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Scientology: Its Origins and Its Implications for Society
What is scientology? Most people don't really have any idea, other than that its mentioning conjures up vague notions of a cult in the minds of many. Scientology is relatively new, as far as religions go, but it has captured a rather large worldwide following in a short amount of time. In fact, since its founding, scientology has experienced a phenomenal amount of growth, and has attracted adherents worldwide. Yet the religion is still shrouded in a lot of mystery and misunderstanding. This is why it is important to know about scientology now, so that we as human beings are able to make informed decisions regarding it whenever the religion comes into contact with us or our family and friends. This paper examines the religion of scientology, its origins, its principles, and public perceptions regarding the religion.
Scientology was founded in the…
Cooper, Paula. "From Dianetics to Scientology." The Scandal of Scientology. n.d. www.clambake.org/archive/books/tsos/sos-01.html
Future Prediction of Scientology." Scientology.Org. 1996. http://www.scientology.org /wis/wiseng/30/30-idx.htm
Lisa McPherson's Death." Fact Net. n.d. http://www.factnet.org/scientology/Lisa_McPherson_Scientology_Deaths.html?FACTNet
Scientology: Its Background and Origins." What is Scientology? 2000. http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part01/chp02/index.html >.
Church of Scientology
The Church of Scientology has established over seven hundred centers in sixty-five countries (Urban). The church functions as a guide, offering a variety of courses designed to inform the individual about Scientology, personal counseling called auditing, designed to get rid of unwanted emotions, habits, and psychosomatic illnesses, and purification rundown, a procedure to free one's self from the harmful effects of drugs and toxins ("Scientology: Inside a Church of Scientology").
Controversy over the Church of Scientology
hile the church is well-known for its high-profile celebrity patrons such as Tom Cruise, Kirstie Alley, and John Travolta, it has also been attacked by government agencies, anti-cult groups, and the media as a swindling business and a brainwashing cult. L. Ron Hubbard has been described as the man who solved the riddle of the human mind by the Church of Scientology, a mental case by the FBI and hopelessly insane…
Hubbard, L. Ron. Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, Los Angeles, CA: Bridge Publications Inc., 2007. Print.
"History of Scientology." Religion Facts, 20 January 2013. Web. 30 March 2013.
"Scientology: Inside a Church of Scientology." Scientology.org, YouTube, 30 June 2008. Web. 30 March 2013.
Urban, Hugh B. The Church of Scientology: A History of a New Religion, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 2011. Print.
Introducing a New Religious Movement, one must be as objective as possible. I, for instance, could choose to tell you that L. Ron Hubbard founded the Church of Scientology in 1954 and marketed it as an organization for social reform that essentially became the global force it is today, with (young, professional, stylish, racially-diverse) adherents providing positive sound bites on Scientology.org that promote (in naturalistic, community-oriented settings) the religion as a confidence booster, a tool for improving grades, and a way to help the community. I could also introduce it by noting Hubbard's now notorious admission (cited in numerous letters and interviews in Russell Miller's are-Faced Messiah as well as in science-fiction writer Lloyd Arthur Eshbach's autobiography Over My Shoulder and reported by investigative journalist Eugene Methvin in 1980) that "Writing for a penny a word is ridiculous. If a man really wants to make a million dollars, the…
"The Aims of Scientology." ScientologyReligion.org. Web. 29 June 2011. This NRM-
member source of information gives an idealistic and utopian vision of what the religion desires to effect.
"Learn How to Communicate with Ease and Confidence." VolunteerMinisters.org.
Web. 29 June 2011. This NRM-member site gives a shallow introductory course on how effective communication may be achieved; its tutorial essentially provides no information and gives no detail on effective communication skills.
Scientology as Cult
The Cult of Scientology
Many controversies have arisen regarding Scientology, which was started in 1952 and declared itself a religion in 1953 when it was incorporated as the Church of Scientology. Scientology can be identified as being both a cult and a complex pyramid scheme in which people are coerced or convince to donate money in order to attain spiritual salvation. Scientology has encountered several legal, ethical, and moral dilemmas during its brief history and demonstrates many characteristics that allow for the "religion" to be classified as a cult.
