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We have over 1000 essays for "Scope Of Practice"

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Practice Writing Students Are Being Constantly Judged

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51737884

Practice riting

Students are being constantly judged and analyzed based upon their academic achievements. The texts presented question the validity of assessment and question how and why students are limited in their ambitions. Emphasis is put on certain aspects of academia but others are overlooked entirely. There is a decided need for reevaluation of what should be expected of students and how they are judged by those in positions of authority over them.

Students who attend Ivy League schools are supposed to be somehow more intelligent or more capable than students who go to public schools (Easterbook). However, research indicates that the only thing that matters is that a student attends some college. People who go to college will generally earn more money than those that do not, but the type of school does not necessarily impact the income level of the person.

Research conducted by Catherine Rampell found that…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Average grade awarded Fall term, 1993-2006. CSU Sacramento Factbook. Office of Institutional

Research. Web. 2012. http://www.oir.csus.edu/factbook/

Average grade awarded for academic year, 1917-1948. Annual Report of the President of Stanford University. Web. 2012. http://collections.stanford.edu/university

Easterbrook, Gregg. "Who Needs Harvard?" Atlantic Magazine. Oct. 2004. Print.
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APN Compare the Scope of

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2876012



Summarize Complementary Therapies and the APNs ole in guiding their Inclusion in Treatment Plans.

Complimentary therapies are a part of the practices which are utilized to help patients to improve their underlying state of health and reduce the need for long periods of hospitalization. In most cases, this allows them to receive continuous treatment on an outpatient basis. Some of the most notable include: chemotherapy, kinesiology, nutrition / diet, focusing on the mind / body connection and psychological treatment options. These different areas are important, as they will help patients to understand other tools they can utilize in dealing with their condition. This is giving them a sense of empowerment by comprehending what is occurring and the best approaches for addressing these challenges over the long-term. (Mezey, 2003) (Naylor, 2010)

The APNs role is to suggest other therapies they can use during the process and help to supervise the patient.…… [Read More]

References

Cronenwett, L. (2009). Quality and Safety Education. Nursing Outlook, 57 (6), 338 -- 348.

Fitzpatrick, J. (2003). Managing Your Practice. New York, NY: Springer.

Hughes, R. (2008). Patient Safety and Quality. Rockville, MD: Agency for Research and Health Care Quality.

Jansen, M. (2010). Advanced Practice Nursing. New York, NY: Springer.
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Virginia's Nursing Practice Act

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83868236

Nursing Practice Act of Virginia:

The scope of practice in medicine, nursing, law, dentistry, and various other disciplines are usually established and regulated at the state level. This implies that the legislative body in every state establishes practice law and allocates authority for the implementation of the law to suitable regulatory agencies and boards. In relation to the nursing field, the established laws are usually in the form of professional practice acts that act as the basis for licensing standards. Licensing is in turn geared towards the protection of public health and well-being, safety, and welfare. Generally, the statute that defines and manages the nursing profession and practice is known as a nurse practice act. There are four major objectives of the nurse practice act in each state including defining the nursing professional practice, establishing the minimum academic qualifications and requirements for licensing, defining the legal titles and abbreviations that…… [Read More]

References:

Black, B.P. (2013). Professional nursing: concepts & challenges (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO:

Elsevier Saunders.

"Complaints Against Licensees." (2012, October). A Public Information Brochure. Retrieved from West Virginia State Board of Examiners for Licensed Practical Nurses website:  http://www.lpnboard.state.wv.us/Disbro3pub1.PDF 

"Regulations Governing the Practice of Nursing." (2014, February 27). Virginia Board of Nursing. Retrieved from Virginia Department of Health Professions website:  http://www.dhp.virginia.gov/nursing/leg/Nursing_02272014.doc
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Standards of Nursing Practice Nursing Scope and

Words: 1650 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81856656

Standards of Nursing Practice

Nursing Scope and Standards of Practice

Scope and Standards of Nursing Practice in Ohio

Scope and Standards of Nursing Practice in Ohio

As a pediatric hematology registered nurse (N) practicing in the state of Ohio I am licensed through the Ohio Board of Nursing (2013). The Ohio Board of Nursing determines licensure criteria by relying those established by national certifying organizations and in Ohio this is the National Council of State Boards of Nursing. The scope of practice for Ns in Ohio is determined by Chapter 4723 of the Ohio evised Code (OC), in addition to the administrative rules developed under this Chapter (Ohio Board of Nursing, 2011).

Scope of Practice Considerations

Under Chapter 4723 OC an N is authorized to evaluate a patient's health, develop a nursing regimen to restore health, prevent disease, and promote health, provide health counseling and teaching, and under the authorization…… [Read More]

References

ANA (American Nurses Association). (2011). Code of Ethics. American Nurses Association. Retrieved 11 Oct. 2013 from  http://www.nursingworld.org/Mobile/Code-of-Ethics .

Fowler, Martha D.M. (ed.) (2008). Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses: Interpretation and Application [2010 Reissue]. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.

Hennessy, Jane. (2009). Pediatric Hematology Nursing: Scope and Standards of Practice. Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses (APHON). Retrieved 11 Oct. 2013 from www.aphon.org/members/documents/Hematology%20scope%20and%20Standards.pdf.

Kurtz, Pat and Burr, Ronald L. (2009). Chapter 11: Ethics and Health. In K.S. Lundy and S. Janes Community Health Nursing, 2nd Edition. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
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Advance Practice Nursing

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89423417

Advanced Practice Nursing

Compare and Contrast the APN and MDs scope of practice.

The scope of practices for APNs is to focus on specific areas of medicine which can be transferred from the hospital to a clinic, skilled nursing facility or outpatient care center. The basic idea is that an N with several years of experience and advanced training can offer effective health care solutions for families / children. Some of the different areas they are practicing in include: adult / family / pediatric, / gerontological care, psychiatry and mental health. This means that they have a number of duties they will perform to provide primary care to patients. The most notable include: taking / evaluating health histories, conducting physical exams, diagnosing / treating common acute illnesses, giving immunizations, managing high blood pressure / diabetes, ordering / interpreting X-rays / other laboratory tests, counseling on disease prevention / healthy lifestyles…… [Read More]

References

American Nursing Association. (2010). Nursing World. Retrieved from:

 http://www.nursingworld.org/FunctionalMenuCategories/MediaResources/MediaBackgrounders/APRN-A -

New-Age-in-Health-Care.pdf

Louisiana State Board of Nursing Guidelines. (2011). LSBN. Retrieved from:
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Different Nurse Practice Specialties

Words: 1049 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66976609

Nurse Practice Specialties

The objective of this study is to locate four evidence-based research articles in nursing peer-reviewed journal. Specialty nursing includes various areas of nursing practice, which are examined in this study. Articles reviewed in this study include those related to emerging specialties and opportunities for nurses, Advanced Practice Registered Nursing, Nurse Practitioner Primary Care in Competencies in Specialty Areas, and the Specialty Practice of Nursing Informatics.

