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Works of Art the Hallucinogenic
Words: 1398 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5780263
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Incase paint needed to be removed from the painting it was done using a palette knife. When the painting was finished and had dried for almost on year, the work was sealed with a vanish layer.

This particular artwork is figurative. This is because the painting has combined symbolism with optical illusions as well as the estranging of familiar motifs which leads to the creation of a visual language.

Subject matter of the painting

This painting was made as a retrospective look of life by Dali. The whole scene of the painting is within a bullfighting the painting; Dali has effectively displayed the dislike his wife has for bull fighting.

The formal aspect of the work and subject matter work together to create a significant meaning and content which can be interpreted easily. This is through the use of the various colors in the painting. The bullfighting is submerged…

Modernism in Art Triumphed From the 19th
Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85593257
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Modernism in art triumphed from the 19th century onward and in the early 20th century virtually changed the way art came to be perceived. From the Abstractionists to the Cubists to the Surrealists to the followers of Dada, the modernists continually reinvented themselves with newer and wilder movements, firmly rejecting tradition and all its preoccupations. It was only fitting, however, that modern artists should break so completely with the past: modern society had split from the old world with the Protestant Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, the Scientific Revolution, and the Romantic Era, all of which followed one on the heels of the other. This paper will trace the history of the final era -- the modernist -- by examining five works of five different painters of the modernist era: Franz Marc's "Fate of the Animals," Pablo Picasso's "Guitar and Violin," Marcel Duchamp's "found" artwork "Fountain," Salvador Dali's Surrealist masterpiece…


Dali, Salvador. "The Persistence of Memory." Wikipaintings. Web. 14 Feb 2013.

Duchamp, Marcel. "Fountain." Web. 14 Feb 2013.

Greenberg, Clement. "Avant-Garde and Kitsch." Art and Culture. MA: Beacon Press,


Art Critique of Surreal and Post-Impressionist Works
Words: 1454 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99575459
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Art Critique

Critique of Surreal and Post-Impressionist Works of Art

Dali's Autumn Cannibalism (1936)

Salvador Dali is one of the great and mercurial figures in art history. The surrealistic Spanish painter was influenced heavily by the tumultuous period of history in which he lived and by the haunting images in his own psyche. Both are on dramatic display in the 1936 piece, "Autumn Cannibalism." Here, Dali paints a depiction of the military conflict tearing his motherland apart from within, offering us this terrifying rendering of civil war as seen through the eyes of one consumed by it.

In the confrontation between the social commentary and the internal reflection that comprise this piece, Dali creates a piece that is decidedly representative of the surrealist movement both in aesthetic and motif. In spite of Dali's incredible influence, surrealism was ultimately a short-lived movement, leaving its impression on the art world through…

Surrealism's Contribution to a Discourse on the Visual
Words: 1539 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75204887
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Dadaism and Surrealism

"It is not the fear of madness which will oblige us to leave the flag of imagination furled." ~ Andre Breton, "Manifesto of Surrealism"

The world of art is always influenced by the historical moment in which the movement originated. The concepts of Dadaism and surrealism were the direct product of artists witnessing the atrocities of the First orld ar which would become even more unpalatable during the events of the Second orld ar (Hoffman 2-3). The visual presentation of both movements can be initially jarring. Dadaism has been described as "anti-art." Instead of beautiful icons of religious scenes or young women, the paintings of this movement are often images of war and violence painted in harsh colors to illustrate the harshness of the world around the artist . Surrealism is by the very definition of surreal, something beyond what the normal person can understand (Claybourne 4).…

Works Cited:

Breton, Andre. "Manifesto of Surrealism." 1924. Print.

Claybourne, Anna. Surrealism. UK: Heinemann. 2009. Print.

"Clocking in with Salvador Dali: Salvador Dali's Melting Watches." Salvador Dali Museum.


Persistence of Memory
Words: 2251 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75468558
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Persistence of Memory

Between the horrors of World War I and the misery and death of World War II, writers and artists searched for answers and ways to find some peace of mind. With the introduction of Sigmund Freud's theory of the subconscious, a group of painters hoped that they could find these answers within the genius of their own minds. Perhaps, under the layers of rational thought and visions of the real world in front of them, they could reunite conscious and unconscious realms of experience so completely that the world of dream and fantasy would be joined to the everyday rational world of existence in "an absolute reality, a surreality." As Freud once noted: "A dream that is not interpreted is like a letter that is not opened." Surrealism offered the opportunity to push the envelop and find the truth. Thus, rose the very nontraditional artistic movement of…

War Over Countless Years of
Words: 2173 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22562259
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Dim through the misty panes and thick green light,/as under a green sea, I saw him drowning./in all my dreams before my helpless sight / He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning./if in some smothering dreams, you too could pace/Behind the wagon that we flung him in,/and watch the white eyes writhing in his face,/His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin,/if you could hear, at every jolt, the blood/Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs/Bitter as the cud / of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues, -- / My friend, you would not tell with such high zest/to children ardent for some desperate glory,/the old Lie: Dulce et decorum est / Pro patria mori. (Owen)

This is not how Owen "might" respond to patriotism this is a direct assault upon it. The words of Dali ring true as the toll of war is counted up among the youthful wasted…


Owen, W, Anthem for Doomed Youth, at 

On Seeing a Piece of Our Artillery Brought into Action, at 

Dulce et Decorum est at 

Remarque, E.M. (1958). All Quiet on the Western Front. Boston: Little Brown.

Renaissance and Early Twentieth Century Art Offer
Words: 420 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73945241
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enaissance and early twentieth century art offer an interesting study in comparison because of their distinctive styles. It is the objective of this paper to describe the definitive characteristics of each period through comparing aphael's Alba Madonna to Salvador Dali's The Persistence of Memory.

enaissance art is reputed for the unified balance achieved between pictorial considerations of measurable space and the effects of light and color on the one hand, and the artist's personal expression on the other (Pioch, 2002). This unity is evident in aphael's Alba Madonna, a painting that represents the artist's unique style of sweetness of expression. The painting is remarkable because of the manner in which aphael has succeeded in addressing a serious subject within a backdrop of a serene countryside. Indeed, it can be said that he was able to do this precisely because of the use of symmetry, namely, the round format that succeeds…


MoMa. (2004). Salvador Dali. The Persistence of memory. Museum of Modern Art.

