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Same Sex Marriage
The study conducted is a research on the topic of "Same Sex Marriages." The study aims to identify the key variables in the context of same sex marriages. The research will find out that the variables that are leading to different opinions on this topic. There are three hypotheses in the research will be proved through the data collected and analyzed.
The issue of same sex marriage has emerged in the past few decades and has different perspectives which have resulted in a number of changes in the legislations and changes in the marriage laws. These changes have varied from country to country and state to state. The same sex marriage is a matter of civil rights, social rights, moral rights, equality, and human rights. There have been numerous debates on the issue of same sex marriage and the opinions are…
Abraham, J. (2010) Public Relations: Why the Rush to Same-Sex Marriage? And Who Stands to Benefit? The Women's Review of Books, 17 (8): 12 -- 14.
Adam, K. (2009) "Survey -- Generations at Odds: The Millennial Generation and the Future of Gay and Lesbian Rights." Public Religion Research Institute.
Hasin, D. (2010) "Lesbian, gay, bisexual individuals risk psychiatric disorders from discriminatory policies." Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.
Harry, K. (2010) Data Points: Support for Legal Same-Sex Marriage. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 70, 200-225
Same Sex Marriage
HAVEN IN A HEARTLESS WORLD
Marriage is seen as a sacred institution which lays down specific responsibilities on the man and the woman concerned. It puts man under the responsibility of providing bread to the family and the woman to take care of the household, raise the children and nurture them. Further a woman's role since history has been to mold the character of the child and like Freud suggests that parents should ensure to only spend quality time with their children. The "Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998" defines a child for whose 'long-term welfare both parties have parental responsibility.' This clearly expresses the notion that both a father and a mother have responsibilities when they have children and not one can excuse their self from this. Christopher explains in his article that children in America today spend less time with their families…
Same Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized
The issue of legalizing same-sex marriages has been the subject of major debate for several years, and was recently brought to the forefront during this past election year. Aside from public support, there are many in the academic world, such as scholars, lawmakers, and commentators who believe that legal status and benefits of marriage should be extended to unions other than traditional marriages (ardle Pp). There is actually no logical reason why unions of same-sex couples should not be granted.
Throughout the election campaign, President Bush courted conservatives by promising to push for a constitutional amendment that would ban same-sex marriages, and now that he has been re-elected, it is believed that he will definitely push for the amendment (Munro Pp). Karl Rove, senior adviser, said, "ithout the protection of that amendment, we are at the mercy of activist federal judges or activist state…
Wardle, Lynn D. "Multiply and replenish': considering same-sex marriage in light of state interests in marital procreation." Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy; 6/22/2001; Pp.
Munro, Neil. "Keeping the Pressure On." National Journal; 11/13/2004; Pp.
Gomes, Charlene. "The need for full recognition of same-sex marriage."
The Humanist; 9/1/2003; Pp.
Same Sex Marriage
Marriage is a socially sanctioned union that is, in most societies, generally guided by rule of exogamy, the obligation to marry outside a group (Marriage pp). However, some societies follow the rules of endogamy, the obligation to marry within a group (Marriage pp). Groups are generally defined as kinship such as clan or lineage, residential groups, and social groups such as ethnic, caste or class (Marriage pp). Although marriage is usually heterosexual and entails the rights and duties of sexual performance, there are exceptions, such as Nayar women of India who marry men of a superior caste, then take on numerous lovers and bear legitimate children (Marriage pp). And among the Dhomey of est Africa, a woman marries another woman, one becomes the legal father of the children of the second who has children by men (Marriage pp).
In other societies, an adult man marries the young…
Hohengarten, William M. "Same-sex marriage and the right of privacy."
Yale Law Journal; 4/1/1994; pp.
Lee, Gretchen. "Looking up at American." Curve; 11/1/1999; pp.
Bastien, Richard. "Same-sex marriage and the culture war."
Same-Sex Marriage Constitution
Same-Sex Marriage and the Constitution
In May of 2009 two same-sex couples filed suit to stop the implementation of California's Prop 8, which defined marriage as between one man and a woman and effectively made marriage between those of the same-sex illegal. While this case has been played out in the courts for three years, the Supreme court of the United States has recently heard oral arguments regarding this case and will soon make a decision as to the constitutionality of California's Prop 8 law. (Mears) But the issue of same-sex marriage is currently at stake in a number of states and the decision made by the court could have an effect that reaches far beyond the borders of California. Many different states have differing versions of laws which allow for the legal recognition of same-sex couples, ranging from civil unions to outright recognition of marriage. While…
Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967). Retrieved from http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=388&invol=1
Mears, Bill. (n.d.). "Big Cases Await Supreme Court's 2012-13 Term." CNN.com.
Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/interactive/2012/10/politics/scotus.cases/index.html
U.S. Constitution. Legal Information Institute: Cornell University Law School.
Same Sex Marriage
For many years now, the issue of same sex marriage has been prominent all over the United States. It has been either present in lawsuits, competing in legislation, or ballot initiatives in order to legalize in all the states. It is seen that about seventy percent of the people are not in favor of gay marriage. The right to marry someone regardless of their age, sex, or ethnicity is a human right. It should be noted that these rights should not be influenced by someone else's feelings, religion or decisions. The Supreme Court ruling that took down parts of the Defense of Marriage act led to a lot of protests and activity by people in favor gay marriage. egardless, it is true that same sex marriage is most definitely a civil right and people should fight for it to be accepted as one.
In order to initiate…
Adam, B. (1995). The rise of a gay and lesbian movement. New York: Twayne Publishers.
Bello, M. (2013). Emboldened, gay marriage activists eye 50 states. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/11/02/gay-marriage-states-supreme-court/3175799 / [Accessed: 2 Nov 2013].
Evans, G. And Sahnoun, M. (2001). The responsibility to protect. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.
Mohr, R. (1994). A More Perfect Union. Boston.
That is simply not the case, and there is overwhelming evidence to support that this is not the case, and that even the original premise does not pass muster.
Same sex marriage should be legalized in the United States, at the federal level. The United States is a nation that is designed on the supremacy of personal freedom, and the current laws restrict personal freedom for nobody's gain but to the detriment of a significant portion of the population. Moreover, the moral case against same sex marriage holds no water. The morals of a country are defined by its citizens, and in the United States the majority of the people support same sex marriage. Further, there are no negative consequences -- aside from childish hurt feelings -- to anybody if same sex marriage is legalized.
The ethical case for same sex marriage is also sound. Deontology focuses on the…
Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2012). Deontological ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved April 14, 2013 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Canfield, C. (2013). Anti-gay-marriage group argues case in Maine. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved April 14, 2013 from http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Anti-gay-marriage-group-argues-case-in-Maine-4426792.php
Murray, M. (2013). 53% support gay marriage. NBC News. Retrieved April 14, 2013 from http://firstread.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/04/11/17708688-nbcwsj-poll-53-percent-support-gay-marriage-lite
Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2011). Consequentialism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved April 14, 2013 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/
Overall, the locus of this argument comes to a major point -- would Jesus discriminate? (Would Jesus Discriminate, 2010;
eligious opposition to same-sex marriage claim that the purpose of marriage is only valid for a man and a woman. oman Catholic dogma, for instance, says that same-sex relationships cannot be considered marriage because by definition, the term revolves around the spiritual and physical uniting of members of the opposite sex. Others view same-gender sexuality activity as being immoral, contrary to God's will, and subverting God's creative intent for procreation of the species. These views also hold that same-sex marriage would legitimize and normalize homosexuality instead of encouraging heterosexuality as the only viable sexual union appropriate in the sight of God (a Biblical Perspective, 2008).
Some of the opposition to same-sex marriage comes from an interpretation of scripture, for instance:
Genesis 19:4-11 -- "They called to Lot, 'Where are the men…
A Biblical Perspective on Same-Sex "Marriage" and Civil Unions. (January 2008). The Association of Politically Active Christians. Retrieved from: http://www.apacny.net/the%20Christian%20Case%20Against%20Same-Sex%20Marriage.pdf
The Divine Institution of Marriage. (August 2008). The Church of Jesus Christ of Later Day Saints. Retrieved from: http://www.mormonnewsroom.org/ldsnewsroom / eng/commentary/the-divine-institution-of-marriage
Would Jesus Discriminate? (2010). Metropolitan Community Church. Retrieved from: http://www.wouldjesusdiscriminate.com/
Glassman, a. (July 15, 2005). Pro-Gay Marriage Amendment Focuses on Religious Freedom. GayPeopleChronicle.com. Retrieved from: http://www.gaypeopleschronicle.com/stories05/July/0715052.htm
Even though some have suggested that the legalization is inevitable, I suggest that you and I together still have a chance to make a difference and to prevent this horrible turn of events from destroying our future and the future of our beloved children.