The first article examined in this study is the work of Cruz (2012) who reports that Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRN) "arose out of the trailblazing efforts of nurses from four separate nursing specialties whose individual histories were shaped by a common threat: the answer the call to deliver a high level of healthcare to individuals and groups in an area of clinical practice where a need for such level of healthcare existed." (p.1) Cruz (2012) additionally reports four areas of concern…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beattle, L. (2010) Emerging Specialties, and Opportunities for Nurses. NurseZone. 11 Jun 2010. Retrieved from:  http://www.nursezone.com/nursing-news-events/more-features.aspx?articleid=34360 

Bickford, CJ and Lewis, D (2007) ANI Connection: The Specialty of Nursing Informatics. CIN Computers, Informatics, Nursing, Vol. 25, No. 6, Dec 2007. Retrieved from:  http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/journalarticle?article_id=753408 

Cruz, J. (2012) Whose Consensus Is It Anyway? All Nurses. 1 Sept 2012. Retrieved from:  http://allnurses.com/nurse-practitioners-np/whose-consensus-anyway-779977.html 

Nurse Practitioner Primary Care Competencies in Specialty Areas: Adult, Family, Gerontological, Pediatric, and Women's Health (2002) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Service Administration, Bureau of Health Professions, Division of Nursing, April 2002. Retrieved from:  http://www.aacn.nche.edu/education-resources/npcompetencies.pdf
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The Nursing Practice and the EHR System

Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 85988491

Nurses in New York State Verses Nevada

Nurses in different states often have varying scopes of practice in as much as there are some basic nursing standards that are universally adhered to across the globe and the U.S. in general. The state specific practices are meant to help in moderating the health r provision and also to enable an environment where the most relevant nursing care is provided in line with the specific environment where the infection may occur or that the patient may find themselves in.

In New York State (NYS) there are regulations that are specific to the nurses and some which are specific to the physicians, both in line with their professional training and the expected duties. In NYS the nurses are expected to have patient specific orders for the medications and tests that they conduct. This however exempts certain immunizations, HIV testing, anaphylaxis treatment agents and…… [Read More]

References

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, (2013). Electronic Health Records and Meaningful Use. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from  http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/prevention-chronic-care/improve/system/pfhandbook/mod17.html 

Education Career Articles, (2013). Nevada: Nurse Practitioner Rules and Regulations. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from  http://educationcareerarticles.com/career-information/career-news/nevada-nurse-practitioner-rules-regulations/ 

Health IT, (2013). What is Workflow Redesign? Why is it Important? Retrieved April 22, 2016 from https://www.healthit.gov/providers-professionals/faqs/ehr-workflow-redesign

Miller R.H. & Sim I., (2016). Physician's Use of Electronic medical Records: Barriers and Solutions. Retrieved April 22, 2016 from  http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/23/2/116.full
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Advance Nursing Practices in the

Words: 2098 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73429250

This help in solving conflicts between patients in a hospital.

In nursing practice, there are quite different in between clinical nursing specialist and nurse practitioner in the scope of operation. Therefore, a clinic nurse specialist works under the legislated scope of practice for a registered nurse but has advanced education. While nurse practitioner works under a separate scope of practice and can perform certain functions and tasks that are outside of the scope of practice of registered nurse, including clinical nurse specialist. However, nurse practitioner generally provide primary care, and clinical nurse specialists act more a s consultants in their roles as expert clinicians, clinical leader, educators, collaborators and researchers.

Many researches have written that emotions sometimes can influence ethical decision making in a health care system. Therefore, nurses are equipped with knowledge to make decision without any kind of influence. The model demonstrates that certain emotional states influence the…… [Read More]

References

Royal of nursing college (2010). Advanced nurse practitioners, an RCN guide to the advanced

Nurse, Practitioner role, competences and program accreditation

Marie-Laure Delamaire, Gaetan Lafortune (2010). Nurses in Advanced Roles

A description and evaluation of experiences in 12 developed countries
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Current Best Practices for Nursing

Words: 863 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91199204


How can nurses recognize their own accountabilities and responsibilities when delegating aspects of care to others?
It is a difficult task for nurse to understand precisely what to do in the delegation process as there are many conflicting guidelines and opinions on the subject. The only sure way for registered nurses to properly fulfill their responsibilities of delegation, is to maintain a relationship with the nurses they delegated and be available for them when necessary. At the same time, nurses need to be sure to give trainees space in order for them to learn independently. Patience, observance, and guidance are the techniques essential to registered nurses attempting to provide quality delegation.
How can nurses delegate and supervise others consistent with legislation and organizational policy?
In order to delegate and supervise their trainees, registered nurses need to strictly comply with the current legislation and organizational policies existing in their place of…… [Read More]

Reference List
Corazzini K. N., Anderson R. A., Rapp C. G., Mueller C., McConnell E. S., & Lekan D. (2010). Delegation in Long-term Care: Scope of Practice or Job Description? The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 15.
Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council (2007). National framework for the development of decision-making tools for nursing and midwifery practice. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council.

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Legal and Ethical Issues in the Practice of Practical Nursing

Words: 802 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 93897084

Professional esponsibilities

The practice of nursing has continued to evolve over the years given rapid societal changes, emergence of new diseases, and constant technological developments. Since the 1900s when nursing practice was characterized by simple registry laws and mere listing of trained practitioners, the field has experienced significant evolution in attempts to meet the ever-changing needs of patients and enhance their outcomes. Currently, nursing practice is a formal practice that is governed by specific standards and requires professional licensure (Kjervik & Brous, 2010). The evolution has also been characterized by changing and expanding roles of nurses as well as classification of nurses into different categories based on their education and licensure. The development of the nursing profession has also contributed to the emergence of legal and ethical requirements to ensure that all nursing activities focus on enhancing patient outcomes and meeting public health needs.

Ethical equirements of the Practice of…… [Read More]

References

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (n.d.). Hallmarks of the Professional Nursing Practice Environment. Retrieved from American Association of Colleges of Nursing website:  http://www.aacn.nche.edu/publications/white-papers/hallmarks-practice-environment 

Kjervik, D.K. & Brous, E.A. (2010). Law and ethics in advanced practice nursing. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, LLC.

Ward, J. (2012, August 31). Ethics in Nursing: Issues Nurses Face. Retrieved April 10, 2017, from  http://www.nursetogether.com/ethics-nursing-issues-nurses-face
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Scope of Child Sex Tourism and the Pertinent Laws

Words: 2503 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71139954

international sex tourism has been a worldwide curse for a long time, the last few decades witnessed great surge in its practice as the effects of globalization, poverty and consumerism spread while advancement in internet caused an increase in travel opportunities. The racist fantasies and unusual interest in sexual activities in the developing countries along with poor law enforcement have made way for sex tourism. Though some may have exaggerated the magnitude of this immoral industry, more than one million children are trapped inside this trade every year (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009).