Retrieved Nov. 12, 2004: 

National Gallery of Art. (2004). From the Tour: Raphael. Retrieved Nov. 12, 2004:

Freud and Surrealism
Words: 1164 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84199371
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Freud and Surrealism

Art and science are strongly interrelated fields. It has been through the recognition of the compatibility between art and science that some of the greatest achievements in both areas have been created. It was Michaelangelo, the artist, that made revolutionary anatomical discoveries in the pursuit of art, discoveries which would become an integral part of the development of medicine. The early mapmakers were the first to create mathematical grids, and those principles would be translated into perspective and proportion for artists recreating three-dimensional objects in two-dimensional art. Along this same vein, the scientific study of the mind, psychology, has had a significant impact on art. The father of modern psychology, Sigmund Freud, discovered the metaphysical "psyche" in his search to understand the symptoms of his patients, opening up science and medicine to the world beyond the physical. Artists latched onto his theories about the importance of the…


Dali, Salvador. "One Second Before Awakening from a Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee Around a Promegranate." 1944.

Rostrup, Truls. "The Surrealists and Freud." 1996. 

Sanchez, Monica. "Surrealism: The Art of Self-Discovery."

Comparison and Contrast
Words: 903 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43631089
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The artistic styles of Pablo Picasso, best known for his high abstractions of the Cubist painting style, and Salvador Dali, one of the most important leaders of the Surrealist movement, have influenced a wide range of artists and are today considered as the quintessential examples of twentieth century art. Picasso as an artist was highly imaginative and original and borrowed heavily from many historical examples which aided him in developing new painting styles. Salvador Dali, like many of his Surrealist contemporaries, sought inspiration from a love for fantasy and studied the writings of Sigmund Freud regarding the human subconscious mind which inspired him to "systemize confusion" through his paintings.
The Cubism style of painting as practiced by Pablo Picasso is best represented by his Accordionist (1911, oil on canvas), a construction of large intersecting planes that suggest the forms of…

Ades, Dawn. Dali and Surrealism. New York: Harper & Row, 1982.

Burger, Peter. Theory of the Avante Garde. Trans. Michael Shaw. University of
Minneapolis, 1984.

Lucie-Smith, Edward. Visual Arts in the Twentieth Century. Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall, 1996.

Politics Literature and the Arts
Words: 794 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33251906
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Politics, Literature & the Arts: Modernism has been discussed as a reaction to modernity: from the following works, is this a fair description?

Modernism is often defined as a chaotic, pastiche-style of rendering the difficulties of modern, industrialized life. The attempted regimentation of modernity becomes, in modernism, exposed for the absurdity that it is through the surrealist and other modernist aesthetics, such as the improvised jazz riff. For example, in the 1928 film "The Andalusian Dog" by the surrealist artist Salvador Dali and the surrealist director Louis Bunuel the pace of the film's absurd depiction of life is harsh, fragmented and full of confusion. It seems to exist in no certain time, place, or within a conventionally identifiable range of historical or social images, and thus is coherent with the impersonal nature of modern life. It is like, to cite Ken Burn's documentary on music, a "jazz" riff on the…

Works Cited

"The Andalusian Dog." Directed and written by Salvador Dali and Louis Bunuel. 1928.

Benjamin, Walter. "Surrealism and Adorno. " in Critical Theory and Society. Edited by Bronner and Kellner.

"Jazz: A Documentary." Directed by Ken Burns, 2002.

Richard Hamilton's Work Interior Is
Words: 555 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 7635572
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One could almost argue that it is in the same manner of a collage that the cinematography mixes with the almost painted images of Salvador Dali's dreams. The idea of the movie is just a pretext: a mentally deranged individual is put in charge of a mental asylum, an ironical premise that allows the director to explore the deep implications of the human personality, including veritable dream sequences in which the art is shown so as to provide an argumentation for the infinity of the ideals. I think this combination of different arts to present the same perspective for the artist is also one of the characteristics of pop art.

The eclectic perspective in Spellbound is also given by the numerous issues that are being approached in the movie, besides the psychological and psychoanalytic aspects. The movie is also a mystery movie, it is a romantic story and it's also…

Surrealism Was a Major Literary
Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 83165939
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In his short piece, he describes the nature of how we think, as stemming from our own paranoiac tendencies.. He believes that in our current modern states of paranoia caused by the restrictions of reality, we tend to want to abolish it entirely. The power of the unconscious does not agree with the restrictions of pure reality, with no allowances for fantasy or paranoiac states of mind. Still, in this state of paranoia, we adjust how we view our own realities. Here, Dali states that "the reality of the external world is used for illustration and proof, and so comes to serve the reality of our mind," (Dali 487). Dali believes that it is the paranoiac mechanism which is at the very foundation of how we view images. In this, there is a sort of inherent surrealism in all of us, even if we do not know it entirely. Embracing…


Breton, Andre. First Manifesto of Surrealism.

Dali, Salvador. "The Stinking Ass."

Assembling Culture Archives Documents Exhibitions
Words: 6890 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25075072
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Assembling Culture

Assembling Southern Appalachian Belief Culture from the Foxfire Archive

This project looks at the belief structure of people in the Southern Appalachian mountains as recognized through the Foxfire archival project, documentary evidence and artistic interpretation. Through an examination of belief systems it is believed that unique cultural aspects of this isolated group of people can be determined. The Foxfire project is an archive that documents how the people lived prior to the mass introduction of outside influences that happened concurrent to the ability of residents to electrify their houses which occurred from approximately 1935 and into the 1950's. Prior to this time the residents of these southeastern mountains were isolated due to the remoteness of villages, and they were able to remain relatively self-contained even though some sections were being encroached by industry. The belief systems in this examination include religion and healing, but mainly relate to how…

Works Cited

Breton, Andre. Nadja. New York: Grove Press, 1960. Print.