The definition of a cult depends on the perspective that is being taken. For the purpose of this report, a universal definition, as opposed to a secular or Christian definition will be applied to Scientology. The universal definition of a cult contends that a cult is "any group which has a pyramid type authoritarian leadership structure with all…
Behar, Richard. "The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power." Time Magazine. 6 May 1991. Web.
Accessed 19 August 2011.
Cooper, Paulette. "The High Cost of Scientology." The Scandal of Scientology. Web. Accessed
19 August 2011.
Scientology proposes a range of unique therapeutic interventions. One is the tone scale, which posits a tonal correspondence to human emotional states. Auditing is also a central Scientology practice. An auditor is an advanced Scientology practitioner who monitors another. Devices like the "eMeter" are used during the auditing process. No scientific validity whatsoever lends credibility to the eMeter or to any of the therapeutic interventions and the Scientology eb site does not claim otherwise.
One of the main goals of Scientology is for the individual to attain a mental and spiritual state called "Clear." Once the Clear state is achieved, the individual supposedly receives the true version of the story of creation. That creation story sounds more like science fiction than religion, involving alien beings. Scientology claims to encourage moral and ethical living, and undoubtedly many of its members benefit from the Church. However, membership and its services is expensive.…
Church of Scientology. "What is Scientology." 2008. Retrieved Oct 20, 2008 at http://www.scientology.org /religion/presentation/pg006.html
Operation Clambake. "What is Scientology?" Retrieved Oct 20, 2008 at http://www.xenu.net/roland-intro.html
Robinson, B.A. & Buttnor, Al. "About the Church of Scientology." Religious Tolerance.org. Feb 2, 2008. Retrieved Oct 20, 2008 at http://www.religioustolerance.org/scientol1.htm
What's Wrong with Scientology?" Retrieved Oct 20, 2008 at http://www.scientology-lies.com/whatswrong.html
Auditing helps the practitioner remove the "implants" that prevent one from being happy and fulfilled.
In accordance with its systematic maps of human consciousness, the Church of Scientology and its social organization are hierarchical and rigid. Members pass through stages of development during which they improve their self-awareness and overall intelligence. Human progress and personal growth is described as a series of dynamic impulses. When Hubbard first codified his beliefs in the Dianetics literature he outlined four of these dynamic impulses, referred to simply as "dynamics." The dynamics have been described as basic human instincts for survival (obinson & Buttnor 2006). Basic survival instinct is the First Dynamic, focused on the individual ego and its needs. The Church of Scientology describes the First Dynamic as "the effort to attain the highest level of survival for the longest possible time for self," ("Dynamics of Life"). The First Dynamic also includes the…
Adherents.com "Major Religions Ranked by Size." Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html#Scientology
About L. Ron Hubbard." An Introduction to Scientology. Church of Scientology International. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.scientology.org /interview/lronhubbard_3.html
American Saint Hill Organization. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.scientology-asho.org/index.htm
Behar, R. (1991). "The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power." Time Magazine. May 6, 1991, p. 50. Retrieved May 1, 2007 at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Fishman/time-behar.html
His experience extends well beyond a single lifetime." Third, pain, suffering, and evil are due not to external forces but to "engrams," or the negative mental imprints gathered through traumatic experiences in current and past lives. In this sense Scientology promotes similar beliefs to Eastern religions and New Age ideologies.
Fourth, the Church of Scientology advocates social service and remains particularly concerned with problems related to drug abuse. The Church is active in disadvantaged communities, especially those with drug abuse and criminal problems. Worldwide, the Church of Scientology has established missions that ostensibly help the most disenfranchised people on the planet achieve peace.
The tenets of Scientology are more practical than theological, and in many ways the ideology resembles a New Age self-help program. Although the Church of Scientology claims that faith is unnecessary, practitioners are nevertheless expected to believe that Scientology teachings offer the only solutions to their worldly…
BeliefNet. "What Scientologists Believe." Retrieved April 23, 2007 at http://www.beliefnet.com/story/80/story_8057_1.html
Scientology." Wikipedia. Retrieved April 23, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientology
Scientology: Web site. Retrieved April 23, 2007 at http://www.scientology.org
The economic and social dynamic of the Church of Scientology is one of its most controversial aspects. Accusations of cult-like behavior center on the extreme social control and monetary necessities attendant on being a member of the Church of Scientology (Ogle 2010). The actual extent of these circumstances is a matter of great debate, but it is known that Scientologists originally come from all walks of life, including highly varied and disparate social, economic, national, and ethnic backgrounds (Peckham 1998).