The 1904 Paris Agreement for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic (1904 Agreement), the first of its kind, aimed at protecting female children and others who were forced to go abroad for sex trade. It operated through border watching, supervising agencies and repatriating or employing the girls (Vrancken and Chetty, 2009). Then other national and international laws…… [Read More]

References

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. (2009). African charter on the rights and welfare of the child: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.

Banse, R., Schmidt, A.F., & Clarbour, J. (2010). Indirect measures of sexual interest in child sex offenders: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.

Debabrata, R. (1998). When police act as pimps: Glimpses into child prostitution in India: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.

Fraley, A. (2005). Child sex tourism legislation under the protect act: Does it really protect: in George, B.P. And Panko, T.R. (2011). Child sex tourism: Facilitating conditions, legal remedies, and other interventions. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 6:2, 134 -- 143.
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Scope and Purpose of Risk Management

Words: 545 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 89799520

Assessment 1
1 Explain why you (representing the organization) would review its existing risk management practices (policy, procedure, process).
a A review of risk management practices is crucial for ensuring that the organization is up-to-date with the potential threats and risks that might affect the company.
b The rationale for the review is that it is in line with the essence of what it means to manage risk. Risk management will examine the risks that stem from various aspects of the company and impact the business in some way—but if risk managers do not also assess their own practices, policies, procedures and processes, they have no way of knowing whether they adequately addressing risks in their department.
c The benefits of doing the review are that it provides risk management with a better sense of how it is defining risk, where it sees the risk as lying, what plans it…… [Read More]

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Training Scope of Training Large Health Care

Words: 2230 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49504335

Training

Scope of Training

Large health care organizations will undoubtedly have a large scope of training. The investments and systems approach is beneficial for companies who can realize economies of scale. Through economies of scale the unit cost for each selective individual trained decreases. This ultimately allows the cost of investments and systems to be spread throughout the entire organization. The systems approach is particularly beneficial as it creates and distills consistent behavior throughout the entire organization. Each individual that is trained is usually receiving and absorbing the same information as their peers. This insures the continuity of the business and its underlying operations. The scope will depend primarily on the needs of the business. In some instances, training may involve the entire health care organization while in other instances; it may only require a select department. In either case, investments in systems allows for the most efficient use of…… [Read More]

References:

1) Draper, Elaine, Joseph LaDou, and Dan J. Tennenhouse. 2011. "Occupational Health Nursing and the Quest for Professional Authority," New Solutions 21, 47 -- 81

2) Fang, D., Wilsey-Wisniewski, S.J., & Bednash, G.D. (2006). 2005-2006 enrollment and graduations in baccalaureate and graduate programs in nursing. Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of Nursing

3) Levsey, K.R., Campbell, D., & Green, A. (2007). Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow; Challenges in Securing Federal Support for Graduate Nurses. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(4), 176-183

4) Lucia, Patricia R.; Otto, Tammy E.; Palmier, Patrick A. (2009). "Chapter 1
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Knowledge Management Best Practices in Services Industries

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50569159

Knowledge Management Best Practices in Services Industries

The ability to stay on in step with customers' rapidly changing needs is only possible when a company completely commits itself to transforming data into information, while also capturing and using tacit and implicit knowledge. As this analysis will illustrate, data, information and knowledge are multifaceted and have many implications across the lifecycle of a business in general and customers specifically. Concentrating on how the data pertaining to customers can be optimized, this analysis concentrates on the Service Quality (SEVQUAL) methodology and metrics. SEVQUAL measures five dimensions of the customer experience including reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy and responsiveness (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, Berry, 1985). While the scope of this analysis concentrates on SEVQUAL from the standpoint of capturing data, information and knowledge from a customer standpoint, there are many ancillary implications that also apply to the knowledge-based theory of firms as well. The use of…… [Read More]

References

Anders, P.N. (2006). Understanding dynamic capabilities through knowledge management. Journal of Knowledge Management, 10(4), 59-71.

Dyer, J.H., & Nobeoka, K. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal, 21(3), 345-367.

Enz, C & Siguaw, J (2000). Best practices in service quality. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 41(5), 20-29.

Gao, F., Li, M., & Nakamori, Y. (2002). Systems thinking on knowledge and its management: Systems methodology for knowledge management. Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(1), 7-7.
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Help Desks Best Practices in Creating an

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66996200

Help Desks

Best Practices in Creating an Effective IT Help Desk:

Lessons Learned From the Enterprise Software Industry

The more complex the software, product or service, the more critical a role initial customer service and support teams play in ensuring customers' expectations are met and their experiences are positive. In the enterprise software industry this especially holds true, as companies will often invest tens of millions of dollars in new enterprise software to track progress of their goals, orchestrate new product development and efficiently run manufacturing. This is admittedly one of the most stressing areas of IT help desk operations as the users of these systems are often under extreme time pressure to get work done involving these complex enterprise IT systems and applications (McCormack, 2006). There are techniques for ensuring a very high level of customer satisfaction however, and three of these best practices are described in this analysis.…… [Read More]

References

Chang, K.H., Raman, P., Carlisle, W.H., & Cross, J.H. (1996). A self-improving helpdesk service system using case-based reasoning techniques. Computers in Industry, 30(2), 113-113.

Heller, M. (2004). Six smart strategies for handling the help desk; members of the best practice exchange offer ways to make the most of your understaffed help desk. CIO, 17(11), 1-38.

Knutson, B.J. (1988). Ten laws of customer satisfaction. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 29(3), 14-14.

McCormack, A. (2006, May 10). Why IT needs better bedside manners; McCormack says improving their interpersonal skills will help technologists play a bigger role. Financial Times, pp. 2-2.
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Clinical Theory Practice of the

Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 13460142



Concisely, Comfort results when an individual keeps of negative or unhealthy living and sticks to positive and healthy living. Comfort has been associated with positive institutional outcomes that include patient satisfaction. The outcome of Comfort is therefore one of the most important indicator of measuring success in nursing practice particularly for patients and families going through some tough or stressful healthcare conditions.

Benefits of the Comfort theory to the Clinical Nurses of the 21st Century

Comfort theory is an important theory that is applicable to the 21st Century clinical practice because of its many inherent benefits or advantages. This theory defines the working environment for healthcare practitioners while at the same time it charts the direction for improving the services offered by the clinical nurses. The universality of the language and concepts used in presenting the theory also promotes its wide acceptance. The simplicity of the tenets of the Comfort…… [Read More]

References

Kolcaba, K. (2003) Comfort Theory and Practice: A Vision for Holistic Health Care and Kolcaba, K.Y. (1994). A theory of holistic Comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(6), 1178-1184.

Kolcaba, K., & DiMarco, M.A. (2005). Comfort Theory and its application to pediatric nursing. Pediatric Nursing. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.

