1000 results for “Sampling Method”.
sampling methods that can be used in quantitative research. The first is simple random sampling. This method allows the researcher to get a truly representative sample of the population, free from any bias. Whether simple random sampling is easy or not depends to some extent on the nature of the population. Simple random sampling does not involve targeting any sub-grouping within the population, but it does deliver a more globally representative sample.
Another method is stratified sampling, wherein the researcher targets specific sub-groups. An example of this would be using demographics to break down groups. Marketers commonly use stratified sampling to understand how specific demographics respond to their products. A company might use simple random sampling, but if it wants to test a specific ad campaign for effectiveness in a target demo, then it would use stratified sampling in order to ensure that all members of the sample are within…
Vergura, S., Acciani, G., Amoruso, V., Patrono, G. (2009). Descriptive and inferential statistics for supervising and monitoring the operation of PV plants. Industrial Electronics. Vol. 56 (11) 4456-4464.
Bluegill Fish Populations: Sampling Methods
Field research can often depend on the quality and reliability of the equipment used to record samples and observations. If researchers fail to understand their sampling measures and any potential limitations they present, the end result of the data collection and observations may not have the validity required to make realistic conclusions about the population in question. Such is the case for studying fish populations, as different collection methods can skew the size and species of fish observed within a given sample area (eynolds & Simpson, 1978). This current survey explores two sampling methods, trap-nets and electrofishing in order to highlight the potential limitations both show and to determine which of the graphs represent each method. Ultimately, Gear B represents the electrofishing method because of the larger numbers of smaller fish, while Gear A represents trap-net methods because there are relatively no smaller fish present…
Laarman, P.W. & J.R. Ryckman. 1982. Relative size selectively of trap nets for eight species of fish. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 2:33-37.
Reynolds, J.B. 1996. Electrofishing. Pages 221-253 in B.R. Murphy and D.W. WIllis, eds. Fisheries Techniques, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.
Reynolds, J.B. and D.E. Simpson. 1978. Evaluation of fish sampling methods and rotenone census. Pages 11-25 in G.D. Novinger and J.G. Dillard, eds. New Approaches to the Management of Small Impoundments. North Central Division, American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 5, Bethesda, Maryland.
eimers, 2015) determined that sampling methods have proven to be a very efficient an intuitive method of understanding different properties as they are presented in research. Sampling methods for this specific study will be somewhat constrained based upon the fact that the target population will be derived from a small community facility located in Las Vegas, Nevada. Additionally, the sampling method must concern itself with the fact that the researcher is attempting to evaluate qualitative results and according to eimers (2015) qualitative results that are obtained from sampling methods should be considered with caution (p. 1). It is expedient therefore that the researcher choose the correct type of sampling methodology to achieve the best possible results. In this regard, this study looked at a variety of sampling methods and determined that a modified convenience sampling would likely work very well.
Convenience sampling allows the researcher to work with a population…
Gilliland, J.; Clark, A.F.; Kobrzynski, M. & Filler, G.; (2015) Convenience sampling of children presenting to hospital-based outpatient clinics to estimate childhood obesity levels in local surroundings, American Journal of Public Health, 105(7)
Reimers, A.C. (2015) Obstructions to sampling qualitative properties, PLoS ONE, 10(8)
There are a number of methods that can be effectively used to gather data in order to ascertain thesis or answer research questions. Determining which methodology to use is at the behest of the researcher and should be determined as part of the overall design of the study. In order to gather valid and reliable data, sampling methods such as cluster, quota, simple random, systematic, stratified, non-probability and probability, and diversity sampling have all been created, and effectively used, to assist the researcher in his/her endeavors. Dos Santos and Beck (2015) found that regarding sampling methods "comparing the performance of several techniques over several problems are rarely found" (p. 624). Since a performance comparison would take a lot of time and effort to complete this study will discuss a few of the methods that are being considered for this study only. The discussion will describe the technique being…
Dos Santos, K.R.M.; (2015) A benchmark study on intelligent sampling techniques in Monte Carlo simulation, Latin American Journal of Solids & Structures, 12(4)
Emerson, R.W.; (2015) Convenience sampling, random sampling, and snowball sampling: How does sampling affect the validity of research? Journal of Visual
Impairment & Blindness, 109(2) p. 164-168
Sampling Techniques eveal
The first study of focus regards perceptions of news media bias and how individual and interpersonal factors affect those perceptions. The sampling method used in this study is non-probability. The researchers worked in conjunction with an international marketing company. The company contacted a massive quantity of people via mail inquiring for participation via mail and via telephone; they had more than 500, 000 participants. The researchers and the international marketing company solicited people based on census data so as to reach intentionally reach & sample a diverse population of participants. They collected data using surveys and questionnaires. The authors were concerned with drawing participants across levels of income, gender, race, and marital status. They made more than one adjustment to their sample group before sending out the questionnaires. They used the census data to draw on populations across age, population density and household size.
Eveland, Jr., W.P., & Shah, D.V. (2003) The Impact of Individual and Interpersonal Factors on Perceived News Media Bias. Political Psychology, 24(1), 101 -- 117.
Malhotra, N., & Krosnick, J.A. (2007) The Effect of Survey Mode and Sampling on Inferences about Political Attitudes and Behavior: Comparing the 2000 and 2004 ANES to Internet Surveys with Nonprobability Samples. Political Analysis, 15, 286 -- 323.
In frequency control, the type of quota purposive sample being employed in this example, the surveyor would attempt to get a sample that comes close to the known percentages in the population (Cooper & Schindler, 2008). With frequency control, an exact sample is not required, only that the percentages surveyed are close to the known percentages in the population.
One of the weaknesses of quota purposive sampling is that the variables used to define a population may not be representative of other variables under study (Cooper & Schindler, 2008). The researcher may find that freshmen do not represent the important variable that is being researched, for example. Another weakness is in the data used to identify a demographic. That data could be flawed, outdated, or inaccurate, and as a result the researcher might not get an adequate sample (Cooper & Schindler, 2008). Still another weakness is the researcher's inability to…
Cooper, D.R. & Schindler, P.S. (2008). Business Research Methods, 10th Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Social Network Survey
Draw a sample
The sample for this study utilizes non-probability sampling techniques. Unlike probability sampling, nonprobability sampling does not use random selection (Trochim, 2006). andom selection is rarely used in qualitative survey research as the population will have been selected for specific purposes and often a certain level of attribute representation is desired in the sample for purposes of analysis. Because distinctions between the responses of survey participants from small businesses and medium business are important, individual surveys will be employed.
A series of processes is used to identify and obtain a sample: those processes are together referred to as the sampling plan (Trochim, 2006). The sampling plan for this study uses a purposive sampling format. The sample unit from which the eventual sample will be drawn is commonly known as the sample unit (Trochim, 2006). In this study, the sample unit consists of local small and…
Dye, J.G, Schatz, I.M., Rosenberg, B.A., and Coleman, S.T. (2000, January). Constant comparison method: A kaleidoscope of data. The Qualitative Report, 4(1/2). Nova.
Goetz, M.D. And LeCompte, J.P. (1981, Spring). Ethnographic research and the problem of data reduction. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 12 (1), 51-70.
Trochim, W.M.K. (2006). Research Methods Knowledge Base. Retrieved http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/sampling.php
Before discussing a sampling plan, there has to be clear and unambiguous definitions of what a sample and sampling are. Despite diversity in the definition of a sample, the best meaning is that a sample could be considered as a subset of a population, with which a researcher would like to use as participants in a given research study (Landreneau & Creek, 2012). According to Deming (1990), sapling is a science, which specifically guides quantitative studies, materials, behavior and the different causes of difference. In other aspects of research such as the qualitative research, sampling could be considered as the art of selecting a part of a population, in a given research area that is a representation of the entire population.
Both the qualitative and quantitative researchers approach their sampling differently. For the quantitative researchers, samples which are selected are those that will give the researcher easy time…
Adler, E.S. & Clark, R. (2008). How It Is Done: An Invitation to Social Research. New York: Cengage Learning Publishers.
Babbie, E.R. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. New York: Cengage Learning.
Bartlett, J.E., Kotrlik, J.W. & Higgins, C.C. (2012). Organizational Research: Determining Appropriate Sample Size in Survey Research. Retrieved 28th October, 2012 from http://www.osra.org/itlpj/bartlettkotrlikhiggins.pdf
Beri, (2007). Marketing Research. India: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing.
(362) One additional note on this half of the duel research study was that the pair of applicants with and without fictitious criminal records was rotated throughout the experiment to reduce the odds that a single applicant would alter results if assigned the rigid role of ex-con or clean record applicant.