Cheek, Angie, and Lacy Hunter Nix. The Foxfire 40th Anniversary Book: Faith, Family, and the Land. New York: Anchor Books, 2006. Print.

Cohen, Margaret. Profane Illumination: Walter Benjamin and the Paris of Surreal Revolution. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995. Print.

De Caro, Frank. The Folklore Muse: Poetry, Fiction, and Other Reflections by Folklorists, Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2008. Print.

Art Five Years From Now You Chat
Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63367868
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Five years from now, you chat with a friend about your favorite humanities class (this one, naturally). What were your favorite artworks encountered throughout the course that you will share with them? Why?

"The Persistence of Memory" by Salvador Dali.

This is a painting by Catalonian-Spanish surrealist Dali. I could choose anything that Dali does to describe my favorite artwork, because I greatly admire his ability to create imagery and symbolism that blends nature with the supernatural. This painting is like a dream. There are elements of reality inside the painting, such as the watches and clocks, the landscape in the background, and the tree. However, there are also elements of the painting that are clearly unreal, such as the clocks melting. Dali is not too concerned about the accuracy of representation, as the perspective of the painting is wrong in terms of depth of field. However, the artist…

Art One Point Linear Perspective in the Renaissance
Words: 1791 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 23072864
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Art One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance

One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance

In the context of art, perspective is generally defined as "… the technique an artist uses to create the illusion of three dimensions on a flat surface" (Essak). Perspective is in essence an illusion of depth and realism in the work of art. It is also an intrinsic part of human evolutionary makeup. As Edgerton ( 2006) states, "

Every human being who has ever lived from Pleistocene times to the present, has experienced in vision the apparent convergence of parallel edges of objects as they extend away from our eyes and seem to come together in a single "vanishing point" on the distant horizon… (Edgerton, 2006)

However, from an art historical perspective it is also true that linear or single-point perspective has not always been an accepted part of painting and artistic creation. It is in…


Edgerton, S. ( 2006). Picturing the Mind's Eye. Tampa University. Journal of Art History,

1. Retrieved from 

Op Art History Part I: A History of Perspective in Art. Retrieved from http://www.op-

Art in America There Was
Words: 796 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14078781
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Later, perhaps inevitably as a consequence of his fascination with cinema, arhol began to make films and to engage in non-static works of performance-based art ("Andy arhol," PBS: American Masters, 2006).

In such art of the 1950s the way in which the art was perceived was as equally important as the image of the art. Disposable and even trashy images and products could be, with the use of irony and a performance space that put the works in 'quotations,' turned into artistic works, to make a statement about American popular culture. Not all Pop Art 'happenings' were inspired by cinema, however. For example, Claus Oldenberg 1961 created a plastic 'store' of manufactured goods, like pies, that reminded him of his childhood general store: "Unlike the slick, mechanical appearance of some pop art, they [the pies] are splotchy and tactile. Oldenburg's manipulation of scale and material unsettle our expectations about the…

Works Cited

Andy Warhol." PBS: American Masters. 20 Sept 2006. 25 Mar 2008. 

Teaching Art Since 1950." National Gallery of Art. 199. 25 Mar 2008. 

Un Chien Andalou." Salvador Dali and Louis Bunuel. 1929.

Varendoe, Kirk. Online NewsHour: Jackson Pollock. 11 Jan 1999. 25 Mar 2008.

Avant-Garde Concept in Modern Art
Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50144052
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hey created art that was unusual and unique, but they also created art that made statements about who they were and what they believed. Again, this has continued throughout the 20th century. Many critics and experts feel that other more modern examples of avant-garde work include the music and art of John and Yoko Ono, and the arrival of digital media in the art world.

Each of the avant-garde artists wanted the art world to accept their work too, no matter how different or unorthodox it might be. Pissarro, Manet, and Cezanne all were Impressionists at a time when art was more natural and lifelike. heir art was not accepted for years, and they struggled with their style while others simply conformed to what was in style at the time. hat is another mark of the avant-garde in the art world. hey do not conform, rather, they dare to be…

Through their art, they changed what was accepted in the art world, but they also made social commentaries about what was happening in society. For example, in 1938, Picasso painted "Guernica," an emotional reaction to the bombing of a Spanish Basque town by Nazi bombers. The painting has remained one of his most famous and well-known, as much for its depiction of the destroyed town and some of the victims as for its staunch and clear stand against the brutality of the Nazis. These artists were not afraid to stand up for what they believed in, and they wanted to change society to become a better place. They created art that was unusual and unique, but they also created art that made statements about who they were and what they believed. Again, this has continued throughout the 20th century. Many critics and experts feel that other more modern examples of avant-garde work include the music and art of John and Yoko Ono, and the arrival of digital media in the art world.

Each of the avant-garde artists wanted the art world to accept their work too, no matter how different or unorthodox it might be. Pissarro, Manet, and Cezanne all were Impressionists at a time when art was more natural and lifelike. Their art was not accepted for years, and they struggled with their style while others simply conformed to what was in style at the time. That is another mark of the avant-garde in the art world. They do not conform, rather, they dare to be different and unique and hope tastes will change and people will begin to embrace their art. They do not give up, however. Matisse is a good example of that tenacity that turns into favor. His work was modern when Impressionism had finally come into vogue, and he had to wait many years for his artwork to be accepted and viable. The avant-garde artist is different and unique - on the cutting edge so to speak - and so, they create new and daring art forms that take time to be accepted, but usually are.

It is also interesting to note that once an artist and their style or movement has become accepted, they often move on to a new style or movement. For example, modern artist Salvador Dali embraced Dadaism, and then took it one step further with his own "Paranoiac Critical Method." When that movement became accepted, he created another, "Nuclear Mysticism" later in his life. Dali also did not confine himself to one medium, but worked in sculpture, jewelry, and even theater sets. Each of these artists worked for what they believed in and for social change and acceptance.

