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Food-borne illnesses: Salmonella
The salmonella bacterium is one of the most well-known and well-publicized health threats in the U.S. "Salmonella germs have been known to cause illness for over 100 years" (What is Salmonellosis, 2010, CDC). Salmonella bacteria can be present in the intestines of humans, and can be transmitted through consumption of tainted foods, water, or animal matter. Infections can be difficult to trace in the early stages, because "contaminated foods usually look and smell normal" (Diagnosis and treatment, 2010, CDC). While animal-based products tend to be more associated with salmonella in the public imagination, any food can be contaminated.
If someone with salmonella does not wash his or her hands with soap prior to using the bathroom, the food he or she subsequently touches can become contaminated. Thus, one of the best precautions against transmitting salmonella is frequent hand-washing. When preparing food, cross-contamination should be…
Additional information. (2010). CDC. Retrieved:
CDC: Salmonella outbreak more resistant to antibiotics than usual. (2011). CNN. Retrieved:
The symptoms of salmonella include fever, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps that appear about 12 to 72 hours after infection. The illness can last 4 to 7 days, and most people recover without treatment. It is most dangerous for the elderly, infants, and in people with certain other health disorders.
After the FDA announced the outbreak, large restaurant chains like McDonald's, Taco Bell, Burger King and many others immediately pulled all their raw tomatoes from their menus, and began selling items without tomatoes, including items made with tomatoes, such as salsa. Supermarkets across the country pulled the items, as well, even natural food markets like Whole Foods, until the FDA can pinpoint the source of the outbreak.
Now, consumers are avoiding tomatoes, even though the FDA has certified Florida tomatoes are risk free. The outbreak has already caused a major blow to the Florida tomato industry, and growers and packers are…
Salmonellosis is an infection with bacteria called Salmonella. Salmonella germs have been known to cause illness for over 100 years. The bacteria were first isolated in 1885 by Theobald Smith from pigs. The genus name was derived from the last name of D.E. Salmon, who was Smith's director. In 1896 Salmonella infection was diagnosed in humans. Salmonella is the genus name for over 2,500 types of bacteria. Though each type is closely related each is distinctly identifiable by its specific protein. Salmonella bacteria are known to cause disease in humans, animals, and birds throughout the world. The major diseases caused by Salmonella are gastroenteritis and typhoid fever (Davis, 2010).
According to the CDC (2010) approximately 40,000 cases of salmonellosis are reported in the United States each year. Since many milder cases are not diagnosed or reported, some estimate that the actual number of infections may be thirty or more…
CDC. (2012, January 12). Investigation announcement: Multistate outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis unfections linked to retaurant chain A. Centers for disease control and prevention. Retrieved March 19, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/restaurant-enteriditis/011912/index.html
CDC. (2010, September 27). Salmonella. Centers for disease control and prevention. Retrieved March 19, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/general/index.html
Davis, C.P. (2010, October 1). Salmonella poisoning. MedicineNet.com. William C. Shiel (Ed.) Retrieved March18, 2012, from http://www.medicinenet.com/salmonella/article.htm
Foodborne illness at hand was a salmonella outbreak at a buffet at the Old Country in Cheyenne, Wyoming (Flynn, 2016). The cause of the salmonella outbreak is not known, but salmonella is a common risk associated with buffets in particular. The risk occurs because warm food is a fertile breeding ground for the salmonella bacteria. Cooking helps to destroy the bacteria, so improper heating is a critical issue, which makes buffets a problem source for salmonella. There are around 40,000 cases of salmonella every year in the United States, though it is usually only dangerous to the elderly or sick. In some cases, however, others have experienced substantial complications from salmonella infection, such as in the Old Country case.
While the precise source of the salmonella could not be determined, in conditions favorable to the bacteria, it can spread. It is also something that can be transmitted by people, so…
CDC. (2012). Pathogens causing U.S. foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths 2000-2008. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved April 9, 2016 from http://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/PDFs/pathogens-complete-list-01-12.pdf
CNN (2015). Salmonella fast facts. CNN.com. Retrieved April 9, 2016 from http://www.cnn.com/2013/06/28/health/salmonella-fast-facts/
Flynn, D. (2016). Buffets, Inc., bankrupty, may not pay outbreak victim's damages. Food Safety News. Retrieved April 9, 2016 from http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2016/03/buffets-inc-bankrupt-may-not-pay-outbreak-victims-damages/
Heightened temperature (fever) is almost always apparent, and diarrhea is another nearly-universal symptom other possible symptoms of an equine salmonella infection include a loss of appetite, colic, depression, and in some instances certain ulcers and bloating (Johnson 2010; Lane et al. 1992). Most cases of salmonella present only some of these symptoms, rather than all of them, and most of the symptoms are located (as might be expected) along the gastrointestinal tract. Certain joint ailments and other disorders can occur form prolonged infection, however, and death is the likely result of many extreme cases of infection, or even untreated mild and moderate cases (GPA 2010).
There are many different identified methods of treatment depending on the severity of the infection and how early it is caught. Isolation of infected horses and regular disinfecting of stalls with a variety of common cleansers while providing a stress free is environment is…
Equine Veterinary Services and breeding Centre. (2005). "Salmonella infections and vaccinations." Accessed 25 April 2010. http://www.equivetaustralia.com/vaccinations/salmonella.php
GPA. (2010). "Equine salmonellosis." Accessed 25 April 2010. http://www.gopetsamerica.com/horse/diseases/salmonellosis.aspx
Johnson, P. (2010). "Salmonellosis in horses." Accessed 25 April 2010. http://www.petplace.com/horses/salmonellosis-in-horses/page1.aspx
Lane, T.; Braun, R.; Madison, J.; Hawkins, D.; Brown, M. & Merritt, a. (1992). "Equine salmonella infection (Salmonellosis)." Accessed 25 April 2010. http://www.equivetaustralia.com/vaccinations/salmonella.php
The salmonella bacteria had been the twentieth century’s archetypical organism causing food poisoning, highly notorious for the 1988-89 crisis of salmonella in eggs. By that time, however, it had already been a topic of scientific and public health focus for more than a hundred years. Previously linked to animal foods, phage typing’s introduction during the 1940s started revealing the complex nature of its associations with its environment (Hardy, 2004).
The salmonella bacterium resides in living beings’ intestines. A majority of individuals contract salmonella infection after consuming feces-contaminated foods. Salmonella is an umbrella term referring to the cluster of bacteria giving rise to salmonellosis or salmonella infection within the intestinal tract. Different forms of salmonellosis include typhoid fever, enteric fever, food poisoning, and gastroenteritis. Salmonella poisoning has typically been associated with contaminated foods or water, particularly eggs, meat, and poultry. Disease symptoms, which typically manifest…
There are no more round red, Roma and plum tomatoes on the shelves or in the menus as Publix supermarkets decided to take them off the market regardless of their provenience. The measure was motivated by the fact that "it's not based on geography. We've chosen to pull them all, as a safety precaution" Reid pointed out (Gilbert, 2008).