In the second half of the research study the same set of potential employers was surveyed using a vignette method. The vignette described the scenario of applicants who matched the (tester) applicants. The employers who were screened by asking for the person in charge of hiring at the place of business were then asked to respond to the scenario by answering questions regarding if they would or would not hire or consider hiring the applicant in the vignette. Data was collected utilizing the responses to the survey questions, which avoided direct racial comparisons but simply stated the race of…
Pager, Devah and Lincoln Quillian.. "Walking the Talk? What Employers Say vs. What They Do." American Sociological Review 70: 2005, 355-380.
Gray, Paul S., John B. Williamson, David a. Karp, and John R. Dalphin the Research Imagination: An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Sampling Data Analyses the single-study critique paper 2 individual assignment. Develop individual response Single-Study Paper 2 IOM topic area. Use article Single Study Critiques 1-2. It a requirement a quantitative study paper.
Quantitative article analysis
The Nursing esearch article "Effectiveness of an Aspiration isk-eduction Protocol" addresses a proposed method to reduce the risk of aspiration in critically ill patients through a three-pronged intervention strategy. The intervention strategy components include "maintaining head-of-bed elevation at 30 degrees or higher, unless contraindicated; inserting feeding tubes into distal small bowel, when indicated; and using an algorithmic approach for high gastric residual volumes" (Metheny, Davis-Jackson & Stewart 2010: 1). It used a two-group quasi-experimental design of critically ill, mechanically ventilated adult patients receiving tube feedings. 329 were in the control population, 145 in the experimental group (Metheny, Davis-Jackson & Stewart 2010: 1). The patients were all drawn from the same five ICUs at a Level…
Metheny, Norma A., Jami Davis-Jackson & Barbara J. Stewart. (2010). Effectiveness of an Aspiration Risk-Reduction Protocol. Nursing Research, 59(1): 18 -- 25. Retrieved: doi:10.1097/NNR.0b013e3181c3ba05.
Sampling Size: Qualitative esearch
The aim of qualitative research is to ensure that the population in question is studied with sufficient rigor and above all sufficient depth to yield meaningful results. "There is a point of diminishing return to a qualitative sample -- as the study goes on more data does not necessarily lead to more information… qualitative research is concerned with meaning and not making generalised hypothesis statements" (Mason 2010:8). The advantage to large sampling sizes is that they are more representative as a whole and are less likely to be thrown off by anomalies: "for qualitative studies, where the goal is to 'reduce the chances of discovery failure,' a large sample size broadens the range of possible data and forms a better picture for analysis" ("The importance of a quality sample size," 2013, Unite for Sight). In the process of qualitative research, when a small sampling size is…
Mason, M. (2010). Sample size and saturation in PHD studies using qualitative research.
Qualitative Social Research, 11 (3): 8. Retrieved from http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1428/3027
Maxwell, J.A. (2005). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (2nd Ed.).
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
The ordering is based on an arbitrary scale that holds no significance besides describing it's obvious qualities.
Nominal Data: Nominal data is information that is organized by name. There is no value in this type of data other than its descriptive use.
Discrete Data: Discrete data is information that needs specific beginning and ending points. Certainty is a required quality of this type of data. Discrete data is information that can be counted.
Continuous Data: Continuous data is information that can be taken from a scalar measurement. Continuous data can be recorded at many different points and can hold any numeric value.
2. Following are several variables. Which, if any, yield ordinal data? Explain your answer.
(e) number of siblings
(g) place of birth
(h) high-school class rank
3. Identify which type of sampling is used:
To avoid working late,…
PATICIPANT SELECTION & SAMPLING POCEDUES
I will select my sample by first reviewing statistics about reality television programming. I want to find how about programs categorized as "reality television" in the United States of America. I want to know how many shows qualify as reality television. I want to know who the targeted audiences are for the programs. I want to determine the age range of intended viewers/demographics. My sample will contain participants from the youngest ages in the range to the oldest ages in the range. The sample will also contain the average age viewer and the mean age viewer based on the data gathered about reality television programming. Further, I am interested in participants that range across ethnicity, location, and class. Additional helpful information from the participants maybe how much television/media they consume in general so as to determine what percentage of their overall viewing is…
Giles, D. (2003) Media Psychology: Chapter 3 -- Research Methods in Media Psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.: Mahwah, NJ.
Jensen, K.B. (ed.) 2002. A Handbook of Media and Communication Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies -- Chapters 13: The quantitative research process; Chapter 15: The complementarity of qualitative and quantitative methodologies in media and communication research; Chapter16: The social origins and uses of media and communication research. Routledge: New York, NY.
Kallet, R.H. (2004) How to Write the Methods Section of a Research Paper. Respiratory Care, 49(10), 1229 -- 1232.
There are sampling methods that are still under the quantitative paradigm but utilize non-random sampling to collect data from samples that are either too expensive or logistically difficult to select if random sampling will be used instead. These sampling methods can be convenience, purposive, quota, and snowball sampling (Babbie, 2003:211).
Convenience sampling is a non-random sampling method used when the goal is just to achieve the target sample size of a specific group for the study. No other criteria are set except for the kind of group being targeted and sample size that needs to be achieved. Purposive sampling, meanwhile, specifies characteristics of units that will be included in the sample. These units could be extreme characteristics of each other, or maybe only units from the extreme end of a characteristic spectrum are needed. The objective of this sampling method is to include units of a specific type or a…
Babbie, E. (2003). The Practice of Social Research. NY: Wadsworth Publishing.
In order to study career aspirations, a survey of fifteen students was conducted to determine what level the student expected to achieve as their highest level. The students polled were all business students. The unit of analysis was scalar, with the options reflecting hierarchical levels within a corporation. The results of the survey were as follows:
These results show that business students have a wide range of aspirations and expectations for their careers. While some see themselves on a path to executive-level leadership, others see themselves slotting into middle- or upper-level managerial positions as their apex. None of the business students surveyed felt that they were likely to end up in a non-management role. Because of the desire to create scalar units of measurement, the question did not distinguish between these levels and entrepreneurship. So the size of the company…
Lund Research (2012). Stratified random sampling. Lund Research. Retrieved April 3, 2014 from http://dissertation.laerd.com/stratified-random-sampling.php
No author (2014). Business research process: An overview. EIS.HU.EDU. Retrieved April 3, 2014 from https://eis.hu.edu.jo/ACUploads/10643/Chapter%204.pdf
Methods for Recording ObservationsThere are many methods available for recording observations namely video and audio recording, note taking, drawing sketches, photographs, or using computerized recorders. The most effective method for recording observations is video and audio recording. This method will not only allow for the capture of behavior, but also capturing the exact manner of how the behavior is enacted. Using video and audio recording, one can also capture the emotions behind the words a person is saying and offer definitive proof of someones statement. Inter-rater reliability checks can also be employed when using audio and video recording. This method is also generally harder to manipulate than written or typed notes. Using this method might offer the observer more in-depth information when compared to other methods of recording observations. However, this is a time consuming method mainly because one might record countless hours of useless shots and audio.The least effective…
data collection and the sources to be utilized for this project. The highlighted gaps in knowledge will be investigated with the help of two research methods. The research methods have been chosen on the basis that they have the best chance of answering the research questions. Lastly, the procedures that will be utilized to analyse the results and also the limitations of the methods will be highlighted. Ethical considerations will also be given (Frandsen & Johansen, 2010).
There is a need for a comprehensive evaluation in order to capture the sophisticated processes of public relations crisis communication and also to provide a broader perspective on the matter in addition to helping with the investigation of the related issues. A mixed-method study approach (a mix of quantitative and qualitative study methodologies) will be employed for the purposes of providing an overview of the subject matter and also to help provide data…
Bryman, A. (2008). Social research methods (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press
Collis, J., & Hussey, R. (2003). Business research -- a practical guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students (2nd ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cutler, A. (2004). Methodical failure: The use of case study method by public relations researchers. Public Relations Review, 30(3), 365-375. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2004.05.008
Falkenheimer, J., & Heide, M. (2010). Crisis communicators in change: From plans to improvisations. In W. T. Coombs, & S. J. Holladay (Eds.). The handbook of crisis communication. (pp. 512-526). Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
A Comparison of Methods for Toxin Exposure Measurement: Personal Exposure v Colorimetric Tubes
Several incidents in the past decade have created an increased attention to the issue of toxin exposure level measurements in both the public sphere and amongst security and emergency response agencies. The need to accurately measure the presence of a variety of air-borne and other toxic substances in specific environments in an incredibly rapid manner can be an issue of truly vital importance in emergency situations, and the measuring of exposure levels for certain individuals -- especially first responders and other emergency response personnel -- is also key to an effective yet careful management of events involving the release of toxic substances. This has led to increasing research in the area of toxicity measurements, and an investigation of the best practices for rapidly and accurately measuring exposure.
