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The film Women of Tibet endeavors to give light on the probable happenings when in case two forces, the divine feminine and the sacred masculine commences to work together in a bid to create a more peaceful world.
Helga Huebach ('Ladies of the Tibetan Empire') argues that males in the 7-9th century used high profiled women as a means of establishing their political stability by their matrimonial alliances.Before 1959 and in the contemporary Tibet, most of the oracles were undoubtedly women. The research conducted by Hildergad Diemberge, (Female oracles in the modern Tibet) critically illustrates how political manipulation has given rise to the coming up of traditions to a great extent that contemporary oracles have influence as not only healers but political advisors. This however depends on the degree to which they are acknowledged by the community. (Ellen Bangsbo, Copenhagen) from tradition, Tibetan women enjoyed much moresocial status than other…
Amnesty International (1995) "People's Republic of China: Persistent Human Rights Violations in Tibet," May 1995, London, p.11
Barnet, R (n.d) Women and Politics in Contemporary Tibet
Information Office of the Tibetan Regional People's Autonomous Government, "Report on the Situation of Women in Tibet Today," March 1995, p.171
Gyatso, J and Havnevik, H (2005) eds. Women in Tibet. New York: Columbia UniversityPress, 2005. 436pp. Illustrated. ISBN 0231130996 (paperback).
Note again that Gandhi, O'Connor and Thatcher all represented pre-aby oom women who had worked their way to the top after decades.
The period of the 1990's represents a greater participation of women in the workforce, including senior management positions. It also represents a significant increase in women's participation in politics. The questions of work-life balance continue with women; note that Nancy Pelosi managed a full-time career and raised five children at the same time.
The 1990's represents a time when African-American women rejoined the workforce and left the welfare rolls in significant numbers. From the time of the 1996 Welfare Reform Act to 2001, half of African-American women joined the workforce full-time. Although births out of wedlock continued at high levels, recent years have seen a reversal of this trend.
In conclusion, women's roles in the United States have changed more in the past 60 years than ever before.…
Friedan, B. The Feminine Mystique. New York W.W. Norton, 1963.
Garfinkel, I., and McLanahan, S.S. "Single Mothers and Their Children: A New American Dilemma." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 1988: 388-394.
Goldin, C. "The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment." The American Economic Review, 1991: 741-756.
Harvey, S. Rosie the Riveter: Real Women Workers in World War II. Women's History, Washington: Library of Congress, 2006.
role effect women World War One.
Women during the First World War
This paper discuses in regard to women who were required to abandon their traditional role as housekeepers during the First World War. These individuals were virtually forced to employ all of their efforts in order to provide for their families, for soldiers on the front, and for their countries as a whole. Even with this, it is only safe to assume that the conflict also assisted them in being recognized on a social level.
In addition to the effect that it had on a series of countries and on society as a whole, the First World War also played an important role for women all across the planet. The conflict provided women with many opportunities, considering that they basically had access to areas that they could not interact with before. Most men had to leave their jobs with…
Zeinert, Karen, "Those Extraordinary Women of World War I ," (Twenty-First Century Books, 2001 )
"Women in World War
One," Retrieved April 29, 2012, from the Sachem Online Website: http://www.sachem.edu/schools/seneca/socialstudies/guttman/per5/roleofwomen/link1.htm
Thryth is however easily rehabilitated by marriage, as she is to some degree functional within her society. Grendel's mother is not, and the only remedy for her type of complete evil is death. As her son, she is an outcast, and deserving of a death as such. Her evil has no place in a society that sees itself as predominantly good.
In Oedipus, the fulfillment of fate is the ultimate undesirable element, and can be compared to the idea of 'evil' in Beowulf. There is however no apparent duality that differentiates the women of the play, except in terms of maturity and in terms of their role as compared to that of men. Interestingly, a woman, Jocasta, is the cause of the undesirable event. She attempts to break the curse by what she believes is the murder of her son. Eventually however she is driven to suicide by her failure.…
Role of omen Beowulf
Breaking the Dichotomy between Male and Female: The Role of omen in Beowulf
In her 1995 book article "The omen of Beowulf: A Context for Interpretation," Gillian R. Overing writes that "[t]he women in Beowulf, whether illegitimate monsters or pedigreed peaceweaving queens, are all marginal, excluded figures . . ." (Overing 1995). However, Dorothy Carr Porter writes that "Read within the context of the society presented in the text, it is clear that the women are central and important to the poem as a whole." She argues that when read carefully, Beowulf presents the female characters as women central both to the story itself and within the society presented in the poem, and far from "marginal, excluded figures," as Overing puts it (Carr Porter 2001).
Only eleven women are referred to in Beowulf, but their roles are crucial in depicting the social structure upon which this…
Carr Porter, Dorothy. "The Social Centrality of Women in Beowulf." The Heroic Age
Issue 5, Summer/Autumn 2001.
Chance, Jane . "The Structural Unity of Beowulf: The Problem of Grendel's Mother." pp. 248-261 in New Readings on Women in Old English Literature Helen Damico and Alexandra Hennessey Olsen, eds. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1990.
Jamison, Carol Parris. "Traffic of Women in Germanic Literature: The Role of the Peace Pledge in Marital Exchanges." Women in German Yearbook, Vol. 20, pp. 13-36, 2004.
There are no interventions for women who face abuse or assault. Also, since the beginning of the conflict, there has been a dearth of women's input and participation in public life (Security Council).
In Somali, war and civil conflict have resulted in a shrinking of opportunities for women in public life. omen are further burdened with threats of violence and difficulties with meeting their household and care-giving duties. The inadequate and conflicting protections offered by the various Somali legal systems further places women at risk.
omen's role in peace-building
Given the strictures women face in both traditional and post-conflict Somali society, it is difficult to imagine how women could play an important role in peace-building and peace-keeping. However, this is precisely what Somali women and grassroots organizations have done. For example, a coalition of women's groups successfully lobbied for official participation in the March 1998 Conference on National Reconciliation that…
Flanders, Laura. "Somalia turns corner." Working for Change. 21 November 2001
August 2006 http://www.workingforchange.com/article.cfm?ItemID=12386 .
Garner, Judith. Somalia - The Untold Story: The War Through the Eyes of Somali Women. New York: Pluto Press, 2004.
Jan, Ameen. "Somalia: Building Sovereignty or Restoring Peace?" Elizabeth Cousens, ed. Peacebuilding as Politics: Cultivating Peace in Fragile Societies. New York: International Peace Academy, 2001.
omen in orld ar II England
In the history of the western world, women have often been placed in positions of subservience and submission to men. For many women in England, their ultimate goal in life was to marry well and to become mothers, carrying on the paternal name and the bloodline. omen who were not born advantageously were destined to lives of servitude coupled with this same marginalization. hatever the social class of the woman she was always lesser than her male counterpart. The only time that these societal impositions of women's roles were challenged was during a time of war. Particularly in the period of the Second orld ar, women were called to take up the positions that were vacated by their men. During that era, an estimated five million women of England fulfilled some role in assisting with the British war effort either at home or abroad.…
Works Cited:Campbell, D'ann. "Women in Combat: The World War Two Experience in the United States, Great Britain, Germany, and the Soviet Union." Journal of Military History. 57. 1993. 301-323. Print.Hastings, Max. "Women Were Brutalized by World War II but for Millions it Meant Social and Sexual Freedom beyond Their Wildest Dreams." The Daily Mail. 13 Sept. 2011. Print. Paxton, Robert O. Europe in the Twentieth Century. Boston, MA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.Smith, Julia Llewellyn. "Land Girls: Disquiet on the Home Front." The Telegraph. 27 Feb. 2010. Print. "Women in World War Two." History Learning Site. 2011. Web. Dec. 2011. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/women_WW2.htm "WW2: The Role of Women in the Second World War." The Telegraph. 2009. Print. ]
When women were also put into positions where they were fighting and dying for their countries. If the dangers were the same despite gender differentiation, then it only made sense that these same women should have the same chances and societal position as these men.