All of the factors listed above have the potential for effecting the collection of data in a physical health assessment. The cultural and social controls practiced by the Church of Scientology make many Scientologists mistrustful of non-Church members, especially medical practitioners (Kent 2002). The specific religious and spiritual beliefs of Scientologists is also a major factor in this area. Again, the reluctance to submit to the assessment and a lack…
Bainbridge, W. & Stark, R. (1980). "Scientology: To be perfectly clear." Sociological analysis 41(2), pp. 128-36.
Kent, S. (2002). "The Globalization of Scientology: Influence, Control and Opposition in Transnational Markets." Religion 29(2), pp. 147-69.
Ogle, a. (2010). "Travolta flies aid, Scientology to Haiti." Accessed 31 January 2010. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jeF5ussei3k0K7yvLch535NNxuYQ
Peckham, M. (1998). "New dimensions of social movement/countermovement interaction." Canadian journal of scientology 23(4), pp. 317-347.
The final belief is that man is good in his inner self.
The basis of scientology is eight dynamics, which address the core issues of human survival from the perspective of man as a spirit. The eight dynamic is God, and adherents are free to interpret God according to their own understanding (eldon, 1993). To achieve connection with God and ultimate freedom adherents engage in the practice of auditing and training. hile the central beliefs have experienced little modification, the "technology" and the steps to traverse the "bridge" have changed. These alterations are a financial boon to the organization.
The Church of Scientology International (CSI) acts as the main organizing and guiding body for other churches and groups. The CSI "also provides the broad planning and direction needed to support the Church's international growth" (hat is, 2010). The CSI also engages is staff training on the "technology" of scientology. Another…
"Church of Scientology International." Encyclopedia Britannica, 2010. Encyclopedia Britannica
Web. 15 Sept. 2010
Nikos, Passas, and Manuel Escamilla Castillo. "Scientology and its 'Clear' Business." Behavioral
Sciences & the Law 10.1 (1992): 103-116. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web.
The Church of Scientology is one of the most controversial and high profile new religious movement, more commonly called a cult. Although the Church of Scientology itself strongly objects to being called a cult, an abundance of evidence from former members has led to damning exposures into how the organization works, functions, and entraps its members. The Church of Scientology is much more famous than other cults because of its high-profile celebrity members, most notably Tom Cruise, John Travolta, and Isaac Hayes. The Church of Scientology is one of the perfect examples of how difficult it can be to differentiate at all between a religion and a cult, given that so many world religions also have outlandish beliefs and engage in social control or mind control to a degree. Yet a closer examination of the Church of Scientology does reveal that the organization much more resembles a cult than a…
Church of Scientology. “Is Scientology a cult?” 2017. https://www.scientology.org/faq/scientology-and-other-practices/is-scientology-a-cult.html
Gilbert, Sophie. “It’s Not Easy Being Scientology.” The Atlantic. 26 Mar, 2015. https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2015/03/its-not-easy-being-scientology/388634/
Gilgoff, Dan and Tricia Escobedo. “Scientology: What Exactly Is It?” CNN. 19 April 2017. http://www.cnn.com/2017/03/22/us/believer-what-is-scientology/index.html
Olson, Cassidy. “Pay to Pray.” Butler Unieversity URC. http://digitalcommons.butler.edu/urc/2014/englishlit/17/
Orth, Maureen. “What Katie Didn’t Know.” Vanity Fair. Oct 2012. https://www.vanityfair.com/hollywood/2012/10/katie-holmes-divorce-scientology
Thangavelu, Poonkulali. “A Look Into Scientology’s Business Model.” Investopedia. Rhttps://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/060915/look-scientologys-business-model.asp
eligion the Church of Scientology
The first pre-publication excerpt, entitled "Dianetics, A New Science of The Mind," from a new speculative non-fiction work by L. on Hubbard appeared in the May 1950 issue of the pulp magazine Astounding Science Fiction. It was prefaced by a note from the magazine's editor stating "I want to assure every reader, most positively and unequivocally, that this article is not a hoax, joke, or anything but a direct, clear statement of a totally new scientific thesis." (Miller 153). The book version of Dianetics appeared not long after, and sold well, especially after being given a promotional mention in Walter Winchell's newspaper column (Miller 145). Sixty years afterward, Hubbard's speculations are enshrined as a religion, the Church of Scientology -- although there are many persons who consider it to be less a religion and more, as its debut might indicate, like truly astounding science fiction,…
Atack, Jon. A Piece of Blue Sky: Dianetics, Scientology, and L. Ron Hubbard Exposed. London: Lyle Stuart, 1988.