This paper will present a brief overview of…
Dodson, R., Perovich, L., Nishioka, M., Spengler, J., Vallarino, J. & Rudel, R. (2011). Long-term Integrated Sampling of Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air: Measurement of Emerging Compounds Using Novel Active and Passive Sampling Methods. Epidemiology 22(1): 160-78.
Feng, L., Musto, C., Kemling, J. Lim, S. & Suslick, K. (2010). A colorimetric sensor array for identification of toxic gases below permissible exposure limits. Chemical Communication 46: 2037-9.
Hewitt, D. & Gandy, J. (2009). Characterization of a fatal methyl bromide exposure by analysis of the water cooler. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 52(7): 579-86.
Hughes, S., Blake, B., Woods, S. & Lehmann, C. (2007). False-positive results on colorimetric carbon dioxide analysis in neonatal resuscitation: potential for serious patient harm: False-positive results on colorimetric carbon dioxide analysis. Journal of Perinatology 27: 800-1.
Alignment helps keep both qualitative and quantitative research studies cohesive, meaningful, and valid. The purpose of the study and its implications for policy or practice should be aligned with the research questions, design, and method. Research by Forster, Grigsby, Unger, et al. (2015) illustrates the concept of alignment in a quantitative study. The research focuses on the links between exposure to violence in the community, social ties with gangs or gang members, social self-control, and aggressive behavior. Based on prior research, the authors hypothesize that exposure to violence in the community would be associated with aggressive behaviors. The authors also hypothesize that having friends or family members in gangs was positively correlated with aggressive behavior, and that lower levels of self-control were also correlated with aggressive behavior. All of these hypotheses have the same dependent variable (aggressive behavior exhibited over the past week). These hypotheses and related research questions are…
In the "hard-core" sub-genre of hip-hop, one sees a much clearer emphasis on street and urban authenticity -- rather than on sampling. For N.W.A., hip-hop is an expression of lived life -- a kind of militant message passed down to urban blacks from men like Malcolm X
But not all hip-hop comes from such types. The Beastie Boys are an example of hip-hop artists who thrive on a different message. Much of their music is centered on adolescent/teenage angst -- white suburban kids enraged by suburban living, but moved by urban beats. They inter-mingle their own white perspective with samplings from an assortment of other artists -- thus making their mark on the hip-hop scene. Their aggression appears to be real, like 50 Cent's -- even if it is different in its source. The Beastie Boys are, of course, legends in hip-hop -- but Mickey Hess denies that their authenticity…
Alridge, DP 2012 'From Civil Rights to Hip Hop: Toward a Nexus of Ideas', the Hip
Hop Project, pp. 1-28
Arewa, OB 2006 'From JC Bach to Hip Hop: Musical Borrowing, Copyright and Cultural Context', North Carolina Law Review 84, pp 548-558
Best, S; Kellner, D 1999 'Rap, Black Rage, and Racial Difference', Enculturation 2:2
Quantitative research uses survey, and questionnaires to collect data. Through quantitative analysis, a researcher is able to correlate mass data to the research findings. Despite the benefits identified in both quantitative and qualitative research, the paper identifies some shortcomings in both research methods. To address these shortcomings, the paper proposes mixed methods that involve combining both quantitative and qualitative research.
Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative esearch: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.
Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive esearch Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.
Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative esearch Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.
Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.
Firestone, W.A. (1987).Meaning in Method: The hetoric Quantitative and Qualitative esearch. Educational esearcher.19(7):16-21.
Goodwin, W.L. Goodwin, L.D. (1996). Understanding qualitative & quantitative research in early childhood education.…
Bryman, A. (1984). The Debate about Quantitative and Qualitative Research: A Question of Method or Epistemology? The British Journal of Sociology, 35,(1): 75-92.
Burney, S.M.A (2008). Inductive and Deductive Research Approach. Department of Computer Science. University of Karachi.
Hanson, J.L. (2011). Qualitative Research Methods for Medical Educators. Academic Pediatric Association.11(5):375 -- 38.
Henderson, J. (2011). Primary and secondary sources, IthaCha College Library.
Standard deviation is a measure of how far the data is spread from the mean, and can be used to assess the accuracy of the sample mean.
Type I errors are improper rejections of the null hypothesis.
Type II errors are failures to reject the null hypothesis hen it should be rejected.
Level of Significance measures the likelihood of committing a Type I error.
Power analysis measures the risk of committing a Type II error.
Regression analysis measures the relationship between two groups, and can be used to compare separate groups or the same group after an intervention. There are several ways to perform regression analysis.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) measures the variance observed in groups of data and works to attribute observed variances to specific observed variables. There are different tests used to perform analysis depending on the type of data available and the desired information output.
Another instance in which random sampling is not important is when a researcher is conducting a qualitative study. In qualitative studies, depth of information from selected units of analysis is given more importance rather than the number and representativeness of the target group or population. Thus, for a researcher conducting in-depth interviews of household mothers (for example), the characteristics/selection criteria set in identifying the target group (household mothers) are more important than the randomly selecting participants/members of the target group, which could result to household mothers who do not fit the criteria or characteristics set by the researcher. In effect, the type of information that would be generated from randomly sampled household mothers would not be as insightful as it would have been to specifically-selected household mothers fitting the researcher's selection criteria.
Components of a research study such as the objectives, review of literature, framework, methodology and analysis all work…
5. No. No. (i.e. this is neither a random sample nor simple random sample), because the females who attended the meeting were not selected and not all females in the company had an equal chance of talking to the personnel manager.
1. George W. Snedecor, & Cochran, William G. (1989). Statistical Methods (8th ed.): Blackwell Publishing Professional.
2. William G. Zikmund, & Babin, Barry J. (2007). Exploring Market Research 9th.
3. Graham Upton, & Cook, Ian (1996). Understanding Statistics: Oxford University Press.
Restaurant A Restaurant B
Range 44 46
Salary Mid interval salary, x x2 Employees, f f.x f. x2
5001-10000 7500.5 56257500.25-14 105007 787605003.50
10001-15000 12500.5 156262500.25-13 162506.5 2031412503.25
15001-20000 17500.5 306267500.25-18 315009 5512815004.50
20001-25000 22500.5 506272500.25-18 405009 9112905004.50
25001-30000 27500.5 756277500.25-17 467508.5 12856717504.25
Sum ?f ?fx ?fx2
80 1455040 30301455020.00
experimental method, otherwise known as quantitative research or laboratory study, is to formulate a hypotheses, to collect the data, and test this hypotheses according to scientific principles that obstruct, as carefully as possible, bias, and then to analyze this data using statistical measures. The experimental method uses random sampling as part of its discourse.
Practical considerations usually limit the amount of control we have in structuring experiments, for instance we cannot always hope to randomize; we sometimes (more usually) often have to make do with the sample of participants given. This is when quasi-experimentation is employed.
This particular study is a quasi-experiment
Levels of measurement of the variables
There were two levels / conditions: (1) inquiry-based science curriculum and (ii) an inquiry-based science curriculum and reading strategy instruction
Types of statistics used to analyze the data and generate results
Three types of relevant psychological instruments were used to measure science…
Fang, Y. & Wei, Z. (2010) Improving Middle School Students'Science Literacy Through Reading Infusion The Journal of Educational Research, 103:262 -- 273,
Hough David L. & Schmitt Vicki L. (2011) An ex post facto examination of relationships among the developmental designs professional development model
Middle Grades Research Journal, 6(3), 163 -- 175
Frequency Distributions & Sampling
The lifestyle data collected and analyzed in this paper are the counts of e-mail messages received () and sent (S) on a per-day basis. This paper is a continuation of the study begun in a prior assignment, with the core changes being the inclusion of sample data collected over a period of an additional five days, and analysis of the standard deviation of the data relative to a normal distribution. For the purpose of this study, each parameter was measured and recorded daily for fifteen consecutive days. Table 1 displays the data collected in sequential, unsorted form.
E-mails eceived ()
E-mails Sent (S)
Based on the total data collected over a period of 15 days as depicted in Table 1, the following are the measures of central tendency for the number of emails received each day:
: mean: 88.9 median: 81 mode: none
Based on the…
Breyfogle, F.W. (2003). Implementing Six Sigma: Smarter Solutions Using Statistical Methods (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Lane, D.M. (n.d.). HyperStat Online: The Normal Distribution. Retrieved December 10, 2011, from http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/normal_distribution.html
Preston, S. (n.d.). Standard Normal Distribution. Retrieved December 10, 2011, from http://www.oswego.edu/~srp/stats/z.htm
Psychological test or assessment method. "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III
Brief Description of the Test
The recent release of one of the youngest convicted child murders in our nation's history, Lionel Tate, now an adult, into the general population, has highlighted the difficulty of determining if a former prisoner should be eligible for parole. Psychologists have attempted to answer this difficult and subjective question by designing the objectively-assessed test known as "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III" exam. (Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc., 1997) This test was originally designed in 1987 exclusively for adult prisoners eligible for probation to determine the risk of paroling them and assessing their risk to society and has since been updated, in 1997, to include inventories for truthfulness. (Spies, 2003)
The SAQ is 165-item questionnaire. It can be administered either in a paper and pencil format or on a computer.…
American Educational Research Association. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
SAQ -- The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III (1997). Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc.
