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11 His ridicule views about the first family made the Russian citizens to regard him as worthless or inferior because of his resistance and the general talk he had on issues. Despite there being a demanding leadership crisis that could cause challenges to even the best leaders of the time, the presence of Tsarina and Rasputin worsened the conditions. They reshuffled the cabinet, sacking talented cabinet ministers and in their place, putting useless ones and the acknowledgements they got were widespread rumors that both had become lovers.12 It was at this moment when Nicholas directed the army to take control of the situation and because of the atrocities, they had suffered in the hands of the Tsar, many soldiers chose to deny Nicholas' call to fight riots and rather joined the demonstrating crowds. The denial by the armed forces to take control of the demonstrating crowds lead to fighting that…
Bunyan, James, and Fisher, Harold H. The Bolshevik Revolution, 1917-1918: Documents and materials. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1934. Print.
Kowalski, Ronald. The Russian Revolution: 1917-1921. New York, U.S.: Routledge, 1997. Print.
Levine, Isaac D. The Russian Revolution. Charleston, SC: BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009. Print.
University of Liverpool. 1917 Russian Revolution. St.-petersburg.com, n.d. Web. 19 March 2010
.. Bolshevik ideology and political culture... rejected liberal parliamentary forms, a "free market of ideas," and capitalism. That state depended on the dedication, idealism, and sacrifice of hundreds of thousands of Bolshevik cadres and Red Army soldiers, who entered the fray with enormous confidence in history's outcome and a conviction that they had a moral right to use force and terror against their opponents in order to build a socialist society.
hether Russian men and women desired the construction of a socialist utopia mattered little. Clearly, Stalin sought to destroy the kulaks because they represented an aberration in the socialist scheme. That the Kulaks existed proved that not all Russians were industrial workers as envisioned in propaganda. Peasants would have to be transformed into the vast proletariat that the Soviet union so obviously lacked.
The theory of bureaucratic state capitalism started from the premise that the Bolshevik Party had to…
Bonnell, Victorio E. "12 the Iconography of the Worker in Soviet Political Art." Making Workers Soviet: Power, Class, and Identity. Ed. Lewis H. Siegelbaum and Ronald Grigor Suny. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994. 341-375.
Dowlah, Alex F., and John E. Elliot. The Life and Times of Soviet Socialism. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997.
Stalinism -- a Continuation of Leninism?
Vladimir Lenin was a Russian revolutionary leader and theorist, who ruled the first government of Soviet Russia and then the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Encarta, 2004). Lenin was the leader of the radical socialist olshevik Party (later renamed the Communist Party), which seized power in the October phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917. After the revolution, Lenin created and led the new Soviet government that formed in Russia. He became the leader of the U.S.S.R. when it was created in 1922. He ruled with terror, and his actions included establishing the secret police to root out opponents of the olsheviks. Lenin held the highest post in the Soviet government until his death in 1924, when Joseph Stalin gained power.
Stalin was the despotic ruler who molded the features that characterized the Soviet regime and shaped the direction of Europe after World…
Chung, TK. (2004). Soviet Russia. The Corner. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.thecorner.org/hists/total/s-russia.htm .
Encarta. (2004). A Guide to the Russian Revolution. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.geocities.com/sheerin104/index.htm.
Keep, J. (1976). The Russian Revolution: A Study in Mass Mobilization. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Stalin's Ideology. (2002). Dickinson College. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.dickinson.edu/~history/dictators/stalin_ideology.html .
The makers of the peace settlement hoped to reduce the possibility of future conflict by taking away Germany's army and controlling its political system. This proved impossible, and only provoked more violence in the long run, as Germans grew more sympathetic to fascism as a result.
Third, why did the United States Senate reject the Treaty of Versailles? What objections did they have to the treaty, especially to the League of Nations? Why was the United States not ready for peace through collective security?
The United States at the time was still isolationist in its philosophy. It had come to participate in the war fairly late, and had little appreciation about how bloody and terrible it had been, through the system of trench warfare, for the major participating European powers. The U.S. still believed the Atlantic Ocean could protect itself from most major European conflicts, and it had felt less…
The Russian Revolution is coveed to a geat extent and Pompe lends much insight into the specific events and ideas that caied the county to Revolution in 1917.
Pompe succeeds in his goal to expose the most pofoundly successful and contovesial figues in Russian histoy with his book. Howeve, it seems as though Pompe is eage to paint these figues in a vey neutal light. AS an histoian, it is his job of couse to look at histoy as objectively as possible, and teat each histoical pesonality with espect, but Pompe doesn't deal much with the atocities associated with the Russian Intelligentsia and instead focuses on thei ideals and ideas. In this way, Pompe was able to buck the cultual tend that pevailed duing the fist pinting of his book, The Russian Revolutionay Intelligentsia, Second Edition. The common cultual views towad Russian life and histoy wee less than welcoming fo…
references and reactions to the events taking place around the time of the Russian Revolution.
Pomper's revised edition of the book The Russian Revolutionary Intelligentsia re-examines the Russian intelligentsia through the lens of post-communist Russian thought and ideals. This helps the reader to understand the historical context of the analysis of the most prominent figures in Russian history and thought. His revisions also help to shed light on the modern Russian historical context and move the reader from 1970's era thinking and writing to modern-day historical analysis.
The relationship between the Russian Revolution and the rise of fascism is distinct and marked. Both movements were revolutionary in their own way, and both were provoked to a certain extent by a Marxist inspiration. Lenin was one of the leaders of the Russian revolution and he was a committed Marxist. He did not want Russia to participate in any part of the war, but was the one who surrendered to German invasion. When Lenin died, the gap that was left open in his death was quickly taken over by Stalin. Fascism was the outgrowth of a revolution that was meant to create more freedom, justice and equality. This is because the Russian revolution and the nation were vulnerable during this time of transition: this vulnerability meant that someone strategic could have the power to come in and corrupt the policies in place. This paper will explore the nuances, events…
As Paxton (2005) points out, the Russian Revolution was directly responsible for the rise of Fascism in Italy and Germany. The Russian Revolution, comprised of and led largely by a Jewish demographic, represented a threat to the nationality and national interests of European states. Fascist movements were not limited to Italy and Germany—they appeared in England, France, Spain and elsewhere—but Italy and Germany emerged as the primary Fascist states because of the force of leadership that emerged in each nation respectively: Mussolini in Italy, and Hitler in Germany. Both were at the forefront of the conservative, nationalist movement that pushed back against the rising tide of Communistic socialism, which the conservative nationalist parties vehemently opposed. The Russian Revolution was, in essence, a rejection of everything Old World, as Fitzgerald (2000) showed. The representatives of Fascism were fighting specifically for that Old World—and they were using every possible avenue they could…
We are surrounded on all sides by enemies, and we have to advance almost constantly under their fire. We have combined, by a freely adopted decision, for the purpose of fighting the enemy, and not of retreating into the neighboring marsh, the inhabitants of which, from the very outset, have reproached us with having chosen the path of struggle instead of the path of conciliationæthere can be no talk of an independent ideology formulated by the working masses themselves in the process of their movement, the only choice is -- either bourgeois or socialist ideology. There is no middle course (for mankind has not created a "third" ideology, and, moreover, in a society torn by class antagonisms there can be a non-class or an above-class ideology)."
The Revolution of 1905 developed in two phases. First, a diverse group opposing the Tsar and encompassing much of the political spectrum took form.…
8. Freeze, Gregory. (2002) Russia: A History. New York: Oxford University Press, ibid.
9. Freeze, Gregory. (1995) From Supplication to Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, ibid.
10. Carr Hallet Edward. (1981) A History of Soviet Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution. New York: The Macmillan Company, ibid.
" The revolution was also responsible for establishing "conditions for an era of economic development. Capitalist development had begun in Mexico prior to the revolution, but it had been constrained by the power of the large landholders and lacked the sponsorship of an active, development-oriented state (MacEwan)."
