them children, are likely to experience homelessness in a given year. (2007). These numbers are likely underrepresentative because they rely heavily on data from homeless shelters, which do not account for people living in deserted apartments…… [Read More]
Offender Risk Assessment
The assessment of an offender's risk to re-offend is one of the most important tasks faced by those who work in a correctional environment. On a daily basis, prison staff, probation and parole officers, and parole board members are asked to make decisions that impact the safety of the public, institutional security, and the offender's liberty. These decisions require reliable and accurate assessments of the offender's risk to commit another crime, which leads us to the need for formal guidelines in the context of risk assessment models in order to promote this concept.
James Bonta (August 2002) tells readers that there is a long-standing debate between clinical and actuarial approached to risk assessment. The clinical model of risk assessment leaves the assessment of the offender to the subjective judgment of correctional staff, such as parole officers and prison guards, and clinical professionals, including psychologist, psychiatrists, and social…… [Read More]