Spies, Robert. (2003). [Review of the SAQ -- Adult Probation [Substance Abuse Questionnaire].]. Buros Institute of Mental Measurements. http://www.unl.edu/buros/reviewsample.html .
Toneatto, T. (1995). [Review of the SAQ -- Adult Probation [Substance Abuse Questionnaire].] In J.C. Conoley & J.C. Impara (Eds.). The twelfth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 889-891). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:
(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?
(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;
(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)
ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:
(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…
Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at: http://www.socsci.uci.edu/ssarc/pcs/webdocs/W-Readings/IntegratingQualandQuant.pdf
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at: http://prod.baruch.cuny.edu/facultyhandbook/documents/YoshikawaWeisnerKalilWay2008DP.pdf
Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at: http://www.tlulib.ee/files/arts/95/nigla32417030233e06e8e5d471ec0aaa32e9.pdf
Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at: http://www.social-marketing.com/research.html
231) Yet, research recently has stated findings that "non-mnemonic semantic elaboration methods" are more effective that the mnemonic keyword technique on lexical retention for L2.
VIII. Differentiation of Mnemonic and Non-mnemonic Elaboration Techniques
Mnemonic and non-mnemonic elaboration techniques are differentiated by the manner of association of new words with previous knowledge in that: "mnemonic elaboration techniques establish this connection through verbal and visual imagery" however, the elaboration of non-mnemonic techniques makes this connection through use of semantic characteristics and may be through the organization of a list of scrambled words known as the 'ordering method' or through generation of sentences with the target word in a manner that the inference of the word can be made by the sentence or the 'sentence writing method'. (Sagarra and Alba, 2006, p. 231)
Furthermore, the connection can be made through construction of a diagram displaying the target word's semantic association known as the…
Sagarra, Nuria and Alba, Matthew (2006) the Key Is in the Keyword: L2 Vocabulary Learning Methods With Beginning Learners of Spanish. The Modern Language Journal
Volume 90 Issue 2, Pages 228-2431 June 2006.
Abortion After Prenatal Testing
Methods of Prenatal Diagnosis
There are four methods of prenatal diagnosis that is available to women. The first and most commonly known is ultrasonography, colloquially referred to as "ultrasound." A picture of the fetus is developed through the implementation of sound waves. Ultrasound is used to identify abnormalities that are physically apparent such as deformed limbs, defective chest, and heart. During the fourteenth to sixteenth week of the pregnancy, neural tube defects can also be detected (Cassidy & Gentles, 2002). There are other uses such as detecting multiple fetuses and measuring fetal growth.
The second method is Maternal Serum Alpha Fetoprotein Screening (MSAFP). Its primary purpose is to detect neural tube defects by measuring the alpha fetoprotein levels in the women's blood. High levels of alpha fetoprotein can indicate neural tube defects in the fetus. This exam is typically administered during the fifteenth to seventeenth week…
Cassidy, E., & Gentles, I.J. (2002). Abortion after Prenatal Testing. Women's health after abortion: the medical and psychological evidence (pp. 155-174). Toronto, Ontario, Canada: deVeber Institute for Bioethics and Social Research.
Yashon, R.K., & Cummings, M.R. (2012). Changes in Chromosome Number. Human genetics and society (2nd ed., p. 56). Australia: Brooks/Cole.
Summary and Analysis of The Forgotten Followers Contingency Model of Leadership and Follower Self-leadership by Seokhwa Yun and Jonathan Cox and Henry P Sims Jr.
This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of leadership and follower attributes on follower self-leadership. The abstract provides a clear summary of the study in terms of its purpose, research methodology, findings, implications and limitations of the study, practical implications, and originality/value of the study. As shown in the abstract, the purpose of the study was to assess the effect of leadership and follower attributes and follower self-leadership. The researchers found that the impact of leadership on follower self-leadership was dependent on follower need for autonomy.
As part of conducting the study, these researchers introduce several concept beginning with the idea that, “Not everyone wants to be empowered!” The statement basically highlights the two major differences in people’s response to self-leadership opportunities i.e. some people…
Sampling and Collecting Quantitative and Qualitative Data
Probability sampling represents the best strategy for selecting research participants
There are many ways of gathering information from a population using the qualitative or the quantitative approaches. Probability sampling is indeed the best strategy that a researcher can use to select participants from a population. There are many reasons to support this position as below discussed. Probability sampling can be understood as the sampling technique that takes a small sample from larger populations using one of the methods under the probability theories. In order for a participant to be selected a random method of selection must be used. The most fundamental requirement in probability sampling is ensuring that every person in the population has an equal and known likelihood of being selected. For instance, where a sample of 10 people is to be selected from a population of 100 people every person in…
employing convenience samplings is some bias in non-representative population. Due to this limitation, convenience sampling is not usually subject to tight sample measures (Bailey, 2009). Convenience samples don't give the representative outcome. If a person needs to extend the targeted population, convenient samples cannot acquire the research there. The normal instinct is to extract from the convenience samples. When using convenience samples, there is the likelihood to handle the results as representational, though they may not be. The outcome of convenience samples is difficult to clone. If a researcher conducts the analysis of a convenience survey outcome by means of a list source, they would often observe dramatic variations in the feedback from the various lists, usually in a manner that would complicate the explanation (Convenience Samples: Pros and Cons, 2010).
Although convenience samples are way better than having no samples entirely, the limitations of the convenience samples must be…
Bailey, T.L., (2009). Organizational culture, macro and micro empowerment dimensions, and job satisfaction: an application of concurrent mixed and multi-level methods in the federal sector. Universal-Publishers.
Convenience Samples: Pros and Cons. (2010). Retrieved June 14, 2016, from http://blog.verint.com/convenience-samples-pros-and-cons
Etikan, I., Musa, S.A. and Alkassim, R.S., (2016). Comparison of Convenience Sampling and Purposive Sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1), pp.1-4.
Grinnell, R. M., & Unrau, Y. A. (2007). Social work research and evaluation: Foundations in evidence-based practice. New York: Oxford University Press.
Indeed, as Muntaner (2003) posited in her research, qualitative methods can be included in a dominantly quantitative research design "in situations where qualitative research adds knowledge that would not be available via quantitative methods" (p. 55). Through a mixed-methods design, the researcher can provide better analyses and stronger interpretations and recommendations through balanced strengths of data reliability and validity -- that is, the achievement of "triangulation" in the research study.
IIA. ased on your reading of books such as eaglehole (1993), describe what you know about observational epidemiology as a research approach and compare it to experimental studies. Describe some of the designs within each, e.g., RCT, case-control studies, etc.
Observational and analytical/relational studies provide different results and answer different research questions and hypotheses when compared to the experimental approach. In observation and analytical/relational studies, the highest kind of analysis that can be done is correlational and not causal.
Bonita, R. And R. Beaglehole. (2006). Basic epidemiology. Geneva: WHO Press.
Muntaner, C. (2003). "Qualitative and quantitative research in social epidemiology: is complementarity the only issue?" Gac Sanit, Vol. 17, Supl. 3.
Olsen, J. And K. Christensen. (2010). An introduction to epidemiology for health professionals. NY: Springer.
Rosnow, R. And R. Rosenthal. (1996). Beginning Behavioral Research. NJ: Prentice Hall.
power of statistical analysis is the power to define, interpret, and understanding numerical data which represents patterns in the real world. Without the ability to measure statistical data, the empirical, hypothetical world of educational models would not be able to be checked by actual performance in the absolute. While statistics has applications in many fields, statistical data is possibly the most powerful when used to identify patterns in personal behavior, and other fields of study which do not exhibit direct patterns across a sampling group. For example, mathematical equations govern how a specific metal will respond to different loads, and different conditions. However, there are no direct mathematical equations which govern the percentage of teenage drivers who will be involved in traffic accidents over a period of time. In order to interpret the influential factors over teen drivers, a statistical measurement of actual experience can be undertaken. Through statistical analysis,…
Regarding a linear regression analysis of this relationship, we find that the slope of the line is close to 0.5, and the relationship is a direct linear relationship between the amount of tar in a cigarette and the amount of nicotine.