Humanities Study Means Human In 10 Weeks
Words: 1539 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10312792
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humanities study means human. In 10 weeks, thought critically concepts myths narratives, morality decision making, freedom, happiness, specific subjects literature, art, music, film, popular culture.

(1) I am a human being who lives in the 21st century. In my time, being human is a complex process. As a race, we exist on a series of predetermined conditions which serve to shape our daily experience into a habitual cycle of living. These general patterns converge to define the meaning of living in a modern era. As a rule, one person from my time undergoes a carefully structured education from birth to adulthood.

A day in the life of a typical modern adult person starts with waking up amidst family and getting ready for work. Jobs are required to ensure continuous survival for a family and occupy an average of eight hours out of an adult's day span. At times, adults disrupt…


Janaro, R. And Altshuler, T. The Art of Being Human: The Humanities as a Technique for Living. (2011) New York: Longman

Plagens, P. (2002, July 8). What Andy Saw: Warhol Wasn't Just the Godfather of Pop. He Was a Clairvoyant Whose Ideas on Celebrity, Cinema and Even Supersizing Made Him the Most Influential Artist since Picasso. Newsweek Raw, L. The Cherry Orchard. (2000) Theatre Journal vol. 52, 409

Luis Bunuel and Orson Welles Influential and
Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99007864
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Luis Bunuel and Orson Welles: Influential and evolutionary Filmmakers in Film History

In the history of film, two important directors are recognized all over the world because of their great contribution to the development of film throughout the years. These two directors are Luis Bunuel, director of the Surrealist film "Un Chien Andalou" (An Andalusian Dog) and Orson Welles, director of the American classic film, "Citizen Kane." Both directors have given significant contributions to the history of film that are currently and still in practice. There are numerous filmmakers who are equally qualified to be considered as influential filmmakers, but Bunuel and Welles' contribution surpasses the other directors' contributions and revolutionary practices that changed and shaped the world and history of film at present.

Luis Bunuel is a Spanish director who was known primarily for his contribution the Surrealist movement that emerged along with the French Impressionist movement during the…


Bordwell, David and Kristin Thompson. "Film Art: An Introduction." New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1997. p. 455.

Sarris, Andrew (Ed.). "Interview with Film Directors." New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc. 1995. pp. 457-78.

Stone, Judy. "Conversations with International Filmmakers." California: Silman-James Press. 1997. pp. 569-77.

Four Periods in Art History Journey Through Time
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99566474
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Art History ime ravel

Our first stop will be the eighteenth century, where we will investigate Neoclassical painting. We will be visiting Sir Joshua Reynolds, as he works on his 1770 oil on canvas "Portrait of a Black Man" -- and we will be asking if the heroic structure of the painting is meant to contain some sort of ideological message, for example asserting the humanity of his subject against the evils of slavery (which was then still common). We should also find out if indeed the portrait is of Dr. Samuel Johnson's servant Francis Barber, as Johnson's progressive attitude in opposing slavery (and his generous treatment of Barber, to whom he left his estate) might explain why this figure is treated heroically in the painting. hen we will visit Jacques-Louis David, as he works on his stark 1793 Neoclassical oil on canvas depiction of "he Death of Marat." We…

The time machine will stop next in the later nineteenth century, when we will investigate some Impressionist painting. Our first stop will be in London in 1875, to interrogate the American painter James Abbott McNeill Whistler about his oil on canvas study "Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket." We will want to interrogate him about the lawsuit that he filed against the art critic John Ruskin, who accused him of "flinging a pot of paint in the public's face" with this daring painting. We will also interrogate Whistler as to whether he would consider the painting to be Impressionist or not -- it seems like he may have considered it to be straightforward realism (fading fireworks in the night sky do look like this painting) but chose the obscure subject to illustrate a Wildean idea of art for art's sake. We will then move to Claude Monet's garden at Giverny, where we will attempt to catch him completing his 1897-8 "Nympheas" (one of his famous paintings of water lilies, now in the LA County Museum of Art). Monet is a textbook Impressionist painter, but we will interrogate him as to whether his problems with his own eyesight (he developed cataracts) had any influence on his signature style.

In the first half of the twentieth century, we will investigate Surrealism. We will locate Meret Oppenheim in 1936, as she completes her notorious "Object" -- frequently known as "the fur teacup" or "the furry breakfast." Oppenheim's work is perhaps the most memorable example of Surrealism in sculpture -- but we can ask her if the dream-like associations of the piece (is it intended to be strongly vaginal? does it relate to her status as a woman artist?) were intentional on her part, or whether she was merely giving free rein to her subconscious as Surrealists frequently attempted. Then we will find Salvador Dali in 1954, as he completes his large and disturbing oil on canvas painting "Young Virgin Auto-Sodomized By The Horns Of Her Own Chastity." We can interrogate Dali as to the meaning of the symbolism of the painting: why would the chastity of a virgin take the form of a rhinoceros horn about to penetrate her own anus? Is Dali suggesting that sexual repression is self-destructive?

Finally in the latter half of the

How Art and Psychology Are Related
Words: 1211 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44730124
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Art is processed in the brain, and neuropsychological principles show how. One of the prime examples showing the way art influences the brain is with the Mona Lisa. Da Vinci's painting is notable for the peculiar and ambiguous smile on the subject's face. There is "dynamism" in the smile, artist understood this and deliberately make optical illusion of sorts (Chakravarty 69). The illusion is a product of "imaginative thinking which involves frontal cortical activation in the viewer's brain coupled with activation of the motion area (area V5/MT) of the viewer's visual cortex," (Chakravarty 69). Thus, some viewers may perceive La Gioconda as smiling, and others may not.

Evolutionary Psychology

Cave art proves that creative expression has always been a part of human history. As Dutton points out, the ancient Greeks were the first to recognize that art had a distinct psychological component. Art has functioned differently in different cultures…

Works Cited

"Behavior Genetics." Retrieved online: 

Chakravarty, Ambar. "Mona Lisa's Smile." Medical Hypotheses. Vol. 75, No. 1, July 2010, pp. 69-72.