Three main points:
Same-Sex Marriage is Not Condoned by the Bible.
There is absolutely no place in the Christian Bible that same-sex marriage is condoned. As a Christian nation, we must abide closely by the words of the bible when determining our laws and moral values. Not only does the Bible not condone same-sex marriage, it specifically condemns the relationships on which such marriages would be based. Homosexuality is an abomination. This is not a simple phrase thrown around by protestors. The Bible specifically tells us that homosexuality is an abomination in Leviticus: "Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination." (Leviticus…
Proponents counter this argument with statistics showing that many marriages end in divorce, that the core nature of society is independent of marriage, and that the issue of civil rights requires rethinking marriage since the prerequisite of having children has diminished over time.
Thus, the validity of the study is focused less on the institution itself, and more on the very basic nature of how we view individual civil rights. If we have laws that prevent ethic and gender bias, then how can we prevent a civil union? If religion and state are separate, how can the government dictate Church policy? If we acknowledge that a family unit can be many things, and that marriage is also about a commitment before society and legal protection for partners, then how can we be a democratic nation and deny basic human rights?
Differing Definitions of Marriage and Family. (2008). Focus…
Sullivan, a. (2009). Same Sex Marriage in History. eNotAlone. Retrieved from:
Westermark, E. (1921). History of Human Marriage. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com / books?id=ShU3N7_GaMYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the#v=onepage&q=&f=false
The wrong are dammed to hell and the argument shuts down. These clear lines in the sand ignore the nuanced nature of human sexuality and the freedom of choice given to all persons.
Additionally, despite of the many attempts to cure persons of their homosexual orientation there has been little proven success. The question concerning sexual orientation is one that requires attention because it is the basis of many ill formed positions. If sexual orientation is a choice then the moral argument can be made more easily. However, if it is not a choice that the person makes then their sexual orientation is natural to them and should be viewed in that light. So that SSM are only immoral if the parties actually have a choice in the matter.
The threat posed by SSM to opposite sex marriages is another point of contention. The argument posits that if marriage is…
Eskridge, W.N. (1993). A history of same-sex marriage. Virginia Law Review 79(7):1419-1513.
Keane, T.M. (1995). Aloha, marriage? Constitutional and choice of law arguments for recognition of same-sex marriages. Stanford Law Review 47(3): 499-532.
Meezan, W. & Rauch, J. (2005) Gay marriage, same-sex parenting, and America's children. The Future of Children 15(2): 97-115.
Patterson, Charlotte J. (1992). Children of lesbian and gay parents. Child Development 63(5):
..In determining the meaning of any Act of Congress, or any ruling, regulation, or interpretation of the various administrative bureaus and agencies of the United States, the word 'marriage' means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word 'spouse' refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or wife." (Smith, 2004; p.5) Smith relates that a federal bankruptcy court in the Western District of Washington found DOMA to be constitutional and that no constitutional rights exists for the individual to marry someone of the same sex and as well that DOMA does not violate the Fourth, Fifth or Tenth amendments, not the principles of comity. (in re Lee Kandu and Ann C. Kandu, No. 03-51312 - Western District of Washington, Aug 17, 2004; as cited in Smith, 2004; p.5)
There are potential constitutional challenges to DOMA,…
Smith, Alison M. (2004) Same-Sex Marriages: Legal Issues - CRS Report for Congress RL31994. 24 Sept. 2004. Online available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/RL31994.pdf
Somerville, Margaret (2003) the Case Against 'Same-Sex Marriage' Brief Submitted to the Standing Committee on Justice and Human Rights 29 Apr 2003. Online available at http://www.marriageinstitute.ca/images/somerville.pdf
Support of Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Civil Marriage (2005) American Psychological Association (APA) Position Statement, 2005 May. Online available at http://www.psych.org/edu/other_res/lib_archives/archives/200502.pdf .
Same-Sex Marriage in Washington (2006) Washington State Bar Association. Media Backgrounder #1. Online available at http://www.wsba.org/media/samesexmarriagebackgrounder.pdf
But those sections can no longer be used, as they were by the California Supreme Court, to provide gay couples with the liberty and privacy rights of equal access to civil marriage," as the Court did previously (Feldblum 2009).
Despite the presence of Bishop Robinson at the inaugural, President Obama himself has been admittedly less stalwart in his support of gay marriage: in response to a "1996 Outlines newspaper question on marriage" Obama said "I favor legalizing same-sex marriages, and would fight efforts to prohibit such marriages…There was no use of the phrase civil unions" as he advocates today, as a replacement for gay marriage (Linkins 2009). Obama has had to tread a careful line, given that many Catholic, blue-collar workers and Latino voters are often social conservatives -- these voters are often 'swing' votes for Democrats. All were his most difficult constituencies to win during the election, and he…
The battle over inter-racial marriage in the United States (2009). Religious Tolerance. Retrieved June 6, 2009 at http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_mar14.htm
Boston, Rob. (2009). Freedom for me but not for thee: Marriage and Mormons in California. The Humanist, 69(1), 35-36. Retrieved June 6, 2009, from ProQuest
Religion database. (Document ID: 1622272771).
Couples who are/were not permitted to marry. (2009). Religious Tolerance. Retrieved June 6,
Some in the gay community itself offer arguments against same-sex marriage. Paula L. Ettelbrick offers a different view from within the gay community as she sees no reason for gays to pursue an institution that denies liberation rather than conferring it:
Steeped in a patriarchal system that looks to ownership, property, and dominance of men over women as its basis, the institutions of marriage has long been the focus of radical-feminist revulsion. Lesbian and gay relationships, being neither legally sanctioned nor commingled by blood, are always at the bottom of the heap of social acceptance and importance. (Ettelbrick 20)
For Ettelbrick, same-sex marriage is only a capitulation to this view and a demeaning attempt to prove the value of homosexuality. At the same time, she says that she does not deny the value of domestic-partnership ordinances because such laws can make gays more equal with straights, though their value can…
Callahan, Sidney. "Why I Changed My Mind." Commonweal (22 April 1994), 7-9.
Coren, Michael. " Michael Coren on Canada's Biggest Mistake: Gay Marriage." National Post (15 April 2008). December 8, 2008. http://network.nationalpost.com/np/blogs/fullcomment/archive/2008/04/15/michael-coren-on-canada-s-biggest-mistake-gay-marriage.aspx
Ettelbrick, Paula L. "Since When Is Marriage a Path to Liberation?" In Lesbian and Gay Marriage, Suzanne Sherman (ed.). Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992, 20-26.
Federal Parliamentary Commission and Discussion Paper." ReligiousTolerance.org (20 June 2008). December 8, 2008. http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_marb5.htm .
Married couples have statutory rights to represent one another's financial and other confidential interests and they have mutual decision-making rights in circumstances where either individual becomes incapable of making important decisions. By contrast, non-married pair-bonded couples do not acquire those statutory rights and protections.
From the Conflict Theory sociological perspective, the current controversy surrounding same-sex marriage would emphasize the distinction between groups promoting same-sex marriage rights and groups opposed to those rights who promote the so-called "traditional" view of marriage in society. In sociological terms corresponding to conflict principles, same-sex marriage advocates (consisting substantially of individuals who would be directly benefited by its recognition) would be considered a subordinate group; those espousing the limitation of marital rights to traditional marriages would be considered the dominant group. According to that macro-sociological framework, the resources at issue would consist of the valuable (economic and non-economic) benefits of the formal status of marriage.…
Bennett, William J. "Gay Marriage: Not a Very Good Idea." The Washington Post (May
21, 1996). Accessed 16 May 2012 from:
Henslin, James M. (2008). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston:
However, legally-married heterosexuals may register greater satisfaction with their unions (and hence happiness) than partnered gays. My assertion in this case is founded on the very nature of the relationships highlighted. It can be noted that legally-married heterosexuals have greater stability in their relationships as they do not have to contend with some stereotypes and stigma encountered by partnered gays. On the other hand, partnered gays do enjoy a significant level of emotional and social stability in comparison to cohabiting heterosexuals and single gays. Further, partnered gays in some cases also have access to some economic benefits not enjoyed by either single gays or cohabiting heterosexuals. This grants them both emotional and social stability. Economic benefits in this case could include but are not limited to the right to file income tax returns jointly and the right to inherit property as well as access the various Social Security benefits incase…
Newton, David E. Same-Sex Marriage: A Reference Handbook. 2010. Print. California: ABC-CLIO
However, the situation is opposite today. These people have started to believe that there is nothing wrong with indulging homosexual behavior, and even some people have abandoned their families, their children because they developed feelings for the same sex. If equality teaches one to become extremely selfish and think about himself or herself only and just about their own pleasures and their own happiness, then such equality will only bring devastation to the society.