Nonlinear trends in statistical data can be the most challenging to work with. When non-linear relationships exist, there may be a mathematical relationship which is based on a logarithm, or other multi-factor influence. However, true non-linear relationship, such as the height and weight of a specific person who shops in a given department store may leave the statistician without any relationship whatsoever. Non-linear data can also be the result of data which is being acted on by an artificial, outside force. In this case, the statistician is able to verify the existence of an outside force, and then approach the process of identifying the force.
An example of this situation is the expected relationship between supply and demand, and company profit based on the sales of a given product in the market place. In the early 1980's, the Coleco company produces a product called "Cabbage Patch dolls." The typical lifecycle of a new toy product is one to two years, but Coleco was able to extend the life of their product for four to five Christmas seasons by artificially affecting the relationship between supply and demand. The company had the production capacity to produce 4-5 times the amount of dolls which it shipped to the market during the first three years of the dolls life cycle. This would have produced a typical bell shaped curve, plotting a rising demand, and increasing profits which gave way to a declining demand and declining profits in a short period. However the company did not produce product equal to their capacity, nor equal to the demand. As a result, the company was able to continue a high level of demand, and an inflated retail based on the high demand for an extended period. The result was that the doll stayed popular for almost a decade, and the company was able to reap ongoing higher levels of profits. The longer bell curve, identified by an irregular and nonlinear relation between time and supply and demand was created by the unique marketing strategy for the company.
gap, problem, purpose, Q's, method, design, and analysis?
According to Hickman (et al.) in the 2008 article "The differential developmental pathways of high school dropouts and graduates" from the Journal of Educational esearch, the concern about the gap in achievement between high school graduates and non-graduates has long been a concern of educators and educational policy-makers alike. The peer-reviewed study posed two essential research questions to address the problem of low high school retention rates: first, do differences in the educational development of high school graduates and dropouts exist early on in their elementary school careers and secondly, if differences do exist, "where in time and across which variables do these differences occur" (Hickman et al. 2008: 2). The study attempts to address a 'research gap' in the existing literature regarding the focus on the secondary school careers of high school graduates. Focusing on the problems students encounter in high…
Hickman (et al. 2008). The differential developmental pathways of high school dropouts and graduates. Journal of Educational Research
Nachmias and Nachmias (2008) indicate that the quasi-experimental design allows researchers the opportunity to use intact comparison groups and "straight forward comparative statistical analyses" to explore variables and their correlations. In an effort to better understand the continuing and persistent social problem of high school dropouts, Hickman, Bartholomew, and Mathwig (2005) conducted a quasi-experiment contrast group design with purposive random sampling to explore the differential developmental pathways of high school graduates and those who drop out. Hickman, et al., (2008) focus their research on the development process over an extended period of time, attempting to locate "markedly different" patterns related to academic performance and experiences in the educational
Nursing Discussion Posts
Regarding Data Collection and Analysis
It is possible to use a word processor to analyze qualitative data (LaPelle, 2004), an idea that is appealing because of the implied simplicity and because it is comparatively inexpensive. As I understand it, a qualitative data analysis tasks include the following major steps: Coding and retrieving data; inspection of data to prepare for indexing; creating hierarchies of categories by indexing; review and editing of the theme codes; including face sheet data about individual respondents (if interviews or surveys have been used) through demographic coding; relating the demographic data from the face sheets to the conceptual codes; quantifying the frequency of the instances of the codes; and annotating the text or narrative (MacQueen, et al., 1998) The terminology is a bit esoteric, but the process of qualitative data analysis is iterative so it helps me to think of the data as passing…
Kotler, P. (2003). Marketing Management (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc., Prentice Hall.
Regarding Interpersonal Trauma
It does seem important to use a multivariate analysis of variance in the study about
Forensic Rehabilitation Counseling
Labor Market Surveys In Forensic Rehabilitation Counseling
The article elaborates the concept compensation system for workers in California. The author argues that the opinions of vocational experts should meet standards of motivational satisfaction. This principle operates on the view that operational decisions by the court should focus on upholding the ruling by administrative body in case evidence supports material concerns from the administrative body with a reasonable base of the decision. I agree with the clarification that labor markets exist for some jobs as recommended by the vocational experts although labor market surveys (LMS) must be undertaken to establish substantial evidence. The surveys avail the necessary details involved in the determination of whether employers can consider employees with medical limitations against their current abilities and skills vocational training. Further, the civil cases established through labor market surveys offers invaluable demonstration of the available employment opportunities in specific…
Research into the legalization of marijuana will seek to determine what people's views on the issue are. The population is going to be the entire United States, as we are seeking to determine national views about the issue. The sampling will be done at random, using databases of phone numbers and computer-generated dialing. The operators will only know of and gather non-personal information such as age bracket, gender and state of residence. The major downside to this form of sampling is that many younger people will not be sampled because they often do not have landlines.
Random sampling is the "purest form" of probability sampling in that it is free from researcher bias and is more likely to accurately reflect the total population as a result (StatPac, 2012). Landline ownership is a reasonable proxy for the total population, with the caveat noted above. However, other sampling methods are…
StatPac. (2012). Survey sampling methods. StatPac. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www.statpac.com/surveys/sampling.htm
Statistics.com. (2012). Glossary of statistical terms: sampling frame. Institute for Statistics Education. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www.statistics.com/index.php?page=glossary&term_id=851
CRS. (2012). Sample size calculator. Creative Research Systems. Retrieved November 25, 2012 from http://www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm
The research in this study is exploratory and descriptive. The study begins with the declaration that this topic of study has been pursued in the past, yet the sampling methods used proved ineffective in defining or describing why less Asian-Americans utilize healthcare services in the United States. This research seeks to describe the problem of little use of healthcare with their study. The research in this study classifies the phenomenon of lack of healthcare service use/participation by Asian-Americans. The research problem is that Asian-Americans are not using the healthcare services available to them for a variety of reasons. The research problem is stated clearly in the first two pages of the study. In this study, there were no listed hypotheses, instead there are objectives. The objectives of the study are:
…(1) examine rates of mental health-related service use among immigrant and U.S.-born Asian-Americans during a 12-month period, (2)…
Abe-Kim, PhD, J., Takeuchi, PhD, D.T., Hong, S., Zane, PhD, N., Sue, PhD, S., Spencer, PhD, M.S., Appel, PhD, H., Nicdao, PhD, E., & Alegria, PhD, M. (2007) Use of Mental Health-Related Service Among Immigrant and U.S.-Born Asian-Americans: Results From the National Latino and Asian-American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 91 -- 97.
In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. uch a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.
Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling…
Sources of information . nd. http://www.fao.org/docrep/W3241E/w3241e03.htm#the%problems%20of%20secondary%20sources
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).
Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…
Capital Requirement and Risk ehavior
Arab African International ank
Midan ElSaray El Koubra, Garden City Caoro
The research will mainly dwell on the capital requirements and risk behavior of banks, more in particular the credit risk. The purpose of this research is to identify and analyze the relationship between capital requirements and the risk behavior of banks in Egypt
more in particular the Arab African International ank, which is the case study for this research. Secondly, the research will seek to investigate the impact of capital regulation on the banking behaviors and particularly on the levels of credit risk of banks operating in Egypt
The findings of the research show that there is negative relationship between capital requirement and banks' risk behavior; the findings also show there is empirical evidence to prove that capital regulations have a negative impact on credit risk of banks levels of credit risk of banks…
Aggarwal, R. And K. Jacques, (1998), a Simultaneous Equation Estimation of the Impact of Prompt Corrective Action on Bank Capital and Risk, New York, 12-23
Avery, R.B. And A.B. Berger, (1991), Risk-based capital and deposit insurance reform, Journal of Banking and Finance pp 847-874
Berger, A.N., Herring R.J. And Szego, G.P. (1995), the Role of Capital in Financial
Institutions, Journal of Banking and Finance pp 19, 393-430.
Social Science Research
Conceptualize and operationalize the variables in that sentence
What is the relationship between age and responsibility?
Age refers to the numbers of years a person has live right form birth till date. Age may indicate the level of maturity of an individual depending on the circumstance a person has been brought up. The age of a person can only be categorized and measured according to figurative values. For instance age can be categorized as follows
a) 0-10years (children)
b) 11-20 years (adolescents)
c) 20-30 years (adults)
d) 30-40 years (old people)
e) 40-50 and above (elderly people)
Responsibility refers to the capability of an individual to handle certain situations the immediately surround him or her. Responsibility reveals the capacity of a person to take care of a given assignment to excellence and perfection. Responsibility can be categorized as follows
a) Very responsible
For Possible Outcome 2, two groups in a population have been subjected to different treatments. One group served as the control group and was not given the opportunity to engage in an educational program that featured the study of human rights violations. However, the group was given course credit for watching a series of films on nature. he second group watched films that dealt with the Holocaust, Darfur, Rwanda, and the famines in eastern Africa. he groups randomly selected from the prison population, but were not randomly selected for the groups. Both groups had been in the prison facility an average of five years. Both groups were surveyed before watching any films, following each film and at the completion of the courses to measure the effect of the film on the subjects' empathy scores using standardized instruments. Mean scores of empathy ratings were charted below, with the blue…
The study population. All homicides in the murder analysis files of the Chicago Police Department from 1965 through 1995
The observation unit. Individuals.