Crews, Frederick C. Follies of the Wise: Dissenting Essays. New York: Avalon, 2006.
"Cruise Tangles With Matt Lauer." MSNBC, June 28, 2005. Accessed on January 22, 2011, at: http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/8344309/ns/today-entertainment/
Hubbard, L. Ron. Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. New York: Hermitage, 1950.
Therefore, it is in charge of scripture. The Church of Scientology is the management body of the religion, and is in charge of planning and coordinating Scientology expansion. There are over 7,300 Scientology groups in 163 countries around the world, with 87,000 volunteer ministers. It is difficult to estimate the number of practicing Scientologists, but estimates range from several hundred thousand to several million. However, it is suggested that Scientology "is the fastest growing religion in the world, by percentage growth per year" (Robinson and Buttnor).
The main Scientology symbol is composed of an "S" to represent Scientology, an upper triangle, representing knowledge, responsibility, and control, and a lower triangle representing affinity, reality, and communication (Robinson and Buttnor). There is another Scientology symbol, an eight-pointed cross, representing the Eight Dynamics of Existence (Robinson and Buttnor). These dynamics help explain some of the ceremony in Scientology. The First Dynamic is self-survival,…
Robinson, B.A. And Al Buttnor. "About the Church of Scientology: Symbols, History, Beliefs,
and Practices." Religious Tolerance. 2 Feb. 2008. Web. 2 Nov. 2010.
Is Scientology a Religion?
One common objection raised against so-called New Age religions like Scientology is that they are not truly faith-based systems, but function more as businesses or cults. Scientologists and atheists and agnostics alike, however, have objected to this distinction, arguing that there is little difference between conventional Christianity and newer faiths. In fact, scholar and podcaster Reza Aslan has argued that the only difference between Scientology and other religions is its age, given that it was founded in the 1950s by science fiction author L. Ron Hubbard (Gilgoff and Escobedo).
It is true that when Christianity was just beginning, it was a persecuted and marginalized religion. It originally sprang up as a distinct sect of Judaism, but gradually spread to the gentile community, thanks to the preaching of Paul (“Early Christians”). While Judaism was a religion very much located in the belief structures of the ancient Israelites,…
“Early Christians.” The Roman Empire. PBS. Web. 29 October 2020.
Gilgoff, Dan and Escobedo, Tricia. “Scientology: What Exactly Is It?” CNN. 22 March 2017.
Web. 29 October 2020. https://www.cnn.com/2017/03/22/us/believer-what-is-scientology/index.html
Nededog, Jethro. “How Scientists Costs Members Up to Millions of Dollars.” Business Insider.
12 Mar 2016. Web. 29 October 2020. https://www.businessinsider.com/scientology-costs-leah-remini-recap-episode-3-2016-12
Nursing and eligion Practice
ELIGION AND NUSING PACTICE
Nursing success depends on the ability to put the patient in a state of rest and comfort as much as it is about administering the prescriptions of the doctor. To secure the rest of the patient, nurses need to understand their needs and show respect to their beliefs and values. This requires courteous and open communication with the patient and adopting a patient-centric orientation. Along with other factors, the religious background of the patient makes a lot of difference to their values and expectations. eligious doctrines and practices may differ across religions and denominations such as Jehovah's Witnesses, Muslims, Seventh Day Adventists and Scientologists and may impose restrictions on certain kinds of interaction between nurse and patient or on certain forms of treatment. Moreover, people with a different religious background are not usually aware of such differences. Therefore, it is necessary for…
Banja, J.D. (2010). Overriding the Jehovah's Witness patient's refusal of blood: A reply to Cahana, Weibel, and Hurst. Pain Medicine, 10(5), 878-882. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00648.x.