At the end of the war, women who had taken positions of employment outside the home were at a crossroads. Most were forced to retreat back into the homes and to give up any personal ambition in order to be the wife and mother. For other women, they were not willing to give up the personal freedoms they had earned during the war and fought tooth and nail to retain it. These women were often abused by the society psychologically and sometimes physically in attempts to influence the women to return to the status quo.
omen in History
Although women have largely suffered from political and economic subordination throughout most of the course of human history, women's roles changed somewhat throughout the bulk of the past millennium. Female roles, occupations, and social status vary from culture to culture and place to place. In general, however, women's roles in society have reflected their inferior political and economic status. Even when women work alongside their male counterparts, the majority of women in any given society have been deprived of the same economic, social, and political rights of men. In almost all cases and regardless of their social rank, women's roles center on their relationships with men and their being mothers.
In the middle ages, women were not expected to remain idle while raising their children. Rather, women worked hard in the fields, as agriculture was an integral part of the majority of European communities at the time.…
Halsall, Paul (2001). Internet Women's History Sourcebook. Online at .
Radek, Kimberly (2004). "Women from the Renaissance to Enlightenment." Online at .
'Western Europe and the Age of Cathedrals." (2001). The Encyclopedia of World History. Online at .
'Women's History: What You Need to Know." About.com. Online at .
Women's lives changed severely during the Second World War, as they found their roles and opportunities expanded. Husbands went to war or moved in other parts of the country to work in factories and the wives had to take their husbands' responsibilities. Women filled a series of jobs traditionally occupied by men because there were fewer men available in workforces.
Women everywhere had won the right to vote by the 1960s, with the only exceptions being Switzerland and several Islamic states. This is particularly worrying, when considering that Switzerland was a developed country at the time. However, it is explainable through the fact that the country was neutral during the war, and, thus, the men there were involved in most fights that the rest of urope was involved in. However, these changes did not have immediate significant repercussions on women's situation, not even in the countries where voting had political…
Evans, Amanda. "Empowerment of American Minorities in the Wake of WWII," Retrieved May 2, 2011, from the Youbetiam Website: http://www.youbetiam.com/index_files/Page4195.htm
Hobsbawm, Eric J. Age of extremes: the short twentieth century, 1914-1991, (Michael Joseph, 1994).
Taylor Allen, Ann, Women in twentieth-century Europe, Palgrave (Macmillan, 2008).
omen in Meiji and Taisho Eras
Both the Meiji and the Taisho periods in Japan saw women making some progress toward a more equal place in Japanese society and polity as the country as a whole struggled to create an identity for itself that was both modern and Japanese, a difficult task in a nation (and in an era) in which becoming modernized was seen as equivalent of so many as being equivalent to becoming esternized. As Gordon, in his 2003 A Modern History of Japan, and Sievers in her 1987 Flowers in Salt argue, these two periods saw greater freedom for Japanese women who began to take a more public role in both the family and the political life of the country. But the gains for women - as for men - were unequal, as both class and region (as well as individual talent an initiative) affected the ability…
Gordon, Andrew. The Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2003.
Sievers, Sharon. Flowers in Salt: The Beginnings of Feminist Consciousness in Modern Japan. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1987.
ole of Women in Texas History
Prior to the Civil ights Movement and the legalization of the 19th Amendment during the 1950s-1960s, the women sector have been an active proponent for the liberalization and equality of their rights with that of male citizens in the country. Texas is an example of an American state wherein its women minority had illustrated an active movement for women's rights and liberalization from a highly patriarchal American (and Texan) society. Before the advent of the 20th century, Texan women are already mobilizing and 'invading' the legislative bodies of the government to implement and enforce policies that promotes equal opportunity for women and men in the social, political, and economic aspects of living, promoted the goodwill of the society through bills and policies approved that monitor the welfare of the youth, and prevent violence and juvenile delinquency from happening/occurring. These important policies were formed and…
McArthur, Judith. "WOMEN AND POLITICS." The Handbook of Texas Online. http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/view/WW/pwwzj.html[Accessed Mon Dec 9-23:36:47 U.S./Central 2002].
ole of Women in Law Enforcement Agencies
Seminar type mini paper
Gender discrimination has long been a topic of controversial debate. While much has been done about it in the U.S.A. And Britain, where many laws and regulations have been passed in order to encourage the participation of women in all fields irrespective of their being a female, there still are differences.
These differences exist most specifically in areas that have traditionally been considered the domain of men. Law enforcement is one such field, where physical strength is considered a prerogative, which is the biological forte of men. One piece of work, which looks at the role of women in law enforcement agencies, is the book called: "Women in Control? The ole of Women in Law Enforcement," by Frances Heidensohn. (Heidensohn, 1995)
This book starts of on an interesting note by drawing the readers' attention to the portrayal of…
Felperin, J. (2004, May 18). Women in Law Enforcement: Two steps forward, three steps back. Retrieved from PoliceOne.com: http://www.policeone.com/police-recruiting/articles/87017-Women-in-Law-Enforcement-Two-steps-forward-three-steps-back/
Heidensohn, F. (1995). Women in Control? The Role of Women in Law Enforcement. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Lonsway, D.K., Moore, M., Harrington, P., Smeal, E., & Spillar, K. (2003). Hiring & Retaining More Women: The Advantages to Law Enforcement Agencies. Beverly Hills: National Center for Women & Policing a division of the Feminist Majority Foundation .
Schulz, D.M. (2004). Breaking the Brass Ceiling: Women Police Chiefs and Their Paths to the Top . Westport, CT: Praeger.
THE CHANGING OLE OF WOMEN
Course Number & Section
Despite sharing a closer percentage of population with men in the world, women are often labeled to be the minority and the marginalized group. This is mainly because of their traditional role of being inferior and submissive especially in the usual patriarchy environment. Although the role of women has changed and improved over the years, they are still considered to be a deprived sector of the society.
While analyzing the role of women, history shows that it was not until the nineteenth century, that the role of women underwent an era of transformation. Before that, women despite their marital status were solely restricted to the household chores. This included child rearing, cooking, cultivation and preparation of food. However, teaching and the domestic service were the only jobs which were open for them. The period of industrialization was the time…
Chakrapani C. 1994. Changing status and role of women in Indian society. M.D. Publications. Retrieved 8th December, 2011 ( http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=UuYHDRCdKQkC&dq=changed+role+of+women&source=gbs_navlinks_s ).
EOWA statistics. 2011. Labor Market Statistics. Australia.
Freedman J. 2001. Feminism. Buckingham. Philadelphia. Open University Press.
Jones, Karen H. 2006. "Career Aspirations of Women in the 20th Century." Journal of Career and Technical Education 22 (2). Retrieved 7th December, 2011 ( http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JCTE/v22n2/pdf/domenico.pdf ).
ole of Women in the Church
One important thing to remember about the role of women today and in the past is that it is a dynamic relationship of various roles related to men, children, the household, and the general society of the time in question. This also relates to spirituality, Christianity, and the Bible. The Apostle Paul is notorious for his distinctions among the roles of women and men in the church. Many of today's churches, however, interpret these distinctions as manifestations of the society within which Paul lived and worked rather than as timeless, constant commandments from the mouth of God himself. Hence, for a female friend who is interested in going into the ministry, I would suggest that she first investigates the philosophies of the specific church she is interested in serving in this way. If the church itself places no limitations upon her role as potential…
Simpson, S. (2003). The Role of Women in The Church. Retrieved from: http://www.deceptioninthechurch.com/womensrole.html
Valley Bible Church. (n.d.) Women's Roles in the Church. Retrieved from: http://www.valleybible.net/PositionPapers/WomensRoles.pdf
Role of Women in Israel's Military
Israel is the only country in the world to have compulsory military service for women. Many often view this required service as a progressive system that places women on an equal footing with men. However, a closer examination reveals that Israel is just as terrified as every other nation regarding the participation of women in military combat. In fact, Israel's requirement for mandatory participation in a service that discriminates against women, may be just as draconian, if not more so, than discriminating against voluntary participants. This paper explores what function women really play in the Israeli military and how and why their limited role is slowly changing for the better.