During the 1920s and 1930s, the modern Mexican state "came to embody the dual heritage of the Mexican revolution, representing and containing the interests of Mexico's working people and also leading a process of capitalist development by actively intervening in the country's economic life, resulting in a highly nationalist state. The revolution had in part been a reaction to the power of foreign investors, and nationalist policies struck a popular chord (MacEwan)."
In order for the country's economy to experience its total growth potential, it was essential that Mexican capital receive "support for the state and protection from foreign competition (MacEwan)."
MacEwan, Arthur. Banishing the Mexican Revolution. Monthly Review. (1991): 01 November.
The Path to Revolution. (accessed 12 October, 2004). http://www.interknowledge.com/russia/rushis06.htm ).
Unknown. India. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
wikipedia.org/wiki/ussian_Mennonite).Most aligned themselves with the Octobrist Party because of its guarantee of religious freedoms and freedom of the press for minority groups (the ussian Mennonites (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ussian_Mennonite)."
Each village generally had its own congregation that was independent of the other ussian Mennonite congregations.
They all agreed on fundamental Mennonite beliefs such as believer's baptism, nonresistance and avoidance of oaths (the ussian Mennonites (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ussian_Mennonite).Pastors of Flemish congregations read sermons from a book while seated at a table. Frisian pastors stood while delivering the sermon (the ussian Mennonites (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ussian_Mennonite)."
Pastors of each church were simply members that the congregation agreed to have lead them in their faith and were not paid for their services, which meant they were usually wealthy landowners that did not have to work for a living. They had a significant amount of influence over members of their community, much in the same way today's pastors and rabbis have influence…
Menno Lite: (accessed 3-28-07)
Baptists and Mennonites in Russia (accessed 3-28-07)
evolution, Education, And Modernization
evolution, Education and Modernization
Is revolution an acceptable way to change government? Why or why not?
In 1776 the founding fathers of the United States faced a situation where this question was paramount among the interests of their fellow countrymen:
"When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation" ("The Declaration of Independence," 1776).
History shows that when the needs of a society are not being met revolution is generated from outside the existing system since it is that system that is perceived as…
"Egypt news -- Revolution and aftermath." (2011, June 2). The New York times. World. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/egypt/index.html
Kanalley, C. (2011, January 30). Egypt revolution 2011: A complete guide to unrest. The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/30/egypt-revolution-2011_n_816026.html
McElroy, W. (2005). Henery Thoreau and 'civil disobedience'. Future of the freedom foundation. In The Thoreau Reader. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://thoreau.eserver.org/civil.html
Rathbone, E. (2011, March 15). Can social networking spur a revolution? The university of Virgina magazine. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from http://uvamagazine.org/only_online/article/can_social_networking_cause_revolution/
And in such instances where one might be sold, the selling nobleman was given the right to retain the individual's family and property.
hough the laws would stop short of allowing the right of the noble to kill a serf, the penalty for doing so was a nominal monetary fine of a negligible sum to a member of the landed gentry. herefore, prohibition on killing a serf was pointedly low. It is thus that the Russian feudalist system created a scenario in which the seeds of Communist revolution could ultimately be sowed. With literally half of its population living in abject slavery and the stability of the central government constantly threatened by invading Mongols and rebelling Cossacks, the slave population increasingly came to represent a serious threat to the continued survival of the ruling class. First through its constant undermining of the system by flight from ownership and thereafter by…
Though the laws would stop short of allowing the right of the noble to kill a serf, the penalty for doing so was a nominal monetary fine of a negligible sum to a member of the landed gentry. Therefore, prohibition on killing a serf was pointedly low. It is thus that the Russian feudalist system created a scenario in which the seeds of Communist revolution could ultimately be sowed. With literally half of its population living in abject slavery and the stability of the central government constantly threatened by invading Mongols and rebelling Cossacks, the slave population increasingly came to represent a serious threat to the continued survival of the ruling class. First through its constant undermining of the system by flight from ownership and thereafter by increasingly organized slave revolts, the serf population demonstrated the sheer irrationality of enslaving so large a population to the service of so few. Ultimately, the great many would come to recognize their power.
So would this be the recognition of the Tsar Alexander II, who in 1861 responded to a fear that ultimately the imbalance of this system would come to destroy the noble class by emancipating those in bondage and abolishing slavery. The impracticality of the system and the harsh survival imposed upon so great a population would have irreparable consequences though. For the people of Russia, emancipation would not ease its suffering or quell its anger. The 'agreement' forged in the name of emancipation would forge a system still deeply exploitive and absent of opportunity for those without land. The lives of the Russian peasantry would be little changed by emancipation, such as slavery had plunged so many into a condition of great inequality.
This would most assuredly by the cause for Russia's role in the spread of communist and socialist ideologies, which were predicated on the understanding that the enormity of the slave classes were sufficient to justify their empowerment. Thus, in 1918, when the Bolsheviks stormed the Alexander Palace and executed Tsar Nicholas II and his family, the prophecy of Alexander II before him may be said to have largely come true. The Marxist principles which underscored the Revolutionary Era, pushed forward by Russia's struggles in the Russo-Japanese War and World War II, would be the inevitable outcome of a serfdom that was too late and too large to occur without terrible consequences.
He became a virtual dictator which saw his government making peace with Germany, distributed land and nationalized industry.in 1918 there was a devastating civil war against the anti-Bolshevik white forces.in 1920 the anti-Bolsheviks were defeated which saw the formation of the Union of oviet ocialist Republics (UR) in 1922 (A&E Television Networks, LLC, 2014).
During the Civil war between 1917 and 1921 the Bolsheviks adopted the war communism that led to the breaking up of landed estates as well as forcible seizure of agricultural surpluses.in the cities there were intense food shortages as well as a break down of monetary system. City dwellers fled to the countryside to tend to the land which Bolshevik break up of the lands estates had transferred of peasants. Early 1921 there was a lot of public discontent with the state of economy resulting to numerous strikes and protests. The Kronstadt rebellion was…
Stalin had suffered a major stroke on March 1st 1953 but there was delayed treatment due to his actions over the previous decades. he slowly died in the course of the few days that followed apparently in agony and ended up dying of brain haemorrhage.it still remains unclear whether Stalin would have been saved if medical help would have arrived shortly after he suffered from the stroke.
A&E Television Networks, LLC.(2014). Russian Revolution.Retrieved May 9,2014 from http://www.history.com/topics/russian-revolution
Domestic and foreign policy caused nation's anger and disrespect both in the eyes of own people and foreigners. As a result, Russian defeats and casualties on the WWI battlefields became a culminating point of Russian troubled times - the March Revolution began. Ultimately, Czar's rule was replaced and two main powers appeared: Provisional Government which consisted of wealthy elite and local Soviets which represented the majority of population. As the matter of fact Russians got disappointed with Provisional Government for many reasons. First of all that government continued participating in WWI and did nothing to stop it while practically all citizens suffered wartime troubles and wished taking their state out of the absurd war. Also Provisional Government was weak and had no real support either among citizens or in the army, so when Bolsheviks attacked it there was nobody to defend it. Russians realized that Provisional Government provided the same…
This similarly encourages modest investment in ussia, a market of 150 million, even in the face of continuing economic difficulties and political uncertainty (Saunders, 105).
According to Sunders, the strategy developed to "globalize" ussia was known as "shock therapy." And its implementation began with the January 1, 1992 elimination of price controls on most goods. The objective of "shock therapy" was, in essence, to create a market economy in ussia as quickly as possible. Sunders claim that this was to be achieved by freeing prices and liberalizing trade policies, which would stimulate competition; and by privatization, which would create private property with all its attendant behavioral incentives for enterprises. At the same time, it was essential to make the ruble convertible and ensure that its value remained relatively stable. This meant controlling inflation and, therefore, keeping tight control of currency emissions and government spending.