Even though, I do disagree to the fact that gay and lesbian marriage should be legalized, I believe that these people should be considered as humans just like someone else. Their inclination towards the same sex should be taken as a psychological problem, a treatable psychological problem. Psychiatrists, psychologists and pharmacists, all three professionals should be engaged in a way to treat these people, to explain to them that they will only have a happy married…
Ruth and Naomi appear to be lesbians. In fact, the statements made by Ruth to Naomi mirror echo the familiar "till death do us part" used in marriage ceremonies (Robinson, "Same-Sex"). King David of Israel may also have been in a homosexual relationship with Jonathan, the son of King Saul. "David left his parents home and moved to Saul's where he would be with Jonathan" (Robinson, "Same-Sex). Furthermore, the couple were descried as one in soul, which in ancient Israelite times represented a combination of body and spirit, supporting the idea that the two men had an emotional and physical relationship (Robinson, "Same-Sex"). Furthermore, there are references to Jonathan disrobing in front of David, which would not have been typical behavior in a non-sexual relationship, and Saul appears to refer to David already being his son-in-law before arranging for David to marry his daughter (Robinson, "Same-Sex"). More explicitly, the Bible…
Bartlett, Katherine T. Gender and Law: Theory, Doctrine, and Commentary. New York: Little,
Brown & Company, 1993.
Loving v. Virginia. 18 L. Ed. 2d 1010. U.S. Supreme Ct. 1967.
Robinson, B.A. "Same-Sex Relationships in the Bible: Conservative and Liberal Views."
Same Sex Marriage and Policy
Should Same Sex Marriage be Legalized
Should Same Sex Marriages be legalized?
Hunter, writing in 1991, described same-sex marriage as a possibility that "shimmers or lurks-depending on one's point-of-view -- on the horizon of the law" (p. 10).
Over the last fifteen years, homosexual's rights have emerged as one of the most contentious issues in American politics. Increasing number of friends and family members has "come out," interest groups in both sides have mobilized, and public officials have staked out positions. The current freedom-to-marry movement did not emerge until the mid-1990s, and then only in response to a conservative backlash in state legislators across the country, but individual couples have been applying for marriage licenses, been denied those licenses, and have been filing lawsuits for last 40 years. Families, communities, generations, and political parties have become divided. New issues have entered the political discourse that…
Ball, Carlos A. (2003). The Morality of Gay Rights. New York: Routledge
Blasius, Mark. (1992). "An Ethos of Lesbian and Gay Existence." Political Theory: 642-671
Cain, Patrica. (2000). Rainbow Rights: The Role of Lawyers and Courts in the Lesbian and Gay Rights Movements. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Charlotte Versagi, "Matings: How Do We Cement Our Relationships," The Advocate (Nov 25, 1982), 27.
Reverend Sheldon's statement that no professional organization has ever recognized the genetic links of homosexuality is also in error, for the National Institute of Health, in a study conducted in the early 1990's, "found that some may carry genes that might predispose them to homosexuality" (McCuen 25).
The Reverend Sheldon then points out that "American families do not want the 'normalcy' of homosexual marriage taught to their children." This too is flawed thinking, for if homosexuality is an inherited trait and not behavior-based, then children who are "normal," i.e. with heterosexual tendencies, will not be drawn into the homosexual "lifestyle" unless as adults they decide to "experience" certain sexual activities. Also, homosexuality will not be "taught" to children in the classroom through the usual educational processes but will be pointed out as a common yet often unacceptable form of human behavior. Reverend Sheldon also appears to be attempting to speak…
McCuen, Gary E. Homosexuality and Gay Rights: Ideas in Conflict. Hudson, WI: Gem Publications, Inc., 1994.
Arguments Against Same-sex Marriage and Refutation of these Arguments
There are approximately four arguments by which opponents of gay marriage routinely use in their attempts to deny gays and lesbians their equal rights under the law. Routinely, opponents of same-sex marriage rely upon faith-based religious arguments to demonstrate that the law and civilized society should not condone or sanction same-sex marriages. Secondly, they contend that legalization of same-sex marriage would weaken the institution of marriage and traditional family values. Third, legalization would lead to a slippery slope regarding the legality of marriage and open up the doors for other questionable behavior such as children becoming gay who aren't really gay to the legalization of polygamy or the marriage of and/or to an object. Finally, they assert that the lifestyle of homosexuality should not be encouraged due to a research which reveals a higher percentage of psychological disorders and other problems…
"American Psychological Association Endorses Gay Marriage and Gay Adoption." National Association for Research and Therapt of Homosexuality (2008). NARTH.com. Web. 21 Apr. 2010. .
Badash, David. "Does the United States Constitution Already Make Gay Marriage Legal?" Legal Issues (2009). The New Civil Rights Issues. Web.
"BalancedPolitics.org - Same Sex Marriages (Pros & Cons, Arguments for and Against)." BalancedPolitics.org - Free Balanced, Non-Partisan Discussion of Political & Social Issues for Debate (Pros and Cons - Decision Making Politics). Web. 20 Apr. 2010. .
Boone, Pat. "Marriage: One Man, One Woman." Knight Ridder (2004). Web.
" In other words, being gay was an "illness" but the gay person wasn't necessarily to be "blamed" because the origins of homosexuality were unknown at the time, Nugent continues.
By claiming that gay people had illnesses, that gave some organized religions the opportunity to "…supply limited spiritual remedies" as a kind of "cure" for the condition (Nugent, 12). hereas in much earlier days "ecclesiastical exorcisms" had been carried out to "cure" gay people, in the early part of the 20th Century, it was presumed that "psychological remedies" would be able to provide that elusive cure for homosexuality (Nugent, 12).
Author Fred Van Geest writes in the journal Sociology of Religion that according to a Pew Research survey, 60% of "mainline Protestants are supportive of gay rights" and just 21% are opposed to gay rights (Van Geest, 2008, p. 338). However only 26% of mainline Protestants support same sex marriage;…
Aoki, Andrew L, and Takeda, Okiyoshi. (2009). Asian-American Politics. Stafford, Australia:
Berrill, K.T., and Herek, G.M. (1990). Primary and secondary victimization in anti-gay hate
Crimes: Official response and public policy. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5(3), 401-
Gay marriage has become one of the most controversial public policy issues in contemporary Western society. In many respects, opinions on the issue follow two particular lines of ideological allegiance, such as to the religious roots marriage as a cultural institution and of the traditional bases for prohibitions against same-sex relationships. In my experience, age is also a predictor of attitudes about same-sex marriage: my generation views homosexuality as a natural predisposition of a certain portion of the human population and as a distinction of virtual irrelevance, especially to any so-called issues of moral values. Conversely, older generations seem much more likely to adhere to traditional religion-inspired pejorative views about homosexuality in general and about extending the privileges of formal marriage to same-sex couples. Among my social circle, homosexuality is not considered an important distinction about any individual and the withholding of marital rights from same-sex couples is extremely difficult…
This source is an authoritative text authored by two renowned American law professors and intended as an academic text for American law students and as a reference text for American lawyers practicing First Amendment law. It provides an extremely detailed analysis of all First Amendment issues under the U.S. Constitution. The main value of this source to my thinking was that it supplemented the Laycock source and contributed to my understanding of the manner and degree to which American secular laws pertaining to sexual preference are, as a matter of constitutional law, prohibited from advancing the views of any religion.
Verene, D.P. (1989). Sexual Love and Western Morality: A Philosophical Analog. New York: Harper & Row.