The Defense Service Law of 1959 requires all citizens and permanent residents of the State of Israel to perform military service. This includes all women between the ages of 18 and 26, who are…
Adler, Hillel. "Integrating Women into the Combat Force." Military Review. March-April, 2003. findarticles. 24 Nov. 2004.
"Israeli Women Won't See Combat." WorldNetDaily 20 Oct. 2003. WorldNetDaily. 24 Nov. 2004. .
'Issues Tearing Our Nation's Fabric." The Center for Reclaiming America. 1997. Leadership U. 24 Nov. 2004. .
Knight, Robert H., "Women in Combat: Why Rush to Judgment?." Heritage Foundation Backgrounder #836 14 Jun 1991. Heritage Foundation. 24 Nov. 2004. .
That is, that men are generally and should generally be in the forefront of social organizations or anything that the society will look up to. This was suggested in an online article, indicating that The provocation for raising the question of the ordination of women has been largely a social one. When women participating in the antislavery movement in the nineteen century discovered that while their leadership and oratory were often eagerly sought out, they were not allowed to use a pulpit or church platform as a place from which to speak, their consciousness as well as their level of indignation were raised. As feminism gained momentum at the end of the nineteen and the beginning of the twentieth century, some religious groups saw the incongruity and permitted women o head churches as ordained ministers.
Aside from this issue, there has been other response though why the role of women…
Women and Religion. http://www.sociumas.lt/Eng/Nr5/motreligija2.asp
Furseth, Inger. Sociology of Religion. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0SOR/is_1_62/ai_73692411
Furseth, Inger. Sociology of Religion.
The foods they could obtain were imported and prices of the products shot up because of the War. The government had to resort to food rationing and distributed coupons. As the War proceeded, meat, fats and milk became scarce. Soon, there were 10 rationing programs. The shortages made preparing a meal a difficult task. Homemakers had to innovate or improvise on sugar substitutes, such as molasses, maple syrup, honey, corn syrup, sweetened condensed milk and soda pop. Leftovers were used as stuffing for peppers for another day. Victory Gardens were grown to respond to the need of the time in every family. The produce of the Gardens supplied the family needs at home and sent to feed America's European allies.
The times tested the spirit. ut those women coped with hardship with courage until it did not seem like hardship. They recalled having babies and got extra ration coupons. Surprisingly,…
Farney, Teresa H. Allies in the Kitchen. Colorado: The Colorado Springs Gazette, April
IEEE. Women in Computers. Institute of Electricians, Electronics Engineers, Inc., 2008
Krylova, Anna. Sharp-Shooting Women: Best Soviet Snipers. USA Today: Society for the Advancement of Education, December 2006
McCammack, Jason R. Women Make WAVE in World War II. All Hands: U.S. Navy,
She suggests the contest of the bow and the axes, which allows Odysseus to reveal himself and put the fear of Zeus into the suitors. Odysseus gets the credit for his great feat of arms, but it is Penelope's idea. Homer is showing that though man is superior to woman, this one exceptional woman deserves to be highly valued.
Helen serves, like Klytaimnestra, as contrast to the virtuous Penelope. Although happy in her marriage to Menelaus, Helen, under Aphrodite's spell, lets Paris carry her to Troy, causing the Trojan war as Menelaus fights to get her back. Homer's picture of Helen is not of a sluttish adulteress, but of a beautiful loving wife. Helen offers Telemakhos a gift, when he visits after her restoration to Menelaus. Her words are the model of Greek womanhood, and traditional family values, yet the reader remembers the scandalous past of the most beautiful woman…
role of women in Oedipus the King with the role of women in any other ancient Greek writings we have read this term. e sure to do more than just observe the differences or similarities. I want to see a point argued here.
The role of women in "Oedipus the King" compared to the role of women in "The Odyssey"
Women have had a series of roles in Greek legends, with some of them focusing on their inferiority in regard to men and on their hopelessness in trying to handle difficult situations by themselves whereas others picture women as individuals who are not willing to give up without putting up a serious fight. The character of Jocasta in Sophocles' "Oedipus the King" appears to be strong and dominant at first but gradually loses control as the play's action advances. In contrast, most of the female characters in Homer's "Odyssey" put…
Homer, "The Odyssey"
Sophocles, "Oedipus the King"
role of women in foraging societies.
The role of women in foraging and horticultural-based societies
Women are equally respected for their foraging capacities, although their tasks may differ. Typically, men hunt and women gather, although sometimes these roles are sometimes and, to some extent, reversed with women hunting the small animal and men bringing the gathered food. To help each other with their specific tasks, women may inform men about animals that they have encountered, whilst males may inform females about ripe or abundant plant food.
There are cultures where women do hunt, but even though they may be more successful at the hunting than males, such as in the Agta rain forest, the women here confine themselves to small game bounty rather than to the large game which they leave to men. With the batek society, hunting for females, is voluntary although generally discouraged since males insist that their…
" (National Women's History Museum, 2007) Included in these reforms was the expansion of the federal government in the areas of education, health, wages, working conditions, sanitation, and social welfare. Some of the key individuals involved in the reform movement included Eleanor Roosevelt, an avid supporter of civil rights for African-Americans; Rose Schneiderman, of the WTUL; Frances Perkins, head of the New York Consumer's League; Mary McLeod ethune, a civil and women's right activist; and Sue Shelton White, a suffragist. The women reformers played a key role in both the proposal and implementation of the New Deal legislation of Roosevelt, which was comprised greatly of many of these reforms that the women reformers had developed. It is the belief of many historians that "women reformers formed a bridge between the Progressive Era and The New Deal." (National Women's History Museum, 2007)
The role of women witnessed a great transition…
Lindenmeyer, Kriste (2003) The Progressive Era - University of Maryland, U.S. History 2003 Online available at http://www.uwgb.edu/teachingushistory/images/pdfs/2003_lectures/lindemeyer_essay.pdf
Legacy of Women in the Progressive Era (2007) National Women's History Museum. 2007. Online available at http://www.nwhm.org/ProgressiveEra/legacy.html
Ranney, Joseph A. (nd) Law and Progressive Era, Part 3: Reforming the Workplace. Wisconsin Lawyer. Online available at http://www.wisbar.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home&CONTENTID=35854&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm
Women's oles Then And Now:
Societies have continued to change in every century because of influences of cultures in that time period. As these societies grow and develop, the role of various people in the family structure and unit also changes. The changes in the role of women in the society are mainly influenced by societal perception regarding women. As a result, there are significant differences in the role of women in the 19th Century and the roles of women in the 18th Century. One of the main reasons for these differences is that the modern society has is so fast-paced because of increased technological advancements unlike the 18th Century society. An understanding of the changing role of women in the 18th and 19th centuries can be seen from the conversation between two notable women i.e. Maria Elisabeth of Austria and Queen Victoria of Great Britain.