Dutton, Dennis. "Aesthetics and Evolutionary Psychology." The Oxford Handbook for Aesthetics, edited by Jerrold Levinson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003). Retrieved online:

Gallese, Vittorio. "Mirror Neurons and Art." Chapter 22. Retrieved online:

Experimental Narrative the Lyrical Film
Words: 1452 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57391305
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In the first post-World War decade, Maya Deren stood out among her experimental filmmaking contemporaries by collaborating with her husband Alexander Hammid on one of the most famous of all American avant-garde films, Meshes of the Afternoon (1943) in which a woman portrayed by Deren herself experiences a series of "mysterious encounters with a hooded figure whose face is in a mirror. She passes through chambers, splits into several personalities and eventually dies" (490). In this instance, the abstract imagery used in this film is focused upon the mirror which reflects the personalities of Deren, much like the common theme of Jekyll and Hyde, a type of doppleganger construction. This film also projects a dream structure, meaning that the images of part of the dream state and lie beyond reality. Deren also experimented with psychodramas which contain strong cues for the audience that "the images are projections of the heroine's…


Danks, Adrian. (2006). "The Silent Village." Senses of Cinema. Internet. Retrieved November 9, 2008 at .

Documentary and Experimental Cinema in the Post War Era: 1945 -- Mid -- 1960's." Chapter 21.

Williams, Deane. (2002). "Robert Flaherty." Senses of Cinema. Internet. Retrieved November 9, 2008 at .

Returning to School Was Something
Words: 684 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67821185
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These things are like a fuel that feed my insatiable appetite for them.

I know that when I receive my degree I will have greater opportunities -- though I remain unsure at this time exactly what I want to commit myself to on a professional level. I think that it will become more clear to me as I get closer to finishing my degree, but I am certain that I will have to choose a field that will be rewarding for my hard work in college, but will also provide me with the mental stimulation and challenges that I thrive on.

There are, too, the other interests in my life that have become broader as I pursue my education. I find it hard to pass by a museum, especially an art museum, without taking the time to go inside and feel the awe of the skilled and masterful artists who…

Modernism and Postmodernism Question 2
Words: 2654 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54684999
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That the post modernists rejected the psychotherapy of the modernist era is by no means suggestive that the artists of the era have escaped psychological analysis. Because of the extreme nature of the pop culture, it has presented a psychological windfall for study in excessiveness. It is represented by an excess of economic affluence, drugs, sex, and expressions of behavior. The excessiveness is found not just in the music industry, but also in literature, film, and paintings and photography. It is all encompassing of all art expressions.

One important definition of the post-modern, as a radically sceptical and questioning attitude of mind, is that provided by the philosopher Jean-Francois Lyotard (1984), who wrote of it in terms of 'the death of grand narratives', with Marxism and Freudianism particularly in mind. Lyotard would see as futile attempts to consider the modern and post-modern in terms of historical periodisation. For him,…

Works Cited 

Buchanan, Iain, Michael Dunn, Elizabeth Eastmond, and Frances Hodgkins. Frances Hodgkins: Paintings and Drawings. Auckland, N.Z.: Auckland University Press, 1994. Book online. Available from Questia, PM.qst?a=o&d=76905182.Internet' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Portrayed in Sequential Arts Us
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Consequences of these choices only compound his deep-seated insecurities. (Zushi)

Both Ben and Miko are Japanese-Americans, and their shared ethnic background impacts on their lives in significantly different ways. Miko is proactive and politicised -- she is the assistant organiser of a film festival showcasing Asian-American talent. Ben, meanwhile, is a depressive manager of a local cinema, seemingly content in his life of slow-burning frustration and -- not surprisingly -- covert masturbation.

Sexual stereotyping is at the heart of the story. The title itself is a reference to Ben's feeling of inadequacy in the trousers department (underneath the dust jacket, the book cover bears a life-size image of a ruler). At one point, Ben recalls a "stupid joke": "hat's the difference between Asian men and Caucasian men?" The punchline -- "the cauc" -- is both funny and deeply uncomfortable. "I actually heard a girl tell that joke in college! I…

Works Cited

The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 16 Jan. 2008

The Comic-Book Heroes with a Touch of Genius." The Daily Mail (London, England) 22 Dec. 2006: 64. Questia. 15 Jan. 2008 PM.qst?a=o&d=5018563927' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Violence Against Non-Combatant Populations to Increase the
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violence against non-combatant populations to increase the psychological effects of warfare has been a mainstay of human aggression for millennia. As Russian revolutionist eon Tolstoy once said: "kill one, intimidate one thousand." In the modern world, the idea of terrorism has moved from the overt spark that caused World War I to the events of September 11, 2001. Just after 9am Eastern Standard Time, most of the world watched in horror as the global media replayed the events surrounding four passenger planes that were high jacked in the United States. Two of these aircraft were flown into New York's Twin Towers, one into the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and the final one crashed into a field in Pennsylvania. Even though the damage was confined to the physical and geographic area of the United States, the image and aftermath of the attacks were global. American conservative columnist George Will, never a…

Looking at the photographs or reviewing the footage, of the Twin Towers is highly emotional and symbolic; likely exactly the point of using them as targets. The Twin Towers represented not just New York or America, but capitalism, international business, the human spirit in almost defying gravity and using human ingenuity to build something grand. However, grand though it may have been, just like December 7, 1945 and Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, the very soul of modernity was ripped away, making individuals feel vulnerable, unsafe, and quite frankly -- terrified in a hostile world.