Consequently, Saunders appreciates that successful economic…
Batygin, G. S. 'The Transfer of Allegiances of the Intellectual Elite'. Studies in East
European Thought 53 (2001)
Boris Yeltsin quoted in Urban, M. Re-mythologizing the Russian State. Euro-Asia Studies
50/6 (1998): 969
Collectivization on the Russian Countryside
he Soviet Union, under Stalin's leadership, embarked on a massive economic plan to industrialize the largely agrarian country. he so-called five-year plan, actually four and a quarter year plan, required the concentration of labor in urban areas. Most of the people in the Soviet Union lived on farms in small villages. o implement the plan significant social changes had to occur. he people most affected by these changes were the peasants in the small villages in the Russian countryside. he peasants represented the most conservative, most religious, and most traditional group in the Soviet Union. Conflict was inevitable when the greatest change is required of the people who are the least likely to be comfortable with change. he instability of the Soviet Union government between the Russian Revolution and the ascendancy of Stalin and the violent protests of the peasants delayed the imposition of socialist…
The collectivization of the peasants in the Russian countryside dramatically changed every aspect of a peasant's life. Socially, religiously, and politically the peasants would not be the same again. In many ways society as the peasants knew it was turned upside down. Religious practice was eliminated. The young led the elderly. The proletariats were treated differently than the non-proletariat. The belief was that the capitalistic world was intent on overthrowing the Soviet regime. The group that felt most comfortable with tradition had to give up the bulk of their traditions.
Hindus, Maurice. Red Bread. New York: Jonathan Cape & Harrison Smith, 1931.
For example, Krishan Kumar of the University of Kent at Canterbury11 states,... "in sum, a fine piece of properly political sociology, of which there are in truth very few examples. Society gets its due share of attention; but as is fitting and absolutely essential in any discussion of revolution, it is the peculiar nature of and crisis of the state that occupies the centre of the stage."
Similarly, Michael Kimmel of the University of California -- Santa Cruz,12 states that "Theda Skocpol is perhaps the most ambitious and exciting of a new generation of historical-comparative sociologists who have focused their attention squarely on the big issues of social change that once preoccupied the classic sociologists."
The difficulty that some reviewers had about this book is because of some of the misinformation. For example, George Yaney 12 of the University of Maryland states it is based almost entirely on secondary sources…
Kimmel, Michael. "States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China. By Theda Skocpol." http://www.jstor.org.libdb.fairfield.edu/browse/00029602 " the American Journal of Sociology. 86 No.5 (1981): 1145-1154
Kumar, Krishan. States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France,
Russia and China by Theda Skocpol" the British Journal of Sociology. 31, no. 2
Jewish-ussian heritage. The writer details the emergence of the Jewish faith in ussia, the radical actions taken to stop its growth and existence and the more recent developments that have created it to begin a resurgence. The writer used ten sources to complete this paper.
In the past two decades the former Soviet Union has gone through many different changes, with the biggest one being the dismantling of its very existence and government and the slow process of rebuilding it from the ground up. In the former Soviet Union there were many strict rules and the heavy arm of Communism was felt throughout the state. One of the things that was heavily mandated was the freedom of religion. The Jewish faith had encountered severe opposition in the Soviet Union for many years and all but the most stubborn Jews had been driven out of the land many years…
Messianic Jews gaining ground in Russia By Alexandra Alter http://www.jrn.columbia.edu/studentwork/cns/2003-04-27/233.asp
Jewish heritage in Russian children's literature Olga Maeots Russia ( http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla66/papers/107-152e.htm )
The Fate of Jews immediately after the Russian Revolution http://csf.colorado.edu/mail/psn/oct97/0100.html
The revolutions across Europe
This became a reality with the killing of the tsar in 1918. The death of the tsar was the visible reaction to a series of underlining causes that would eventually encourage the raise to power of a political ideology that addressed these issues and offered political and propagandistic solutions.
The social situation of the populations was rather grim during the tsar's regime. ussia had been engaged in the First World War effort and the condition of the soldiers was disastrous. Similarly, the peasants often were subjected to oppressive taxes in order for the regime to be able to financially support the war effort.
Aside from the social causes of the revolution, there were also political aspects that determined the fall of the tsar and the subsequent establishment of the communist regime. Thus, the authoritarian imperial rule opposed the visions of politicians such as the Bolshevik leader Trotsky. He was seen…
Carroll, J., and George Herring. (1986) Modern American Diplomacy. Scholarly Resources Inc. Wilmington, Delaware.
Fairbank, J.K. (1986). The great Chinese Revolution: 1800- 1985. London: Pan Books.
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
Rauch, Basil. (1963). The history of the New Deal. New York: Capricorn Books.
ups and downs of Russian music throughout the Soviet Union's tumultuous history and will also describe the impact that music has on the Russians today. This paper will describe the music during the pre-revolutionary years, post-revolutionary years, the Stalin years, the post-Stalin years and Gorbachev's perestroika years.
The years before the Russian Revolution of 1905 and the Russian revolution of 1917 are considered the pre-revolutionary years. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an unsuccessful attempt to topple the ruling czar and it all started with the Bloody Sunday Massacre. The Russian revolution of 1917 succeeded in overthrowing the imperial government and replacing them with the Bolsheviks.
The pre-revolutionary years, in Russia, were filled with Byzantium liturgical chants, nationalistic folk songs, operas, and symphonies. In 988, Prince Vladimir of Kiev decided that Russian's national religion would be Byzantine Orthodoxy and that's how the Byzantium liturgical chants ended up in Russia. However,…
Daniels, Robert V. Russia: The Roots of Confrontation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985.
Gunther, John. Inside Russia Today. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958.
Smith, Hedrick. The New Russians. New York: Avon Books, 1991.
Spector, Ivar. An Introduction to Russian History and Culture. 5th ed. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1969.
stand on the same level as the French Revolution or the Russian Revolution of 1917, because the changes that it implied were not achieved by the thorough bloodshed that these two encountered, there were many keen to develop the subject of radicalism in the American Revolution, mainly through the changes it implied after its achievement rather than through the means these changes were obtained during the Revolution itself.
In this sense, perhaps the first idea we should be referring to when discussing the Radicalism of the American Revolution is the fact that it was a "catalyst of social change"
The American society up to the Revolution was characterized by the same hierarchical structures that dominated every territory of the ritish Empire. As a colony, the American territories were ruled by the King's representative, who was on top of the pyramid. The aristocracy, mostly ritish, subsequently followed down the line, including…
1. Gordon S. Wood. The Radicalism of the American Revolution. First Vintage Books Edition. 1993. Quote from the Internet, at http://www.brothersjudd.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/reviews.detail/book_id/1275/Radicalism%20o.htm
Joseph Stalin, with some justification, is perhaps one of the least popular leaders of recent world history. His brutal actions when enforcing collectivized agriculture upon the Russian peasantry caused casualties so high the numbers of the dead, in terms of the amount of the population of his nation that was killed, exceed that of the Holocaust. According to the historian Lynne Viola in her book Peasant Rebels Under Stalin, even the cagiest estimations of the death toll that occurred suggest that over the course of the decade between the 1920s and early 1930s, more than 1,100 people were directly killed by the state. Even more Russians indirectly suffered death by famine as a result of the agricultural process of collectivization. (210; 213-214) hat is not so well-known, however, is that starvation also had its roots in the policies employed by the resistance of peasants as well as the policies of…
Lynne, Viola. Peasant Rebels Under Stalin. New York, 1998.
As in every decisive point of war, so I have come about once more to add to the glory of the French Empire. The Grande Armee is ready for battle, and we are to cross Neman shortly on the morrow. Poland must not fall to the Russians, and if needs be, we shall show the Russian emperor our true force; the force of the French army in her magnificent glory.