Biographic Information for Each…
Radek, M. (2008, April 21). Women in the Nineteenth Century. Retrieved from Illinois Valley
Community College website: http://www2.ivcc.edu/gen2002/women_in_the_nineteenth_century.htm
Sebellin, T., Woods, K. & Grove, A. (2006, February 20). Queen Victoria. Retrieved from King's College website: http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/victoria.html
"The Role of the Woman: 18th, 19th, and 20th Centuries." (1997, April 17). My English ISP.
She is the engine which drives the family.
Her attitude influences the one of the others. eing aware of this she succeeds to control the manifestation of her emotions. Another proof of her wisdom is the fact that she does not want to impose herself in all the circumstances. She lets Pa manifest himself, although she makes it clear for everybody that she has a strong authority as well. She is aware of her own condition.
Another woman whom Steinbeck uses in order to communicate the new dynamics of the men-women relationships is Rose of Sharon. One of the most famous scenes in the book is the one in which she feeds the man, helping him to survive. Her role is fundamental. She is the strong one, the provider. The man on the other hand is weak and dependent. The symbolism is very strong. "The fact that Rose gave birth…
Baillargeon, D. (translator Klein, Y.) "Making do: women, family and home in Montreal during the Great Depression." Google Books. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=-x65yYBTDTIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=women+great+depression&hl=it&cd=2#v=onepage&q&f=false
"Gender roles and sexual relations, impact of the great depression." http://www.novelguide.com/a/discover/egd_01/egd_01_00217.html
"Power of Women in the Grapes of Wrath." ***.com. 01 May 2010
Either as mothers, sisters, wives, daughters, mistresses, lovers or supernatural creatures, women populate the world of the Odyssey and bring thus an important source of information when it comes to finding parallels between their representations in real life as drawn from the representations they get in the Homeric epic.
Based on the same starting point as the Odyssey, another ancient author, the Roman irgil wrote the epic Aeneid. He lived in the most flourishing times of the Roman empire, in the first century BC, almost seven centuries after the Odyssey and the Iliad had probably been written. The heroes in irgil's epic are still men, but the women gain a new role: that of sounders and rulers. Analyzing the whole range of epics and poems written by ancient Greek and Latin writers, A.M. Keith points out that "classical Greek and Latin epic poetry was composed by men, consumed largely by…
Virgil. Aeneid. Trans. Stanley Lombardo. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2005.
Avery, Dorothy. Women in the Iliad. Copyright: D. Avery 2004. Retrieved: May 7, 2009. Available at: http://www.latrobe.edu.au/arts/tradition/tradavery1.html
Keith, A.M. Engendering Rome: Women in Latin Epic. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
omen's Roles in Early America (1700-1780)
hat were the roles of women in the early American period from roughly 1700-1780? Although a great portion of the history of families and people in early America during this period is about men and their roles, there are valid reports of women's activities in the literature, and this paper points out several roles that women played in that era.
The Roles of omen in Early America -- 1700 -- 1780
In the "Turns of the Centuries Exhibit" (TCE) relative to family life in the period 1680 to 1720, the author notes that colonial societies were organized around "…patriarchal, Biblically-ordained lines of authority." Males basically asserted the authority over their wives, their children, their servants and any other dependents that may have been in the household. One reason for the male dominance in this era was do to the fact that "…law did not…
Breneman, Judy Anne. (2002). The Not So Good Lives of New England's Goodwives. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from http://www.historyofquilts.com/earlylife.html.
Cody, Cheryll Ann. (2003). In the Affairs of the World: Women, Patriarchy, and Power in Colonial South Carolina. Journal of Southern History, 69(4), p. 873.
Letters of Abigail Adams. (2002). Letters Between Abigail Adams and her Husband, John
Adams. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from http://www.thelizlibrary.org/suffrage/abigail.htm .
Role of omen in Le Grand Voyage
There is distinct disconnection between women of the traditional Muslim variation and that of the foreign or modern, present-day female. Throughout Ismael Ferroukhi's film Le Grand Voyage (2004), numerous women are portrayed in a few different ways: that of the old, respectable matron; that of the traditional Muslim-Arabic lifestyle; and that of the modern, present-day woman. All three can be related to the aspect of religion and age, which seems to be a pattern amongst the women. The greater the religion, the greater the tradition, and the more at ease the women are at following their patriarchs.
The movie's first showcase of women is at Reda's home, where Reda's mother and his sister are dressed differently: Reda's mother is completely covered from head to toe, while his sister is dressed casually in modern attire. The mother's role seems plain enough; she is the…
Le Grand Voyage. Dir. Ismael Ferroukhi. Perf. Nicolas Cazale, Mohamed Majd. Pyramide Distribution, 2004. Web. 20 May 2011. .
Deyo's commentary represents the type of attitude that forced women to conform to standards that while they are not demeaning, they are not for every female. Chopin knew that some women were not designed to be mothers and wives and she knew that there was absolutely nothing wrong with this assertion. Chopin and Edna were women out of time, living with others that could not accept the fact that a woman could be single and happy. Edna's death is seen as pathetic but what critics fail to understand about her death is that it proved to be the only acceptable way of life for Edna. All other options had been exhausted and the duty of wife and mother was simply unacceptable because it created more anxiety than anyone on the Pontellier family could bear. Edna knew that her future was bleak and she knew that a depressed, disassociated mother was…
Deyo, C.L. "The Newest Books." Critical Essays on Kate Chopin. 1996. GALE Resource
Database. Information Retrieved May 13, 2009.
Chopin, Kate. The Awakening and Other Short Stories. New York: Bantam Books. 1988.
Parini, Jay, ed. American Writers: A Collection of Literary Biographies. New York: Charles
Nor could a man repudiate the oath made by any of his female relatives." (Azeem, 1995)
VI. The ROLE of the MOTHER
Part two of the work entitled: "Women in Islam vs. Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth and the Reality" states that in relation to 'mothers' from the viewpoint of the Old Testament, there are several commandments concerning the necessity for kind and considerate treatment of parents and a condemnation for those who dishonor their parents. In Islam, the mother holds a very special place and as described by the Prophet Muhammad as follows: "A man asked the Prophet: 'Whom should I honor most?' The Prophet replied: 'Your mother'. 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your mother'. 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your mother!'. 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your father'" (ukhari and Muslim;…
Hughson, G., Johnston, S.A., Bisman, D. (nd) Understanding the Three Abrahamic Faiths: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The Dunedin Jewish, Christian and Muslim Community Liaison Group.
Q&a on Islam and Arab-Americans (2001) USA Today. 30 Sept 2001 Online available at http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/islam.htm
Azeem, Dr. Sherif Abdel (1995) Women in Islam vs. Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth & the Reality. Part I. Online available at http://www.themodernreligion.com/women/w_comparison_full.htm
Kingston, SM (1995) Women in Islam vs. Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth & the Reality. Part II. Online available at: 10 Feb 1995 Online available at http://www.themodernreligion.com/women/w_comparison_full2.htm
Mrs. Warrant's Profession: The Intellectual, the Victim, and the Conventional Woman
Mrs. Warren's Profession" by George ernard Shaw was a play written more than a hundred years ago in 1894
The roles that women play in this masterpiece show that Shaw was far ahead of his time in his thoughts about what women should do and be. He presented a new vision of an intellectual, entrepreneurial woman and challenged the conventional roles imposed by society. He also included accounts of women victimized by a capitalist society and defended their rights to take whatever actions they had to in order to changer their circumstances even if that meant prostitution. In fact, Shaw's beliefs are consistent with modern-day feminism with only one exception. Shaw seemed to fear that a woman's independence and choice of a career had to come at the expense of something else, namely love and family. Nonetheless, "Mrs. Warren's…
Goldman, Emma. "The Social Significance of the Modern Drama." International
Society of Political Psychology. 03 May 2003. http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/goldman/socsig/warren.html
Lovinger, "Trinity Rep OffersCcrackling 'Mrs. Warren's Profession'" Standard-Times 30
Role of omen in the Dead
To be sure, James Joyce's The Dead is one of the best examples of the short story in English Literature. Indeed, the artistry, depth of feeling, and acute insights into the human psyche are all on striking display in the piece. However, although many note the remarkable internal angst of Gabriel, and the role of the obvious theme of death and "the dead" throughout the story, there remains a strong theme of women, and their role as "catalyst touchstones" grounding Gabriel as well as the reader in the realization of the inevitability of suffering and death.