This source is a college text originally authored by an American college professor in 1972 and subsequently reissued several times. It provides a comprehensive review of all issues pertaining to the evolution of sexual morality in Western culture. This source was valuable to me in that it helped me understand that a log-term historical perspective of human societies in relation to sexual mores will eventually regard antagonism to same-sex marriage as nothing more than residual prejudice inspired by traditional religious values and homophobia.
Same Sex Marriage and Ethics
Matters of sex may appear innate, but it has been demonstrated over time that sex has evolved over the ages, just like other aspects of life. Studies show that orientations, sexual identities, and the knowledge of physiology have been shaped by historical forces. As opposed to being intrinsic, human sexuality is influenced by a range of factors, including the food one eats, social class, family systems, and psychological theories. As opposed to being segregated and split into small privacies of people's lives, sexuality has also influenced people's lives in turn. Indeed, it has had a strong influence on governance systems to worship styles. When mass society developed in the course of the war, it gave rise to liberal sexual culture. Democracy took root after the war and made governments more accountable to the people they controlled on social and political matters. Consequently, changes…
Same-Sex Marriages in Canada
Although the debate over whether same-sex marriages should be allowed, a number of countries have legalized these unions in recent years, and the same trends are taking place through North America as well. In fact, given the increasing pace of reform, it is reasonable to suggest that most if not all states in the United States and Canada will have legalized same-sex marriages someday, a process that transform the debate over whether same-sex marriages should be allowed to one that focuses on why it took so long. Because many social and legal benefits accrue to the legal institution of marriage, these are important issues since the legalization of same-sex marriages will convey these social and legal benefits to homosexual partners who believe they are entitled to the same treatment as their heterosexual counterparts. To gain some additional insights into these recent trends and provide an overview…
Basham, K.K. & Miehls, D. (2004). Transforming the legacy: Couple therapy with survivors of childhood trauma. New York: Columbia University Press.
Black's law dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Hildebrand, K. (1991). The Third Reich. London: Routledge.
Hustedde, R.J. & Ganowicz, J. (2002). The basics: What's essential about theory for community development practice? Journal of the Community Development Society, 33(1), 1-3.
One rationale given is that children need same-sex role models to teach them how to behave as a man or as a woman (Knight). Opponents of same-sex marriage also claim that children raised by homosexuals are more dissatisfied with their own gender, suffer a greater rate of molestation within the family, and have homosexual experiences more often (Knight). Indirectly, opponents go on to say that gay marriage will encourage teens who are unsure of their sexuality to become victims of suicide, depression, drug abuse, and sexually transmitted diseases (enne and McDermott, 2004).
Opponents of same-sex marriage bash the child rearing abilities of homosexuals when we live in a society that allows murderers, convicted felons and child molesters to marry and procreate (Lesbian and gay marriages). Of course, gay or lesbian people make better parents than individuals that fall into those categories and many of the gay parent stereotypes simply aren't…
Benne, R. And McDermott (2004, February 19). Speaking out: Why gay marriage would be harmful." Christianity Today. http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2004/107/41.0.html
Divorce rates. http://www.divorcereform.org/rates.html#anchor1135037
Facts and figures about kids with gay parents http://www.colage.org/research/facts.html
Knight, R.H., Talking points on marriage. http://www.nogaymarriage.com/talkingpoints.html
" If Hunt is not trying to support same-sex marriage she should have left this issue out of her argument and focused solely on today's marriage model. She attacks the role of the clergy, resenting the lack of separation of church and state in marriages, but acknowledges civil ceremonies as an option. It is difficult to see what purpose alienating the religious community serves. Lastly, pathos arouses emotions to persuade an audience. This is the weakest area of Hunt's article which is completely devoid of emotion.
In summary, Hunt needs to establish credibility before making an attack and she needs to stop confusing her issues and attacking those for which there is no real gain. More importantly, she needs to show readers why she really cares and why they should too.
Hunt, Mary E. "The Institution of Marriage Itself Is Out of Date." Opposing Viewpoints: Homosexuality. Ed. Cindy ily.…
Hunt, Mary E. "The Institution of Marriage Itself Is Out of Date." Opposing Viewpoints: Homosexuality. Ed. Cindy Bily. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2009. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. Baker College. 10 Oct. 2009 .
"The Art of Rhetoric: Learning How to Use the Three Main Rhetorical Styles." http://www.rpi.edu/dept/llc/webclass/web/project1/group4/
" In all other cases, out-of-state marriages are valid and accepted everywhere. Even where domestic partnerships are recognized, same-sex couples may not be able to reap any real benefits: "Domestic partnership laws provide even fewer protections than civil unions and can vary dramatically depending on the jurisdiction that enacts the law. In some jurisdictions, domestic partner registries do not confer any rights or responsibilities at all and are simply a registration." (Doering, 2004)
The children of gay parents do not enjoy the same civil protections as children of heterosexual parents. In case of adoption, things may become even more complicated. A gay person who chooses to adopt a child is likely to face many hurdles since the legal system may prejudicially term him/her unfit to raise a child. Another important issue is the prejudice towards adoption by a co-parent. By denying the second parent the right to adopt the child…
Jeanie Lerche Davis. Adoption in Same-Sex Couples. WebMD Medical News. Accessed on March 19th 2007:
Guide to Family Law" accessed on March 19th 2007: http://family.findlaw.com/marriage/same-sex/gay-parents-impact.html
Karen M. Doering. 1,500 Reasons Why We Need Marriage Equality
ell, if the Bible is the word of God…why would you expect a Christian pastor to believe anything else?" (ABC News). He was reminded that candidate Barack Obama told him prior to the election that he (Obama) opposed same sex marriage. The ABC interviewer (Jake Tapper) asked arren if he is concerned that Obama might change his position. "I can't control what other people believe. I just know what the Bible says," he answered.
In author David E. Newton's book, Same-Sex Marriage: A Reference Handbook, the author points out that while many who oppose same-sex marriage based on the Bible, there are references in the Bible that mention "other types of marriage" (Newton, 2010, 35). Of the eight types of marriage, this paper will mention several. Jacob had two wives, Leah and Rachel (Genesis 29: 1030); Esau had three wives in the Bible, Adah, Aholibamah, and Bashemath (Genesis 36: 2-3).…
Barbaro, Michael. (2011). Bloomberg States Case, Emphatically and Personally, for Same-Sex
Marriage. The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Newton, David E. (2010). Same-Sex Marriage: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA:
Same-Sex Marriage ights
The debate about same-sex marriage rights is at the forefront of contemporary American civil rights politics. Supporters of same-sex marriage believe that exclusion from marital rights is a form of unjustifiable discrimination. Opponents of same-sex marriage believe that marriage is a concept defined by the biological norm of opposite-gender pair bonding and that making it available to same-sex couples would undermine its validity as a traditional social institution. Strictly from my position as an objective observer who is not directly affected by the issue in the least, a fair comparison of the respective arguments suggests that same-sex marriage should probably be permitted and regulated in the same manner as and according to all the same other principles as traditional marriage because there is no justifiable basis for denying marital rights based on gender preference.
According to proponents of same-sex marriage rights, denying the rights of homosexuals…
Bennett, W.J. "Gay Marriage: Not a Very Good Idea." The Washington Post, May
21, 1996. Accessed 25 July, 2012 from:
Gates, G. (2011). "How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender?" The
same-sex marriage. This subject interests me from both a moral and a legal standpoint. The topic has gained national as well as global attention. The debate is especially heated in the United States where the matter is being decided on a state by state basis.
The essential question that surrounds this topic is if same-sex marriage good for society. The ongoing debate over same-sex marriage often generates more heat than light as there are people who feel very strongly about the issues involved on both sides of the argument. This debate cannot be ignored, as legislators and voters around the country wrestle with whether and how to recognize same-sex relationships.