No other empire could have hoped to grow as largely as France, not Alexander the Great, not even Caesar's Roman Empire. No, it shall be a glorified and united Europe, and I shall see my reforms through. No ancient imperial order should stand in the way of revolution. Certainly Louis and his wife Marie Antoinette fared the worst for their mistreatment of the Jacobins during the Reign of Terror. And if I have to fight…
Expectations Change That Led evolution
Compare Contrast Expectations Change Led evolution 1917/Civil War ealities
How the ideological changes that accompanied the revolution shaped the arts/culture of ussia/USS
The social and economic systems experienced tremendous transitions occasioning to stress among the populations of ussia. The great reforms formed a cautious path to modernization and reform. Through emancipation, peasants were allowed to own pieces of land and had the personal freedom to share their pieces of land. However, these peasants were not happy with the settlement programs based on emancipation because they held the belief that they were legal owners of the land. This claim became a major source of discontent leading to the 1917 peasant revolution (Sampson & Marienhoff, 2008).
ussia experienced a turning point at the onset of 1917; the nation was prepared for revolution and indeed, they saw the first revolution, which brought rapid changes and increased social opportunities.…
Rossman, V. (2010). Russian intellectual antisemitism in the post-Communist era. Lincoln, Neb:
Sampson, R.J., & Marienhoff, I. (2008). The American economy: Analysis, issues, principles.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin
University of Pittsburgh., & American Political Science Association. (2005). United States political science documents. Pittsburgh: University Center for International Studies,
Whether it was the Spanish that fought to conquer lands in the south, or the Dutch that engaged in stiff competition with the British, or the French that were ultimately defeated in 1763, the American soil was one clearly marked by violent clashes between foreign powers. This is why it was considered that the cry for independence from the British was also a cry for a peaceful and secure future for the next generations. Thomas Paine argued that the time had indeed come for the colonies to be excluded from the continuous clashes that had defined their past. Thus, because of the British's traditional inclination towards war, such an objective was hard to reach under the Empire's constant control. Consequently, the time had come for the colonies to break apart and search their peace as an independent state.
Looking at the historical development of the events, it is easy to…
Aptheker, Herbert. 1960. The American Revolution, 1763-1783: a history of the American people. New York: International Publishers.
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. 1994. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier.
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. 1998. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses.
Carlyle, Thomas. 2004. The French revolution, New York: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. Vol. 2
As the Cold War began, U.S. found itself in a war with the U.S.S.R. On several levels and the only method that could have given U.S. The supremacy it desired was through the good use of intelligence. Espionage, military, industrial, and technological developments were all part of the weapons used during the Cold War. This is why the intelligence revolution was very much needed and useful in the end.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the CIA was one of the most respected organizations in the U.S., given its role in resisting against the expansion of influence of the Soviet Union and the spread of communism. These were the main missions of the organization. As the results of having a well-organized and well-trained intelligence agency paid off and as U.S. managed to prove itself superior to the Soviet Union in many instances, CIA became the main instrument for guiding the U.S.…
Kahn, David. The Code-Breakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet. New York: Scribner, 1997
Knight, Judson, CIA (United States Central Intelligence Agency), available at http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ch-Co/CIA-United-States-Central-Intelligence-Agency.html ;
O'Neal, Michael J., United States Intelligence, History, available at http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ul-Vo/United-States-Intelligence-History.html ;
O'Neal, Michael J., CIA, Formation and History, available at http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ch-Co/CIA-Formation-and-History.html ;
hen men, therefore, break up the original compact or agreement which gives its corporate form and capacity to a state, they are no longer a people; they have no longer a corporate existence; they have no longer a legal coactive force to bind within, nor a claim to be recognized abroad. They are a number of vague, loose, individuals, and nothing more. ith them all is to begin again (Sallust, 1963).
Soon authors started to insist on the antiquity of Dutch liberty. In 1587, for example, illem Verheyden urged the Dutch to uphold the 'exceptional freedom which we have inherited from our ancestors', as it had been retained 'since the time of Julius Caesar'. 5 The antiquity of Dutch liberty became one of the foundational ideas of the Dutch Republic. According to the Batavian myth, as it is called nowadays, (Brewer, 1975) the liberty of the United Provinces, and of…
Brewer J., Rockingham, Burke, and Whig Political Argument, Historical Journal, 18 (1975), 188-201.
Burke Edmund, The Works of the Right Honorable Edmund Burke, 6 vols. (London, 18869).
Burke Edmund, Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790).
Blackstone William, Commentaries on the Laws of England, 4 vols. (Oxford, 1765-9).
Fellowship Proposal: ussian Studies, Sovietology, and Orientalism
The motivation for this proposal is based on personal interest in the former ussian Empire. The proposed dissertation that will result from this research will consist of an introduction that will discuss the importance of this study, followed by three main chapters, and a conclusion that provides a summary of the research and important findings concerning the issues of interest. Each of the chapters will cover a specific historical period characterized by a different set of American views, studies, and assumptions about Central Asia prior to the end of the Cold War period. Ending the proposed dissertation with the early Cold War era is also apt because it was a pivotal moment in the formal establishment of Central Asian Studies, albeit as a sub-discipline within ussian and Soviet studies.
Prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia was comprised of five…
Baldwin, Kate A., Beyond the Color Line and the Iron Curtain: Reading Encounters between Black and Red, 1922-1963. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.
Bookwalter, John, Siberia and Central Asia. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1899.
Carew, Joy Gleason, Blacks, Reds, and Russians Sojourners in Search of the Soviet Promise. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2008.
Davis, Raymond and Andrew Steiger, Soviet Asia, Democracy's First Line of Defense. New York: the Dial Press, 1942.
hile the February Revolution ended the reign of the Tsar, the October Revolution solidified the hold and influence of the Bolsheviks. Lenin appealed to popular notions in order to garner support, though what followed the Bolshevik seizure of power was only more civil war between the Reds and the hites. The October Revolution nonetheless ended Tsarist Russia, as it had been known, by setting the course definitively towards a socialist state, in which violence and totalitarianism were key dictates, and the old technique of divide and conquer was used to quell the opposition that was itself full of disunity. Autocratic Russia could not have continued in tsarist form as there were too many forces at work in Russia at the end of the 19th century and early 20th century. The Bolsheviks were too well funded to fail and the will of the tsar was out of favor with the…
Rabinowitch, Alexander. "The October Revolution." Critical Companion to Russian
Wildman, Allan. "The Breakdown of the Imperial Army in 1917." Critical Companion
to Russian History.
New Technology/Changes in Warfare from End of French Revolution/Napoleonic Wars to American Civil War eginning
Warfare Change in Technology
In France, reforms began after the great Seven-Year-long war. The war ended in French calamity in1763. Evidently, it was important to have reforms to field soldiers that could fight for French interests and honor. The government suggested that light infantry should be increased. This later brought about initiatives for conventional infantry training in techniques for light infantry. This training created soldiers that could fight both in open and close order. The multiple gun calibers used by the artillery unit were taken away; and they were left with only four varieties. There were new guns, which were more portable and lighter than the earlier ones. The new guns featured standardized segments and enclosed rounds. Lidell-Hart stated that according to Jean du Teil, "light mobile guns for use in the field when used…
Gibson. "Napoleon and the Grande Armee: Military Innovations Leading to a Revolution in 19th Century Military Affairs." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/organization/c_rma.html .
History.com. "Civil War Technology." 2010. Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/civil-war-technology .
Scholastic. "Strategy and Tactics, Military." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/strategy-and-tactics-military .
Zapotoczny, Walter. "The Impact of the Industrial Revolution On Warfare." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.wzaponline.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Inductrialrevolution.292125935.pdf.