Some of the major culinary attractions such as urger King, Subway, Taco ell and Chipotle Mexican Grill, or McDonald's chose to respect the FDA recommendations and take out tomatoes from their list of ingredients.
The most affected restaurants however are not those who can afford to leave out tomatoes, but rather those that largely depend on the fresh juice of the tomatoes such as Italian restaurants. Gainesville is on high alert as well. The concern of salmonella determined Pasquale's, one Italian restaurant to adapt to this situation and use tomato sauce…
Gilbert. D. (2008) Salmonella scare takes tomatoes off some menus. Gainsville Times. [online] Accessed 12 Jun., 08, at http://www.gainesvilletimes.com/news/article/6276/
Walker, E. & Paiva Cordle, I. (2008) Salmonella scare takes tomatoes off shelves, menus. The Miami Herald [online] Accessed 12 Jun., 08, at http://www.miamiherald.com/news/florida/story/564401.html
Validation of Commercial Baking as an Effective Step to Control/Inactivate Salmonella in Baked Products
Major findings, analysis and conclusions
Description of the baking industry and baking emphasis in the United States.
Purpose and structure of importance
Description of the problem being addressed and its importance to the practice of applied food safety
Process of Consultation
Outline how the client (ABA) will be engaged and carefully define the problem
Identification of key stakeholders
Overview and feedback of findings and results
ecommended actions and dissemination of these recommendations
Plans for implementation and measurement
Major findings. The U.S. had approximately 167,600 baker positions available in 2012 and around 6% of these were self-employed (Bakery business, 2016). Although industry analysts project sustained growth in the U.S. baking industry, this growth will not be on par with other industries (Bakery business, 2016). Currently, the U.S. baking industry is a nearly $310 billion industry that has…
About us. (2016). American Bakers Association. Retrieved from http://www.american bakers.org/.
Albion, R. G. & Williamson, H. F. (1944). The growth of the American economy: An introduction to the economic history of the United States. New York: Prentice-Hall.
Bakery business. (2016). SBDC Net. Retrieved from http://www.sbdcnet.org/small-business-research-reports/bakery-business-2014 .
Baking industry economic impact study, 2016). American Bakers Association. Retrieved from http://www.americanbakers.org/industry-data/.
Middle school officials have been reporting a rash of mysterious absences recently. Upon examining information given by those officials and corellated by health department staff there appears to be a pattern to the absences. In the month of April there were only minor similarities in time and occurence of these absences in two schools. In contrast, in the month of May there were quite a few absences in two of the schools, Jackson and Truman, but not in the others.
The similarities first appear in the period of late April to early May, but those are few in number. The spike in absences occurs in May, from the 19th to 25th. There are two hypotheses for these occurences. The first hypotheses is that the absences are due to something as simple as the common cold. The second hypotheses for the spike in absenses is food poisoning or a…
Community Health dept. Intranet Kaplan.edu
Food Poisoning. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from: http://www.livestrong.com/article/17793-common-causes-poisoning/#ixzz1E6UcQg57
West Nile Virus. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm
Typhoid fever disease is a global health phenomena or problem with approximately 20 million incidents and 700,000 adult deaths every year. Notably, a huge portion of these cases and deaths occur in developing countries, especially in South East Asia and Indian subcontinent. While the infection was traditionally treated with ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, serious public health program has emerged in the past decades because of the widespread emergence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella typhi or S.typhi. Moreover, typhoid fever disease caused by MD organisms can also be considered as a significant public health and therapeutic issue. This is primarily because there are a huge number of cases of MD typhoid fever that occur in childhood and are coupled with considerably high mortality and morbidity rates. Since the disease has developed to become a significant public health issue in the past few decades, it's important to conduct a research about it and…
Arjunan, M. & Al-Salamah, A.A. (2010, April 29). Typhoid Fever with Severe Abdominal Pain:
Diagnosis and Clinical Findings using Abdomen Ultrasonogram, Hermatology-cell Analysis and the Widal Test. Journal of Infections in Developing Countries, 4(9), 593-596. Retrieved from http://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/download/1010/445
Hammad et al. (2011). Ceftriaxone vs. Chloramphenicol for Treatment of Acute Typhoid
Fever. Life Science Journal, 8(2), 100-105. Retrieved from http://www.lifesciencesite.com/lsj/life0802/14_4757life0802_100_105.pdf
Nursing Case Study
Managing a possible Case of Gastroenteritis: A Nursing Case Study
The effective delivery of optimal nursing care requires a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses both the patient's symptoms and the security of the immediate environment. This report presents a case study of appropriate evidence-based nursing practices in treating an elderly female patient presenting with abdominal discomfort in a residential care setting.
The client presents with new onset faecal incontinence, diarrhoea and increasing abdominal discomfort and cramps. These symptoms suggest a possible gastrointestinal disturbance (Crisp & Taylor, 2009) and present a number of possible diagnoses. While the client's nursing care plan indicates that she is normally continent, her confidential disclosure to the nurse suggests that her symptoms may be more prolonged. Another relevant client characteristic is her advanced age of 85 years.
The client's proximity to the dirty utility room in the aged care facility and the report…
1. Crisp J, Taylor C. (2010). Potter & Perry's fundaments of nursing (3rd ed.). Chatswood, N.S.W.: Elsevier, Australia.
2. Kirk MD, Hall GV, Veitch MGK, Becker N. (2010). Assessing the ?incidence of gastroenteritis among elderly people living in long-term care facilities. Journal of Hospital Infection, 76, 12.
3. Australian Government: Department of Health and Ageing. (2007). Retrieved from- http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/icg-guidelinesindex.htm .
4. Andrew E, Simor MVD. (2010). Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Review. The-Americans Geriatric Societ, 58(8), 1557-1593.
The obesity crisis is, I believe, even more important than problems surrounding food safety-borne epidemics. Despite the recent attention given to obesity in the popular media, obesity is in some ways more difficult to treat than food safety issues. People's consciousness may be raised by a fear if becoming sick through food poisoning and throw out the offending, recalled products on their shelves if they contain salmonella or e.coli, but they seem less willing and/or able to change food habits that have been ingrained within them since childhood.