One of the interesting aspects of interpreting any of the works of Joyce as feminist in nature, is the common criticism of Joyce's actual life. One typical example of this problem is touched on in the article "Banking on Joyce," in which he is described as despising intellectual…
Anspaugh, Kelly. "Three Mortal Hour (i)s'; Female Gothic in Joyce's 'The Dead'." Studies in Short Fiction 31.1 (1994): 1-12.
Brea, Jennifer. "Penelope: In Search of the Feminist in James Joyce." 2002. Retrieved from Web site on 3 March, 2001
Ursula's daughter is also defined primarily in relation to gender, and her desire and her relationship, or lack thereof, with men. Unlike her life-sustaining mother, Amaranta never marries, and instead spends her entire life mourning her lost love. But Allende's main feminine romantic heroine, Alba, is not merely psychologically bruised by the loss of her love, but is physically tortured at the hands of Esteban Garcia, Esteban Trueba's illegitimate son. This occurred with great frequency in Chile during the time when this part of the novel is set. Although Alba is devoted to her husband Miguel, this devotion does not preclude Alba from having a strong voice and will and the ability to withstand disappointment, even torture. Unlike the perpetually forlorn Amaranta, Alba transcends all stereotypes and resolves to tell the story of her clan to the world to use her unhappiness in a productive manner, although she is also…
Allende, Isabel. The House of the Spirits. New York: Bantam, 1986.
Marquez, Gabriel Garcia. One Hundred Years of Solitude. New York: Perennial, 1998.
defination of "elder" and "deacon," and the biblical requirements for each office. It then discusses whether a woman be an elder or a deacon. It concludes by outlining contributions women make to theology, leadership, and management in the local church.
The Role of omen in the Church
According to the New Testament, the elders are overseers who are charged with the responsibility of governing the church (New International Version, Acts.20.28). The Bible requires an elder to be one who is
"blameless, married to one wife, temperate, self-controlled, respectable, hospitable, able to teach, 3 not given to drunkenness, not violent but gentle, not quarrelsome, not a lover of money. 4 He must manage his own family well and see that his children obey him, and he must do so in a manner worthy of full respect. 5 (If anyone does not know how to manage his own family, how can he…
Hartford Institute for Religion Research. "Fast Facts." 2006. www.hirr.hartsem.edu. 22 April 2012.
James, Carolyn Custis. "Women Theologians: A Spiritual Goldmine for the Church." September 2005. www.sites.silaspartners.com. 22 April 2012.
New International Version Bible. Biblica. Biblica Inc., 1973.Online.
Women in the Old Testament
The Bible never says that women are evil, sexually wanton or inferior to men; instead, it says a lot of good things regarding women. In the Old Testament / Hebrew Scriptures, most women are described as enterprising, resourceful, intelligent as well as, courageous. However, there are some many stories in the Old Testament that involve demeaning treatment of certain women. For instance, women were restricted to roles of no authority as well as, not allowed to testify in court. In summary, this paper will discuss on the depiction of Women in the Old Testament using two sources; Bible Harper Collins Study Bible and the Encountering Ancient Voices by Corrine Carvalho.
In Leviticus 12:1-5, a woman who gives birth to a boy is considered to be ritually unclean for 7 days. However, if the woman gives birth to a girl, the mother is unclean for 14…
Carvalho, C. (2006). Encountering Ancient Voices. A Guide to Reading the Old Testament Second Edition. Retrieved September 24, 2014, from http://www.anselmacademic.org/Excerpts/EncounteringAncientVoicessampler.pdf
Willis, M. (1995). The Role of Women As Revealed In the Old Testament. The Role of Women As Revealed In the Old Testament. Retrieved September 24, 2014, from http://www.truthmagazine.com/archives/volume39/GOT039034.html
Did the role of women in the family change at all? If so, how?
There was a change in the role of women in the family. Women were no longer caregivers and house wives. Their roles changed, and they now were also providing for the family and not just dependent on their husbands. From the map and graph provided we see the number of single working women was more than that of married working women. This shows that women were not just interested in getting married and bearing children or raising families, but they wanted also to be providers.
A settlement house for women was founded in 1889 by Jane Addams. Hull House was the name for this settlement. It provided educational and social opportunities for the European Immigrants who were the majority residents of the house. This settlement house was used mostly by women. They were the teachers and…
http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/pcp_60053_long_americanhistory_coco/0,13885,4697993-content,00.htmlEducation , P. (2003). Atlas Map: Changing Lives of American Women, 1880-1930, from
They were not content to merely 'talk the talk', but were bound and determined to 'walk the walk' as well. They ended their declaration of independence by stating they would "circulate tracts, petition the State and national legislatures, and endeavor to enlist the pulpit and press on our behalf. We hope this Convention will be followed by a series of Conventions embracing every part of the country" (Sochen, 1974, p. 127).
Not surprisingly, some people took these women seriously and others did not. Men were especially prone to making snide remarks about how only barren, lonely and 'misfit' women attended this convention. They essentially implied that if these women were able to land a husband and have some kids, they would stop this 'nonsense' (Sochen, 1974). But it was not nonsense. In fact, most of it made perfect sense. And as much as anti-feminists wanted the women's movement to just…
DuBois, E.C. & Dumenil, L. (2005) Through women's eyes: An American history with documents, Boston/New York: Beford/St. Martins.
Hurner, S. (2006, July) Discursive identity formation of suffrage women: reframing the "cult of true womanhood" through song, Western Journal of Communication, 70, 234-261
Kramarae, C. & Spender, D. (2000) Routledge international encyclopedia of women: Global women's issues and knowledge Vol. 1, New York: Routledge.
Leach, W. (1980) True love and perfect union: The feminist reform of sex and society
Changing Role of Women in the Late 1800s
In "A azard of New Fortunes," William Dean owells explores a number of themes through the interaction of the major characters in the novel. Much of his focus revolves around the women in the book and the interaction of these women with each other and with men. owells writes about issues contemporary to the time of the book's publication in 1890. Not coincidentally the 1880s marked the beginning of a significant upsurge in the women's movement. "A azard of New Fortunes" presents women who abide by the old values in contrast to women who have begun to adopt the values that eventually lead to full suffrage for women, more education opportunities for women, and more career choices for women. Women would become increasingly vocal about their opinions and begin to organize themselves for a direct assault on the institutions that were so…
Howells illustrates the crosscurrents of the late 1800s in the United States by conceiving two conflicting characters, Mrs. March and Alma Leighton. Mrs. March represents the traditional good wife who is her husband's confidant and who supports him in every way. Alma represents the petulant "new woman" who has no sense of compromise and no sense of responsibility except to her. Howells portrayal of Mrs. March is much kinder than his portrayal of Alma. With the wave of social change yet to crest, Howells is more inclined to the traditional than to the radical. Ultimately though the ideal situation would be a balance between the traditional and the radical.
Howells, William Dean. A Hazard of New Fortunes. Aug 2002. Produced by David Widger for The Project Gutenberg Etext. 23 Feb 2002.