Russia, Reform and Revolution
The Great Reforms freed the serfs but they did not really ease the life of the peasant or make it much better. The social structure (i.e., class system) remained fundamentally the same, except now the landowning class was determined to give as little to the peasants as possible. hereas prior to the Reforms, the peasants viewed the landowners similarly to the way Europeans viewed their lords in feudal Europe, as their providers and protectors. Now the peasants were viewed as autonomous and dependent upon themselves and the law was rigged against them regarding in particular the land settlement act (Freeze). The actual beneficiary of the Reform was neither serf nor landowner, but the State, which expanded its bureaucracy from the Tsar on down to the village. Now the serfs, who had always operated under the expression "we are yours, but the land is ours" now had…
Freeze, "Reform and Counter-Reform," pp. 180-93
Cracraft, pp. 344-58: MacKenzie-Wallace on mir and zemstvo (1877)
Olga Vasileva, "The Significance of the Peasant Commune in Revolutionary Thought" (student paper, 2012)
"The Catechism of a Revolutionary" (1868) and "Demands of Narodnaia Volia [People's Will]" (1879) in Dmytryshyn, ed. Imperial Russia, pp. 350-59
Persepolis by Marjane Satrapi
Persepolis is a book that tells the story of Marjane Satrapi and is entitled as the story of a childhood. The author of the book was born on the edge of the Caspian Sea in Iran and grew up in Tehran. During her stay in Tehran, Satrapi studied at the Lycee Francais and left for Vienna and later Strasbourg for studies in decorative arts. The book tells the story of her youth in Iran in the 1970s and 80s, especially with regards to life through the Islamic evolution and the Iraqi war. In telling the story about Satrapi's childhood, the book explains the author's once outrageous and ordinary childhood, which is also characterized with extraordinary, unimaginable, and loving family. Notably, the story of Marjane Satrapi in Persepolis contains two major revolutions with different reactions. The first revolution is regarding the overthrows of the Shah while the…
Satrapi, M. (n.d.). Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood Summary. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from http://www.gradesaver.com/persepolis-the-story-of-a-childhood/study-guide/short-summary
8 billion. The Occupation authorities also helped the Japanese government overcome postwar economic chaos, especially rampant inflation, by balancing the government budget, raising taxes and imposing price and wage freezes, and resuming limited foreign trade" (Kesselman et al., 203). The U.S. aid not only helped to rebuild the country, but also ensured that Japan was stable enough so that renegade seedlings of Communism or comparable institutions didn't suddenly flourish. The United States should sue this wise historical strategy that it deftly employed to help the economies of poorer nations in the Middle East. hen people are living in poverty, this makes them ripe breeding grounds for terrorism to build and people to be brainwashed by doctrines which vilify the est. Furthermore the United States should invest money in developing educational programs in the Middle East, so that the citizens there can actually envision a real future for themselves, without having…
Bryne, P.J. The Chinese Revolution: The Triumph of Communism. Minneapolis: Compass Point
Kesselman, M., Krieger, J. And Joseph, W. Introduction to Comparative Politics. Boston:
Wadsworth Learnign, 2013.
The twentieth century had been tumultuous, particularly during the former half, the world witnessing two major world wars, many revolutions and nationalist struggles, each holding a significant bearing on the other. The major events being discussed are -- Chinese Revolution, Russian Revolution, India's independence, World War I and Treaty of Versailles and World War II. Though the events do not chronologically fall in order, each spanning over a few too many years, the developments and undercurrents of one has greatly influenced the other.
Revolution in China began in 1911 with the National Party of China -- Kuo Min Tang -- playing the major role initially. The prime motive of Revolution was to solve the political and economic problems that plagued the Chinese society during the turn of the century --feudalism and semi-feudal patterns of relations in agricultural production, introducing agrarian reforms with modern methods of production,…
Brian McArthur, Penguin Book of Twentieth Century Speeches (London: Penguin Viking, 1992), pp. 234-237.
Roberts, J.M. The Penguin History of the World, The Penguin. Third Edition Helicon Publishing, 1992
Kevin Reilly, Worlds of History: A Comparative Reader: Since 1400, Bedford/St. Martin's; (February 2000)
Mao Tse-Tung, Selected Works of Mao Tse-Tung: Vol. I, From: Be Concerned with the Well-Being of the Masses, Pay Attention to Methods of Work --The Concluding speech made by Comrade Mao Tse-tung at the Second National Congress of Workers' and Peasants' Representatives held in Juichin, Kiangsi Province in January 1934. Available at http://www.maoism.org/msw/vol1/mswv1_idx.htm. Accessed on 18.7.2003
The fact that the Ottoman Empire had experienced significant losses until that time meant that other European powers needed to intervene and attempt to gain control over areas that the Ottomans lost. The Allies eventually won the conflict but it was difficult to determine the exact effects that their victory would have on their relationship with the Ottoman Empire, as its leaders seemed determined to maintain most of their attitudes with regard to non-Muslims within their borders, thus meaning that one of the primary reasons for which the French, the English, and the Sardinians entered the war was believed to be unimportant by the Ottomans.
6. Crisis in the Ottoman Empire
People across Greece saw the Crimean War as an opportunity to concentrate their powers into removing Ottoman control from within their borders. Individuals in the Epirus region started to publicly express revolutionary attitudes in an attempt to influence others…
9. Wilson, H.W., "The Great War: the standard history of the all Europe conflict. Digging in," (Trident Press International, 01.12.1999)
10. Wolf, Eric L., "Peasant wars of the twentieth century," (University of Oklahoma Press, 1969)
11. Woloch, Isser, "Revolution and the meanings of freedom in the nineteenth century," (Stanford University Press, 1996)
12. "The State and Revolution in the Twentieth Century: Major Social Transformations of Our Time," (Rowman & Littlefield, 2007)
Dramatic Social and Political Upheaval Following W.W. I and it's Impact on Composers of the Time
It is difficult to describe the impact of the First World War on the societies, cultures, economies, and technologies of the time; as this devastating conflict had the effect of rapidly transforming all of these in a very short time. The entire world changed as a result of the war, it went from a global monarchy-based imperial system to a modern nation-state system which was socially, economically ad technologically very different. Empires were dissolved and overthrown with governments taking their place. The war had the effect of introducing new technologies, new social structures, new systems of government, and new economic systems to the world. These changes had effects on the people who lived through these times, particularly artists. The world of music was equally transformed during this time, as expressed in the works of…
"Dmitry Shostakovich" In Boosey and Hawkes. Retrieved from http://www.boosey.com/composer/Dmitri+Shostakovich
"Igor Stravinsky" In Boosey and Hawkes. Retrieved from http://www.boosey.com/composer/Igor+Stravinsky
Mazulo, Mark (2010) Shostakovich's preludes and fugues, contexts, style, performance. New Haven: Yale UP.
Miller, Mark. (1994). Louis Armstrong: A Cultural Legacy. New York: Queens Museum of Art.
One of the most pragmatic applications of Marxist labor theory would be strong state regulations on capitalist enterprise: requiring, for example, mandatory profit sharing or a means to include all workers in the process of management and in rights to the means of production.
By the early 20th century, the Russian economy was rapidly industrializing, which dramatically altered social structures and institutions. The Czarist regime was showing signs of wear as a burgeoning bourgeoisie was amassing considerable wealth and corresponding political clout. At the same time, factories demanded a larger labor force and recruited from rural regions. Workers who migrated either permanently or temporarily to urban centers and to centers of industry experienced a significant breakdown in traditional social structures and family life. The first stage of the Russian Revolution occurred when the Czar was overthrown to form an aristocratic government, which was soon overtaken by the Bolshevik communists. Lenin…
Tragedies from deadly terrorist attacks have made the international communities to pervasively fear and loath terrorism. Terrorism is undertaken by individual with motivations that are complex for the understanding of security agencies and individuals. Definition according United States statutes states terrorism to be politically motivated, premeditated, violence against noncombatant individuals, private property by clandestine agents or subnational groups, with an intention to obtain audience (Launtenberg, 2011). This definition is adopted for purposes of this paper.