Magyrary, D. (2002) Positive mental health: a turn of the century perspective. Issues of Mental Health Nursing, 23, 331-349

Malinowski, a., & Stamler, L.L. (2002). Comfort: exploration of the concept in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39(6), 599-606.
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Whs Risk and Management Practices

Words: 1353 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86544203

This means that there is a likelihood of some risks being overlooked with these individuals facing pressure to circumvent different procedures for the benefit of the firm. As a result, this process is producing mixed results with the company receiving notoriety for having safe practices in select locations. While at other times, this has led to accidents and labor disputes inside various mines they own. (Corporate Profile 2012) (Fanning the Flames 2010)

Systems for hazard control (list). Consider elimination, substitution, engineering, isolation, administration and use of PPE. Are they effective?

The systems for hazard control involve each manager receiving written reports about potential incidents. They have the ability to interview, isolate, substitute and administer the company's policies for enhancing WHS safety practices. These findings are presented to upper management and an executive committee (which monitor these challenges). They are using PPE to a certain extent. Yet, many of these issues…… [Read More]

References

Corporate Profile, 2012, Rio Tinto, Available from: [22 April 2013]

Work Health and Safety Act, 2012, Comcare, Available from: [22 April 2013]

Fanning the Flames, 2010, War on Want, Available from: [22 April 2013].

Lea, D, 1999, 'Corporate and Public Responsibility,' Business Ethics, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 151 -- 162.
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Integration Evidence-Based Practice Professional Nursing Practice the

Words: 1686 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58309443

Integration Evidence-Based Practice Professional Nursing Practice

The concept of evidence-based practice -- EBP is becoming growingly significant in the sphere of nursing. (Stiffler; Cullen, 2010) Evidence-based practice is not entirely a novel concept; it is the manner in which nurses cater to the norms of care and practice efficiently. (Nysna, 2006) According to Linda Burnes Bolton, DrPH, N, FAAN, vice president and chief nursing officer in the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, evidence-based practice -- EBP in reality it is only an alternative mode of viewing the conventional theme of the nurses maintaining their sanctified reliability with society. (Wessling, 2008) David Sackett, MD, a Canadian physician, is regarded the father of evidence-based practice. According to Sackett, "evidence-based practice is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. . .[by] integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external…… [Read More]

References

Adams, Susan; McCarthy, Ann Marie. (2005) "Evidence-Based Practice and School

Nursing" The Journal of School Nursing, vol. 21 no. 5, pp: 258-265.

Ciliska, Donna. (2006) "8. Evidence-based nursing: how far have we come? What's next?"

Evid-Based Nurs, vol. 9, no. 2, pp: 38-40.
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Legislation of Foreign Nurses Practicing in the United States

Words: 2042 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16385907

Legislation of Foreign Nurses Practicing in the United States

The United States Health Care system is undergoing a major crisis of nurse-staffing shortage. A survey conducted by the American Hospital Association -- AHA of 715 hospitals performed during spring 2001 showed that a vacancy of 126,000 positions of registered nurses prevails through out the nation. The International Council of Nurses -- ICN, a federation of 125 nursing organizations indicated it to be a global problem. In order to meet the staff requirements, the U.S. health care facilities, both individually and in collaboration are persistently demanding the state and federal law makers to smoothen the restrictions in both the state regulations and U.S. immigration law to permit an increased influx of foreign-educated nurses. (Trossman, 2002)

Cheryl Peterson, MSN, egistered Nurse, a senior policy fellow in the practice department of ANA reveals that there are three primary modes that foreign educated nurses…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

"All Foreign Healthcare Workers Must Re-certify" Retrieved from  http://www.pulsehr.com/Resources/US_Nursing_Visa_Immigration_Certification_Latest_News.htm  Accessed 3 October, 2005

Maddox, P.J. (Dec. 31, 1998) "Administrative Ethics and the Allocation of Scarce

Resources" Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Retrieved from  http://www.nursingworld.org/ojin/topic8/topic8_5.htm  Accessed 4 October, 2005

"Position Statement on Recruitment and Rights of Foreign Nurses" Retrieved from  http://www.aft.org/topics/immig-healthcare/ImmigRts_10_03.pdf
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Career Management Wal-Mart Overview Scope Wal-Mart Falls

Words: 1948 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75390625

Career Management: Wal-Mart Overview

Scope Wal-Mart

Wal-Mart falls into the realm of mega retailers. There is no product or service that Wal-Mart has not considered at one point or another. Besides selling traditional retail products including house-wear, groceries, clothing and furniture, the retailer has branched out and now provides eye-wear, photographic services and pharmacy services. In addition the company is currently expanding into the financial services industry. Wal-Mart is in fact the world's largest company, exceeding companies like General Motors and Exxon Mobile in size and scope.

Wal-Mart is known in the retail world for selling products at a fraction of the costs of other retailers. At Wal-Mart prices are cheap but the product quality is high. The company in fact prides itself on its reputation for selling the best quality products at the lowest product. A consumer can buy the nation's number one brand products for a fraction of…… [Read More]

References:

B. Marc, Personnel Manager. Electronic Mail Interview. 9, November 2004.

Ballard, M. & Langrehr, F.W. (1993). "What CPAs Can Learn from Wal-Mart." Journal

Of Accountancy, 176(5):101

Cocheo, S. (2003). "Always aggressive, always Wal-Mart: What makes Wal-Mart keep
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Ethical Theory and Moral Practice

Words: 4260 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 80307899

Ethical Theory & Moral Practice

Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.

This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp, T.L. (2007). Does Ethical Theory Have a Future in Bioethics? The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 32(2): 209-217.

"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online:  http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links  / special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml

Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#H3 

Gastmans, C. (1998). Nursing Considered as Moral Practice: A Philosophical-Ethical Interpretation of Nursing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8(1): 43-69.
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Characteristics Cops a Community of Practice in

Words: 1925 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13920733

Characteristics CoPs

A community of practice in the procurement department

The procurement of materials and equipment such as schoolbooks and construction materials by government officials for the construction of public services and infrastructure involves contracting agencies that provide such services. These processes are often plagued with wastage of public resources, mismanagement, corruption, and graft. In this regard, Community-Led Procurement (CLP) allows local communities to control and implements the procurement process. They achieve this by creating groups that lead to accountability and openness, improved value of money, reduced wastage, and corruption, better quality of services and works and increased use of local contractors and workers. CLP also assists local community members to develop according to their vision (Alvesson & Karreman, 2007).

All government procurement programs have been plagued by waste and inefficiencies. The local communities have been lacking knowledge in terms of actors, processes, and costs involved. Cumbersome and slow systems…… [Read More]

References

Abrahamson, E. (2006). Management fashion. New York: ProQuest.