Almost two decades ago William Bennett and Andrew Sullivan argued this issue. Sullivan (1996) asserted that forbidding same-sex partners to marry prevents them from being a full and equal part of America and forces these couples to lie or hide…
Bennett W. (1996, June 3). Leave marriage alone. In An exchange on same sex marriage William Bennett and Andrew Sulivan. Newsweek. Retrieved April 28, 2012, from http://faculty.mc3.edu/barmstro/sullivan.html
Farrow, D, (2012, January/February). Why fight same sex marriage? Touchstone: A journal of mere Christianity, Vol. 25, Issue 1, 24-31. Retrieved April 28, 2012, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&hid=125&sid=43ba1261-10ac-4a01-9c92-730a6151007b%40sessionmgr115
New York Times. (2012, February 28). Same-sex marriage, civil unions, and domestic partnerships. The New York times. Retrieved April 29, 2012, from http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/s/same_sex_marriage/index.html
Rawls, J. (1971). An egalitarian theory of justice. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Same sex marriage
The debate about same sex marriage has brought about a lot of controversy from all quarters. It has elicited debates in religious circles, secular and traditionalists. Many people who are against this kind of union argue their case from a religious perspective; some enjoin morality to it concerning homosexuality.
In this context I would like to distance my argument and come out clearly that I don't discriminate people on grounds of their sexuality, since I have a strong conviction that we are all equal and should all enjoy equal right and benefits. I am worried however by the deification we want to include in the institution of marriage that is including same sex couples as married people this am concerned since my argument is based on a marriage which a social institution symbolizing the reproductive human relationship.
Since time immemorial the institution of marriage has been central…
771). His arguments center on the public responsibilities of marriage. He writes, "This is true because legal marriage is a public institution, created by law to promote public policy and to further social interests" (Wardle, 2001, p. 771). He goes on to state that traditional marriages foster "childrearing, economic stability, and channel sexual behavior" (Wardle, 2001, p. 771). Unfortunately, these arguments seem outmoded and irrational. If this is the purpose of traditional marriage, then clearly, hundreds of thousands of couples are not engaged in socially responsible marriages. They channel their sexual behavior outside the marriage, they are economically unsound, and they do not raise children. Thus, traditional marriage is not supporting society as Wardle sees it, and perhaps the entire institution should be overhauled. Wardle's arguments are illogical at best, and do not effectively argue against same-sex unions at all.
eligious groups are very vocal opponents of same-sex marriage for…
Alderson, K.G. (2004). A phenomenological investigation of same-sex marriage. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 13(2), 107+.
Coontz, S. (1997). The way we really are: Coming to terms with America's changing families. New York: Basic Books.
Davidoff, J. (2006, August). No wedding bells: Why banning same-sex marriage spells disaster. The Progressive, 70, 22+.
Hohengarten, W.M. (1994). Same-sex marriage and the right of privacy. Yale Law Journal, 103(6), 1495-1531.
same-sex marriage and the basis of their formation. The paper examines the issue of same-sex marriage from the perspective of the Utilitarian moral theory, religious doctrine as well as other perspectives that could arise in the process of investigation.
Same-sex marriage which is the marriage that takes place between two people of similar social gender and biological sex has raised several legal, ethical, religious and healthy issues. In order to fully understand as well as explore the various issues that surrounds the concept of same-sex marriage, it is important to address the moral and legal elements that encompasses this issue. This paper will explore the various stances on the subject of same-sex marriage and the basis of their formation. The paper examines the issue of same-sex marriage from the perspective of the Utilitarian moral theory, religious doctrine as well as other perspectives that could arise in the process of investigation.…
The question is no longer only about whether same sex marriages should be legal, it is about whether a certain faction of society should be allowed to have control over the whole of society. In order to achieve true equality in America, we need to legalize same sex marriages.
Anderson, G. Noack, T., and Seierstad, A. "The Demographics of Same-Sex "Marriages" in Norway and Sweden. " Demography. February 2006. pp. 79 -- 98.
Cosgrove-Mather, B. "The Global View of Gay Marriage." CBS NES. March 4, 2004>
Golombok, S., Tasker, F., and Murray. C. Children raised in fatherless families from infancy:
family relationships and the socioemotional development of children of lesbian and single heterosexual mothers. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. October 1997. Vol. 38. Issue. 7.
Herek, Gregory M. "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective." American Psychologist,…
Anderson, G. Noack, T., and Seierstad, A. "The Demographics of Same-Sex "Marriages" in Norway and Sweden. " Demography. February 2006. pp. 79 -- 98.
Cosgrove-Mather, B. "The Global View of Gay Marriage." CBS NEWS. March 4, 2004>
S. citizens. This is a popular argument offered by the same sex marriage movement and it is one that is compelling.
For many years homosexuality was considered illegal behavior in most jurisdictions in the United States but most such statutes have been abolished and so gays and lesbians are now full citizens who have the right to expect full rights of citizenship. This means that whatever one's ethical or moral standards might be does not mean that such standards must be expressed in the laws. Many Americans object morally and ethically to the display of pornography; the publishing of songs with colorful lyrics; and, suggestive books and magazines but each of these examples is protected by the First Amendment and the rights of gays and lesbians to marry should enjoy the same protection.
The proponents of virtue ethics are not alone in their support of same sex marriage. Followers of…
Corvino, J. (1999). Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality (Studies in Social, Political, and Legal Philosophy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefiedl Publishers.
Koppelman, A. (2001). On the Moral Foundations of Legal Expressivism. Maryland Law Review, 777-784.
Lewin, E. (2004). Does Marriage have a future? Journal of Marriage and Family, 1000-1006.
Is Gay/Lesbian Marriage Ethical
Divorce is no longer taboo at all. It is not unusual, but almost expected, for couples to marry, have at least one child, and subsequently separate. About half of American children are being raised in single-parent households or in households where there is a revolving door of partners for their custodial parent. Divorce is not the only issue that threatens the institution of marriage in America; approximately one in four people are currently in an abusive marriage. Furthermore, if a woman in America is murdered, the odds are overwhelming that her husband is the killer. Domestic violence does more to provide a real threat to more marriages in America than same-sex marriage ever could. As far as threatening individual marriages, the legalization of gay marriage would probably promote individual relationships. If homosexuals had the opportunity to marry their chosen partners, they may feel less pressure to remain in the closet,…
Daniels, Cora. "Not the Marrying Kind." New York Times Magazine. 4 Apr. 2004.
Dominus, Susan. "Growing Up with Mom and Mom." New York Times Magazine. 24 Oct. 2004. NYTimes.com. 15 Mar. 2005 http://www.nytimes.com /2004/10/24/magazine/24KIDS.html?ex=1111035600&en=656b9a5c2df4044b&ei=5070&ei=5087&en=f38f090206fd0295&ex=1101441600&rd=hcmcp?p=048CcD048Cea4Jyc_012000mzPv%24zPwK&nl=ep&adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1110899159-NQx7RMeEtns2Jxp+R4YdZQ.
Garrow, David J. "Towards a More Perfect Union." New York Times Magazine. 9 May 2004.
Same Sex Marriages Should Be Legally Sanctioned
Some of the most pervasive problems that exist within American society today are the problems of prejudice, stemming from fear of what is different and seems to be alien. Only by making what is alien seem to wear a more familiar, human face, can such deep-seated hatred be uprooted and destroyed. Prejudice, and the violence that is the result of such hatred, is particularly virulent against those individuals whom identify as homosexual, even if they wish to form stable and legitimate marital unions until death do them part. One of the reasons for this is because homosexuality is still seen as a vice, rather than as a legitimate bond between two loving people. The solution to this problem is to legally sanction same-sex marriages, giving same-sex unions equal legal and moral legitimacy as heterosexual unions.
Conservative opponents of same-sex marriages are quick to…
George, Robert P. (Nov. 28, 2003): "One Man and One Woman." Wall Street Journal. A8.
Thomas, Evan. (July 7, 2003): "The War Over Gay Marriage." Newsweek. P.38.
Same-Sex Marriage Argument
Same-sex or gay marriage is marriage between two men or two women (Editors 2014). It consists of exchanging rings during a civil ceremony. It has recently been regulated through law in certain jurisdictions. In others, sectors have adopted constitutional measures to bar it. Different groups, however, continue to evaluate its validity and importance (Editors). Unprecedented changes have occurred in legislatures and the electorate in the last two decades over the issue (NCSL 2014). One of these is the definition of marriage as limited to relationships between a man and a woman. Some courts decided that the state ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional, a ruling that still awaits appeal (NCSL).