Attempts to shed some light on terrorism highlight the motives of the perpetrators while they give some appropriate measures to resolve the problem. The organizations linked to supporting terrorism by State Department stood at 22 in the year 2001. In three years' time, the list of identified terrorist groups had grown to 36 with more groups being listed as unofficial terrorist organizations. One might mistake terrorism industry for a thriving economic entity or the…
Launtenberg, F. (2011). Homeland Security and Fighting Terrorism. Retrieved 19th October 2013, from http://lautenberg.senate.gov/issues_update/homesec_terror.cfm
McCarthy, Timothy, P., & McMillian, J. (2008). The Radical Reader: A Documentary History of the American Radical Tradition. (Vol. New Press): New York.
Morag, N. (2004). The Economic and Social Effects of Intensive Terrorism: Israel 2000 -- 2004. Retrieved 19th October, 2013, from http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2006/issue3/jv10no3a9.html
Ridgeway, J. (1990). Blood in the Face: The Ku Klux Klan, Aryan Nations, Nazi Skinheads, and the Rise of a New White Culture. New York: Thunder's Mouth,.
Lenin 13) if the workers do not succeed power to the wise, for the sake of social reformation and change then the revolution is lost from its start. Is this not a lesson you have learned from your most recent involvement in the failed eimar revolution?
As I have said previously, the current situation was struck down by providence, rather than any lack of effort or skill on the part of the revolutionaries. Our intentions were thwarted by numbers, rather than intellect and desire, which would further argue my position, that the revolution must be not only supported but driven and populated by the workers, who are the most likely to be aware of the aftereffects of war, as they are the traditional masses who have been the most effected by those in the past.
At the close of these comments Lenin rose to leave, unnerved by the…
Lenin, V.I. Left Wing Communism: An Infantile Disorder. New York: International Publishers Co., Inc., 1989.
Luxemburg, Rosa. The Russian Revolution, and Leninism or Marxism?. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1961.
Lynd, Staughton. "Feminism for Men." The Journal of Men's Studies 7.2 (1999): 165.
Alexander II dilemmas views emancipation serfs
The background of Emancipation serfs: The foundation of serfdom extends back to as earlier as 11th century and continued in the Russian society till the time, Tsar Alexander finally announced to demolish this system in 1861. The serfdom was an altered form of slavery for a number of people, who were restricted for every need of life and bound to take permission from their lord. They could not get married, start a business, own land or even travel with liberty. In the nineteenth century, however, the people of Russia, seeking for major political, economical and social reforms, desired for end of serfdom. Furthermore, the involvement of Russia and than a defeat in Crimean War resulted as the final event stimulating consequent reform decisions in the country. Alexander II felt the insecurity of analysts in his shrewd leadership after the unusual defeat (Gorshkov, 2005).
Gorshkov, B. (2005). A Life Under Russian Serfdom: Memoirs of Savva Dmitrievich Purlevskii, 1800-68. Budapest & New York: Central European University Press.
Alexander II and the emancipation of the serfs. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.blacksacademy.net/content/3736.html
Figes, O. (1996). A people's tragedy: the Russian Revolution, 1891-1924. London: Jonathan Cape.
Lynch, M. (2003). The Emancipation of the Russian Serfs, 1861: A Charter of Freedom or an Act of Betrayal? Retrieved January 6, 2013, from http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_apa_format_examples.shtml
British constitutional history has largely been a slow and deliberate process of evolution over a period of centuries. The following comments of a political scientist are thus largely true:
Nowhere else has the world witnessed a political evolution so relatively free from great civil commotion. Britain has not had a revolution comparable with the French Revolution of 1798 or the Russian Revolution of 1917. It is true that there have been threats of Revolution and so-called revolutions in Britain, but they did not deflect the main current of political development.
In this essay we shall discuss why the above comments are a reasonably accurate observation of the British political history.
Until the Middle Ages, Britain was a feudal kingdom that gradually transformed into a strong centralized monarchy. The monarchy came into its own in the middle ages and the monarchs felt secure enough in their position to seek the advice…
Kishlansky, Mark. "United Kingdom." Section on History. Article in Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2002
Belanger, Claude. "The British Constitution." Quebec History. February 26, 2001. Marianopolis College Web Site. December 6, 2002. http://www2.marianopolis.edu/quebechistory/index.htm
To the north of Tajikistan lies Kyrgyzstan, to the west lies Uzbekistan, to the east lies China and to the south lies Afghanistan. This state was formed due to the split of Central Asia in 1920 under Soviet rule. It covers an area of 143,100 sq. km. 
Soghdiana, the northern part of today's Tajikistan, was settled by Iranian tribes between 1,000 and 500 C. Important cities of Tajikistan today Khujand and Panjkakent belonged to Soghdiana in ancient times. During their tarvelling to China and to the west, Soghdians adopted other religions such as Zoroastrianism, Christianity, huddism and they also shared their knowledge with people whom they met on their way. During sixth to fourth centuries .C, Tajikistan belonged to ancient Persia's Achaemenid Empire that was ruled by Darius I. In 333 .C., Alexander the Great conquered it. 
In early Eighteenth Century, Islamic Arabs…
 Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov (accessed February 18, 2013)
 The Land of Tajiks, http://www.oocities.org/tajikland/History.html (accessed February 18, 2013)
 Early History, http://countrystudies.us/tajikistan/3.htm , (accessed February 18, 2013)
 Tajikistan - History & Background, http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1503/Tajikistan-HISTORY-BACKGROUND.html , (accessed February 18, 2013)
History Of Dada Art Movement
There is a long list of movements that were begun for the sake of art, for instance cubism and surrealism. These two movements experienced grave criticism as they touched nihillism. On the other hand, movements like Dada have been admired and honored by the majorities (Mobileeference).
If truth be told, the early 20th century brought a turbulent and disorderly change in the world. The First World War and the ussian evolution tainted people's understanding of their worlds in an overwhelming manner. This new mind set of people was strongly reflected in the early twentieth century art movements as well. They were all, if seen in technical terms, were boldly modern and groundbreaking. In order to look into and explore the structure of realization, these movements moved further than the unruffled surface of traditional painting. However, perhaps Dada must be looked for its most compelling explorations…
"Dada." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2009. Questia. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .
Duchamp, M. "The Richard Mutt Case." Theories and Documents of Contemporary Art: A Sourcebook of Artists' Writings. Eds. Kristine Stiles, Peter Selz. Berkeley: University of California, 1996. 817. Print.
Essak, S.. "Dada - Art History 101 Basics: The Non-Art Movement (1916-23)." About.com. The New York Times Company, n.d. Web. 24 Apr 2012. .
Hopkins, David. Dada and Surrealism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Questia. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .
At the same time, the socialist views of Karl Marx and Frederic Engels came to be known in Russia and offered the intellectuals a new consideration of the relation between work, remuneration, and the relationship between the worker and its employer. This in turn created a new sense of national unity and a reconsideration of what nationality really meant.
Taking all these perspectives into account, it is essential that the precise reason for the revolution. First and foremost, there was a need for change and the socialist views considered that change cannot occur through evolution, but rather revolution. In this sense, at the time, it was considered that the tsarist rule had brought the Russian empire to its ruin through the constant attempts to support social exclusion and differentiation. Thus, "for more than a century Russia's progressive forces stubbornly and tirelessly labored for the destruction of the most despotic governmental…
Basil, John. "Russia and the Bolshevik Revolution. Russian Review." The Editors and Board of Trustees of the Russian Review, 1968.
Don Levine, Isaac. The Russian Revolution. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1917.
Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Empire 1875-1914. Oxford: Abacus, 1995.
Jahn, Hubertus. Patriotic Culture in Russia During World War I. Ithaca,.: Cornell University Press, 1995.