Alvesson, M. & Karreman, D. (2007). Odd couple: making sense of the curious concept of Knowledge Management: Journal of Management Studies, 38(7), 995-1018

Baym, N. (2005). Tune in, log on: soaps, fandom and online community. Thousand Oaks, CA:

Sage Publications
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Innovative Values and Practices

Words: 2560 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16830430

Innovative Values and Practices

Managing toward innovation requires an organization to practice idea parenting. The implication is that ideas are first conceived, then nurtured, then shown off to others, and finally brought carefully and lovingly to maturity. The purpose of this report is to provide the managers and leaders of Hilo Hospital with guidelines and recommendations to follow that will promote the development of innovative values and practices.

An innovative organization is always reorienting toward innovation. Four trends in innovation management are presented here as steps in the strategic planning process of Hilo Hospital. The steps include: (a) establishing cross-functional teams to breaking down silos; (b) fostering inside-out thinking by working with parallel industries, (c) tapping into social media as an authentic and valuable source of insight and ideas; and (d) war games for strategy-building. In addition, by folding the information from social media into the planning and analysis processes,…… [Read More]

References

Drucker, P.F. (1999) Managing oneself. Harvard Business Review, 77(2): 65-7 Huber, N. (2003) An experiential leadership approach for teaching tolerance for ambiguity. Journal of Education for Business, 79(1): 52-5

Garvin, D.A. & Roberto, M.A. (2001). What you don't know about making decisions. Harvard Business Review, 79(8), 108-120.

Mintzberg, H. (2003). The five minds of a manager. Harvard Business Review, 81(11): 54-63

Maddock, G.M. And Viton, R.L. (2009, June 2). The new rules of managing innovation, Special Report, Business Week.
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Management Issues and Practices James Strong the

Words: 2719 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78166394

Management Issues and Practices

James Strong, the former CEO and managing director of Qantas Airlines, twice sat on the panel convened at the Sydney office of CPA Australia to select those who would be recognized for the annual 40 Young Business Leaders list. Strong believed in the importance of nurturing young talent and threw himself wholeheartedly into leading much of the discussion among prominent leaders from all over the globe. Criteria for entrants included "the ability to land a top job, develop others and get the most from a team, and leading by example was also a must-have attribute" ("CPA Australia," 2014). To provide the scope and depth of the list-building endeavor, it is informative to explore the names of other participants on the panel, and to match them to the criteria they articulated for entrant evaluation. Here is a quick run down: James Strong looked for entrants who had…… [Read More]

References 13

40 young business leaders. In the Black. 2014 CPA Australia Ltd. Retrieved from  http://www.itbdigital.com/lists/40-young-business-leaders-2013/ 

Bennis, W. (1997). Managing people is like herding cats. Covey Leadership Center.

Braithwaite, J. & Mannion, R. (2011). Managing change. In K. Walshe & J. Smith, Healthcare Management, pp. 830-861. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Cummings, G.G., McGregor, T., Davey, M. Lee, H., Wong, C.A., Lo, E., Muise, M. & Strafford, E. (2010). Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(3), 363-385. doi: 10.1016/j.jnurstu.2009.08.006.
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Clinical Issue in Psychiatric Nursing Practice

Words: 1000 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32246768

Nursing research is one of the most important components in answering a clinical question through an investigation process. The research or investigation process involves a series of steps that are geared towards identifying suitable evidence that can be utilized in answering the research question. This process requires narrowing down the research topic, which helps in obtaining information that is applied to develop knowledge, which generates wisdom if applied in meaningful ways. In this case, the research process entails the use of a data, information, knowledge and wisdom continuum. This paper examines how nursing informatics through this continuum can be utilized to gain wisdom on a clinical issue in the field of psychiatric nursing.
Clinical Issue and Question

Psychiatric nursing practice entails the provision of comprehensive, patient-centered psychiatric care to patients with psychiatric or mental health problems. This nursing practice is considered as an integral component of the continuum of nursing…… [Read More]

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Management Practice Point and Click

Words: 1412 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 88226049

Nearly everything the company does…is aimed at reducing the cost and expanding the scope of Internet use" (Carr 2008, p.2). Because of its business model, Google thrives on innovation, so it can encourage its employees to take more risks in their work and act more independently: "Google faces far less risk in product development than the usual business does. It routinely introduces half-finished products & #8230;even if the offerings fail to win a big share of the market they will still tend to produce attractive returns by generating advertising revenue and producing valuable data on customer behavior. For most companies, a failed launch of a new product is very costly. For Google, in general, it's not. Failure is cheap" (Carr 2008, p.2).

This stress on innovation and its ability to minimize financial damage from failure because of its advertisement-driven model allows one of the most substantial advantages of taking a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carr, Nicholas G. (2008, January 1). The Google enigma. E-News: Developments in Strategy and Business. Journal published by the global commercial consulting firm Booz & Company.

Retrieved April 7, 2009 at  http://www.strategy-business.com/press/enewsarticle/enews013108 

Helft, Miguel. (2007, March 10). Google's buses help its workers beat the rush.

The New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2009 at htp://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/10/technology/10google.html?scp=10&sq=google working&st=cse
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Family Practice Spec Icd Codes Much of

Words: 545 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1081451

Family Practice Spec. ICD Codes

Much of the treatment scope associated with the specialty family practice revolves around prevention. In other words the family practice provider often sees individuals when they are not ill at all but need health care access to determine normal values and a general state of health for developmental purposes in children and sometimes for school or vocational reasons in adults. Family practice often sees multiple minor injuries as well. Family Practice can also manage as a primary care provider many chronic conditions or disorders with or without intervention of a specialist, such as diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, heart diseases of various kinds and most minor infections. Below is a list of just a few diagnostic codes for some of these commonly seen disorders and/or cases seen in the family practice specialty.

outine Physicals exams for Adults

outine general medical examination at…… [Read More]

Resources

Endres, Chris "Free online searchable ICD9 Codes," retrieved November 25, 2011 at  http://icd9cm.chrisendres.com/ 

Taylor, R.B. (2002) Manual of family practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
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Criminal Justice Policy Practice Determine Morality Higher

Words: 2487 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88567007

Criminal Justice Policy Practice Determine Morality

Higher Than Utilitarianism

The passing and reformation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, also known as the so-called "crack law," is one of the most controversial pieces of legislation to be considered within the criminal justice system and its policy during the past two years. There are several aspects of this legal mandate that present a plethora of interesting situations and questions in regards to the morality of this particular issue, which has been at the forefront of mass media outlets ever since there were significant amendments passed to it in 2010. Interestingly enough, a fair amount of those changes may be attributed to the notion of morality revolving around this legal code, which was largely responsible for the rapid and prolonged imprisonment of minorities -- particularly African-Americans and Latino offenders. One of the most efficacious means of determining whether such a law may be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bentham, Jeremy. "Offenses Against One's Self: Paederasty Part 1." Journal of Homosexuality. Volume 3 (4). 389-406. 1978. Print.