The diabetes epidemic, along with other illnesses related to obesity (like heart disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and osteoarthritis) will increase unless more active preventative healthcare measures are undertaken on a wide scale. Limiting the number of fast food restaurants that can be present in a specific area and near schools, along with promoting the spread of grocery stores and farmer's…
Changing lifestyles is a vital aspect of making the community healthier -- as well as the world. Sanitary and healthy cooking conditions are, of course, extremely important to observe and to know about, on an individual basis. Increasing the ease of reporting suspected unsafe conditions is also vitally important. But the relative safety of day-in, day-out food choices -- food choices that are often taken for granted -- also cannot be dismissed.
Engber, Daniel (2009). Does poverty make people poor? Slate. Retrieved November 2, 2010 at http://www.slate.com/id/2229523/
Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry
In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…
American Meat Industry Fact Sheet: 'Worker Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry', (2002) Available at www.meatami.com/content/presscentre/factsheets_infobits/FactSheetWorkerSafety.pdf. Accessed 11/28/2003
Brodeur, C. (n.d) Agriculture and Agri-food Canada - 'Meat Safety: The war on bacteria', Available at http://www.res2.agr.gc.ca/orda/pubs/art8_e.htm. Accessed 11/28/2003
Cannon, J.E et. al (1996) 'Pork Chain Quality Audit Survey: Quantification of Port Quality Characteristics', Journal of Muscle Foods (7), 56-62
Chesworth, N (1997) 'Food Hygiene Auditing', Blackie Academic & Professional, London
The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."
The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…
Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our
World. Boston: Conari Press.
Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:
Houghton Mifflin Company.
(De Leon, 2010)
Finally, in recent years there has been a call for more stringent regulatory measured to be put in place in order to prevent this category of disease. Many experts refer to outdated laws and policies that are not successful in detecting and prevent problems along the entire food production process (Jessen). They also refer to restricted and inadequate legal tools to check the spread of the diseases. There is therefore a need not only to update present legislation but also for organizations and individuals to be become more aware of the need to prevent this type of disease from occurring.
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. etrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. etrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). etrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. etrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFEDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. Retrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). Retrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. Retrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCRFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFERDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/foodborneillness.html
When they enter the gallbladder and lymphatic tissue they multiply in enormous numbers. It is when they re-enter the intestinal tract that the disease can be diagnosed from stool samples.
The first symptoms are usually headache, muscle pain and a fairly high fever. The problem is that these symptoms only occur about ten days after infection. It isn't until four to five days later that a rash occurs. The rash takes on the appearance of small, flat, red spots. A week after that those spots darken and look like bruises. If the disease has progressed this far, the patient begins to have short periods of unconsciousness, then the kidneys fail, a cough begins, and the rash turns to gangrene in the extremities. If no treatment has been given at this point, up to 50 per cent of patients die. It is possible to survive without treatment, with luck, but…
CBWInfo.com. "Typhoid Fever: essential data." 1999. cbwinfo.com. 18 February 2010 .
Encyclopedia of Health. "Typhoid Fever." Encyclopedia of Health, Volume 17. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2009. 1052.
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. "Typhoid Fever." 24 October 2005. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 17 February 2010 .
From their cereal to their numerous other brands such as Morningstar Farms, Kashi, and Keebler, Kellogg delivers many products that have remain unchanged for years, providing a conformed an high quality product tat meets consumer expectations. Their decision to pull peanut-containing products from shelves during the salmonella scare last year reflects not only good business sense, but also their commitment to quality; at the time of the recall, not a single case had been linked to Kellogg's products (Hoaks 2008).
After Sales Service
Auto manufacturers -- especially American ones -- have come under a lot of deserved fire recently for certain failed business strategies, but GM's warranty has always been well viewed by consumers and has only increased in the scope and depth of its coverage in the past few months (GM 2009). In addition to the standard 100,000-mile powertrain warranty and complimentary roadside assistance already offered by GM, their…
Alagse. (2009). "Customer focused low cost leadership strategy." Accessed 20 September 2009. http://www.alagse.com/strategy/s10.php
Fair, M. (2002). "The history of Amazon. Accessed 20 September 2009. http://www.essortment.com/hobbies/historyamazonc_ttas.htm
Gaudet, B. (2009). "Johnson & Johnson: Strong Pipeline, Compelling Valuation." Accessed 20 September 2009. http://seekingalpha.com/article/139532-johnson-johnson-strong-pipeline-compelling-valuation
General Motors Warranty. (2009). Accessed 20 September 2009. http://www.gm.com/experience/warrantyandquality/
prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…
1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.
3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance. http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/actionplan/html/
4. Jones RN, Pfaller MA (1998). Bacterial resistance: a worldwide problem. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Jun;31(2):379-88.
Operational risks tend to focus on employees, and finding ways to ensure that employees are not a source of reduction in the wealth of the company. Among the operational risks that were identified in Horcher (2005) were those related to training, fraud, theft, as well as managing exposures to certain risks that arise in the course of operations. There have been many examples of operational failures over the years. While most fraud is going to occur at the highest levels of the organization (i.e. Enron), in other companies operating issues have been the problem.
One such instance was with Subway, which faced a salmonella outbreak in the UK (Poulter, 2008) in a major outbreak, but has also faced similar situations in Canada (Mickleburgh, 2011), and the U.S. As well (Blau, 2012; Falkenstein, 2010). Food poisonings increase the risk of legal action that could devastate franchisees and can have…
Blau, R. (2012). Subway restaurants have been closed for health violations more than any other chain in the city. New York Daily News. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from http://www.nydailynews.com/new-york/subway-restaurants-closed-health-violations-chain-city-article-1.1063271?localLinksEnabled=false
CDC. (2014). Overview of attribution of foodborne illness. Center for Disease Control. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/attribution/overview.html
Falkenstein, D. (2010). Subway lawsuits and food poisoning claims. Food Poison Journal. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from http://www.foodpoisonjournal.com/foodborne-illness-outbreaks/subway-lawsuits-and-food-poisoning-claims/
Horcher, K. (2005). Essentials of Financial Risk Management John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ.
This teatment, albeit, does not poduce 100% chitosan, but basically poduces a mixtue of 10-15% chitin plus 85-90% pue chitosan, called "pue CC." In the U.S., chitosan constitutes a mixtue of appoximately7% chitin plus appoximately 93% chitosan. Outside of cost-effectiveness, the biological effects of chitin poduced fom each souce appeas identical. "Chitosan oligosacchaides (CO) takes chitosan a big step futhe," Matsunaga (2007 explains. "When CC is ingested, a small amount of it is boken down into vey small molecula paticles by the enzymes of the body, thus poducing CO. CO can also be manufactued by using an enzymatic pocess" (Matsunaga, as cited in Levine, p. 1). The body moe eadily absobs CO, although CO contains less fibe than egula CC.