Fathers and Sons by Ivan Turgenev. Specifically it will discuss what the reader can learn about ussia's past by reading this novel. This novel has consistently divided critics, who cannot agree in their analysis of this epic ussian work by novelist Ivan Turgenev. Some find it in the ilk of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, while others found his novel fanciful -- not a decisive look into ussian history at all. However, as time passes, more critics agree, Fathers and Sons is a fascinating glimpse into an unsettling and cataclysmic time in ussia's past. It is an accurate look at families of the 1860s in ussia and the turmoil the country faced on the brink of social and radical change. While the novel may be fanciful at times, it is an excellent look into a country on the brink of revolution, and the people who agreed, disagreed, and so passionately believed in…
Binion, Rudolph. "Fiction as Social Fantasy: Europe's Domestic Crisis of 1879-1914." Journal of Social History 27, no. 4 (1994): 679+.
A journal article discussing the historical period in Europe between 1879 through 1914, and how literature played a part in that period. It includes a discussion of Fathers and Sons and its historical relevance.
Ivanov, Mikhail. "The Prose Poet." Russian Life, October-November 1998, 19+.
A short biography of Ivan Turgenev and his works, including Fathers and Sons. Helpful for background information on the early life of the author.
In many ways, Russia is still recovering from it, trying to deal with the fact that only a few decades ago, it inflicted on itself one of the worst holocausts in human memory" (Hochschild, 1993). Therefore, the purges were used on the one hand to discourage the people and the elites in particular from establishing a dissident opposition or a negative pole of power that could have countered the Soviet regime.
Also, another possible justification of the way in which the Soviet regime acted in that period was the complete elimination of the possible negative influences from the old regimes or more precisely of the opposing forces in Russia. More precisely, "the decade of the 1930s saw the renewal of the Soviet leading stratum. During the period the.regime progressively unburdened itself of its legacy of class prejudice and rose to its full totalitarian posture" (Unger, 1969, 2). The regime of…
Beichman, Arnold. "Pulitzer-Winning Lies." The Daily Standard. 2003. http://www.theweeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/002/791vwuaz.asp
Bernard, Henri. Le communisme et l'aveuglement occidental (Soumagne, Belgium: editions Andre Grisard, 1982)
Boris Bajanov, Avec Staline dans le Kremlin. Paris: Les editions de France, 1930, pp. 2 -- 3.
Connor, Walter D. "The Manufacture of Deviance: The Case of the Soviet Purge, 1936-1938." American Sociological Review, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1972, pp. 403-413.
Hapsburg Empire in the Half entury before World War I
At the outbreak of World War I, The Hapsburg Empire was one of the last vestiges of Holy Roman Empire to be found in Europe. The eventual defeat of the Austrian Haspburgs culminated a demise that began in the half century before the war started.
The reason for the longevity of the Hapsburg Empire rested in its ability to form advantageous political alliances whether they be through marriage- Maria Theresa and Joseph II, religion- acceptance of Protestants ending discrimination against Jews or militaristic- alliance w / Germany, in nature. During the half century before the World War, The Haspburgs created some allegiances that would prove to be faulty.
During the rimean War (1853-1856) the Haspburgs flirted with siding with the France and England against Russia if Russia did not leave Romania. Russia withdrew but not without hard feelings towards the…
Conflicting National Interests
Military Casualties of W.W.I http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/casualties.htm
religion shaped identity political entities ussia (us', Soviet Union, ussian federation) ways 'Historically, there has been a somewhat tricky dichotomy between religion in what is today known as ussia and the political situation that has governed this country. The relationship between these two crucial elements of society -- religion and politics -- has at times been in accordance with one another, and other times dangerously at odds with each other. Today there is a degree of tolerance and temperance between these two aspects of ussian life that have served to produce a great deal of friction throughout the country previously.
During the period of Czarist ussia, which concluded in 1917, politics exerted a great deal of influence over religion. With the Czars governing the country, ussian Orthodoxy was essentially the only religion supported by the state. Despite the fact that this religion was prevalent throughout the country well before the…
McCarthy, B. (2012). "Grappling with a post-Soviet identity." PRI's The World. Retrieved from http://www.theworld.org/2012/01/post-soviet-identity/
No author. (2007). "Religious and political history of modern Russia." Mary Mother of God Mission Society. Retrieved from http://www.vladmission.org/history/religiouspoliticalhist.htm
He writes, "The rise of the radical Right after the First World War was undoubtedly a response to the danger, indeed to the reality, of social revolution and working-class power in general, to the October revolution and Leninism in particular" (Hobsbawm 124). The right-wing backlash against labor unions was crucial in setting up the rise of those fascist leaders who would be responsible for initiating the Second World War. As such it was partially responsible for creating the conditions for violence, but also, later, for unification between anti-fascist forces to defeat them. Socialist resistance to fascism was always strong, starting out peacefully until "resistance to fascism which did not envisage the use of arms could not succeed" (Hobsbawm 152). They were not that successful and went against the Stalin's Soviet view of a symbiotic alliance between capitalism and communism against fascism. Yet paradoxically, it was the strength of communism coming…
Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Extremes: A History of the World, 1914-1991. New York: Vintage Books, 1996.
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
All European nations suffered devastating postwar economic consequences, which further increased the reluctance to use military force to subdue Hitler. The United States enjoyed a postwar boom, given that none of the battles had been waged upon its own territories. But the Republican-dominated Senate refused to allow the U.S. To become a member of the League of Nations, and the absence of strong American leadership made the League ineffective as a peacekeeping force. Germany was also stripped of all of its colonies: the fact that many new nations were created in the redrawing of the map of Europe meant that many of the recently evolved national identities and infrastructures of new countries were quite fragile.
Although they were 'older' nations, Germany and Russia were particularly politically unstable, as a result of the conditions spawned by orld ar I. Despite its early exit from the ar, Russia's economy was undergoing an…
"German Revolution." Spartacus Schoolnet. April 14, 2010.
"Wars and Battles, World War I." U.S. History. April 14, 2010.
Strategic Perspectives Sberbank
Over the last several years, the banking industry in Russia underwent a major transformation. As the traditional institutions of the past, have been evolving into global financial centers. This is because they are reaching out to new demographics of customers, in an effort to participate in the rapid growth that is taking place throughout the former Soviet Union. In the case of Sberbank, they have been taking their traditional banking functions and augmenting them with international financing opportunities. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than, Sberbank playing a major role in helping to revitalize the Russian bond market. Where, 2010 has seen the largest number of offerings ever for Russian companies and the Russian government. (Matermevonsky 2010) This is important, because it shows how Sberbank has evolved from a traditional bank in 1841, to becoming one of the largest employers in…
Banking and Finance, n.d., Country Studies. Available from [19 November 2010].
Joint Press Release Sberbank and General Motors, 2010, Sberbank. Available from [19 November 2010]
Moody's Changes Outlook on Sberbank's Financial Strength, 2010, Sberbank. Available from [19 November 2010].
Russian Federation Banks, 2010, Portalino. Available from [19 November 2010].
Northrop Frye recognized this fact but believed that the satire missed its mark:
It completely misses the point as satire on the ussian development of Marxism, and as expressing the disillusionment which many men of good-will feel about ussia. The reason for that disillusionment would be much better expressed as the corruption of expediency by principle (Frye 1987, p. 10).
What links 1984 and Animal Farm most directly is that both are anti-utopian in nature, for Orwell had developed a certainty that government in a utopian society would always be corrupted and would lose sight of its principles because of expediency.
Animal Farm was written during World War II. There is evidence that he was planning a novel that would become 1984 even before he wrote Animal Farm, and there is a relationship between the two books that is not often noted:
The form each book took was very different,…
Brander, L. (1954). George Orwell. New York: Longmans, Green and Co.
Crick, B. (1986). The making of Animal Farm. In Critical Essays on George Orwell, B. Oldsey and J. Browne (eds.). Boston: G.K. Hall.
Frye, N. (1987). In George Orwell, H. Bloom (ed.). New York: Chelsea House.