Whatever motives the al-Qaida sect might have had are less important than the capability of adapting to such an evil and nefarious purpose. This of course, is the great conundrum that 9/11 reminds us: we are a species capable of the most ardent dichotomies imagined. Even examining only the 20th century, we find that humans have produced some of the most beautiful works of art imaginable: the sublime works of T.S. Eliot, the controversial yet intriguing works of Aaron Copland and Igor Stravinsky, the disturbingly emotional Salvador Dali, and architectural masterpieces that dwarf anything built, and more technological advances than can be adequately chronicled here. Then, we have also had the Holocaust, Stalin's Purges, the excesses of Pol Pot and Idi Amin; vast populations starved, displaced, and several disease vectors that have wiped out significant populations. From the perspective of an extraterrestrial anthropologist, we would seem a confusing species at best; a clear dichotomy of values, morals, and actions.

Yet the images of 9/11 also remind us that while a dichotomy exists, it is that very capacity for evil that allows us to rise above and produce good. New York City is certainly a different place than it was on September 10, 2011; and the world has grown even closer since the attacks -- partially due to technology, but also due to a true desire and vision that when all external trappings are gone, the kernel of the individual is indeed the human spirit.

What Does Kafkaesque Imply and How Is the Definition Term Relevant to Modernism
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Kafkaesque and the Modern, Alienated Condition

The term Kafkaesque is often merely used to connote notions of the surreal, such as the state of Gregor Samsa in the German author's most famous short story of a "Metamorphosis" that a clerk undergoes into a hideous, human-sized insect. Yet Kafka is more than the Salvador Dali of prose. Rather, the outer conditions of Kafka's most famous protagonists become symbolic of the human condition of modernity as a whole -- even before his physical regression into a primitive stage of life, Samsa lives his entire existence in a tiny room, giving all of his wages to his decrepit parents and ungrateful aspiring singer of a sister. His family ends the story relieved at the passing of their invalid son and brother when he can no longer provide for them.

On the day he turns into an insect, Gregor has such a little sense…

Subjective Nature of Perception Be Regarded as
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subjective nature of perception be regarded as an advantage for artists but as an obstacle to be overcome for scientists?

Perception is the way we get the information about real objects that exist independently from our consciousness. Perception reflects state and qualities of objects and forms our understanding of their existence. Person can perceive information about environment in different ways: by tactile, acoustic, visual perception, still visual perception is the most essential. It's important to note that human gets 90% of information thanks to his eyesight. Visual perception is a result of visual activity of human's interaction with surrounding world. (It's important to note again here that we do not "see" objects, we perceive their electromagnetic radiation of visual spectrum).

That's why it's believed that visual perception is subjective, and the structure of perception is based on the laws of projectile reflection. Perception's role is essential in the functioning of…

8. Brigitte Burgmer ART PERCEPTION EVOLUTION (available on web: n.html)

9. Perception (from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) (available on web:

10. Fundamental nature of bodyhood, Article (available on web: )

Lived and Created in Different
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For example, in "The Calling of St. Matthew," we may be able to identify two such groups: there is a horizontal rectangle formed by St. Matthew and his assistants and a vertical prism, with Jesus and St. Peter.

A significant difference between the two painters and one to which we will return further on is related to the use of color and lighting. There is no chiaroscuro in osch's works. Instead, it is replaced by a vivid coloration. It is sometimes comical, sometimes it suggests a joke, but it is also grotesque and horrid at times. Compared to Caravaggio's classical colors, we may arrive at the conclusion that while Caravaggio prefers the contrast between lightness and darkness in his painting to underline different effects, osch relies more on his coloring to draw the viewer's attention.

The painting of the haywain cannot be left aside without emphasizing osch's trademark: grotesque, surrealistic…


3. Histoire Illustree de la Peinture de l'art rupestre a l'art abstrait. Fernand Hazan Editeur. Paris. 1971.

4. Kren, Emil and Marx, Daniel. Web Gallery of Art. On the Internet at /05/28ceras.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Tony Oursler Has a Very
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He is intimate with television sufficiently to be able to understand how complex the integration of television is into individuals' lives. He then takes this awareness of the television medium and attempts to incorporate it into various works that tell people more about their lives.

Not everyone is comfortable with Oursler's art, however, but this is not something that Oursler has generally allowed to bother him. He began his art work in 1978, and his style has not changed all that much throughout the years. One of the most significant changes that has occurred in his style, however, is the use of newer technology to revisit many of the themes that were seen in his artwork in the past. This is very significant in that it indicates that Oursler has not stopped thinking about the issues that concerned him in the past, and that the feelings that he had for…

Generally, Oursler sticks with faces, figures, and what are considered by some to be mobile human dolls. Even though he has experimented with other designs and other ideas in the past, this experimentation has generally yielded results that he was not entirely pleased with. He has often been called "the video doll maker." Most of the other media that he has used has been seen extensively in Japan and Europe, but some of it has made its way to the United States as well. Despite the fact that this other media has been utilized throughout the world, the dissatisfaction that Oursler often had with it remained with him and led him to believe that he could not create exactly what he wanted to create and express himself to the extent that he wished to with this other imagery.

Because of this, he went back to what he was familiar with and what he was renowned for and the work that he was doing as late as 2003 generally involved these mobile dolls and the video information that he needed to give them expressions, voices, and other disturbing imagery that would be seen by those that viewed his work. Some critics discuss Oursler's work as being low-budget and low-tech expressionistic theater, since much of what Oursler creates is considered to be very primitive and sometimes grotesque as well. There is a sensibility to the handmade pieces that Oursler often exhibits but there are also psychodramatic landscapes that force the reader to look at much of Oursler's work from a pop culture standpoint.

There is no reason to believe that this pop culture standpoint is in any way a problem for Oursler or for the people that view his work. Instead, the idea that much of his work applies to pop culture is only an observation that many critics note. Much of this comes from the abstractness of a lot of Oursler's work. Even though it is easy to see what the actual images are in the work, some of the work does not tie itself together very clearly and therefore it may be confusing to understand. Despite this, however, Oursler's work is very strong and very interesting to behold. It has a richness, an openness, and an honesty that many other artist's work does not possess for one reason or another, and one can tell that Oursler is working and creating to please himself, not to please the masses.