In Case Histoy 1: Low Pulmonay (Lung) Function, Matsunaga (Levine, 2007) teats his fist patient, also his fathe, with the administation of CC. Pevious teatments had yielded no esults…
references and further reading you must purchase this article.
Lee, H., Park, Y., Jung, J. & Shin, W. (2003). Chitosan oligosaccharides, dp 2 -- 8, have prebiotic effect on the Bifidobacterium bifidium and Lactobacillus sp.
Elsevier Science Ltd. Retrieved November 2, 2009, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W9T-48BKR97 -
Native Americans in the 18th century contracted smallpox thanks to the U.S. soldiers in Fort Pitt giving them "some blankets and handkerchiefs" that were taken from patents in the infirmary with smallpox (heelis). It was a deliberate "attack" and wiped out many Indians. Also, during the American Revolutionary ar, England were known to have inoculated smallpox on civilians with the intention of spreading it to the Continental Army. In orld ar I (1915 through 1918) the Germans waged "an ambitious campaign of covert biological attack" by injecting horses and mules being sent to the Allies with glanders and anthrax (heelis).
The Japanese used B (8, 9, 10) in China during II; heelis writes that the Japanese "poisoned wells with microbial cultures, sprayed the ground with cultures" and left contaminated food for the Chinese army to eat and become ill. The Soviets are accused of having used biological weapons (tularemia) against…
Center for Biosecurity. (2008). BioAgents and Epidemic Diseases Background
Information. Categorization and Ongoing Assessment of Biological Agents.
Retrieved June 23, 2009, from http://www.upmc-biosecurity.org .
Ready America. (2009). Biological Threat. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from http://www.ready.gov/america/beinformed/biological.html .
Biodefense in America
Bioterrorism specifically refers to the use of biological agents such as bacteria, germs, or viruses to cause sickness or death in a population. A bioterrorist can contaminate the food, air, or water supply with infectious agents designed to cause illness. Bioterrorism presents difficulties in tracing the source of the terrorist act because symptoms may not appear for days. It is difficult to know when, where, and how a person was infected. Anyone can be at risk for bioterrorism at any time. Bioterrorism does not only affect combatants or enemy military personnel, it affects innocent people in the general population. Biodefense refers to measures taken to help eliminate or reduce the possibility of a bioterrorist attack on the population. Biodefense in the United States became an important issue in the public eye after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Towers. This research will…
Dennis, T., Wang, K., & Suppes, L. (n.d.) "A History of Bioterrorism." Retrieved from http://people.uwec.edu/piercech/Bio/Examples.htm
Valdes, J. (2005). "Biological Agents: Threat. Preparedness, and Myths." Security Studies
Program Seminar. December 7, 2005. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/ssp/seminars/wed_archives05fall/valdes.htm
Wyatt-Lorenz. (2009). "Bioterrorism Defense and Immediate Warning System." Wyatt-Lorenz,
The symptoms and signs of chronic schistosomiasis are mostly the body's reaction to the eggs retained in the tissues. S. mansoni or S. japonicum can cause mucosal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, focal fibrosis, strictures, fistulas and papillomatuous growths. Ulcerations in the bladder by S. haematobium may bring on dysuria, hematuria, frequent urination, and chronic cystitis. Secondary bacterial infections in the genitor-urinary tract may also develop. S. mansoni can induce persistent Salmonella septicemia. S. haematorium may cause genital disease or infertility. Their eggs can cause fibrosis and cirrhosis, portal or pulmonary hypertension in the liver or transverse myelitis and seizure in the central nervous system (Pearson).
Diagnosis and Treatment
Schistosomiasis is diagnosed through a urine or stool test for parasites (DHPE, 2010;
DPDx, 2010). The Centers for Disease and Control uses a blood test on a sample taken 6-
8 weeks after exposure. It can be cured with praziquantel taken for 1…
DHPE (2010). Schistosomiasis fact sheet. Infectious Facts: Directors of Health Promotion
and Education. Retrieved on November 5, 2010 from http://www.dhpe.org/infect/schisto.html
DPDx (2010). Schistosomiasis. Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria: Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved November 5, 2010 from http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/html/schistosomiasis.htm
Kogulan, P. And Lucey, D.R. (2010). Schistosomiasis. eMedicine Specialties: Infections.
A swab moistened with distilled water was then rubbed vigorously on the first potential fomite in the household (noted above). Quadrant 1 was then inoculated by swabbing the dish with the sterile swab. Caution was used so as not to contaminate any of the other quadrants. The other seven potential fomites were then swabbed and rubbed onto the petri dish in each correlating quadrant. The dishes were then incubated upside down at room temperature for 48 hours. The incubation period can last anywhere from 24 to 72 hours. Evaluation of the petri dishes was then executed. The type of colonies in each quadrant were then noted.
Plate sect / Location ## of types / Description of colony morphologies / Hypothesis supported?
1 Bathroom doorknobs -- form: circular; elevation: raised; margin: entire; surface: shiny; opacity: opaque; chromogenesis: red
2 Front door doorknobs -- form: filamentous; elevation: raised; margin: entire; surface:…
Taguchi also expanded the focus of quality cost analysis and shifted his emphasis to improving production methods and service. As well as quality control in production, quality control was necessary in product planning and design, process design, and production services after purchase. Taguchi's quality loss function was designed to measure the success or failure of quality control in an absolute fashion, over the entire lifecycle of the item (Taguchi, 2010, Business Dictionary).
Question 2: What factors contribute to a manager's decision to recall a manufactured product? Support your answers with specific examples. How can managers within a service organization improve sales and control costs when utilizing the Taguchi quality control method? Give examples.
First and foremost, the question of product safety must be on the minds of managers when making the decision to recall a manufactured product: a product that has a defect in its design (such as an SUV…
Cost variance (CV). (2010). Project Management Knowledge: Definitions. Retrieved April 17,
2010 at http://www.project-management-knowledge.com/definitions/c/cost-variance-cv/
Kaner, Cem. (1996). Quality cost analysis: Benefits and risks. Quality Control Handbook.