Green, T.H. (1995). Liberal legislation and freedom of contract. In Sources of the Western Tradition, M. Perry, J.R. Peden, and T.H. Von Laue (eds.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Views on the Nature of Knowledge: Social Scientists vs. Natural Scientists
hat is knowledge? A simple question, or so most people would think. Knowledge is the accumulation of information on a given subject or subjects. It is a collection of facts, of things known to be true...or is it? The closer one looks, the more one comes to realize that there are many different approaches to obtaining knowledge, and many different definitions of precisely what constitutes knowledge. One's use of the term varies with one's own background and objectives. To some, knowledge is an absolute, to others; it is that which is gained through long hours of observation and long years of experience. The facts that make up what we call knowledge may be composed of absolutes, or they may be composed of many opinions, opinions that we believe to be most accurate or most correct. But what then…
Caldwell, Chris. The Prime Glossary: Perfect Number. 2002. URL: http://primes.utm.edu/glossary/page.php?sort=PerfectNumber
Gal Einai Institute of Israel. "Yud - The Mystical Significance of the Hebrew Letters." The Inner Dimension. No Date. URL:
Pederson, K.C. "Scotland Raising Shedding Sheep for Wool Production." Twisted Spinsters: Obsessive Fiber Disorder. November 2000. URL: http://www.twistedspinsters.com/page14.html.
There is much to the assertion by Nachman Syrkin that the Jews have persisted in history because the performed a socio-economic function that other peoples did not want to do or could not do. In his 1898 "The Jewish Problem and the Socialist Jewish State, " Syrkin lays out these ideas. Regarding this, Syrkin argued that a classless society and national sovereignty were the only means of solving the Jewish question completely. He felt that this social revolution would be the key to the normalization of the Jewish condition. ith this in mind, he argued that the Jew must therefore join the proletariat as the only way to end class struggle and redistribute power justly. Since the bourgeoisie betrayed the principles of liberalism, then Jews must be the torchbearers of Socialism.
hile Syrkin is many times seen as working on his own, however he had predecessors and contemporaries who had…
Borochov, Ber. "The national question and the class struggle." 1997. In the Zionist idea.
Edited by Arthur Hertzberg, 355-360. New York: Jewish Publication Society.
Hess, Moses. "Rome and Jerusalem." 1997. In the Zionist idea. Edited by Arthur
Hertzberg, 120-139. New York: Jewish Publication Society.
Russia was a highly backward agricultural country prior to the revolution of 1917. Most of the agricultural land was owned by the royal family, the nobility and the clergy. Most peasants had to manage to survive on less than three acres of land using primitive tools and methods of cultivation. To compound their problems they were required to pay huge sums in rent and tributes to their land owners every year. These hardships created great discontent. Moreover, Russian industry was behind the times and highly dependent on foreign investment capital. Industrial workers had to endure hard conditions, received extremely low wages, and worked 12 to 14 hours a day. During this period it was considered a crime to form trade unions. The government did nothing to improve these conditions and the majority of the Russian people suffered from poverty and disease ("Causes of the Russia Revolution").
"Causes of the Russian Revolution." Pink Monkey Online Study Guide -- World History. (ND). Web. 22 October 2012.
"Causes." The Russian Revolution. (N.D.). Web. 22, 2012. < http://akussr.com/index.html>
During his first few months in Paris, Marx became a communist and put forth his views in a plethora of writings known as the Economic and philosophical Manuscripts, that remained unpublished until the 1930s. It was also in Paris that Marx developed his life long association with Friedrich Engels. (Karl Marx, 1818-1883)
At the end of 1844 Marx was debarred from Paris and with Engels migrated to Brussels. In the initiation of 1848, Marx moved back to Paris when a revolution first emerged and onto Germany where he instituted again in Cologne, the Neue heinishce Zeitung. In later periods Marx settled in London, and was optimistic about the imminence of a new revolutionary emergence in Europe. He re-entered the Communist League and wrote two prolonged pamphlets on the 1848 revolution in France and its repercussions, the Class Struggles in France and the 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. He had a…
Adams, John. Ideology. Retrieved at http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/westn/Ideology.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Biography: Mao Zedong. Retrieved at http://il.essortment.com/maozedongbiogr_rkok.htm. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Bunton, Hedley P. Forty Years of China: Chapter 11 - the thoughts and acts of Mao Tse-tung. 1988. Retrieved at http://www.acay.com.au/~bunton/china40y/chap11.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Karl Marx, 1818-1883. Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History. Retrieved at http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
I especially appreciate the opportunity to place musical compositions and composers within a historical context. Placing music within a historical context illuminates some of the variables that characterize a piece like "ite of Spring." Understanding the cultural, political, and military events taking place during the composer's lifetime is essential to understanding the music. Although analyzing classical pieces can prove difficult because of shifting time signatures, counterpoint, and layering of sounds, I am now much more able to distinguish between different styles and composers. The course content has awoken my mind and my ears to rhythms and melodies and I look forward to exploring Western classical music more in-depth. For example, pieces like "ite of Spring" have made their way into movies and therefore continue to have an impact on musical culture.
Alsop, M. (2008). "Getting Hooked on the 'ite' Sound." NP MUSIC. etrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9041627
Alsop, M. (2008). "Getting Hooked on the 'Rite' Sound." NPR MUSIC. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9041627
Kelly, T. (1999). "Igor Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring." NPR Online. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 from Igor Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring"
Revolutions in Music: Stravinsky's Rite of Spring." (2006). PBS.org. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.pbs.org/keepingscore/topicfeature2.html
Thomas, M.T. (2006). "Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring." San Francisco Symphony. Retrieved Dec 19, 2008 at http://www.keepingscore.org/flash/stravinsky/index.html
" He concluded that "the prosecutor's office must be centralized and completely independent of the local organs of authority." This conclusion, quite naturally, was buttressed with the appropriate reference to the guiding hand of the revolution's leader: "From the principle that there is a single legality obtaining throughout the epublic "and the entire federation" (Lenin) and from the obligation of the public prosecutor to see to it that no single decision of local authority deviated from the law, Lenin deduced all the most important principles for the organization of the prosecutor's office..." (Vyshinsky, Law, 525). Contrast this with Vyshinsky's admonition of a witness, "Don't pay attention to the laws, just listen to me" (Huskey, "Vyshinsky, Krylenko," 427).
The Soviet people, however, lost a great deal more from their ordeal of the 1930s. Not only did they lose the best of their intelligentsia and military, they ultimately lost the power for…
Abramovitch, R. (1962). The Soviet Revolution. New York: International Universities
Amba, a. (1952). I Was Stalin's Bodyguard. London: Frederick Mueller.
Armstrong, W., et.al. (2009). World War II: Behind Closed Doors. London: BBC Video.
Glimpse Into the Mind of a Genius
Vladimir Nabokov wrote about the world in which he lived. His world was the first half of the twenty first century, and was filled with mistrust and double standards. His world was one of death and the darker side of human nature. It is this side of human nature that intrigued Nabokov and also something that his life had led him to experience first hand. In a world at war one is surrounded by death and death was a central theme of Nabokov's work. Nabokov's work reflected the world in which he lived. Nabokov uses stereotypical references to paint a clear picture of life during orld ar II."
Many consider Nabokov to be a literary genius who weaves complex plots and rich characters together in ways that can seem incomprehensible at times. No one will argue with his clever command of the English…
Nabokov, Vladimir. "Conversation Piece" Retrieved at http://ruslit.virtualave.net/nabokov/conversationl.html Accessed August, 2002.
Brian Boyd. Speak, Memory: An Autobiography Revisited. Alfred A Knopf Publishers. March,
Grossman, Lev. The gay Nabokov. Salon Media group, Inc. Salon.com. 2000. Retrieved at http://dir.salon.com/books/feature/2000/05/17/nabokov/index.html Accessed August
Thorpe, Vanessa. Gay brother 'is key to Lolita author" The Observer. Sunday May 21, 2000.