Charles, C.E., & Daroszewski, E.B. (2012). Culturally competent nursing care of the Muslim patient, Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 33(1), 61-63. doi: 10.3109/01612840.2011.596613.
Cort, M., & Cort, D. (2008). Willingness to participate in organ donation among Black Seventh-Day Adventist college students. Journal of American College Health, 56(6), p. 691-697. Retrieved from EBSCO Academic Search Primer.
Effa-Heap, G. (2009). Blood transfusion: Implications of treating a Jehovah's Witness patient. British journal of nursing, 18(3), 174-177.
Furthermore, the policy seems to put a burden on the hospital to help provide those services, which seems to put an undue burden on the hospital. Writing policies that guaranteed access would be permitted, but did not in any way guarantee facilitation of that access would seem to be a better policy.
One of the least understood religious groups in the United States is the Church of Scientology. There is a strong belief that members of this religious group are adverse to modern medical care, a belief that I shared before researching their organization. However, from the information that I could find, Scientologists are not opposed to modern medicine. On the contrary, the Church of Scientology has an official policy of not being involved in either medical diagnosis or treatment of medical illnesses. They believe that underlying illness inhibits a person's spiritual journey, so that they encourage members to seek…
Church of Scientology. (2012). Do Scientologists use medical doctors? Retrieved March 6,
2012 from Scientology Newsroom website: http://www.scientologynews.org/faq/do-scientologists-use-medical-doctors.html
Hmong shamans help at Valley hospitals. (2009, November 10). Retrieved March 5, 2012 from Fresno Bee website: http://www.fresnobee.com/2009/10/10/1669868/hmong-shamans-help-at-valley-hospitals.html
Vanilla Sky -- It's All in His Head
From first moment to last, the movie Vanilla Sky, produced by Paramount Pictures and written and directed by Cameron Crowe, offers a confusing physical landscape based on a confusing mental landscape. The viewer is never certain if he is viewing a dream or a waking reality or a warped psychological construct that might be a combination of waking and dreaming or conscious and unconscious realities.
The film opens with a voice saying "Abre los ojos." Abre Los Ojos is the name of the 1997 Spanish film of which Vanilla Sky is a remake. The voice which speaks these words, recorded on David Aames, played by Tom Cruise, alarm clock, is that of Sophia, played by Penelope Cruz. Thus, the movie begins with the hero awakening from sleep, possibly a dream, into what seems to be reality. But is it? The first voice,…
De Lisi, Haj. "Vanilla Sky. http://tsw.org.uk/engine/story.scm/100323(accessed 11-24-02)
Ebert, Roger. "Vanilla Sky." Chicago Sun Times 14 December 2001 http://www.suntimes.com/ebert/ebert_reviews/2001/12/121402.html (accessed 11-24-02)
Hampton, Howard. "Clear Vanilla Skies: 'Cryotainment' and the Modern Science of Transcendence." Film Comment. March/April 2002: 52-53
Holden, Stephen. "Plastic Surgery Takes A Science Fiction Twist." New York Times 14 December 2001 sec E, part 1, 28, col 1.
Therefore, courts are placed in the position of determining whether or not speech falls into the category of a true threat. "A true threat is a statement that a reasonable recipient would have interpreted as a serious expression of an intent to harm or cause injury to another." Doe v. Pulaski County Special School District, 306 F.3d 616, 626 (8th Cir. 2002). Furthermore, to determine whether speech is a threat, it is not necessary that the speaker intend to carry out the threat or be able to carry out the threat, but the speaker has to intentionally convey the threat to someone. Planned Parenthood of the Columbia/Willamette, Inc. v. Am. Coalition of Life Activists, 290 F.3d 1058, 1075 (9th Cir. 2002).
Analysis: The case was not moot because the school district would be permitted to document the incident in its records if the Court reversed the trial court's decision.