Retrieved April 17, 2010 at http://www.kaner.com/qualcost.htm
In fact, environmentalists were often dismissed during that time period. Moreover, environmental regulation was seen as an area of concern for each individual country, so that other countries would rarely, if ever, provide international pressure for environmental issues. However, the growing body of scientific literature about the environment changed the game between the 1970s and the 1980s/1990s. For example, when the James Bay Project was first conceived, it was considered a very green source of electricity because it lacked emissions and other hallmarks of pollution. The reality, however, is that the project resulted in incredible environmental damage:
It has been shown that environmental impacts of the first phase include: methyl mercury contamination of water in reservoirs and downstream rivers and mercury accumulation in fish; reversal of the natural seasonal flow pattern of rivers; conversion of La Grande estuary from a saltwater environment to a freshwater one because of regulated peak…
Bethune, D.N. (1997). Environmental Damage and Aboriginal Health. Retrieved February 21,
2010 from NIICHRO
Coffee, H. (1992). James Bay Hydroelectric Project Hits a Dam. Retrieved February 21, 2010
"Elimination of these and other pathogens from the lower respiratory tract is made possible by an effective innate immune response, which is necessary yet potentially dangerous to the infected host."
E. coli Outbreak:
There have been numerous E.coli outbreaks over the years. Pakalniskiene, Falkenhorst, Lisby, and Madsen (2009) studied one of the larger single source outbreaks. On November 11th, 2006, there was an outbreak in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark. The director of a high school had contacted the regional health authority to report an outbreak of diarrhea and vomiting among guests of a school dinner party. A total of 750 people, nearly all of the teachers and students at the school, had attended the dinner. The evening, the first people became sick. Three days later, when the director made the report, approximately 200 to 300 teachers and students had reported gastroenteritis. It was found that the fresh basil used in the…
Cegelski, L., Marshall, G., Eldridge, G., Hultgren, S. (Jan 2008). The biology and future prospects of antivirulence therapies. Nature Reviews: Microbiology. (6). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from Proquest.
Hacker, J. & Blum-Oehler, G. (2007). In appreciation of Theodor Escherich. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 5(12) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
Justice, S., Hunstad, D., Cegelski, L., & Hultgren, S. (2008). Morphological plasticity as a bacterial survival strategy. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 6(2). Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
Pakaliniskiene, J., Falkenhorst, G., Lisby, M., Madsen, B., Olsen, K., Nielsen, E., Mygh, A., Boel, J., & Molbak, K. (2009). A foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic E. coli and Salmonella Anatum infection after a high-school dinner in Denmark, November 2006. Epidemiology and Infection, 137(3) Retrieved May 7, 2009, from ProQuest.
She used some commercial breadcrumbs and a bit of the commercial, grated cheese together and cooked the cutlets in a skillet. She served them with a salad. I realized that watching and listening to a 'real person' was actually a much better, as well as a more enjoyable way to learn how to cook than watching a television show. I could ask questions, and learn how to do things that the cooks on television assumed I already knew how to do -- and I could also 'taste' and touch the results, which is even more important with a how-to product like cooking.
My entire experiment made me wonder about the popularity of home-improvement television in general. I wonder how much really people get out of it, or if we have become so conditioned to looking to television for information, we don't realize that it is better to sometimes try to…
Chicken in a Skillet." America's Test Kitchen. Season Eight. Website available
14 Apr 2008 at http://americastestkitchen.com/episode.asp?episodeid=196&iSeason=8
McKibben, Bill. The Age of Missing Information. New York: Plume, 1993.
Many people fear that hollandaise, because of its opaque color is used to conceal tainted meat, or old fish, and there are concerns about food poisoning if white sauces are allowed to stand too long. Raw or uncooked eggs can transmit salmonella and other diseases, and diners may wish to make sure that they only consume well-cooked eggs. The poached eggs of Eggs Benedict pose another problem for this resistance to uncooked or undercooked eggs. Also, in today's fast-paced society, breakfast and brunch foods are less popular than in the past and many people are simply not familiar with hollandaise sauce, except as mayonnaise in sandwiches or as the cheese component of fast food breakfast sandwiches. Learning how to handling dairy-based sauces with proper precautions as well as techniques are essential for all chefs. hen menu-planning, there are also dietary concerns related to the heavy fat content in the sauce.…
Hollandaise Sauce." Gourmet Sleuth. 2007. 18 Dec 2007. http://www.gourmetsleuth.com/recipe_hollandaise.htm
Hollandaise Sauce." (2007). Hollandaise Sauce United Kingdom. 2007. 18 Dec 2007. http://www.hollandaisesauce.co.uk/
Karpf, Josh. "Recipes." Eggs Benedict New York. 2007. 18 Dec 2007. http://www.echonyc.com/~jkarpf/eggs/what.html
Stradley, Linda. "History of Sauces." What's Cooking America? 18 Dec 2007. http://whatscookingamerica.net/History/SauceHistory.htm
popularity of foreign restaurant: consumer attitude and behavior toward foreign cuisines in Bangkok
Thailand as a tourist destination
Thailand has become a tourist destination hotspot for its scenic beauty, the humble nature of their people, and the relative value of foreign currencies relative to the baht. According to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Growth in the tourism industry in recent years was the result of the depreciation of the baht against non-Asian currencies (which improved competitiveness relative to destinations outside the region), aggressive marketing campaigns and an increase in the number of airlines offering flights to Thailand." (EIU ViewsWire, 2003)
Additionally, according to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Tourist arrivals rose by 5.8% to just over 10m in 2001, despote the global economic downturn and the September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S., bringing in Bt 295bn (U.S. $6.6 bn) in revenue. Thailand benefited from its reputation as a safe and stable society and…
"A century of certification," 2003, Health and Hygiene, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 12-12-13.
Anne-Mette Hjalager & Magda, A.C. 2000, "Food for tourists -- determinants of an image," The International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 281-281.
Asia's Biggest Sourcing Event for Foods and Beverages Ever Kicks Off This Week 2011,, PR Newswire Association LLC, United States, New York.
Chen, M. 2009, "Attitude toward organic foods among Taiwanese as related to health consciousness, environmental attitudes, and the mediating effects of a healthy lifestyle," British Food Journal, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 165-165-178.
American Food Uses and Abuses
The uses and abuses of food in America are becoming clearer everyday mostly because we can no longer avoid the obvious concerns about the public's poor dietary health and obesity. This concern is leading us as a nation to take a closer look at our love of fast foods and the alternative ways for us to gain access to easy and convenient food that may or may not be healthier. It turns out that even as we look to organic or locally produced food, we cannot get away from safety and health considerations. The fact is that America's food preferences are tied closely to what it means to be an American and this often means they are tied to us using ingredients that are often first about simplicity and profits (Corporate Accountability, 2011).
We know that a good deal of what we eat is processed…
CDC (2011). Listeriosis. Timeline of Events: Multistate Outbreak of Listeriosis Linked to Whole Cantaloupes from Jensen Farms, Colorado. Viewable at http://www.cdc.gov/listeria/outbreaks/cantaloupes-jensen-farms/120811/timeline.html .