It is a Fundamental Right
Pro -- the decision to enter a marriage with someone of the same gender is a basic human right guaranteed for all (Yukozimo 2010). Homosexual men and women are as…
Dogra, Aastha. Gay Marriage Pros and Cons. Buzzle, 2011. Retrieved on October 1,
2014 from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/gay-marriage-pros-and-cons.html
Editors. Same-Sex Marriages. Encyclopedia Britannica: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.,
2014. Retrieved on October 1, 2014 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/753689/same-sex
Same sex marriage is not even worthy of debate anymore -- it is the law. The debate was never credible in the first place -- the side standing against it never once had a valid argument. The idea that this is controversial at any point in the 21st century was always absurd. The Supreme Court ended this debate on June 26, 2015 with their decision in the Obergefell v Hodges case. This report will cover the issue from the perspective of the means by which it was argued in court -- issues included the role of states in government, and the Constitution.
elevant Case Law and Constitutional Principles
It is pointless to rehash the absurd arguments that flowed in the public debate. Irrational commentators cited their religious texts as giving justification to their hatred, and reasonable people saw this for the nonsense it was. The issue has even been framed…
14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Retrieved October 25, 2015 from https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiv
Baunach, D. (2012). Changing same-sex marriage attitudes in American from 1998 through 2010. Public Opinion Quarterly.Vol. 76 (2) 364-378.
Hess, D. (2009). Teaching about same-sex marriage as a policy and constitutional issue. Social Education. Vol. 73 (7) 344-349.
Laycock, D. & Berg, T. (2013). Protecting same-sex marriage and religious liberty.
Same Sex Marriage
Clearly explain the SCOTUS's ruling on same-sex marriage. Make sure to discuss the constitutional issues on this ruling.
In Obergefell v. Hodges, the U.S. Supreme Court is focusing on if same sex couples have the right to marry. This is because a number of states had bans on issuing marriage licenses for these kinds of relationships. Instead, all applicants must be a male and female versus two of the same sex. In response, several U.S. District courts had conflicting rulings about the constitutionality and legality of these proceedings. In some cases, they relied on the case precedent established under Baker v. Nelson. This is a 1972 decision, where the Montana Supreme Court ruled that states have the right to create laws that determine the conditions for issues marriage licenses. The Supreme Court declined not to hear the decision and by default upheld the ruling. This resulted in…
Obergefell v. Hodges. (2015). Supreme Court. Retrieved from: http://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/14pdf/14 - 556_3204.pdf
Davis, A. (1995). The Supreme Court, Race and Civil Rights. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
status of same sex marriage (or marriage equality) is a controversial argument that has inspired vehement debate on both sides of the agenda. ince 2001, at least 10 countries have conducted same-sex marriages, and supporters allege that more states and countries than do at the moment have shown interest in legalizing same-sex marriage but are intimidated from doing so due to the frenzied opposition accompanying any such motion. Indeed, some of these countries (such as Israel, Brazil, Mexico, and parts of the U..A.) that do not perform same-sex marriages, do recognize these marriages when performed elsewhere.
In order to have a clear perspective on the ramification of this subjects, it would be beneficial to touch upon both perspectives of the debate and follow both sides of the reasoning before I conclude with my own opinion on the subject.
Arguments for ame-sex marriage
Proponents argue that denying homosexuals the right is…
Should Same-Sex Marriages be Legalized?
Pawelski JG, Perrin EC, Foy JM, et al. ( 2006). The effects of marriage, civil union, and domestic partnership laws on the health and well-being of children. Pediatrics 118 (1): 349 -- 64
Defense of Traditional Marriage by yan T. Anderson
The article is based on a topic that is widely discussed in both the political, legal and even the religious fronts. It looks into the issue of marriage and what really defines marriage in the context of the contemporary society. The author also looks into the various arguments that are put forth by other people and groups concerning the issue of marriage. He also opens up on his personal belief of what the purpose of marriage is. The author of the article also looks into the legal threats that there are against the traditional institution of marriage in its traditional form and also highlights the dangers of redefining marriage within the society and allowing it to divert from the traditional concept of marriage that is universally known by most societies in the world.
b. Issues argued out and conclusions
GLAD, (2011).Civil Marriage v. Civil Unions. Retrieved April 5, 2014 fromhttp://www.silc.ku.edu/sites/silc.drupal.ku.edu/files/docs/LBGT/PDF%20Documents/cu_vs_marriage.pdf
Ryan T. Anderson, (2013). In Defense of Traditional Marriage. Retrieved April 5, 2014 from http://www.faithstreet.com/onfaith/2013/03/20/in-defense-of-traditional-marriage
Same Sex Marriage
The legalization of same-sex marriage may be one of the most controversial social issues in the modern American political climate, and, in fact, throughout the Western world. While it may seem as if this highly polarizing issue has come out of nowhere, cultural norms about homosexuality and the acceptability of same-sex romantic relationships have always existed. Some societies have been accepting of same-sex relationships, others have violently condemned them, but there have always been cultural norms about sexually appropriate behavior. What is new is the legal battle over these cultural norms. The civil rights advances in the 1960s and 1970s, which successfully challenged the cultural norms that allowed for discrimination against some minority groups, led to changes in the legal environment, making legalization of same-sex marriage a possibility when it was outside of consideration years before. Also new is the fact that the development of privacy laws…
Callahan, J. (2009). Same sex-marriage: Why it matters- at least for now. Hypatia, 24(1), 70-
Denike, M. (2007). Religion, rights, and relationships: The dream of relational equality.
Hypatia, 22(1), 71-91.
Same Sex Marriage: efuting the Opposition
While a majority of Americans enthusiastically support equal rights for all citizens including homosexuals, few support same sex marriage (Bidstrup, 2004). Despite this same sex marriage is a right that should be provided to same sex couples as any other government benefits. Same sex couples deserve equal protection under the law just as any other couple would. This paper will argue in favor of same sex marriage, by presenting counter arguments to same sex marriage and refuting them.
Those opposed to legalizing same sex marriages argue "on the basis of plurality" (Pew Forum, 2005). A majority of opponents suggest their opposition is based purely on subjective distaste or opposition to the idea (roughly 35%) (Pew Forum, 2005). This is not adequate basis however to design a constitutional amendment barring same sex marriage. Under the constitution all citizens are afforded their right to equal protection…
Bidstrup, S. (2004). "Gay Marriage: The Arguments and Motives." 15, November 2005:
Herek, Gregory M. (1991). "Myths About Sexual Orientation: A Lawyer's Guide to Social Science Research," Law & Sexuality: A Review of Lesbian & Gay Legal Issues 133.
"Gay Marriage." The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. (2005). 14, November 2005:
hether to allow same-sex marriage or not is a hotly debated topic in many estern countries at the present time. Belgium, Canada, Spain and the Netherlands have recently legalized it. Should same-sex couples, committed to a long-term monogamous relationship, be allowed to marry? Many people feel that the answer to this question should be a firm: No!
The arguments they put forth against same-sex marriage usually include the following:
marriage is a fundamental and unchangeable institution, marriage is traditionally between persons of opposite sex, if same-sex marriages are recognized then bigamous, polygamous, incestuous marriages and marriages with animals must be recognized too, same-sex couples can't have children, society has an interest in promoting marriage as the environment for procreation and child-rearing, same-sex parenting is less good for children than the parenting found in traditional family units, same-sex parenting may bias children towards a homosexual lifestyle, same-sex relationships are…
The Economist. "The case for gay marriage." Feb 26th 2004 .
Wikipedia Encyclopedia. "Same-sex marriage."