Benthan, Jeremy. An Introduction To The Principles Of Morals And Legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Kosman, Maxwell Alie Halpern. "Falling Through The Crack: How Courts Have Struggled to Apply The Crack Amendment To "Nominal Career" And "Plea Bargain" Defendants." Michigan Law Review. Volume 109. 785-812. 2011. Web.  http://www.michiganlawreview.org/assets/pdfs/109/5/kosman.pdf 

Hartley, Richard., Maddan, Sean., Spahn, Cassia. "Prosecutorial Discretion: An Examination of Substantial Assistance Departures in Federal Crack-Cocaine and Powder-Cocaine Cases." Volume 23. Issue 3 382-407. 2007. Web.  http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820701485379
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Placement Practice I Discovered a Great Deal

Words: 3070 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48332126

placement practice I discovered a great deal about pressure ulcers that occur following perioperative care. I am normally community based and I treat patients that have been discharged from hospital that have developed pressure ulcers following an operation. During my complementary placement on a short stay ward I was involved in the care of patients through their perioperative period. I was amazed how quickly one patient developed a pressure ulcer. The experience and subsequent investigation produced several facts concerning the reasons why such ulcers develop, how to prevent them from occurring, treatment and the emotional, financial and physical hardships that having these ulcers produce in patients.

To evaluate my experience, I have chosen to use Driscoll's model of reflection. Driscoll's model was chosen because of the simple but reflective manner in which it concentrates on questions that are pertinent to the care of patients. The model is divided into three…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Driscoll's (2000) Model of Reflection www.nelsonthornes.com/.../reflection/Model_of_Reflection_Driscoll_2000.doc - United Kingdom

NHS Quality improvement Scotland, Tissue Viability, Best Practice Statement, march 2009, Prevention and management of pressure ulcers accessed at www.nhshealthquality.org/nhsqis/files/PUPREVMAN_BPS_MAR09.pdf [accessed on 21/03/2011]

NICE guidelines for pressure ulcer prevention accessed at  http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/1098/9180/9180.pdf  [accessed on 15/03/2011]

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, September, 2009 The Prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers, London, Royal College of Nursing,
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Best practices involved in changing the Accounting Information System AIS

Words: 2874 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90956709

Abstract

This particular report is an evaluation on AIS through case analysis and presentation involving AIS failure, possible alternatives the firm may have had and just how the management should have strategized to avert the failure. In the end, the paper reveals best practices for migration from another system to AIS.
To change the Accounting Information System (AIS) best practices

Accounting info systems (AIS) has transformed business processes on a worldwide scale. When financial data is entered into the AIS, financial statements and reports are created at several business levels to make profitability certain. Steinbart and romney (2012) revealed that the accounting systems process information to offer data to users so that they can not only plan, but also manage and operate respective businesses. Given this situation, accounting info system are viewed as a method which helps management in their planning and balance processes by offering data that is both…… [Read More]

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Groupware Best Practices in Groupware Implementation Strategies

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66187428

Groupware

Best Practices in Groupware Implementation Strategies

Based on a comprehensive review of groupware adoption studies, analyses of usability, and key success factors, the following best practices in this area o information systems technology has been created. Groupware is often a disruptive technological innovation in many companies, as it forces higher levels of communication and collaboration than people are accsut9omed and comfortable with. In changing how people create, share and use information, it also completely reorders the status and rank of people in a company's formal and informal reporting structures (Perez-Alvarez, 2009). Information is one of the most powerful political assets any employee can have, and since groupware only works when they contribute what they know, there is often a very high resistance to change. Add in the high level of uncertainty regarding the current economic environment globally, the fear of losing status or position, it is understandable that the…… [Read More]

References

Hasan A Artail. (2006). Application of KM measures to the impact of a specialized groupware system on corporate productivity and operations. Information & Management, 43(4), 551-564

Belanger, F., & Allport, C.. (2008). Collaborative technologies in knowledge telework: an exploratory study. Information Systems Journal, 18(1), 101.

Alan R. Dennis, Traci A Carte, & Gigi G. Kelly. (2003). Breaking the rules: Success and failure in groupware-supported business process reengineering. Decision Support Systems, 36(1), 31-47.

Ganesh Bhatt, Jatinder ND Gupta, & Fred Kitchens. (2005). An exploratory study of groupware use in the knowledge management process. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 18(1/2), 28-46.
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Ethics in the Practice of Psychology Ethical

Words: 959 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43296154

Ethics in the Practice of Psychology

Ethical Decision-Making

Identify the problem.

The therapist must decide how to respond to several potential ethics issues that the client has brought to the client-therapist relationship. The therapist is considering options for responding that will preserve the integrity of the client-therapist relationship and that will avoid communicating any disregard for the ethnic traditions that are most likely influencing the client's actions.

Identify the potential issues involved.

While it is probable that the psychologist has reviewed the ethical guidelines that govern her work, the client has stepped outside of those bounds in several ways. Most notably, the client has not complied with the processes and constraints associated with fee payment, and the client has introduced complexity into the client-therapist relationship by making arrangements for the provision of therapy services to another family member without first discussing the matter with the therapist. In addition, the client…… [Read More]

References

Corey, G., Corey, M., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping profession (7th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks / Cole.

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. (1992, December 1).

American Psychological Association. Author. Retrieved http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/code-1992.aspx [Type text]
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Manage Scope Management a Project

Words: 4627 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Questionnaire Paper #: 71026825

According to Dobie, "through project governance there is the ability to plan, monitor, and control project activities." (Dobie, 2007).The project manager should have the ability to control and manage resources, people as well as be able to collect information and look ahead for the potential problems. Lack of the necessary technical expertise to deliver a project product the organization would require an expert for input. In many organizations, such an expert is given the same status as project manager. Project governance enables an organization to manage the project consistently and maximize the value of the outcomes. Moreover, governance enables the project to be aligned according to the business strategy. It is important since it gives the project a sense of direction through the definition of what is to be done. My role in project governance was as financial manager in a water project. I was supposed to control all the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK Guide); an American national Standard ANSI/PMI 99-001-2008. 4. ed. Newton Square, Pa: Project Management Inst., 2008.

Dobie, Colin. A handbook of project management: A complete guide for beginners to professionals. Allen Unwin. 2007. Print

Lock, Dennis. Project management. 9th ed. Aldershot, England: Gower, 2007.

Richman, Larry. Improving your project management skills. New York: American Management Association, 2006.
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Own Scope of Competence

Words: 864 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22157002

Competence

XXXXX University (Place of Research)

In nursing, one is expected to be accountable and responsible for one's own actions. This is also true for anyone the nurse delegates a task to. A nurse has the right to delegate or not delegate, depending on the circumstances surrounding the patient, but a nurse always has the responsibility of patient care foremost. Responsibility, accountability and delegation were expectations set in place for nurses in order to provide the best care for any patient. In most cases, a licensed nurse is held accountable for any student nurse working under their supervision, and the student nurse's actions. This does not give student nurses a free pass to make mistakes, and student nurses are expected to uphold the nursing standards just as licensed nurses would. The level of accountability and responsibility is dependent on a nurse's professional level.