Corporate Accountability International (2011). Health Effects of Fast Food. Viewable at http://www.stopcorporateabuse.org/health-effects-fast-food .
Honey (2011). Honey.com. National Honey Board. Viewable at http://www.honey.com/nhb/technical/ .
Let's Move (2011). America's Move to Raise a Healthier Generation of Kids. Viewable at http://www.letsmove.gov/eat-healthy.
During the consumer movement of the 1960s and 1970s, Congress enacted a substantial amount of legislation to protect "the good of the people." There is only one problem with consumer protection laws -- they are slow to react and even harder to enforce. As a result of this situation, corporations are allowed to profit at the expense of consumers' health. The resistance comes in a number of stages. The first is denial of the problem, wherein the corporations argue that there is not enough evidence to link their products with the negative outcomes that are being reported. Then there is the lobbying that causes politicians to defer action until a later date, or ignore the call to action altogether. Too often, when statutes are enacted, corporations fight them to the end, resulting in flawed legislation that either has loopholes, require interpretation from the judicial branch or is difficult…
Bray, G., Nielsen, S. & Popkin, B. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 79 (4) 537-543.
Goldberg, C. & Zimmerman, R. (2011). What's making us fat? Researchers put food additives on suspect list. Common Health. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://commonhealth.wbur.org/2011/08/food-additives-obesity
Hellmich, N. (2009). Rising obesity will cost U.S. health care $344 billion a year. USA Today. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/weightloss/2009-11-17-future-obesity-costs_N.htm
Miller, R. & Jentz, G. (2010). Business law today: 9th edition. South-Western/Cengage Learning.
Magic Johnson and HIV
Science knows that although HIV can transition into AIDS, it does not automatically become AIDS. Magic Johnson, new president of the Los Angeles Dodgers and a member of the NBA Hall of Fame, was diagnosed with HIV several years ago. One of the immediate responses from Magic Johnson's body (with HIV) was the weakening of his immune system, which made him -- and makes all HIV-positive patients -- susceptible to the following infections and cancers:
Tuberculosis: an infectious disease "caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis" (Medical News Today).
Salmonellosis Enterocolitis: a very common kind of food poisoning that causes severe dehydration (NCBI)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV): this is a virus infection from a "member of the herpesvirus family" (Medline Plus).
Candidiasis: an infection of the mouth and tongue (Mayo Clinic).
Cryptococcal meningitis: this is an inflammation of those membranes and the fluid that is found around the…
Aidsinfonet.org. Fact Sheet 801: "Vitamins and Minerals." Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.aidsinfonet.org/fact_sheets/view.801. 2012.
Cancer.org. "Kaposi Sarcoma: What is Kaposi Sarcoma?" Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.cancer.org . 2009.
Mayo Clinic. "HIV / AIDS" Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.mayoclinic.com . 2011.
Medical News Today. "What is Tuberculosis? What Causes Tuberculosis?" Retrieved June 24,
Describe theory rationale selecting theory. 2. Discuss theory works support proposed solution. 3. Explain incorporate theory project.
Self-efficacy theory and the promotion of hand-washing
According to the Centers for Disease Control, hand-washing is one of the most important ways in which to curtail the spread of a wide range of infections and bacteria. Hand-washing can reduce the risks of contracting the common cold, influenza, and other viruses (Wash your hands, 2012, CDC). It can also lessen the chances that bacteria such as E.coli and salmonella will be transmitted from the preparer of food to the diner, or that contaminants from raw poultry and other meats will be spread to fruits, vegetables, and other components of the meal. Hands should be washed thoroughly after preparing food, using the toilet, dealing with animals or children, or handling garbage. But many people fail to take this simple step.
Hand-washing is one…
Cherry, Kendra. (2012). Self-efficacy. About.com. Retrieved:
Wash your hands. (2012). Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Retrieved:
Tesco UK food department
a.) Legislative risks: The decision to provide healthier food by labeling the ingredients on the packages to include the calories, sugar, fat, sodium, and saturated fat content needs to also comply with the U.K. food and labeling law. According to the Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of eading, "In most cases, ingredients have to be listed in weight descending order determined as at the time of their use in the preparation of the food. This is commonly referred to as the 'mixing bowl stage'. The following exemptions are however permitted" (A Guide to UK egulations, 2011)
Water and volatile products used as ingredients have to be listed in order of their weight in the finished product. The weight of water is calculated by subtracting from the weight of the finished product the total weight of the other ingredients used.
If an ingredient is…
CSPI Reports International (1998) Functional Foods: Public Health Boon or 21st Century Quackery? http://www.cspinet.org/reports/functional_foods/uk_regltry.html
Feindt, P.H. & Flynn, A. 2009, Policy stretching and institutional layering: British food policy between security, safety, quality, health and climate change, Palgrave Macmillan.
Food Labels: A Guide to the UK Regulations. Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, The University of Reading. http://www.reading.ac.uk/foodlaw/label/index2.htm
Lacey, R. 1992, Scares and the British Food System: Problems and Policies in Relation to Food-Related Health Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, Limited.
The typical American diet is one high in sugars and processed foods. Accordingly, The United States has earned the unfortunate nickname of "Fast-food Nation." The initiation of the rapid growth in fast-food consumption rates in America is likely a result of this country's lack of a widely embraced and highly diverse national cuisine. The United States as a country is truly a melting pot for cultures, religions, ethnicities and beliefs. This vast assortment has certainly carried over into the world of food. That is, most Americans have easy access to a large array of different cuisines on a daily basis and this chronic presence of other cultural food choices has virtually destroyed any possibility of creating a truly American cuisine. Therefore, American citizens along with the rest of the world have transfixed fast-food into this national category. Without question, on the global stage, McDonald's and urger King are…
Allison, C. (2010, May). Barbecue Master. Retrieved October 18, 2011, from http://barbequemaster.blogspot.com/2010/05/chopped-pork-bbq-sandwich-with-sam-dog.html
Baker, E.A., Schootman, M., Barnidge, E., & Kelly, C. (2006, July). The Role of Race and Poverty in Access to Foods That Enable Individuals to Adhere to Dietary Guidelines. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research Practice and Policy, 3 (3).
Bedell, J. (2008). Food, Fitness, Obesity and Diabetes in the Bronx. Retrieved October 17, 2011, from New York City Department of Health: www.phanyc.org/files/food-fitness-obesity-in-bronx-bedell.ppt
Block, J.P., Scribner, R.A., & DeSalvo, K.B. (2004). Fast Food Race/Ethnicity, and Income: A Geographic Analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27 (3).
Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient
Management OF OSTEOMYELITIS IN THE DIABETIC PATIENT
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow which is typically categorized as acute, subacute or chronic.1 It is characteristically defined according to the basis of the causative organism (pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria) and the route, duration and physical location of the infection site.2 Infection modes usually take one of three forms: direct bone contamination from an open fracture, puncture wound, bone surgery, total joint replacement, or traumatic injury; extension of a soft tissue infection such as a vascular ulcer; or hematogenous (blood borne) spread from other infected areas of the body such as the tonsils, teeth or the upper respiratory system.2(p807) Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli are the most common causative agents of the disease, although viruses, parasites and fungi may also lead to the development of osteomyelitis.3
1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. 27th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.
2. Butalia S, Palda V, Sargeant R, Detsky A, Mourad O. Does This Patient With Diabetes Have Osteomyelitis of the Lower Extremity?. JAMA: Journal of The American Medical Association [serial online]. February 20, 2008; 299(7):806-813. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
3. Lavery L, Peters E, Armstrong D, Wendel C, Murdoch D, Lipsky B. Risk factors for developing osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot wounds. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice [serial online]. March 2009; 83(3):347-352. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
4. Turns M. The diabetic foot: an overview of assessment and complications. British Journal of Nursing [serial online]. August 12, 2011;:S19-S25. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
Probability provides a measurable and quantifiable indication of how likely a particular outcome is for an event or experiment. It is expressed as a numeric value between zero and one (inclusive), where an impossible event has a probability of zero and a certain event has a probability of one. Probability is conventionally written using the symbol P, and may be expressed as a percentage by multiplying P. By 100.
The problem at hand related to 1995 gold prices can be set up and solved in the following way, with µ (mu) representing the mean, ? (sigma) the standard deviation, X the target value, and x1 and x2 defining the target value range.
µ = $383; = $12; x1=$394; x2=$399
The probability that the client's gold will be sold the next day is given by:
Annual Survey of Service Industries: Food Services and Drinking Places. (1999). Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/cgi-bin/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SurvId=4704&SurvVer=0&SDDS=4704&InstaId=15525&InstaVer=3&lang=en&db=imdb&adm=8&dis=2
Arsham, H. (2011). Statistical Thinking for Managerial Decisions. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/Business-stat/opre504.htm
Dendane, A. (2011, April 3). Normal Distribution Probability Calculator. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://www.analyzemath.com/statistics/normal_calculator.html
Regression Basics For Business Analysis. (n.d.). Retrieved December 11, 2011, from http://www.investopedia.com/articles/financial-theory/09/regression-analysis-basics-business.asp#axzz1gE9DOgSJ
Lifebuoy saves the Day": The importance of hand-washing
There is an old nursery rhyme: "for want of a nail, the shoe was lost, for want of a shoe, the horse was lost, for want of a rider, the horse was lost." This rhyme's meaning is simple: seemingly inconsequential carelessness can be very significant and ignoring proper precautions can have grave consequences. This principle can clearly be seen in the importance of hand-washing with soap. Soap is a simple, everyday commodity but it is vitally necessary to remove the dirt, oils, and residue that carry viruses and bacteria from the outside environment into our bodies.
Nurses, doctors, and food service personnel are all required to wash their hands by law, to avoid spreading communicable diseases. Diseases spread due to a lack of proper sanitation span from influenza to E. coli and salmonella poisoning to drug-resistant bacteria. The consequences of not washing…
THE CACAO TREE (THEOBROMA CACAO)
WHAT IS IN THE COCOA BEAN?
MAKING AND EATING CHOCOLATE
State of the At of Cocoa
Is Cocoa good fo you?
Buden of Poof
CHOCOLATE AS A FAT
EFFECTS ON BLOOD LIPIDS
WHAT IS OK
CHOCOLATE AND HEALTH AND DISEASE
H. Immune Function
J. Othe Disodes
N. Dental Caies
K. Heat Health
Pacemakes and vitamin pills ae just among a few of millions of health poducts that ae sold daily aound the wold. But one of the most easily accessible of all is ight beneath ou noses: chocolate. Cocoa, the plant fom which chocolate is deived, has had a positive effect on today's society because of its active ole in daily health. The development and distibution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's…
references for fats in foods: relationships to diet and body composition. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1991; 53:908-915.
Green SM, Delargy HJ, Joanes D. And Blundell JE A satiety quotient: a formulation to assess the satiating effect of food. Appetite. 1997; 29:291-304.
Seligson FH, Krummel DA and Apgar JR. Patterns of chocolate consumption. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1994;60:S1060-S1067.
Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health; 1989. NIH Publication No. 89-2925.
Kritchevsky D. Effects of Triglyceride Structure on Lipid Metabolism. Nutrition Reviews. 1988;46:177-181.
Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).
The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):
elative humidity >95%
Presence of sufficient nutrients
Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C
PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)
Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…
Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.
Proctor and Gamble's Distribution System of Tide channel of distributing a product refers to the product's "sequence or marketing intermediaries" that begins after the product has been formulated and created that then pass on the product to the consumer. (Principles of Marketing, 2004, p.5) Proctor and Gamble as a company has recently been commended for using agent-based distribution system modeling. This system is credited with transforming the company. (Anthes, 2003)
According to the HIDC.NewsLetter of 5 May 2004, in an article on distribution systems entitled, "Intelligent Agents "as competition increases and product life cycles shorten" traditional distribution systems "are no longer sufficient for many companies today. Instead, more and more of them are turning to collaboration in supply chains and forming networks of organizations to ensure a competitive advantage. But in such organizational networks, dense and tightly coupled activities increase the difficulty and costs of coordination. Moreover, as the…
Anthes, Gary H. (January 27, 2003) "Agents of Change." Computer World. Retrieved on June 16, 2004 at WWW.COMPUTERWORLD.COM" (COMPUTERWORLD
Case Study: Proctor & Gamble. (20040 New Chain Solutions Newsletter. Retrieved on June 16, 2004 at http://nutechsolutions.com/newsletter/#a4
Happi.com. (May 2002) "The Laundry Detergent Market." Retrieved on June 16, 2004 at http://www.happi.com/current/Jan024.htm
Intelligent Agents." (May 5, 2004) HIDC. Newsletter.
The case study centers mainly on analyzing the symptoms of an unknown disease experienced by students at one of the universities in Central South Texas. The students were suffering from nausea, diarrhea and vomiting. The two students reported the food they had taken in one of the local pizzerias had caused the illness. Other analyses on the 23 students seek to investigate the illness whose symptoms are described in the study. In order to do this, tests on the existence of certain disease-causing agents such as Listeria, Vibrio, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and Escherichia Coli will be undertaken. The presence or absence of these organisms will aid the identification of the disease ailing the students. Besides, the case study describes the locality of the university succinctly and a place where it gets its water services. Analytically, the case study relates the unknown illness that the students suffer from to…
Committee on Communicable Diseases Affecting Man, Food Subcommittee (1988). Procedures
to Investigate Foodborne Illness. Fourth Edition, Des Moines, Iowa: International Association of Milk, Food, and Environmental Sanitarians, Inc.