Bisexuality and Marriage Prejudice
According to national studies, approximately 4.1% of women report some degree of sexual attraction to members of both sexes, with only 0.3% reporting only attraction to other women. (he other 95.6% assumably were attracted only to men) he same survey showed that 3.9% of men self-reported some attraction to both sexes, and 2.4% reported that they were only attracted to other men. (With 93.7% assumably being strictly heterosexual) At the same time, only 0.5% of women identified as bisexual, and only 0.8% of men. (Rust, 2000) hese dry statistics point to a very strange conclusion, which is that bisexuality is in reality far more prevalent than homosexuality among both men and women, and yet bisexuals are being "mainstreamed" as it were into either heterosexual or homosexual identities. his gap between actual sexual attraction and sexual identity must result from some sort of social pressure to normalize…
Both through personal experience and academic research, it becomes evident that there are extensive prejudices against the development and existence of a bisexual identity. According to Rust (2000), "One of the greatest challenges facing bisexual women in contemporary Western culture is the belief that bisexuality does not exist. Women who claim to be bisexual are often told that they are 'denying' their true sexuality, which must be either lesbian or heterosexual." (Rust, 2000) Many straights and gays alike do not understand bisexuality, because they have not experienced it. Because gender is the primary qualifier for sexual attraction with them, they cannot imagine being attracted to either gender dependent primarily on other characteristics. Homosexuality itself may be easy to understand, because it is like heterosexuality in that it is sexual selection based on gender. Homosexuals may be envisioned as by hets as similar to heterosexuals of the other sex. Likewise, homosexuals can understand heterosexuality by empathizing with the opposite gender's feelings. But understanding a mindset where gender is not a major deciding factor may be incomprehensible. Thus bisexuals are seen as confused or in denial, merely because the observers themselves are confused by the bisexual state of mind. Moreover, this confusion leads to very negative stereotypes: "Images of the bisexual as promiscuous, needing multiple relationships in order to feel satisfied, untrustworthy in relationships, or as 'fence-sitters, traitors, cop-outs, closet cases,' reinforce the legitimacy of the heterosexual/homosexual binary and ensure the difficulty of publicly identifying as bisexual." (Mclean, 2001) It is a common misconception that just as monosexuals need at least one person of the desired gender to feel sexually complete, so bisexuals must need one person from each of the two desired genders to feel complete. This is an understandable confusion, but misleading in its implications. Because bisexuals are seen as especially promiscuous, they may be considered to be unfaithful and also more likely to spread diseases or immorality. Where many people of both binary orientations sometimes like to pretend that that homosexuals are "just the same" as heterosexuals accept with a different preferred gender, the idea of bisexuality conjures up visions of wild promiscuity which may not be justified.
Many authors blame this misunderstanding on history. For example, Kirsten McLean (2001) writes "Traditionally, Western society has divided sexuality into two categories -- homosexual and heterosexual." Such authors suggest that such a binary understanding of human sexuality was the norm until recently. Actually, nothing could be farther from the truth. Until very recently with the introduction of the idea of homosexuality, the norm for sexual deviancy was bisexuality. That is to say that people engaging in homosexuality were assumed to go both ways unless they were particularly unusual. For example, it is common knowledge that in the old Greco-Roman world "homosexuality" was the norm.
United States Supreme Court ruling on same sex marriage. The paper also examines how that decision impacted management policy decisions in terms of public safety administration. An examination of the ruling's overall impact on public policy is also given. eactions on the ruling are given in the end.
Background knowledge on same sex marriage
For the majority of Americans, the matter of same sex marriage may have first come to their knowledge when it burst into the political limelight in late 2003. At this time, Massachusetts' highest court ruled that the state had no authority or grounds on which to deny lesbian and gay couples the right to marriage. In the next few months after the ruling in the state same sex marriage ceremonies were conducted in many counties and cities across the United States (U.S.) including mass weddings in the city of San Francisco. This brought a lot of…
Archibald, C. (2014). Is Full Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples Next? The Immediate and Future Impact of the Supreme Court's Decisions in United States v. Windsor. Valparaiso University Law Review, 48(3), 695-713. Retrieved, from http://scholar.valpo.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2341&context=vu
Brewer, P., & Wilcox, C. (2005). Same-Sex Marriage and Civil Unions. Public Opinion Quarterly, 69(4), 599-616. Retrieved, from http://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/69/4/599
Bruggeman, K. (2015, June 26). NationalJournal.com. Watch These Two GOP Presidential Candidates After the Supreme Court's Gay Marriage Decision - NationalJournal.com. Retrieved August 22, 2015, from http://www.nationaljournal.com/2016-elections/supreme-court-gay-marriage-republican-presidential-jindal-kasich-20150625
Flores, A. (2015). Examining Variation in Surveying Attitudes on Same-Sex Marriage: A Meta-Analysis. Public Opinion Quarterly, 79(2), 580-593. Retrieved, from http://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/79/2/580.abstract
What right do these people have to take away these rights of a child? Children without a fatherly figure are more likely to end up breaking the law.
Same sex marriage denies them the right to have the normal environment for socio-emotional development or a normal family and it is their right to start their life with a father and a mother. The children are being raised by parents who are not their biological parents. There can never be a substitute for being raised by the mother and father who brought you into the world and are your biological parents. Most human societies have honored the norm that special responsibility for children lies with the biological parents. Same sex marriage is going against this norm, and the society's values attached with this norm. Whatever else it may accomplish, marriage acknowledges and secures the relationship between a child and his or…
(1) Stephen J. Pope -- Article Title: The Magisterium's Arguments against "Same-Sex Marriage": An Ethical Analysis and Critique. Journal Title: Theological Studies. Volume: 65. Issue: 3. Publication Year: 2004. Page Number: 530+.
(2) Jonathan Rauch - How Will Same-Sex Marriage Affect America's Children? [Online website] Available from: http://www.ssw.umich.edu/events/fauri/2004 / [Accessed on: 17/9/2005]
(3) Susan Holt -- "Ending the cycle of domestic violence," Gay Lesbian Times, 9126196. Page Number: 39.
(4) Christopher Hewitt - Article Title: Homosexual Demography: Implications for the Spread of AIDS. Contributors: Christopher Hewitt - author. Journal Title: The Journal of Sex Research. Volume: 35. Issue: 4. Publication Year: 1998. Page Number: 390.
California Proposition 8:
Fighting for Same-Sex Marriages and ights
Introduction to Same-Sex Marriages in California
Same-sex marriage has been a sensitive subject in America for more than the last couple of years. In California, gay marriage has had a unique history. The mayor of San Francisco, issued marriage certificates in 2004 in which same sex couples were allowed to apply and be approved for. Californians were outraged and began to press charges against the San Francisco mayor.
At its end, the Supreme Court of California determined that they were to grant equal rights protection to same-sex couples-including marriage (Holton, 2008). Less than six months later, the marriage rights ended with the passing of Proposition 8. Proposition 8 made marriage legal only for one man and one woman, and limited the rights that same-sex couples were able to have (Voters Guide, 2008).
Ethical Issues Addressed in Proposition 8
The ethics of…
Declaration of Independence. (1776, July 4). The declaration of independence. Retrieved March
9, 2011 from http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/
Dolan, M. (2008, May 17). Gay marriage ban overturned. Retrieved March 9, 2011 from http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/lanow/2008/06/san-francisco-3.html
Glionna, J.M. (2008, June 17). San Francisco mayor: Defeating gay marriage is literally the bush agenda. Retrieved March 9, 2011 from
Legislative Policy Analyses
The United States constitution has stipulated ways and modalities that have to be followed when passing a certain bill into a law. This study has focused on one of the recently passed bill, IN HJR0003 that relates to marriage and social work. The sections addressed in this study have elucidated sequential steps that were followed by the lower and the upper house of the senate. The process of debating among the legislators is critical in ensuring that valid reasons are given before a law is passed. Ideally, the issue of same sex marriage has attracted great attention in the recent past; this has called for the passage of laws to govern the new developments in the society.
Section One: General Information about the Bill, IN HJR0003
The bill selected is given number the HJR0003 and is titled "marriage." The status is shown as passed on March…
Nationwide, those who attended graduate school were 11 percentage points more likely to vote for Kerry than those without a college education.
In other discoveries, Bush supporters believed overwhelmingly (72% to 26%) that Iraq has weapons of mass destruction (still). This is despite the fact that it was categorically established that Iraq had no such weapons.
Bush supporters also believed, in comparison to Kerry supporters, overwhelmingly that Iraq was tied to Al Queda, when again it was categorically established there existed no such ties.
This article continues to establish that Bush supporters voted for an image and a set of factual inconsistencies that they either mistakenly believed or wanted to believe, whereas Kerry's supporters voted on facts.
Despite Rhetoric, Bush, Kerry Agree on Many Issues. Washington Post: May 9, 2004.
Although many people felt the 2004 election was an epic clash between two completely opposing camps, in reality, both sides…
This institution has not been anti-gays traditionally. The country has been trying to frame LGBT laws in the context of human rights as presented in the constitution. The leaders and politicians are also aware of the homophobia persisting in the country and understand that they are not as much because of the laws as they are due to macho mentality of the society. Gays and lesbians are allowed to speak at gatherings and participate in gay march and rallies but they are expected to keep everything low-key. (Stewart, p.16)
US on the other hand is more tolerant even if the state doesn't recognize allow marital status to gay couples on federal level. However some states do offer marriage licenses to gay couples however these are not recognized on national basis and can easily be rejected by other states thus denying a couple benefits that come with being legally married in…
"Belize Human Trafficking" Retrieved online 6th April 2011 < http://huntinghumantraffickers.wordpress.com/2010/10/25/belize-human-trafficking-hiv-capital-tourism-in-danger/ >
Stewart, Chuck. (2010) the Greenwood encyclopedia of LGBT issues worldwide, Volume 1 ABC-CLIO.