Accountability in nursing is continuing education after…… [Read More]

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Project Management Scope Management for

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 4926709

Many of the assumptions were revealed to be flawed, such as the assumption that an ideal model existed in the corporate world. There was little congruence between the new project and the organization's prior mandate, therefore the project represented a shift in CIS' mandate.

4) the keys to success for the project were identified as: meeting needs felt at lower levels; designed for and perceived as allowing improvement in job performance with the appropriate rewards; be inspired by best practices and fit into the organization's culture and mandate; and be "owned" by the people who would run and use it. Other factors that would influence success include the communication process, especially as the internal team would transmit feedback to the external team; setting more clear definitions for the terminology and objectives; and the ability of management to transition the project's perception from being a power grab to being a new…… [Read More]

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Strategies and Best Practices for Supported Transitional Employment for Individuals With Disabilities

Words: 2752 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 91771442

Disabled Employees

Strategies and Best Practices for Supported/Transitional Employment for Individuals with Disabilities

People with disabilities are often deprived of employment opportunities and condemned on grounds of low performance, if any organization tends to offer them jobs. Physical disability is not the measurement of cognitive incompetence hence; there is strong need to focus on promoting these individuals in taskforce. It can help them earn for themselves and play their role in organizational development as well.

Strategies and Best Practices for Supported/Transitional Employment for Individuals with Disabilities

In the 21st century, the importance of human beings is increasing as assets to the organization. It is no exaggeration to mention that many organizations officially state that their employees are their most valuable assets. The employees also confirm that their organization is concerned about their professional as well as personal lives and provides them with many opportunities to enjoy both of them. Furthermore,…… [Read More]

References

Banerjee, B.S. (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility: the good, the bad and the ugly. USA: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited

Congress. (1986). Employment Opportunities for Disabled Americans. Retrieved from  http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=iQNdO7z9SR8C&q=employment+opportunities+for+disabled&dq=employment+opportunities+for+disabled&hl=en&sa=X&ei=lG4xUcXrFouKhQfsroGIDw&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAA 

Hindery, L. (2008). Making a difference, Defining Philanthropy and Responsibility. Leaders, 31, 12.

Hunt, H. (1992). New Technologies and the Employment of Disabled Persons, Part 63. USA: ILO.
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Project Management Practices of the

Words: 2187 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 51588270

Starting with the pre-contractual phase, which was for the most part skipped as the EDS teams focused primarily on technologies first, the project lacked the necessary foundation to succeed from a planning standpoint. Focusing on the pre-contractual phase could have also helped to have more clearly defined the SLAs and metrics used for managing the project over the long-term as well (Cross, 2007). With 23 SLAs and 51 metrics, the challenge was one of just having enough time to track the many aspects of reporting needed to fulfill contractual obligations. Lastly, having a more complete pre-contractual phase, there could have been more time to define and execute change management initiatives and programs as well. The lack of phased approach also significantly slowed down the development of the project, with Phase 1, 2 And 3 as defined in the project being more focused on network infrastructure, system-wide connectivity and finally user…… [Read More]

References:

Navy Marine Corps Intranet may never achieve goals: GAO. (2006, December). Aerospace Daily & Defense Report, 220(53), 2.

Baca, C.. (2007, October). Project Manager! Who? Me? Machine Design, 79(20), 64,66,68.

Cross, T.. (2 October 2007). Navy Marine Corps Intranet (NMCI): 2007 Update. Darden Business Publishing Case Collection: UVA-C-2270: Navy Marine Corps Intranet (NMCI): 2007 Update,1-7.

Larry Dignan. (2004, September). How to Interpret Mumbo Jumbo; It's a game we all must play. The answers could save your project - or your career. Baseline, 1(34), 26.
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Ethics to Practice Analysis of 'End of

Words: 2858 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41901193

Ethics to Practice: Analysis of 'end of life' decision making

The foregoing discussion is an incursion into nursing ethics. Implication(s) to 'omission' of information as a customary practice within our healthcare institution is reviewed in relation to best practices pertaining to 'informed consent,' and hospital policy is not definitive. Directed at the evolution of ethical decision making, the general query to the study focuses on the parameters of informed consent where individual practice is concerned.

In the nation of Canada where I am a nurse the number of situations where patient informed consent decisions might be subject to our national code of nursing ethics is many. e face critical ethical dilemmas every day, as emergency procedures and critical care interventions are standard practice. Complexity in decision making is furthered in the conduct and approaches made by international colleagues on contract in our institution by way of exchange.

The primacy of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bullough, B. ed. The Law and the expanding nursing role. New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1980.

Callahan, Joan, ed. Ethical Issues in Profesional Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Canadian Medical Protection Association (CMPA), 2010. Web.

Finlay and Fernandez. Failure to report and provide commentary on research ethics board approval and informed consent in medical journals is discussed Journal of Medical Ethics, 34.10 (2008), 761-764. doi:10.1136/jme.2007.023325.
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Analyzing Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Fcpa

Words: 5505 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19277173

FCPA

The following till take a look at Foreign Corrupt Practice Act or in other words the FCPA.

Discovering the corporate payments difficulty in the middle of the 70s from a blend of work by the Watergate Special Prosecutor office, this includes related additional work and inquiry by SEC-Security and Exchange Commission and the Multinational Corporations Subcommittee by Senator Frank Church. In 1975, within four months, separate hearings were held by the Church Committee on Gulf Oil, Mobil Oil, Northrop, and Lockheed (Koehler). Every one of these corporations became the main subjects of allegations, concerning uncertain payments made either directly or indirectly to officials of foreign government or foreign political parties bearing a business purpose in mind. For example, the Gulf Oil primarily involved the contributions made to political campaigns of the epublic of Korea President. Northrop was mainly involved in making payments to a general in Saudi Arabia. Principally,…… [Read More]

References

Burns, D., Sullivan, & Gibson. (2009). Navigating the FCPA's Complex Scienter Requirements. Retrieved March 18, 2016, from  http://www.gibsondunn.com/publications/Documents/Burns-Sullivan-NavigatingTheFCPAComplexScienterReq.pdf 

Harris, A. (2011). Scholarship @ Claremont -- Claremont Colleges Research. The Impact of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act on American Business from 1977-2010. Retrieved March 18, 2016, from  http://scholarship.claremont.edu/ 

International Whistleblower Reward Law Information Center. (n.d.). History of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Retrieved March 17, 2016, from  http://www.internationalwhistleblower.com/history.html 

KOEHLER, M. The Story of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Ohio State Law Journal, 73(5). Retrieved, from  http://moritzlaw.osu.edu/students/groups/oslj/files/2013/02/73.5.Koehler
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Strategies for Improving APN Practice

Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Creative Writing Paper #: 43294108

Status of Advanced Practice Nursing in Your State or Country

The status of advanced practice nurses (APNs) in the United States has changed significant in recent years, and the scope of their practice now extends into areas that were previously not available to them. Indeed, the American Association of Colleges of Nurses (AACN) reports that APNs can now prescribe medications in at least 45 states, and another 16 states (including Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Montana, Oregon, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, hode Island, Vermont, Washington, Wyoming and the District of Columbia) have authorized APNs to practice independently completely without physician collaboration or supervision (Expanded role for advanced practice nurses, 2016).