Church of Scientology of Cal. V. United States, 506 U.S. 9 (1992).
Doe v. Pulaski County Special School District, 306 F.3d 616 (8th Cir. 2002).
Planned Parenthood of the Columbia/Willamette, Inc. v. Am. Coalition of Life Activists, 290
F.3d 1058, 1075 (9th Cir. 2002).
The idea of cross-species language remains somewhat controversial. On one side, proponents say that certain hominids and cetaceans have been able to learn sign or verbal language; on the other hand, skeptics say these individual examples are mimicry. Cetacean experts believe that there is a unique and verifiable language that whales, dolphins, etc. use to communicate emotion with one another; certain insects use chemicals to communicate, as well as motion (think of a bee hive, the dance telling the hive where a new set of flowers is located). However, the perception of language as communication is one thing -- yes, animals communicate, emotionally pets seem to know when we are happy or sad, or needy. There is evidence that chimpanzees who are taught sign language can come up with independent thoughts (weaving of disparate signs into something new). However, the jury is still out scientifically regarding actually learning of human…
3. Creative thinking is one of the ways in which human beings are able to separate themselves from other animals and to actualize. Animals can be curious, but whether that curiosity has memory, or deeper implications of "what if," in the future, or synthesizing disparate materials into something new is still debatable. There is a wonderful book series by Roger Von Oech that asks us to continue to develop creative thinking within our daily lives in order to keep our brains functioning well and robust (Von Oech, 1973, 1986). There are several questions about innate human nature that are personally fascinating: 1) Why do myths and legends seem to resonate throughout the ages? 2) What is about certain music, art or literature that seems to transcend human emotions and make us feel actualized? 3) Is there a neurochemical relationship to emotions, and if so, how did it develop within the human psyche?
4. The idea of cross-species language remains somewhat controversial. On one side, proponents say that certain hominids and cetaceans have been able to learn sign or verbal language; on the other hand, skeptics say these individual examples are mimicry. Cetacean experts believe that there is a unique and verifiable language that whales, dolphins, etc. use to communicate emotion with one another; certain insects use chemicals to communicate, as well as motion (think of a bee hive, the dance telling the hive where a new set of flowers is located). However, the perception of language as communication is one thing -- yes, animals communicate, emotionally pets seem to know when we are happy or sad, or needy. There is evidence that chimpanzees who are taught sign language can come up with independent thoughts (weaving of disparate signs into something new). However, the jury is still out scientifically regarding actually learning of human language -- but the question may also be -- can humans learn to communicate with animals in their language? (Rumbaugh and Washburn, 2003).
5. Argument by anecdote is a method of proving one's point by using stories that may be personal recollections, hearsay, or other popular myth. One of the problems with using this format is that each person may have a different anecdote. Stories, we know, can be entertaining, but can also perpetuate like a rumor, once through the crowd, it has changed and become something more than it ever was. One popular example of argument by anecdote is in some of the dubious claims from the non-regulated
Another element shared in common by Shinto and Taoism is religious purity. The concept of purity is taken to a greater extreme in Shinto, in which physical illness is perceived as spiritual impurity. A Taoist is concerned with both physical and spiritual health, but practices Tai Chi and similar methods of calming and balancing body and mind.
Shinto is an indigenous Japanese religion, whereas Taoism originates in China. Although the two religions have different geographic origins and different means of worship, they share some elements in common. Both include reverence for ancestors or ancestral spirits, and both are concerned with physical and spiritual purity.
Written Assignment Unit Three
2. Discuss the process that led to the formation of the Talmud. Explain the basic contents of the Talmud and their relation to the Torah.
The Torah refers to the Hebrew Bible as a sacred text. The Talmud evolved as a living…
Sect -- in sociology and anthropology, the term sect refers to a group that forms inside another group and takes on some individual characteristics that are based on, but not completely, like the parent or other group. In religion, for instance, denominations may be considered sects. Other academic definitions of the term tend to look at a socio-cultural definition, in that what is it that the group, the sect, is in tension with and why did it believe it had to separate (e.g. The Episcopalians separating over the ordination of a gay Bishop) (Wilson, 1992, 5-9).