Hearing Voices Patients Therapists in an
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Jung and auditory hallucinations

Meyer (2003), in a discussion of Jungian symbolism in the movie, Spider-Man, notes that both masks and voices are essential to the movement of heroic characters through the plotline. Meyer is not, however, a psychologist, nor even an anthropologist; rather, she is a write about communications. Still, her work on Spider-Man tied several of the movie's themes to Jungian thought.

Halifax's work goes farther in bringing Jungian thought into the mainstream of psychological study. His work with shamans and shamanic ritual, important subjects to Jungians, posited aspects of schizophrenia in the initiatory journey of the shaman. Halifax cited Julian Silverman's conclusions in which schizophrenia was characterized as a disorder in which the "individual withdraws form society and the outer world and becomes preoccupied by internal processes with a resulting disintegration of the personality. The symptoms, broadly described, include autism and unreal ideation, disturbed perception and thinking,…


Ardery, Philip. "Ramifications of Julian Jaynes's Theory of Consciousness for Traditional General Semantics." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 61, no. 1 (2004): 83+. Database online. Available from Questia, . Internet. Accessed 21 July 2005.

Bemak, Fred, and Lawrence R. Epp. "Transcending the Mind-Body Dichotomy: Schizophrenia Reexamined." Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development 41, no. 1 (2002): 14+. Database online. Available from Questia,

My Definition of Art
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art is contingent upon who it is that is conducting the interpretation process. What may be seen one way by a certain individual, may be viewed completely differently by another person. Art is a very subjective topic. One's emotions and feelings go into the process of both creating art and reading other people's art. My definition of art is quite vast. Art is a form of expressing one's feelings. These feelings can stem from sadness, elation, anger, and/or repression. In the beginning of the artistic process, the artist is not too concerned with what others think of their artwork; the art-creating process is in fact viewed as a way to rid oneself of emotions that one may not comprehend at the moment. Art then takes on a life of its own, allowing people to see what they want to see. It is very rare to find two interpretations that are…

Backward and We A Comparison When Writers
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Backward and We: A Comparison

When writers think about the future it's often in dichotomous terms. Writers generally see the future in shades of black and white, with very little deviation between the two. This is particularly the case in the novels Looking Backward by Edward Bellamy and We by Yevgeny Zamyatin. The former is an optimistic tale about a socialist utopia which essentially describes a future full of improvements. The latter describes a futuristic dystopia where humans lack autonomy and privacy. In spite of these incredibly different descriptions and notions about the future, there's still a significant amount of overlap between these two novels. Exploring the different shades of each can provide a deeper understanding of each respective author's inner fears and wishes. As different as these two novels appear to be, they are both actually stories about societies which have made the ultimate (and wrong) sacrifice: they've given…


Bellamy, E. . "Looking Backward." N.p.. Web. 5 Apr 2013.


Sancton, T.A. "Looking Inward: Edward Bellam'ys Spiritual Crisis." American

Quarterly. 25.5 (1973): 538-557. Print.

Anthony the Great Why St
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St. Anthony is recognized as the head of the monastic family. His date of birth was in 251 and somewhere in Egypt. His parents died when he was only sixteen years old. He remained to be the guardian of his younger sibling, Dious. Six months after the demise of his parents, he went to the church to hear the word of our lord. 'If you would be perfect, go sell all you have, given to the poor and come follow me.' (Matthew 19:21)

He regarded to this advice as a personal message sent to him God himself. From the fortune his family left behind, he sold 300 acres land that was fertile and the proceeds he gave the poor remaining with a little for taking care of his sister. He left the sister to be taken care of by the community of virgins. This allowed him to be free and…

Works Cited

Anthony and Derwas J. Chitty. The Letters of Saint Anthony the Great.Fairacres, Oxford: SLG Press, 2010. Print.

Athanasius, .The Life of St. Anthony the Great: 17 Jan 356 Written a.d. 357. Willits, CA: Eastern Orthodox Books, 2008a. Print.

Athanasius, .The Life of St. Antony the Great. Willets, CA: Eastern Orthodox Church, 2009b. Print.

McDannell, Colleen. Religions of the United States in Practice: 1. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 2006. Print.

Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1
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Dadaism and Surrealism

It has been since centuries that the Art has existed in this world and has undergone various stages. In simple words, art has got its own historical periods whereby every period has its unique invention and significance. Art has acquired immense success, has reached several milestones and the reason of this tremendous development is due to the improvement in diverse historical periods. The present is always improved by taking history as a source for improvement. History narrates the earlier civilizations through which present learns for the future development. In the same way, art has continued to be the most imperative subject of all cultures; be they ancient or present. The different art periods of diverse varieties have existed since times unknown. In this essay, Dadaism and Surrealism, the two distinctive historical art periods will be elaborated along with their similarities and differences.


As mentioned in Columbia…


ART BOOKS OF THE YEAR; Van Gogh's Letters, Grayson Perry's Pots a Scholarly Study of Caravaggio and a Glimpse into the World of the Insane Henry Darger -- Just a Few of the Treats Guaranteed to Give Pleasure This Christmas. (2009, December 10). The Evening Standard (London, England), p. 48. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database: PM.qst?a=o&d=5038833735

Dada. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database:

Magic Realism the Fantastic
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Magic ealism

Latin American Magic ealism

Literature has endured a plethora of movements that have been used to both expand the literary base and try to explain a specific culture or set of cultures. For novels, it has been said that there are a very few plots which are continuously circulated in the work of authors who are bound by those elements but can expand the use of the plot beyond what has been known previously. A plot based on a love story is not owned by Shakespeare and death is not the sole domain of Hemmingway. No known author started these plots, and it different schools of writing are also difficult to pin down. However, the same cannot be said for the different literary movements which have reinvented the means of delivering simple plots. Much like the authors who adhere to them, literary movements seem to be typical of…


Cowan, K. (2002). Magic realism. Retrieved from http://www- l

Rios, A. (1999). Magical realism: Definitions. Retrieved from

Max Ernst
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Described as "one of the leading surrealists" by the world renowned Tate gallery in London, which houses much of his work, Max Ernst remains one of the world's most important and influential artists. He and his colleagues founded one of modern art's earliest but most significant movements called Dada, which was a reaction against formal traditions in art and a celebration of avant-garde creativity.