The roles, ideals, views of men in the ancient civilization have been explored extensively in literature from the famous Kings of Israel to the mathematicians and philosophers of Greece. In contrast, the history entails limited literature of women in the ancient civilization. However, several masterpieces such as the Homeric poem, the Odyssey and the Iliad provides a glimpse of ideals, position, and role of women in the ancient civilization. Women play a fundamental role in life by taking multiple responsibilities as portrayed in the epic poem Odyssey. The epic poem presents the role of women in the facet of power, sexuality, and interaction with men.
An analysis of the women in the poem demonstrates a challenge of the space of women as traditionally defined by the patriarchal Greek society. The Homeric poem has a distinct feminist message of the struggle women endure as they try to extricate themselves from…
A view of this event captures an incredible sea of worshippers flowing like a human river in the footsteps of the prophet Mohammed, who it is said arrived at this spot some 1400 years ago to pay homage to Abraham.
The role of the woman as it is understood through the ritual reenactments are quite different from the unequal stance which is often assumed of Muslim women today, with Hagar and Ishmael given tribute as well. Exiled to the dessert valley that would become Mecca, Hagar would give birth to the numerous Arab peoples, and would be enabled to do so by the salvation of the angel Gabriel. In many ways, this story parallels the matriarchal role of the Madonna to Christianity, who was likewise guided by an angel in a time of crisis. Islam tells that Gabriel was sent down to bring water to Hagar in the desert in…
Pakistan: Hounour Killings of Girls and Women. Amnesty International.Online at http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engASA330181999
Al-Uthaimeen, S.M.A. (2006). How to perform the ritiuals of Hajj and Umrah. Princeton University. Online at http://www.princeton.edu/~humcomp/hajjguide.html
BBC. (June 2003). Pakistan's Sharia Law Is Criticized. BBC News. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2958316.stm .
ole of Women
Womens' ole Then and Now
Women's ole Then and Now
Women's ole Then and Now
Women have played an important role at different times in various fields. They have faced many challenges bravely and gave a new direction for the women to follow in later periods. The achievements are unprecedented and give an idea about the level of courage the women have. Their determination helped them elevate not only their name but they also motivated uncountable other women.
Women's ole Then and Now
The history of the world is but the biography of great men is an old quote which is as true today as it was centuries ago. History has witnessed uncountable great individuals who earned good name and fame because of their service to their country or mankind. It would be biased to attribute all historical achievements to men only. Women, being the partners of…
Chung, K. (2010). Women Pioneers of Medical Research. USA: McFarland & Company.
Robbins, T., Martin, C. And Timmons, A. (2006). Elizabeth Blackwell: American's First Woman Doctor. USA: Capstone Press.
Somervill, B. (2009). Elizabeth Blackwell: America's First Female Doctor. USA: Gareth Stevens Publishing.
Tieck, S. (2006). Florence Nightingale. USA: ABDO Publishing Company.
Women have, for a long time, been expected to fulfill certain roles. These roles varied through the ages but have remained rooted in their main objective, to have women raise children and assist and serve their husbands (Vishwanathan, 1994, p. 34). Women are seen as the ones who stay home, tend the hearth, and raise the young while men are the ones that earn the money, own the property, and control the household. In literature, women are depicted often as fulfilling these stereotypical roles and also rebelling against them. Karen Van Der Zee's "A Secret Sorrow" and Gail Godwin's "A Sorrowful Woman" are two works of literature that demonstrate the lives of women who belonged to a society that required them to conform to their selected role. Both narratives establish the anticipated place of women in society, but do so from dissimilar perspectives. "A Secret Sorrow" has a female character…
Foster, C.D., Siegel, M.A., & Jacobs, N.R. (1988). Women's changing role (1988 ed.). Wylie, Tex.: Information Aids.
Meyer, M. (2002). The Bedford introduction to literature: reading, thinking, writing (6th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Vishwanathan, M. (1994). Women & society. Jaipur: Printwell.
This gave her husband the right to sell any of her property and she was not in a position to object in any way. Religious women with their vows of obedience and poverty really had no reason to get involved in legal matters and were untouched in any way by the legal structure.
idows were the only women who held in legal position in the society. "She (a widow) regained her legal personality, was entitled to a certain share of her husband's holdings and, for the first time in her life, could make independent decisions." Legally, this was the best position for women. It was not without problems especially for wealthy women. These women were frequently intimidated into a second marriage or into relinquishing parts of their holdings. They had no legal recourse against this kind of intimidation in the same way that married women could not object to domestic…
Barber, Richard. The Penguin Guide to Medieval Europe. New York: Penguin
Conway, Stephen. "Silent Voices: Women in the Middle Ages." 1991. http://www.subverbis.com/essays/medievalwomen.rtf .
Delort, Robert. Life in the Middle Ages. Trans. Robert Allen. New York:
Women's History Questions
After reading the introductory texts, how has your understanding of women's history changed? What did you think women's history was before your enrolled in the course and compare that to how these historians define women's history? Do you agree or disagree with them?
Do women benefit from the American Revolution?
In developing your answer, recognize there is no single "woman" that encompasses all women in America. As a result, you must be sure to fully defend why your examples demonstrate the benefits or detriments of the Revolution for women.
The results of the American Revolution created a situation in which the treatment of individuals as property was challenged. The treatment of individuals as property carried real ramifications for women. One salient example is the freedom to use your power is a slave owner to coerce women into sexual relationships against their will. Many minority women that were…
But sometimes the victims themselves are afraid to voice their grievances in the public because speaking up entails shame, ostracization, and even extra-judicial killings. The victims can express their grievances in public "only at certain times and in certain ways" because their rights are infringed on social and cultural levels (Dewey).
The fact that cultural and traditional beliefs and attitudes contribute to violations of women's rights in a systematic manner can be observed by reading literature on the practice of dowry. Many Indian legal and philosophical thinkers use relativistic terms to contest the notion that the practice contributes to the abuse of women. They contest the notion because they argue the concept of human rights is a estern notion, sometimes disregarding cultural variations and sensibilities of the Indian nation (Gupta). The general critique of the concept of human rights as a western notion may be valid in some matters, but…
Dewey, Susan. "Dear Dr. Kothari': Sexuality, Violence Against Women, and the Parallel Public Sphere in India." American Ethnologist, 36/1 (2009): 124-139.
Duggal, Ravi. "The Political Economy of Abortion in India: Cost and Expenditure Patterns." Reproductive Health Matters, 12/24 (Nov. 2004): 130-137.
Grewal, Indu and Kishore, J. "Female Foeticide in India." International Humanist and Ethical Union. 1 May 2004. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
Gupta, Nidhi. "Women's Human Rights and the Practice of Dowry in India." Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 48 (2003): 85-123. Web. 12 Dec. 2011
Islamic women are now restricted from most activities, and their rights have been steadily decreasing. Her social and political as well as economic rights are all being violated everyday by unscrupulous men who have corrupted the very religion to their own advantage, and today, especially in most Arab countries, woman has become 'Awarah', or the very subject of concealment, wherein her public presence is banned; where even her very voice, must not be heard in public. (Women's Position, ole, and ights in Islam)
In India, there are only 960 women to 1000 men, a figure that when compared to the rest of the world, especially developed countries, which shows 105 women to 100 men, due to better health care for women, is quite miserable. It is in India that women are often considered to be burdens on their families, and the main reason for this is the 'dowry system', wherein…
Agarwal, Sita. Hindu Scriptural Sanction for the Crushing of Women. Retrieved at http://www.dalitstan.org/books/gowh/gowh6.html . Accessed on 16 March, 2005
Gender Equality. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.faithnet.org.uk/Ethics/genderequality.htm. Accessed on 16 March, 2005
John, MacArthur Jr., Women's Roles. 20 March, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.believersweb.org/view.cfm?ID=205Accessed on 15 March, 2005
Mbiti, John. The Role of women in African traditional religion. Retrieved at http://www.afrikaworld.net/afrel/atr-women.htm . Accessed on 16 March, 2005
Pretention was key because the women knew that the men's focus stayed on preventing race mixing between blacks and whites. To distract the men from the issues that the WKKK were fighting for, they would cleverly get the men to focus on black men trying to flirt or what have you with them. This was just a ploy for them so that they could fully pursue their interests with little or no interference from the men.