Sects also occur in political, social, and cultural groups and, like religious sects, are splinter groups who leave a party or organization because of disagreement on some level. The early International Communist Parties of 1915-1935, for instance had numerous sects. All these were based on the doctrine of Marx & Engles, but took on…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Heidl, G. (2003). Origen's Influence on the Young Augustine. Gorgias Press LLC.
Lalich, J. And M. Langone. (2009). "Characteristics Associated With Cultic Groups."
ICSA. Cited in:
Identify prejudices and biases in traditional Christian approaches to non-Christian religions, both in general and specifically.
Identify possible objections to Christianity, in terms of theology, ethics, and missiology.
esolve the challenges associated with new era missiology and new era ministry, by developing a comprehensive plan for the future.
Materials: Today's materials will be the same as the previous days.
9:00-9:10: Opening prayer
9:10-11:00: Crash course/review of world religions based on credible source material written from each faith's point-of-view or from a non-biased, scholarly source.
11:00-12:00: Each participant uses his or her personal electronic device or notebook to write down specific areas of concern and possible roadblocks to interfaith dialogue.
1:00-2:00: Share the concerns addressed by each participant openly, engaging in a dialogue of our own. Understanding that our participants are from diverse backgrounds, each will have unique perspectives on multiple faiths. Some will have had first-hand experiences…
Kenneth Cracknell, In Good and Generous Faith: Christian Responses to Religious Pluralism (Pilgrim Press, 2006).
"Disaster" as a Trigger
Joseph Scanlon, Director of the Emergency Communications esearch Unit at Carleton University, states that the term "disaster" has undergone a transformation in the wake of 9/11. Its transformation is the center of debate for researchers whose work relies on an adequate definition and understanding of "disaster" -- yet Scanlon makes clear that he has been particularly struck "by how much of the debate [is]...influenced by awareness of various events and how much of that awareness [is] media related" (Scanlon 2005:13). In the field of emergency communications, that awareness has led to a new culture of "disaster" maintenance, and it has been largely influenced by media representation. According to Wolf Dombrowsky, "the term 'disaster' has only ephemeral significance. It is a trigger, a flag to signal a meaning, a stimulus to produce a specific reaction" (Dombrowsky 1998:15). Dombrowsky's assertion has been challenged by several researches, but…
Alexander, D 2005a, 'An Interpretation of Disaster in Terms of Changes in Culture,
Society and International Relations. What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old
Questions. [Ed. Ronald W. Perry & E.L. Quarantelli] International Research
Committee on Disasters.
sociological debate between scientific knowledge and religious knowledge has been occurring for most of the last few centuries (Anesi, 2003a). While the concept of "knowledge" is broad, and the definitions for "knowledge" even more broad (Meja & Stehr, 2000), this paper will only examine the concepts of religious and scientific knowledge, and the debate among modern sociologists between the two. This paper will present a definition of religious knowledge, present sociologists on both sides of the debate, and will examine how religious knowledge is used in Western society. This paper will attempt to show, based on the sociological views discussed, that the use of religious knowledge in today's world is warranted, in some cases.
As stated, the concept of a working definition of "knowledge" is difficult. In the broadest sense, "knowledge" can be thought of as awareness and understanding of facts, truths, or information (Gettier, 1963). According to modern sociology,…
Alvin P. (1981) The reformed objection to natural theology. Christian Scholar's Review, 11: 187-198.
Alvin P. (1982) On reformed epistemology. The Reformed Journal, 32, January, pp. 13-17.
Anesi, G. (2003a) On the Application of Scientific Knowledge. Dept. Of Humanities, University of Chicago. Online. Retrieved Oct 20, 2004 from the University of Chicago. Web site: http://home.uchicago.edu/~anesi/science.html.
Anesi, G. (2003b) In Pursuit: Knowledge, Confidence, and Deceit in Descartes and Shakespeare. Dept. Of Humanities, University of Chicago. Online. Retrieved Oct 20, 2004 from the University of Chicago. Web site: http://home.uchicago.edu/~anesi/knowledge.html.