Ernst is perhaps best known for his legacy of paintings, but Ernst also created a vast body of sculpture and prints, and also wrote surrealist books. Max Ernst is important not only because of his prowess on the canvas, but also because his work reflects the modern psyche, disturbed by human mental and spiritual evolution and curious about what motivates and drives people. Sexuality, death, and desire are common themes in the work of Ernst and his fellow surrealists.

Ernst worked during a time in…

Works Cited

Alley, Ronald. Catalogue of the Tate Gallery's Collection of Modern Art other than Works by British Artists, Tate Gallery and Sotheby Parke-Bernet, London 1981, p.204

Ernst, Max. A Week of Kindness or the Seven Deadly Elements.

Hopkins, David. "The Robing of the Bride: Max Ernst's Response to Duchamp." Chapter 3 in Marcel Duchamp and Max Ernst: The Bride Shared. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation (SRGF). Max Ernst. Retrieved online:

Breathless in the Face of Godard's Sharp
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Breathless in the face of Godard's Sharp and Fragmented Vision of Filmed Sexuality all these things, at first sight...are obstacles to conventional smoothness and logic. Yet they are perfectly efficient in the sense that they crate an impression of confusion, flight, fear, restrained violence, imminent danger, etc., while staying within the bounds of possibility...The editor [Godard] is saying, in fact, "the habitual idea of screen continuity is merely an illusion which is in any case subsidiary to the communication of the scene's meaning. I am going to take advantage of your admission that it is unreal by rejecting it and substituting this cruder but more direct description of the action" -- Riesz and Millar

The thesis of the article by Riesz and Millar quoted above, on the 1960 film directed by Jean Luc Godard's entitled "Breathless," may seem quite complex on its surface. However, the authors' thesis in its most…

Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie Embody the
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Discreet Charm of the ourgeoisie embody the aims of Surrealism as stipulated in Andre reton's Surrealist Manifesto?

reton's Surrealist Manifesto, was written in homage to one Guillaume Apollinaire, who had died recently, and who, on quite a number of occasions, seemed to have followed a field of this kind, but without ever having sacrificed it to any kind of mediocre literary forms. Soupault and I, referred to this new form of pure expression, that was at our disposal, and which we fervently wished to share with our friends, by the term SURREALISM. I do believe that, in today's world there is no need of pondering any further on meaning of this word, since the meaning that we had given it initially, has prevailed against its Apollinarian meaning (reton).

To be fair, we could have deployed the word SUPERNATURALISM that was first used in this context by Gerard de Nerval in…


Acker, Melissa. Senses of Cinema. December 2013. 21 August 2015. Retrieved from: 

Ahrens, Julie. Parallax View. 26 July 2010. 21 August 2015. Retrieved from: 

Breton, Andre. "Manifesto of Surrealism." 1924.

Surrealist Films Un Chien Andalou L'age D'or
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surrealist films, Un Chien Andalou L'Age, d'or Las Hurdes (Land read), terms cinematic techniques a formal surrealist perspective. Use specific frames films discussion.

Luis unuel's films are generally known to have produced diverse sentiments in viewers, considering that most people are unable to digest the controversial topics that the director relates to. When taking into account unuel's attitude in making these motion pictures, it is only safe to assume that his intention was to push away viewers rather than to attract them. It is actually probable that unuel was the first director in the history of filmmaking who expressed no interest in gathering large crowds of supporters. He was not particularly concerned about the effects that his films will generate on the public, as he was primarily interested in expressing himself through these films. unuel's films were revolutionary at the time when he first presented them to the public and…


Dir. Luis Bunuel. L'Age d'Or. Corinth Films, 1979 (U.S.)

Dir. Luis Bunuel. Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan. 1933

Dir. Luis Bunuel. Un Chien Andalou. Les Grandes Films Clasiques, 1929

comparing and contrasting dada and'surrealism
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Where the Twain Meets: Dada and Surrealism
Distinct artistic movements, genres, and philosophies, Dada and Surrealism do cross over and share considerable points of reference. Dada made its mark on the art world first, with its genesis in Switzerland during the First World War (“Dada and Surrealism,” 1). In fact, Dada was never constrained by visual media, with poets and performance artists at the forefront of the largely political and reactive movement (“Dada and Surrealism,” 1). To call Dada avant-garde, or progressive, would be an understatement, because Dada transformed the ways people thought about and created art. Art was no longer about creating aesthetic beauty or pleasing a patron, but about actively challenging social norms, politics, and even what it means to be human. Dada art can be provocative, but is not necessarily so, with some artists using their medium to question and even “humiliate” art itself (Rubin 11). The…

Art and Mathematics Are Related
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Note the distinct similarities.

An examination of Escher's Circle Limit III can thus tell us much about distance in hyperbolic geometry. In both Escher's woodcut and the Poincare disk, the images showcased appear smaller as one's eye moves toward the edge of the circle. However, this is an illusion created by our traditional, Euclidean perceptions. Because of the way that distance is measured in a hyperbolic space, all of the objects shown in the circle are actually the same size. As we follow the backbones of the fish in Escher's representation, we can see, then, that the lines separating one fish from the next are actually all the same distance even though they appear to grow shorter. This is because, as already noted, the hyperbolic space stretches to infinity at its edges. There is no end. Therefore, the perception that the lines are getting smaller toward the edges is, in…

Works Cited

Corbitt, Mary Kay. "Geometry." World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia. World Book, Inc., 2003.

Dunham, Douglas. "A Tale Both Shocking and Hyperbolic." Math Horizons Apr. 2003: 22-26.

Ernst, Bruno. The Magic Mirror of M.C. Escher. NY: Barnes and Noble Books, 1994.

Granger, Tim. "Math Is Art." Teaching Children Mathematics 7.1 (Sept. 2000): 10.