The sampling method. All homicides were included, but In cases where the offender data were completely missing in the victim-level data, no offender records were generated in the offender-level file. The offender-level data do not contain information about the victims in these cases.
complexities of doing business in our virtual age, looking in particular at e-commerce but also asking how the presence of e-commerce on the market has affected traditional businesses as well. Once upon a time - that golden age - things were simple. You decided you wanted to grow up to be a bookstore owner. Or a hardware store manager. Or a florist. So you leased a store, bought some books, and lovingly hand-sold them to each customer who flocked to your door and then went home at night to count your money.
Of course, owning a bookstore or a hardware store or a flower shop was actually never that simple. But the picture now is even more complicated as virtual stores have entered the picture. Part of what makes engaging in e-commerce so difficult is that there are no paths that others have trod before one. And the costs of…
VI.Appendix (ces)(please write around 2-3 pages)
MY ROUGH IDEA:
1.To successful launch an e-commerce Web site, the question is not just about if we build it, will they come?" But also if we build it, will they come to purchase and repeat purchase?" A scenario closer to the truth is that many online companies experience disappointment in converting consumers' clicks into purchases. It means attracting a large number of shoppers to the site is not the only ultimate measure of success. The true measure of success should be included retaining customers and converting them into repeat buyers. Positive shopping experiences on the site can help online buyers make an effective decision. It means positive feeling is the optimal experience that consumers will desire to repeat buying online. Therefore, marketers need to create effective Web sites for winning consumer satisfaction. Since Web sites are often the main contact with consumer in the Internet market, a company's Web site elements may include some persuasive components that has imp!
Brady-Amoon's and Fuertes' "Self-efficacy, self-rated abilities, adjustment, and academic performance." This research study had five different hypotheses, all of which were interrelated. All of these hypotheses were fundamentally related to the research question of the study. However, there was a degree of ambiguity in the phrasing of hypotheses five, which states "Self-efficacy, self-rated abilities, and adjustments will be positively associated with college students' academic performance, above and beyond prior academic performance" (Brady-Amoon and Fuertes, 2011, p. 432). The reader is able to discern the meaning of this hypothesis. However, the reference to "above and beyond" is not a clear way of stating that the effects of the constructs of self-efficacy and self-rated ability on adjustment will contribute to improved grades from previous academic efforts. If the authors intended some other meaning aside from an improvement in academics, then they should have stated this fact in some other way. The first…
Brady-Amoon, P., Fuertes, J.N. (2010). Self-efficacy, self-rated abilities, adjustment, and academic performance. Journal of Counseling and Development. 89 (4): 431-438.
ole of esearch in Social Work
esearch assists in placing social work in its changing political and social context. This implies the ability to define social work's current environment in terms of dynamics like society and politics. esearch assists in establishing a knowledge base and professional status of social work, for example it assisted in establishing evidence-based practice. esearch also assists in analyzing population-based research that identifies people at risk in social work (Leece & Leece, 2010). This is because is assists social workers to understand clients in their social contexts, give voice to clients. Overall, research provides epistemological and value issues that define the nature and purpose of social work.
Social Worker's need to understand research
The main reason social workers need to understand research is to understand effective use of scientific evidence on the social services they offer to clients. esearch assists the social worker to investigate social…
Allen, R., & Earl, B. (2009). Essential Research Methods for Social Work. 2nd ed., Belmont, CA:
Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Leece, J., & Leece, D. (2010). Personalization: Perceptions of the Role of Social Work in a World of Brokers and Budgets. The British Journal of Social Work, 41(2), 204-223.
Regnerus Mark. (2012). How different are the adult children of parents who have same-sex relationships? Findings from the New Family Structures Study. Social Science Research
Families Society" PURPOSE: The purpose exercise conduct a detailed, critical evaluation research design, methods analysis a study written published a peer-reviewed journal.
Valentine, K., Thomson, C., & Antcliff, G. (2009). Early childhood services and support for vulnerable families: Lessons from the Benevolent Society's Partnerships In Early
Childhood Program. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 44(2), 195-213,120.
Yes, it is very specific.
Do subtitles, if present, provide important information regarding the research?
Yes, they bullet-point the basic components of the article although they do not label all of the conventionally-expected components of a research article like a literature review.
Are the main variables expressed in the title?
Are the terms in the title easily understood by most people?
To some extent: the general subject matter is clear, although not what is meant by vulnerable families, nor is the Partnerships In Early Childhood Program (PIEC) well-known.
5) Does the title avoid any…
Desk Staffing Trends
Banks, J. And Pracht, C. (2008). eference Desk Staffing Trends: A Survey. eference & User Services Quarterly 48(1), 54-59.
Banks and Pracht (2008) carried out a quantitative research to investigate the current staffing trends at reference desks of academic libraries. The research is conducted from a theoretical framework perspective asserting that there have been changes in libraries, as services are merged and eliminated, users are taught on information literacy, provision of web-based and online reference databases threatening the traditional reference desk. The researchers' main question is whether these changes are causing a change in staffing patterns for reference desk employees. To investigate this problem, survey questions were administered via the internet to respondents comprising of librarians from 191 academic libraries across the U.S. The study results indicate that of those interviewed, 44% show that there was a decrease in questions asked at the reference desks, which linked…
Banks, J. And Pracht, C. (2008). Reference Desk Staffing Trends: A Survey. Reference & User Services Quarterly 48(1), 54-59.
Boynton, P.M. (2004). Selecting, Designing, and Developing your Questionnaire, BMJ publications, 328-396.
B. This study used cross-sectional design and may tend to under-select individuals who have been exposed. This is known as "late-look bias." The possibility of nurses recalling MAEs over their careers may result in reporting of, or remembering information that is not accurate.
C. The instrument developed by authors used expert validity, but more research is needed to determine the construction validity and use the appropriate interventions to decrease MAEs (Lin & Ma).
ather than a hypothesis, the Lin and Ma (2009) study was guided by the following research questions:
A. What is the self-reported incidence of MAEs throughout a nurse's career in Taiwan?
B. What is the willingness of nurses to report MAEs?
C. What factors are related to nurses' willingness to report MAEs?
The first research question, though, differs from the authors' stated purpose which was to "explore the prevalence of MAEs and the willingness…
Gebhart, F. (2008, May 12). N.C. hospital loses CMS certification over drug and other errors.
Drug Topics, 152(6), 12.
Lin, Y-H & Ma, S-n. (2009). Willingness of nurses to report medication administration errors in southern Taiwan: A cross-sectional survey.
Wakefield, B.J., Uden-Holman, T. & Wakefield, D.S. (2005). Development and validation of the medication administration error reporting survey. In Advances in patient safety: From research to implementation. Henriksen, K., Battles, J.B., Marks E.S., et al. (eds).
The table below summarizes the relationship between the variables and measures that will be used for the study:
Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes
Perceived level of seriousness on the following major crimes:
Perceived social images of the nature of major crimes
Perceived level of seriousness on the following minor crimes:
Profile/Socio-demographic Characteristics of the respondent
Personal annual income
Access to mass media
Viewing behavior of TV crime programs
Kind of TV crime programs usually watch
Frequency of watching TV crime programs
Duration of crime TV-watching
Personal concern for crime and public safety
Self-ratings on attitude statements about the respondent's level of concern about issues concerning crime and public safety
Units of Analysis
Primary units of analysis will be the students and staff members in the Hong Kong University (HKU). There will be no restrictions on…
Bollhofer, B. (2006). "Screenscapes': placing TV series in their contexts of production, meaning and consumption." Journal of Economic and Social Geography, Vol. 98, No. 2.
Hennigan, K., L. Heath, and J. Wharton. (1982). "Impact of the introduction of television on crime in the United States: empirical findings and theoretical implications." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 3.
Holbert, R., D. Shah, and N. Kwak. (2004). "Fear, authority, and justice: crime-related TV viewing and endorsements of capital punishment and gun ownership." Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 81, No. 2.
Yanich, D. (2004). "Crime creep: urban and suburban crime on local TV news." Journal of Urban Affairs, Vol. 26, No. 5.
The second purpose was to explore the association of demographic variables and nurses' perceptions of pump implementation to ratings of the management team and job satisfaction. Data was collected via a survey given to 1056 nurses at a tertiary Magnet hospital. The first section of the questionnaire pertained to demographic characteristics, while the second section consisted of thirty questions on a 5-point Likert scale based on both STS Theory and the Life Patterns Model conceptual framework.