Community and Public Health Online. Epidemiological Case Study 1. Gastroenteritis at a
Challenges faced by farmers of a particular food commodity:
The future of the American beef industry (cattle)
Beef is a commodity that has literally defined the American West and thus defined American ideology for many years. But today, "in the meat industry -- beef -- you have four [processors] that control over 80% of the marketplace…it's become much, much more concentrated" (Glickman 2014). Cattle ranchers are under increasing pressure to produce more and more beef, more cheaply. Yet there is also criticism of the industry for being insufficiently concerned about its effect upon human health. Quite simply, the industry cannot survive the dual demands for inexpensive food in America and yet simultaneously meet concerns for greater safety and 'naturalness' in beef handling.
There is a rush to speed the trajectory of feedlot-to-table for calves. The faster calves are produced and the less time they spend grazing…
Broken Harvest. CBC. Retrieved from:
Galvean, M, Ponce, C., & Schutz, J. (2011). The future of beef production in North America.
Animal Frontiers, 1(2) 29-36. Retrieved from: http://www.animalfrontiers.org/content/1/2/29.full
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Description of the communicable disease
Infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a global epidemic. It causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The major causal sources of this communicable disease are through semen, blood, breast milk of infected mothers, and vaginal fluid. In addition, the virus can be found in sweat, saliva, and also tears; however, in the latter cases, generally not in sufficient amounts to cause spreading of the virus to another individual. The main common means of being infected with HIV are through having unprotected sex and through sharing of needles. HIV may be transferred through unprotected heterosexual or homosexual anal, vaginal, and perhaps oral sex. Even though the risk of infection is minimal with oral sex, there remains the same imperative to use protection such as a condom in the course of oral sex. Due to new treatments, the risk of…
Aids.gov. (2015). Global HIV / AIDS Organizations. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: https://www.aids.gov/federal-resources/around-the-world/global-hiv-aids-organizations/
Body and Health Canada. (2015). HIV / AIDS. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/channel_condition_info_details.asp?channel_id=1020&relation_id=70907&disease_id=1&page_no=2
Cabieses Valdes, B.B. (2011). The living conditions and health status of international immigrants in Chile: Comparisons among international immigrants, and between them and the Chilean-born.
CDC. (2012). CDC Global Health Strategy 2012 -- 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2014 from: http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/strategy/pdf/CDC-GlobalHealthStrategy.pdf
The city of Denver, not to mention the wider state of Colorado, is blooming in terms of demographics and population. Whether it be the scenic views or the legalization of recreational marijuana, Denver has seemingly become a "go to" place in terms of places to move. This quick report shall discuss the population of the town, whether the population is increasing or decreasing, the age distribution of the town and how that compares to the wider United States, the ethnic composition of the area, the educational level of the population and how it compares to the wider population of the United States and the public health problems that are prevalent in Denver. While Denver's cost of living and other factors might dissuade some from moving there, the good seems to outweigh the bad for more and more people.
As a metropolitan area, Denver has a population of…
Census Scope. 2015. 'Census Scope -- Population Pyramid And Age Distribution Statistics'. Censusscope.org. Retrieved October 16, 2015 ( http://www.censusscope.org/us/chart_age.html ).
Denver Health. 2015. 'Denver Health -- Public Health Concerns -- Colorado'. Denverhealth.org. Retrieved October 16, 2015 ( http://www.denverhealth.org/public-health-and-wellness/public-health/health-information-for-denver/public-health-concerns ).
Home To Denver. 2015. 'Denver Colorado Demographics And Population Statistics'. Hometodenver.com. Retrieved October 16, 2015 ( http://www.hometodenver.com/stats_denver.htm ).
MetroDenver. 2015. 'Metro Denver Age & Gender -- Metro Denver'. Metrodenver.org. Retrieved October 16, 2015 ( http://www.metrodenver.org/do-business/demographics/age/ ).
The chemical was found to turn on quorum sensing in V. fischeri, whereas it inhibited pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the slow-release was shown to be far more effective than by applying the chemical directly as an aqueous solution. Since quorum sensing is also important for pathogen establishment this application could be important for inhibiting pathogenic bacteria from colonization of internal medical devices.
In summary, the V. fischeri and squid symbiotic relationship is an important model host-bacteria system. Aspects of colonization of host-symbiont and host-pathogen have been shown, using the V. fisheri and squid model, to be the same. Therefore, understanding the mechanism and complex transcriptional regulatory systems of V. fischeri could lead to potential new therapies and pharmaceutical applications. Likewise, understanding the environmental factors necessary for successful host-bacteria interactions could lead to novel drug targets. In addition to being important in understanding other harmful host-bacteria relationships the V. fischeri and…
Breitbach, a.S., Broderick, a.H., Jewell, C.M., Gunasekaran, S., Lin, Q., Lynn, D.M., & Blackwell, H.E. 2010. Surface-mediated release of a synthetic small-molecule modulator of bacterial quorum sensing: Gradual release enhances activity. Chem Comm.
Chun, C.K, Troll, J.V., Koroleva, I., Brown, B., Manzella, L., Snir, E., Almabraz, H, Scheetz, T.E., Bonaldo, M.F., Casavant, T.L., Soares, M.B., Ruby, E.G., & McFall-Ngai, M.J. 2008. Effects of colonization, luminescence, and autoinducer on host transcription during development of the squid-vibrio association. PNAS 105(32): 11323-11328.
Lyell, N.L., Dunn, a.K., Bose, J.L., Stabb, E.V. 2010. Bright mutants of Vibrio fischeri ES114 reveal conditions and regulators that control bioluminescence and expression of the lux Operon. J. Bacteriol. 192(19): 5103-5114.
Murray, P.R., Rosenthal, K.S., Kobayashi, G.S., Pfaller, M.A. 1998. Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas. In M. Brown (Ed.), Medical Microbiology Third Edition (pp. 245-250). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…
Attfield, Harlan H.D. Raising Chickens and Ducks. Arlington, Virginia: Volunteers in Technical
Bailey, JS, Roberts, T, Harvey, RB, Anderson, RC, et al. "Food Safety: Alternatives to Antibiotic Use." Poultry Science (2004).
Burrington, David. "Can-do' proteins - enzymes - Ingredient Technology." Dairy Foods, April,