Auxiliary or Organization
Clearly, the intent of the KKK was for the women to establish an auxiliary in order to support them. The women had other ideas. The men were used to further the women's cause unknowingly. "Klanswomen embraced the mixture of individualism and deference to authority that characterized the male Klan." (p. 36). The women did not and would not be a support group for the men. They did feel that other races…
Blee, K.M. (2008). Women of the Klan: Racism and Gender in the 1920s (2 ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press.
The women whose husbands did serve the pro-Union cause (often Republicans) did not necessarily take over the farm work and other "male tasks" on the farm. Instead, the work was done with the "same kind of neighborhood and extended-kin support" that was in use prior to the Civil ar (Rodgers, 112).
Also, many soldiers wrote letters home "…virtually micromanaging their farms from the front," Rodgers continues (113). ives received a "steady flow of letters" with specific advice not only on how to run the farm, but on "how their children were to behave and be taught," Rodgers explained (113). And moreover, male farm laborers were available to harvest crops, and the women either paid them to harvest the wheat, or she gave them "a percentage of the crop" (Rodgers, 113). As for urban women in Indiana during the Civil ar, Rodgers explains that letters between wives and soldiers showed "gossip…
Brown, Alexis Girardin. "The Women Left Behind: Transformation of the Southern Belle,
1840-1880." The Historian. 62.4 (2000): 759-779.
Rodgers, Thomas E. "Hoosier Women and the Civil War Home Front." Indiana Magazine of History, 97.2 (2001): 105-128.
Walker, Henry. "Power, Sex, and Gender Roles: The Transformation of an Alabama Planter
This report aims to present my views on the fact that wage work during the late 19th and early 20th centuries have more or less reinforced women's roles within their families or more accurately, have provided an extension to their familial roles. The objective of this work is to therefore present an argument that contradicts a belief held by many historians that wage work actually enabled women to develop a new sense of individualism as well as economic independence. These liberations are supposed to have liberated women from their roles in the traditional home. The report also attempts to incorporate how the effects of race and/or ethnicity come into play in this situation.
First and foremost, the idea of wage work and non-wage work must be explored to give credence to the topic at hand. Women have traditionally been unpaid for the bulk of their work while they…
Women comprise an essential part of the society; the role of women in the modern world is becoming more influential compared to the traditional days. The society is realizing the importance of women as leaders in the community and calling upon their ability to ensure that there is growth in the society. The rise of women in the society has been faced with stiff opposition from the male counterparts. In some developing countries, gender equality has not been achieved, but the pressure from developed is pushing many governments to recognize equality. Nations that have recognized the contributions of women have high economic growth compared to other countries that have ignored women.
Women empowerment refers to providing equal opportunities to women as men. Traditional organizational setting considers division of labor in the organization. Women are given roles that are not physically challenging while leadership roles are reserved for men.…
omen in Television
In the late 1960s to early 1970s, as women burned their bras and took to the streets for equality, the female labor force grew three times more than that their male peers (Toossi), increasing numbers of educational opportunities made themselves available to the "fairer sex,"
and a cultural shift was taking place for women within the household and in society as a whole. As is frequently the case, television seized the moment and looked for ways to capitalize on this women's lib movement. As Fiske wrote, "Television often acts like a relay station: It rarely originates topics of public interest (though it may repress them); rather, what it does is give them high visibility, energize them, and direct or redirect their general orientation before relaying them out again into public circulation." Thus, Turner's MTM Enterprises introduced "That Girl" and followed it by the seven-year hit "Mary Tyler…
Bodroghkozy, Aniko. "Where have you gone, Mary Richards? Feminism's rise and fall in primetime television." Iris: A Journal About Women 12.28 (2004). 5 November 2010 http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-127160507/have-you-gone-mary.html
Bordo, Susan. The Male Body. A New Look at Men at Public and Private. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999.
Douglas, Susan. Where the Girls Are. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1995.
Dow, Bonnie. Prime-Time Feminism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
Women and Islam
Do Muslim women eally need saving?
Stengths and weaknesses
Between hee and thee: feminist solidaity and Afghan women.
Stengths and weaknesses
Do Muslim women eally need saving? Anthopological eflections on cultual elativism and its othes.
Topic oveview and famewok
The aticle deals with the topic of 'Wa on Teoism', the wa claimed to have been launched fo libeating the Afghan women fom Taliban and an agument with anthopological pespective to deconstuct the essentially flawed epesentation of Afghan women that Wa on Teoism hetoic makes. The aticle is aimed at investigating the nuances of identity that ae essentially devoid of histoical constuction of ole of women in Afghan society. The aticle also aims to identify the pocess though which women's ole in Afghan society is not constucted on anthopological gounds but athe influenced by one's own cultue, identity, and standads of living. Thus, cultual bias is said to…
references: Constructions of gender in the Bush administration discourse on the attacks on Afghanistan post-9/11. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 8(1), 19-41.
Stocker, deaf since birth, admittedly attempted to compensate for her disability, her imperfection, through the relentless pursuit of achieving perfection physically and athletically, and even when she excelled, Stocker confesses, for a long time she remained emotionally tortured by disability for which no amount of body shaping or athletic skill in sports could change that disability (2001, p. 154). Stocker's struggle with her self-image, her identity and hers sexuality were in large part shaped by her disability.
While it is not an attempt here to disparage Stocker, or to belittle the significance of her disability; Stocker is a woman who suffered her hearing impairment from birth. Stocker suffered emotionally as a result of her disability, struggled with it for most of her life in the ways in which it impacted her self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. So, might not a woman who acquired a disability at that point her life when…
Barker-Benfield, G.J. (2000). The Horrors of the Half-Known Life: Male Attitudes toward Women and Sexuality in Nineteenth-Century America. New York: Routledge. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108011402 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000224494
Bellerose, S.B., & Binik, Y.M. (1993). Body Image and Sexuality in Oophorectomized Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 22(5), 435+. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000224494
DeFries, Z., Friedman, R.C., & Corn, R. (Eds.). (1985). Sexuality: New Perspectives. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Retrieved February 2, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=51035002 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105657669
Dr. Hayden believes the reason for this change at the school level is due to greater recruitment efforts, financial and academic support, and more women role models to provide encouragement. Dr. Hayden sees a similar situation happening in the engineering field.
Dr. Lin, a male electrical engineer, on the other hand, somewhat ironically, seems to feel that women face a tougher challenge in engineering than Dr. Hayden stated. According to Dr. Lin, women can succeed as an electrical engineer if "they are determined." This is clearly a male-oriented view of how to succeed. According to typical male beliefs, success is an individual achievement. If you work hard you will succeed. If you do not succeed, it is because you did not work hard enough. However, Dr. Hayden emphasized in her response to the same question the role of peer mentors, academic support and other outside resources. This is typically a…
Baker, Wayne. Achieving Success Through Social Capital. New York: Jossey-Bass.
Dr. Hayden. Personal Interview. California Poly Pomona. 2006.
Dr. Lin. Personal Interview. California Poly Pomona. 2006.