"CIVIL UNIONS." HRC campaign. http://www.hrc.org/issues/marriage/civil_unions.asp
Ottoson, David. State sponsored Homophobia, ILGA report May (2009). Accessed online from
uch is a world from which the Old Testament emerged.
With the onset of the New Testament and Christianity, polygamy was replaced by monogamy, mainly because the former was considered immoral from the Christian viewpoint. The church therefore dictated the format of marriages. Furthermore, men were generally favored in terms of laws governing marriage, property, adultery, and the like -- all the tenets of which were based upon religion rather than government, which played a role only so far as it adopted the laws of the church.
According to White, laws began to change during the 1800s, with the first manifestations of such change relating to women's rights to property and children. Government had begun to play a larger role in the law governing marriage. Religious conflict however remained at the order of the day, with the Judeo-Christian government passing laws against the polygamous practices of the Mormons during the…
Boies, David (2009, Jul 20). Gay Marriage and the Constitution. The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124804515860263587.html
Garofoli, Joe. (2009, Jul 16). NAACP weighs support of gays who want to marry. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2009/07/16/MNI318P67K.DTL
Hart, Tom (2008, Nov 25). Proposition 8 wrongly grounded in religion. The Daily Cardinal. http://www.dailycardinal.com/article/21485
Stone, Geoffrey R. (2008, Nov 15). Democracy, Religion and Proposition 8. The Huffington Post
Children aised by Same-Sex Parents have more Problems than Children aised by Different-Sex or Single Parents
As more and more states legalize same-sex marriages, there is growing concerning among many proponents and critics alike about the effect that these civil unions will have on children. Although many children of same-sex unions are from previous heterosexual unions, adoption is also being used by growing numbers of same-sex partners and new reproductive technologies are providing lesbian couples with the ability to "father" their own children and surrogate mothers are available to gay couples if they have the financial resources. Given the increasing numbers of children who are being raised in same-sex parent households, these are legitimate issues that require further examination to determine if popular thought that children raised by same-sex parents have more problems than children raised by different sex or even single parents. To this end, this paper provides a…
Allen, D.W. (2006). An economic assessment of same-sex marriage laws. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(3), 949-951.
Crowl, A., Ahn, S. & Baker, J. (2008). A meta-analysis of developmental outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual parents. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 4(3), 385-407.
Somerville, M. (2007). Children's human rights and unlinking child-parent biological bonds with adoption, same-sex marriage and new reproductive technologies. Journal of Family
Studies, 13(2), 179-180.
ame sex marriages' has been a ubiquitous argument for critics, activists, and political commentators for quite some time now. While some critics choose to reflect on the religious and ethical stance of gay and lesbian marriages, Andrew Sullivan chooses to explore the political reasoning behind the prohibition of same sex marriages. The excerpt chosen for critiquing belongs to Sullivan's book Virtually Normal: An Argument about Homosexuality (1995), which highlights the author's personal opinion about gay's and lesbian's right to marriage, political opinions on same sex marriages, and the differences between liberal and conservative party's modes of thoughts and actions regarding same sex marriages.
Introduction of the Author
Andrew Sullivan, himself being of homosexual orientation and married, with HIV positive status, is a devout catholic and a 'conservative' political commentator. Andrew Michael Sullivan rapidly rose to popularity in the first half of the 21st century based on few of…
Barry, P.B. (2011). Social theory and practice, 37(2): 333-356.
Fish, E. (2005). The road to recognition: A global perspective on gay marriage. Harvard International Review, Summer 2005, 32-35.
Harris, A. & Cole, G.W. (2008). Conversation on Marriage for lesbian and gay people: introduction to lesbian and gay marriage roundtable. Studies in gender and sexuality, 9, 140-145.
Sullivan, A.M. (1995). Virtually Normal: An argument about homosexuality. Knopf.
same-sex marriage refers to a legal married union between two persons of the same sex. In other word, same sex partner is a man legally married to another man or a woman legally married to another woman. Since same sex marriage is a new development in the United States, the federal government has faced challenges in treating the tax issues of same-sex individuals entering into marriage. The IS's (Internal evenue Service) ruling of 58-66 in 1958-1 C.B.60 determines the tax purpose for individuals who have entered into a common law marriage. Under the state law administered by the Federal income tax laws, the IS acknowledges that it recognizes individual's marital status.
Under IS uling 58-66, the Service states that a couple will be treated as married based on the Federal income tax filing purpose, and the IS has applied this uling 58-66 for over 50 years. (Internal Service evenue, 2014).…
Ahroni, S. & Silliman, B.R.(2014). Federal Tax Implications of Windsor . 84(7):CPA Journal.58-63.
Calhoun, C.V. (2015). State Taxes and Married Same-Sex Couples. Calhoun Law Group, P.C.
Cornell University (2015). United State v Windsor. Legal Information Institute.
Goodnough, A. Zezima, K. (2009). Suit Seeks to Force Government to Extend Benefits to Same-Sex Couples. The New York Times.
George's argument preserves the fundamental truths that democracy in its most theocratic incarnation promotes, with regards to basing moral law on arbitrary grounds.
My position is precisely the same as George's: that same sex marriage is wrong and immoral. Same sex marriage affirms the value of sex for pleasure only, and is therefore an affront to moral law. Moral law, moreover, proclaims marriage as a union between one man and one woman with the intention of having children. Same-sex marriage is an affront to the concept of patriarchal law and the social contract between a man and a woman. It is inconceivable to allow the definition of marriage to expand beyond the natural law definition. If a democracy is founded on moral principles, then same sex marriage has no place in the society. Democracy promotes human rights. The pursuit of happiness is pursuant on moral principles, which, although rooted tacitly…
George, Robert P. "Neutrality, Equality, and 'Same-Sex Marriage.'" Essay Two.
Macedo, Stephen. "Homosexuality and the Conservative Mind." Essay One.
In Europe and other Western societies, the individual may be expected to make some self sacrifices for the common good. The emphasis on social well-being and social integrity prevents people from frivolously terminating relationships, whether they be cohabitations or marriages. In the United States, cohabiting or marriage relationships are often terminated for reasons that can be easily classified as selfish in nature. Americans have conflicting beliefs and values related to marriage and cohabitation, though. Most Americans believe that marriage should last forever, yet an astonishing number of Americans do not work hard to make their marriages or domestic partnerships last (Cherlin, 2010).
One prevailing, and also paradoxical, belief in American society is that it is better for children to experience divorce than it is for the parents to remain in a relationship that is personally unfulfilling. Americans seem to value marriage and individualism at the same time, which can be…
Cherlin, a.J. (2010). How American family life is different. Chapter 1 in the Marriage Go-Round. New York: Vintage.
" It said that an expanding range of adult parenting arrangements and the growing disconnection between marriage and children. The report believed that it would be wise to examine the events, which have been happening. Canada recently stood at the forefront of Western nations in instituting radical changes in family law. The U.S.A. seemed to be taking the same direction (Cere).
The dominant stand among legal elites, including the two groups, which wrote the two reports, was that the family law should not aim at protecting the rights of children to grow up with their own, married parents (Cere 2005). Instead, it should protect and promote a concept called "family diversity." The stand drew from the belief that societies flourished when people of different backgrounds lived and worked together. The authors of the reports argued that society would be better off with all kinds of families co-existing and viewed as…
Buckley, William. F. Does Marriage Matter? National Review: National Review, Inc., December 22, 2003
Cere, Daniel. Love and Marriage. Public Interest: The National Affairs, Inc., Spring 2005
Hoffnung, Michele. Wanting it All: Career, Marriage and Motherhood During Colle Educated Women's 20s. Sex Roles: a Journal of research: Plenum Publishing Corporation, May 2004
News and Society. Cohabitation Not Equal to Marriage: Vanier Study Reports. Community Action: Community Action Publishers, October 26, 2005