The researchers conclude that generalizations cannot be made based on just one study. They did state however that the findings of this study give credence to the importance of technological changes in clinical nursing practice. ecommendations were made for future studies in that there is a need to analyze the degree to which technology affects the environment, patient acuity as well as overall nursing satisfaction. Carrying out this study in more that one hospital…
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Survey Method. (2011). Retrieved from http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/survey/com2d1.cfm
Bowcutt, Marilyn, Rosenkoetter, Marlene M., Chernecky, Cynthia C., Wall, Jane, Wynn, Donald
and Serrano, Christina. (2008). Journal of Nursing Management, 16(2), p.188-197.
Describe the role of rigor in nursing research.
The extent to which nursing research methods are carefully and strictly conducted in order enhance the quality of the evidence that the study yields. This is even critical if casual inferences about relationships are of value. In addition, rigor ensures that threats to validity are minimized, assessed and considered during the study.
Discuss three sampling methods for nursing research. Include the positives and negatives of using each in nursing research.
This method entails using available people as study participants. For example, a nurse conducting research of pregnant HIV- AIDS patients relies on convenient sample. The disadvantage of this method is that the available participants might not be representative of the population of interest with regard to critical variables.
This method involves the researcher indentifying the sample strata in a bid to determine the number required from each…
Cruckshank, M. (2003). A study of quality management practices in nursing in universities in Australia. Australian Health Review.
Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2008). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice. Oxfordshire: Scion Publishing.
On the job, exposure is to hazardous materials or conditions is related directly to the job activities performed by the worker. As part of the familiarization process know as process management one can become knowledgeable about the workers' job activities and the consequent potential for exposure. In this essay, we will review the OHSHA process step-by-step an explain the procedure for conducting a job hazardous materials analysis (HAZMAT) ("Compliance guidelines and," 2010).
Most integrated sampling methods for gases and vapors that are published by OSHA use active and passive sampling techniques. The OHSHA procedures are examined below for advantages and disadvantages of active and passive integrated sampling methods in the process analysis (ibid).
In the process, complete and accurate written information meeds to be included about the chemicals, technology and equipment that is essential to an effective process safety management program and/or to an effective process hazards analysis. These…
Compliance guidelines and recommendations for process safety management. (2010). Retrieved
special education from the standpoint of the students' parents. The writer explores the opinions on the accessibility and quality of special education afforded their children in Massachusetts. The writer examines the opinions through the use of research project that is proposed here. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
For the last four decades the nation has been steadily working to improve the special education system within its public schools. A Supreme Court decision in the 1960's mandated that special education children be given many more services than they had in the past and that they receive that education within the least restrictive learning environment possible. Over the last four decades as these changes have taken place there have been many articles published on the changes, and the success or failure of those changes. Massachussets has enjoyed the cutting edge of special education reform with prototype programs as…
Vavrus, M. (2002). Transforming the multicultural education of teachers: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press
Weiner, L. (2000). esearch in the 90s: implications for urban teacher preparation. eview of Educational esearch, 70(3), 369 -- 406.
Zeichner, K., & Hoeft, K. (1996). Teacher socialization for cultural diversity. In J. Sikula, T. Buttery, & E. Guyton (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 525 -- 547). Old Tappan, NJ: Macmillan
De Vita, G. (2001) "Learning Styles, Culture and Inclusive Instruction in the Multicultural Classroom: A Business and Management Perspective" Innovations in Education and Teaching International 38(2): 165-174
In this paper, the author stated that in many occasions a number of teachers and most administration educator find that even a well -- organized lecturers and workshops usually don't connect all students when it comes to the composition and working with different cultures. The paper highlighted that most traditional…
De Vita, G. (2001) "Learning Styles, Culture and Inclusive Instruction in the Multicultural Classroom: A Business and Management Perspective" Innovations in Education and Teaching International 38(2): 165-174
A prediction of the outcomes is not made in the initial development of the research. ather, this appears to be an exploratory study to better understand the issue.
eview of the Literature
The literature included in the review is relevant and recent. The data demonstrates the need for understanding the problem and the importance of the issue to the health and safety of healthcare workers. Although the initial literature review is quite brief, the literature is expanded in the discussion of the results.
The research design is a quantitative methodology utilizing a survey to collect data. Information collected was appropriate given the overall scope and focus of the research -- i.e. exploratory. Although the results provide some insight into the specific survey that was used, pertinent information about the survey has been omitted from the study. This may make replication of the study difficult.
Examining the target…
Ozkan, O., & Gokdogan, F. (2003). The prevalence of latex allergy among health care workers in Bolu (Turkey). Dermatology Nursing, 15(6), 543-548.
interview techniques. DiCocco and Crabtree (2006) discuss different interview strategies. One is the unstructured interview, a technique that originates in anthropology study. This technique is used when the type of information to be gathered is not known, or is only loosely-defined, because the technique is open-ended. Eliciting insights is a key objective of this type of interview.
A second interview strategy is the semi-structured interview. In this technique, the interviewer is able to "delve deeply into social and personal matters" (Ibid). The group interview can be used with this strategy as well. Semi-structured interviews are commonly used to gain information that might be open-ended in nature, in a group setting, or to learn about someone's life experiences. The focus group is a form of semi-structured interview used in marketing.
A third interview strategy is the individual in-depth interview. This technique is used when the research question is focused, and is…
DiCocco, B. & Crabtree, B. (2006). The qualitative research interview. Medical Education. Vol. 40 (2006) 314-321.
Finucane, A. & Mercer, S. (2006). An exploratory mixed methods study of the acceptability and effectiveness of mindfulness -based cognitive therapy for patients with active depression and anxiety in primary care. BMC Psychiatry. Vol. 6 (2006) 14.
Kennedy, T., Regehr, G., Baker, G. & Lingard, L. (2009). Preserving professional credibility: Grounded theory study of medical trainees' requests for clinical support. British Medical Journal. Vol. 338.
Premberg, A., Carlsson, G., Hellstrom, A. & Berg, M. (2010). First-time fathers' experiences of childbirth -- A phenomenological study. Midwifery.
Procedural igor - the qualitative method and design of the study was appropriate and effective. The researchers described how rigor was maintained in the procedures of the study, and how integrity of the data was preserved through the maintenance of constant responsiveness during both data collection and analysis for the study. It is also described how the researchers maintained objective and critical by maintaining some distance from the data periodically. Therefore, the researchers were aware of potential biases and used these approaches in order to effectively deal with them. The amount of data collected by the researchers was sufficient. It allowed for accurate analysis that yielded meaningful results. Other research studies have utilized qualitative designs for investigations involving asthma (Lyte et al., 2007; Pontin & Lewis, 2009) as well medication adherence, but these did not explore behavioral factors involved in medication adherence in asthma patients.
esults - the results allowed…
Axelsson, M., Lotvall, J., Lundgren, J., Brink, E. (2011). Motivational foci and asthma medication tactics towards a functional day. BMC Public Health, 11:809.
Axelsson, M., Milsson, M., Brink, E., Lundgren, J., Toren, K., Lotvall, J. (2012). Personality, adherence, asthma control and health-related quality of life in young adult asthmatics. Respiratory Medicine, 103(70, 1033-40.
Laakso, L.J. (2012). Motivational interviewing: addressing ambivalence to improve medication adherence in patients with bipolar disorder. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 33(1), 8-14.