Ineffective Public Policy -- No Child Left Behind
One of the most widely criticized educational policies of recent years was / is No Child Left Behind. It is widely referred to an ineffective policy (or legislation). Despite high hopes and bipartisan support, the policy has not worked out as planned. This paper delves into the problems with No Child Left Behind -- and will present the changes that could make it stronger and more effective.
No Child Left Behind -- The Problems and Criticisms
The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation (signed into law by President George . Bush in 2002) was launched, according to authors Deborah Meier and George ood, in a bipartisan spirit in order to do something "positive in the wake of the terrorist attacks" of September 11, 2001 (Meier, et al., 2004). In the Introduction to their book, Meier and ood, founding members of the Forum…
Alexander, Lamar. "A Better Way to Fix No Child Left Behind." The New York Times.
Retrieved November 1, 2013, from http://www.nytimes.com . 2011.
Meier, Deborah, and Wood, George. Harrison. Many Children Left Behind: How the No Child
Left Behind Act is Damaging Our Children and Our Schools. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Today, diagnosis has improved for the condition known as AD/HD, or Attention Deficit Disorder. However, many parents are dismayed after getting the diagnosis to find that the only thing their insurance company will pay for is medication. Parents aren't always comfortable using medication at first, and some would like to try behavioral strategies before going to medications. Insurance companies, however, often will pay for medication, but not pay for behavioralists or psychologists, or only pay part of the bill. Unless the parent can afford to make up the difference, their choices are then limited.
For instance, an insurance Web site on AD/HTD devotes 1450 very specific words about medication, including specific information on establishing doses and when to try a different med, but only about 450 words with no real specific suggestions and less compelling arguments for its use. The message insurance companies get is that medication works and…
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). 2001. "Practice Guideline." Pediatrics 108:4, pp. 1033-1044, Oct. accessed via the Internet 2/19/03. http://www.aap.org/policy/s0120.html
Ellwood, Leslie C. 2003. "Parental perceptions and satisfaction with stimulant medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder." Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, June.
Kaplanek, Beth. 2002. "Household Havoc: One Mother's Quest for Quiet on the Home Front." Psychology Today, Vol. 35, Sept-Oct.
Sappell, Joel, and Welkos, Robert W. 1990. "The Scientology Story." Los Angeles Times, June 29, p. A48:1.
Skepticism is defined as a school of philosophical thought where a person doubts the beliefs of another person or group. hile one person might believe wholeheartedly a certain political perspective or believe completely the dogma of a religion, a skeptic would have doubts about these beliefs or about the stories related to religion. Not only do they doubt organized religion, they also doubt the validity of socially constructed morals and laws. Sometimes they doubt the world as they witness it because they are unsure of the truth of reality as they perceive it through the senses (Butchvarov 1998). Like many philosophies, skepticism has origins in Ancient Greece. Pyrrho of Elis is credited with founding the philosophy, a branch of which was later named Pyrrhonism in his honor. The philosophy was expanded into countries throughout the known world, up to and including the early modern world. During the Enlightenment, skepticism branched…
Baird, F.E. & Kaufmann, W. (2008). From Plato to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Butchvarov, P. (1998). Skepticism about the External World. Oxford: Oxford UP.
Cuneo, & Woudenberg. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Reid.
Threats to Early Christians
There were many assets and assisting of the early Christian movement. However, there were also a lot of threats and challenges that had to be faced by Christians. These threats came in the form of the Gnostics, the Montanists and the Marcion. The threats and challenges that were faced by Christians by each of these groups will be detailed and described. Beyond that, examples of each of the groups and what they did to post a threat to Christians will also be covered. While the times of early Christians had a lot of good times and progress, there were also people that were violently opposed to what the Christians had to offer.
First up is the group known as the Gnostics. Many label their brand of religion as "heretical" and otherwise polluted. Indeed, they were a blend of Christianity, Greek philosophy and oriental mysticism. None other…
Bible.ca. (2016). The Canon of Marcion the heretic. Bible.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2016,
Christianity. (2016). Gnosticism. Christianity.com. Retrieved 20 November 2016, from http://www.christianity.com/church/church-history/timeline/1-300/gnosticism-11629621.html
ECH. (2016). Early Christian History / Heresies: Montanism. Earlychristianhistory.info.