Fuller, Georgina. "Recent Graduates Expect More from their Employers" Personnel
omen's Social Role In Society
Gender, as opposed to the physical classification of sex, has always been based upon societal construct. The current psychology of the masses dictates what proper or improper behavior for the given genders is. This has always been the way of things. In the 1900s in the United States of America, a woman's place was in the home. She was supposed to be the Angel in the House. In this role, a woman's purpose was to cook and clean and take care of her family. She was not allowed to busy herself with what was called the Public Sphere, wherein the husband and other men were in control. The wife's role was in the Private Sphere. This scenario, called the "Cult of Domesticity," gave women very little power. In this era, women did not have the right to vote, so females had no voice either in…
Baier, A. (1988). "The Need for More than Justice." Ed. Held. Justice and Care: Essential
Readings in Feminist Ethics. Westview: Boulder, CO.
Friedman, M (1987). "Beyond Caring: The De-Moralization of Gender." Ed. Held. Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics. Westview: Boulder, CO.
Noddings, N. (1984). "Caring." Ed. Held. Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist
During the nineteenth century, many accomplishments in women's rights occurred. As a result of these early efforts, women today enjoy many privileges. They are able to vote and become candidates for political elections, as well as own property and enjoy leadership positions.
During the early nineteenth century, the women's rights movement came into effect. omen like Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony created many organizations for equality and independence. However, even with these activist groups, victory would not be fast or easy.
Changing social conditions for women during the early nineteenth century, combined with the idea of equality, led to the birth of the woman suffrage movement. For example, women started to receive more education and to take part in reform movements, which involved them in politics. As a result, women started to ask why they were not also allowed to vote.
The Start of the Revolution…
Berg, Barbara. The Remembered Gate: Origins of American Feminism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
Degler, Carl N. At Odds: Women and the Family in America from the Revolution to the Present. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.
Pessen, Edward. Jacksonian America: Society, Personality, and Politics. Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey Press, 1969, 1978.
Ryan, Mary P. Womanhood in America: From Colonial Times to the Present. New York: New Viewpoints, 1979.
omen's Experience of Globalization
One of the factors that have shaped women's experiences of globalization has been the international demand for labor in various international locations. Much of the globalization trend has been driven by technological innovations that allow for greater communication, information sharing, travel, and other items that have allowed people to share different items across the globe. This trend has also shaped the manner in which labor demand can influence women. Before globalization labor was virtually static and immigration was sparsely used and there were a significant amount of resources required to migrate. However, there are many more opportunities for both migrant men and women.
The availability of options for men to work in migrant positions also places indirect pressures on women to do the same given the breakdown of the traditional family structure and relatively few domestic options. Many migrant women will leave a developing…
Parrenas, R. (2008). The Force of Domesticity: Filipina Migrants and Globalization. New York: NYU Press.
In spite of Nigerian society's patriarchal nature, the nation's females are actively involved, and have central roles to play, in cultural developmental activities. The main occupations women are employed in are farming, mat making and small trading, with only some employed at schools and in offices. The chief responsibilities of women lie in the areas of childbearing and raising, societal transformation, production, and community management. Reproducing, bringing children up and assuming domestic responsibilities are regarded as natural tasks for females. Even in instances where the patriarch is negligent, the wife in a Nigerian household will continue bearing child-raising responsibilities as they feel this is both their natural and cultural obligation (Chigbu, 2015).
Nigerian females of the period before colonialism played a role in kin group sustenance. Subsistence level economy was maintained in the nation before the colonialists invaded the region, and females effectively took part in economic activities. Besides assuming…
The women's work, therefore, continues to be arduous and tedious, potential productivity, unrealized and quality of life is substandard. According to Jehan, for example, solutions to bettering this situation include enhancing data on women's economic participation and increasing the proportion of women in education, rural incomes and productivity.
In India, for instance, a number of economic initiatives have been undertaken in regard to the role and status of women. These include the economic exposure and access to Meerut Seva Samaj (MSS), an entrepreneurship program that allows women to engage in home-based work. This allows them to continue to fulfill their domestic responsibilities at the same time as helping to financially support their family. Financial institutions, companies, and NGOs are discovering the impact that can be made by extending different forms of entrepreneurial assistance to women startup businesses, such as micro-credit, or small loans, Meerut Seva Samaj demonstrates the way that…
Jehan, Qamar "Role of women in economic development in Pakistan." PhD thesis, 2000
University of Balochistan, Quetta. 10/25/08 http://eprints.hec.gov.pk/442/
Nanu-Fabu, Stella. "An analysis of economic status of women in Cameroon." Journal of International Women's Studies 8.1(2006):148-162.
Roy, K.C., Tisdell, C.A., Blomqvist, H.C. Economic Development and Women in the World Community, Praeger, London, 1996
omen and Commodities
In both Jonathan Swift's "The Lady's Dressing Room" and Christina Rossetti's "Goblin Market," women are presented both in a world of commerce and as commodities themselves, but only Rossetti's text is critical of this formulation. In both poems, the value of a woman is dictated by her physical appearance, but whereas Swift seems to be arguing that the value produced by a beautiful woman outweighs any of the undesirable or otherwise unattractive elements which go into maintaining that beauty, Rossetti suggests that the woman who allows herself to be tricked into believing that a woman's value comes from her physical appearance will ultimately be doomed to waste away and die. By examining the conclusion of Swift's poem in conjunction with certain relevant scenes from "Goblin Market," one may see how the former serves to reinforce the notion that women are essentially semi-autonomous commodities, existing solely for visual…
Rosetti, Christina. "Goblin Market." Loudlit. Loudlit.org, n.d. Web. 24 Oct 2011.
Swift, Jonathan. "The Lad'ys Dressing Room." Rutgers University. Rutgers, n.d. Web. 24 Oct
Women Live in Ancient China
China is one of the world's oldest nations, being more than 4000 years old it shows no signs of decline. China has a rich history. It was ruled by several men and by various dynasties. Each ruler set standards for how the Chinese civilization was to be governed and every emperor and dynasty makes the history of China only more interesting.
The ancient Chinese society was predominantly male oriented. Women were considered to be unequal and inferior to men. Most women lived an oppressed life. Even women who belonged to rich and noble families could not always escape from the oppression; however, to an extent their lives were easier than the majority of the other females. (Waley)
The role of women in ancient China was defined by Confucius who was a philosopher, teacher and politician. He believed that women should spend most of their lives…
Brown, M. A brief history of Chinese civilization. Cengage Learning.
Buckley, P. Chinese civilization: A sourcebook . Simon and Schuster.
Falkenhausen, L. Chinese society in the age of confucius. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California.
Harold, T. (2009). China: A history. Hackett Publishing.
The disparity in income of male vs. female heads of household is striking. Analysis of census data revealed that, in 1949, approximately thirty percent of households headed by white males were living in poverty, compared to just under thirteen percent a decade later. For women, more than half lived in poverty in 1949; by 1959, that figure declined to thirty-eight percent. The prosperity of the 1950s was not universally enjoyed. Female heads of household at the end of the decade were not better off than their male counterparts had been ten years earlier.
Financing for decent, inexpensive homes was readily available to servicemen returning from World War II. Coontz (1992) argued that this boom in home ownership led to "increasingly pervasive and sophisticated marketing [that] contributed to socially constructed perceptions of "need" and to unprecedented levels of consumer debt (Edwards, 2001). It was new consumer values that helped propel mothers…
Coontz, S. (2000). The way we never were: American families and the nostalgia trap. [Amazon
Kindle editions version.
Delmont, S. (1996). A woman's place in education. Great Britain: Avebury.
Edwards, M.E. (2001). Home ownership, affordability, and mothers' changing work and family roles. Social Science Quarterly, 82 (2), 369-383.