Lyte, G., Milnes, L., Keating, P., Finke, a. (2007). Review management for children with asthma in primary care: a qualitative case study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(7B), 123-32.
sampling methods that can be used in quantitative research. The first is simple random sampling. This method allows the researcher to get a truly representative sample of the population,…Read Full Paper ❯
Bluegill Fish Populations: Sampling Methods Field research can often depend on the quality and reliability of the equipment used to record samples and observations. If researchers fail to understand…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Miscellaneous
eimers, 2015) determined that sampling methods have proven to be a very efficient an intuitive method of understanding different properties as they are presented in research. Sampling methods for…Read Full Paper ❯
Sampling Design There are a number of methods that can be effectively used to gather data in order to ascertain thesis or answer research questions. Determining which methodology to…Read Full Paper ❯
Communication - Journalism
Sampling Techniques eveal Media Psychology The first study of focus regards perceptions of news media bias and how individual and interpersonal factors affect those perceptions. The sampling method used…Read Full Paper ❯
In frequency control, the type of quota purposive sample being employed in this example, the surveyor would attempt to get a sample that comes close to the known percentages…Read Full Paper ❯
Social Network Survey Draw a sample The sample for this study utilizes non-probability sampling techniques. Unlike probability sampling, nonprobability sampling does not use random selection (Trochim, 2006). andom selection…Read Full Paper ❯
Sampling Plan Before discussing a sampling plan, there has to be clear and unambiguous definitions of what a sample and sampling are. Despite diversity in the definition of a…Read Full Paper ❯
(362) One additional note on this half of the duel research study was that the pair of applicants with and without fictitious criminal records was rotated throughout the experiment…Read Full Paper ❯
Sampling Data Analyses the single-study critique paper 2 individual assignment. Develop individual response Single-Study Paper 2 IOM topic area. Use article Single Study Critiques 1-2. It a requirement a…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
Sampling Size: Qualitative esearch The aim of qualitative research is to ensure that the population in question is studied with sufficient rigor and above all sufficient depth to yield…Read Full Paper ❯
The ordering is based on an arbitrary scale that holds no significance besides describing it's obvious qualities. Nominal Data: Nominal data is information that is organized by name. There…Read Full Paper ❯
PATICIPANT SELECTION & SAMPLING POCEDUES Media Psychology I will select my sample by first reviewing statistics about reality television programming. I want to find how about programs categorized as…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
There are sampling methods that are still under the quantitative paradigm but utilize non-random sampling to collect data from samples that are either too expensive or logistically difficult to…Read Full Paper ❯
Business Methods In order to study career aspirations, a survey of fifteen students was conducted to determine what level the student expected to achieve as their highest level. The…Read Full Paper ❯
Methods for Recording ObservationsThere are many methods available for recording observations namely video and audio recording, note taking, drawing sketches, photographs, or using computerized recorders. The most effective method…Read Full Paper ❯
data collection and the sources to be utilized for this project. The highlighted gaps in knowledge will be investigated with the help of two research methods. The research methods…Read Full Paper ❯
Exposure Testing A Comparison of Methods for Toxin Exposure Measurement: Personal Exposure v Colorimetric Tubes Several incidents in the past decade have created an increased attention to the issue…Read Full Paper ❯
Alignment helps keep both qualitative and quantitative research studies cohesive, meaningful, and valid. The purpose of the study and its implications for policy or practice should be aligned with…Read Full Paper ❯
In the "hard-core" sub-genre of hip-hop, one sees a much clearer emphasis on street and urban authenticity -- rather than on sampling. For N.W.A., hip-hop is an expression of…Read Full Paper ❯
Quantitative research uses survey, and questionnaires to collect data. Through quantitative analysis, a researcher is able to correlate mass data to the research findings. Despite the benefits identified in…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Mathematics
Standard deviation is a measure of how far the data is spread from the mean, and can be used to assess the accuracy of the sample mean. Type I…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Another instance in which random sampling is not important is when a researcher is conducting a qualitative study. In qualitative studies, depth of information from selected units of analysis…Read Full Paper ❯
5. No. No. (i.e. this is neither a random sample nor simple random sample), because the females who attended the meeting were not selected and not all females in…Read Full Paper ❯
experimental method, otherwise known as quantitative research or laboratory study, is to formulate a hypotheses, to collect the data, and test this hypotheses according to scientific principles that obstruct,…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Frequency Distributions & Sampling The lifestyle data collected and analyzed in this paper are the counts of e-mail messages received () and sent (S) on a per-day basis. This…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Drugs
Psychological test or assessment method. "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III Brief Description of the Test The recent release of one of the youngest convicted child murders…Read Full Paper ❯
(Niglas, 2004) Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows: (1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type…Read Full Paper ❯
Communication - Language
231) Yet, research recently has stated findings that "non-mnemonic semantic elaboration methods" are more effective that the mnemonic keyword technique on lexical retention for L2. VIII. Differentiation of Mnemonic…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Abortion
Abortion After Prenatal Testing Methods of Prenatal Diagnosis There are four methods of prenatal diagnosis that is available to women. The first and most commonly known is ultrasonography, colloquially…Read Full Paper ❯
Summary and Analysis of The Forgotten Followers Contingency Model of Leadership and Follower Self-leadership by Seokhwa Yun and Jonathan Cox and Henry P Sims Jr. This study was conducted to…Read Full Paper ❯
Sampling and Collecting Quantitative and Qualitative Data Probability sampling represents the best strategy for selecting research participants There are many ways of gathering information from a population using the…Read Full Paper ❯
employing convenience samplings is some bias in non-representative population. Due to this limitation, convenience sampling is not usually subject to tight sample measures (Bailey, 2009). Convenience samples don't give…Read Full Paper ❯
Indeed, as Muntaner (2003) posited in her research, qualitative methods can be included in a dominantly quantitative research design "in situations where qualitative research adds knowledge that would not…Read Full Paper ❯
Education - Mathematics
power of statistical analysis is the power to define, interpret, and understanding numerical data which represents patterns in the real world. Without the ability to measure statistical data, the…Read Full Paper ❯
gap, problem, purpose, Q's, method, design, and analysis? According to Hickman (et al.) in the 2008 article "The differential developmental pathways of high school dropouts and graduates" from the…Read Full Paper ❯
Nursing Discussion Posts Regarding Data Collection and Analysis It is possible to use a word processor to analyze qualitative data (LaPelle, 2004), an idea that is appealing because of…Read Full Paper ❯
Forensic Rehabilitation Counseling Labor Market Surveys In Forensic Rehabilitation Counseling The article elaborates the concept compensation system for workers in California. The author argues that the opinions of vocational…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
Business Research Research into the legalization of marijuana will seek to determine what people's views on the issue are. The population is going to be the entire United States,…Read Full Paper ❯
Social Work The research in this study is exploratory and descriptive. The study begins with the declaration that this topic of study has been pursued in the past, yet…Read Full Paper ❯
In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample…Read Full Paper ❯
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or…Read Full Paper ❯
Capital Requirement and Risk ehavior Arab African International ank Midan ElSaray El Koubra, Garden City Caoro The research will mainly dwell on the capital requirements and risk behavior of…Read Full Paper ❯
Social Science Research Conceptualize and operationalize the variables in that sentence What is the relationship between age and responsibility? Age refers to the numbers of years a person has…Read Full Paper ❯
Criminal Justice For Possible Outcome 2, two groups in a population have been subjected to different treatments. One group served as the control group and was not given the…Read Full Paper ❯
complexities of doing business in our virtual age, looking in particular at e-commerce but also asking how the presence of e-commerce on the market has affected traditional businesses as…Read Full Paper ❯
Brady-Amoon's and Fuertes' "Self-efficacy, self-rated abilities, adjustment, and academic performance." This research study had five different hypotheses, all of which were interrelated. All of these hypotheses were fundamentally related…Read Full Paper ❯
Women's Issues - Sexuality
ole of esearch in Social Work esearch assists in placing social work in its changing political and social context. This implies the ability to define social work's current environment…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Families Society" PURPOSE: The purpose exercise conduct a detailed, critical evaluation research design, methods analysis a study written published a peer-reviewed journal. Valentine, K., Thomson, C., & Antcliff, G.…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
Desk Staffing Trends Banks, J. And Pracht, C. (2008). eference Desk Staffing Trends: A Survey. eference & User Services Quarterly 48(1), 54-59. Banks and Pracht (2008) carried out a…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
B. This study used cross-sectional design and may tend to under-select individuals who have been exposed. This is known as "late-look bias." The possibility of nurses recalling MAEs over…Read Full Paper ❯
The table below summarizes the relationship between the variables and measures that will be used for the study: Variables Measures Independent variable: Perceived social images of the nature of…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
The second purpose was to explore the association of demographic variables and nurses' perceptions of pump implementation to ratings of the management team and job satisfaction. Data was collected…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
Exercises Describe the role of rigor in nursing research. The extent to which nursing research methods are carefully and strictly conducted in order enhance the quality of the evidence…Read Full Paper ❯
OHSHA On the job, exposure is to hazardous materials or conditions is related directly to the job activities performed by the worker. As part of the familiarization process know…Read Full Paper ❯
special education from the standpoint of the students' parents. The writer explores the opinions on the accessibility and quality of special education afforded their children in Massachusetts. The writer…Read Full Paper ❯
Vavrus, M. (2002). Transforming the multicultural education of teachers: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press Weiner, L. (2000). esearch in the 90s: implications for urban teacher…Read Full Paper ❯
Health - Nursing
A prediction of the outcomes is not made in the initial development of the research. ather, this appears to be an exploratory study to better understand the issue. eview…Read Full Paper ❯
interview techniques. DiCocco and Crabtree (2006) discuss different interview strategies. One is the unstructured interview, a technique that originates in anthropology study. This technique is used when the type…Read Full Paper ❯
Procedural igor - the qualitative method and design of the study was appropriate and effective. The researchers described how rigor was maintained in the procedures of the study, and…Read Full Paper ❯