Who are the stakeholders?

From a broad perspective, the stakeholders involved in the debate over the precise role of APNs extend to all Americans. The extent to which APNs are authorized to provide healthcare services comparable…… [Read More]

References

Advanced practice nurses. (2016). American Nurses Association. Retrieved from http://www. nursingworld.org/Especiallyforyou/Advancedpracticenurses.

Expanded role for advanced practice nurses. (2016). American Association of Colleges of Nurses. Retrieved from  http://www.aacn.nche.edu/media-relations/fact-sheets/apn-roles .

Issues-at-a-glance: Full practice authority. (2016). American Association of Nurse Practitioners. Retrieved from http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.npamonline.org/resource/resmgr/ imported/Full%20practice%20authority.pdf.
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Growth of Nursing Practice

Words: 1458 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 90796871

Growth in the Practice of Nursing and Patient Care Delivery Models

The practice of nursing is expected to continue growing and changing given the reform initiatives that are taking place in the healthcare system. Some of the factors that are contributing to these changes and growth in nursing practice include the restructuring of healthcare delivery system, increased healthcare costs, increase in demand for nurses, nursing shortage, and increase in the patient population. Given these factors, nurses are expected to continue assuming a wide range of healthcare responsibilities because of the complexities in patient care delivery or caring for the sick (Tiffin, 2012). It is expected that as nursing practice continues to change and grow, new models of patient care delivery will emerge. As nurses, we need to understand these changes/growth and the emerging patient delivery models in order to enhance our practice.

One of the patient care delivery models that…… [Read More]

References

Gulliford, M., Naithani, S. & Morgan, M. (2006, October). What is "Continuity of Care"? Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 11(4), 248-250.

Haney, C. (2010, June 9). New Care Delivery Models in Health System Reform: Opportunities for Nurses & their Patients. Retrieved December 3, 2016, from  http://nursingworld.org/Mainmenucategories/Policy-Advocacy/Positions-and-Resolutions/Issue-Briefs/Care-Delivery-Models.pdf 

Nurse Oncourse Learning (2013, December 9). Nursing: A New Paradigm. Retrieved December 3, 2016, from https://news.nurse.com/2013/12/09/nursing-%C2%97-a-new-paradigm/

Tiffin, C. (2012, March 28). Beyond the Bedside: The Changing Role of Today's Nurses. The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 3, 2016, from  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/charles-tiffin-phd/nursing-school_b_1384285.html
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Change Practice Implementing a Communication

Words: 1468 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Professional Writing Paper #: 68425695

As each relationship in the communication network was dependent on several others for efficacy and efficiency, there had to be some sort of codified an d regulated system. Communications individuals at the department level were responsible for coordinating group communication once every week, using conference calling and other technologies as necessary. Communications individuals at each department were also responsible for meeting with the communications officer at their campus one-on-one every week, and these officers held weekly meetings on Monday mornings. This strategy of detailed management served the organization much better given the complexity of the communications networks and needs within the many parts of the Jewish Home Lifecare organization.

Success in Implementation

As noted above, the change in the communications plan at Jewish Home Lifecare did not meet with immediate success due to the lack of a true strategy for implementing this change. Even after the change was more comprehensively…… [Read More]

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Med Scope and Bob MIS Is a

Words: 1815 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92271553

Med Scope and Bob

MIS is a critical and growing element of many companies in this day of fast-pace computer innovation. As such, it is important for companies to be sure that they make good decisions about which systems to use for numerous reasons. But just as importantly, the choice of MIS components is also symbolic of the level of involvement and engagement across a company. Technological advances introduce new opportunities for employees in companies to share their capabilities and talents and to otherwise engage more openly with others who share the responsibility for making a company succeed. This fact can be amplified in cross-cultural settings that mirror the same kinds of advancement potentials, such as in countries like Australia.

Bob Underwood finds himself in a new leadership position in a subsidiary of a U.S. company located in a deceptively similar nation, Australia. As the article notes prominently, Bob and…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ballow, D.G. (2005). Globalization and Cross-Cultural Issues in Project Management. PMKT, Inc. Viewable at http://www.asapm.org/asapmag/articles/GlobalizPM.pdf.

Communicaid (2009). Doing Business in Australia: Australian Social and Business Culture. Communicaid Group Ltd. Viewable at http://www.communicaid.com/access/pdf/library/culture/doing-business-in/Doing%20Business%20in%20Australia.pdf.

DuPraw, M.E. And Axner, M. (1997). Working on Common Cross-Cultural Communication Challenges. Topsfield Foundation. Viewable at  http://www.pbs.org/ampu/crosscult.html .
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NMCI Project Management Need a Prelimary Scope

Words: 1329 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36610822

NMCI Project Management

Need a prelimary scope statement-based NMCI project provided, analyze critique NMCI project term organization handled estimation, handled quality communication. 2.Explain challenges.

The NMCI (Navy-Marine Corps Intranet) project was meant to link all the Navy's disparate networks, into a single network operated by one contractor. The project was not well estimated in terms of time and money required to fund the whole project. According to Verton (2002)

the contractor EDS (Electronic Data Systems) discovered there were many legacy applications that could not be incorporated into the new system. This increased the number of multiuser kiosks that were required to operate these applications. The amount of time taken for a decision to be reached and approved was longer than had been initially estimated by the contractor. This delay has caused the project to lag behind schedule and if drastic measures are not taken it is likely the project will…… [Read More]

References

 http://www.utsandiego.com/uniontrib/20040729/news_1b29eds.htmlCalbreath , D. (2004). EDS cites losses on military contract, from Feeney, M., & Sult, L. (2011). Project Management in Practice: Implementing a Process to Ensure Accountability and Success. [Article]. Journal of Library Administration, 51(7/8), 744-763. doi: 10.1080/01930826.2011.601273

Joyce, E. (2003). SEC Checking EDS Navy Contract, from  http://www.internetnews.com/bus-news/article.php/2208171 

. NMCI officials press for big changes. (2004), from  http://gcn.com/Articles/2004/06/25/NMCI-officials-press-for-big-changes.aspx?Page=2 

Onley, D.S. (2002). EDS: Despite report, NMCI project's on track, from  http://washingtontechnology.com/articles/2002/05/16/eds-despite-report-nmci-projects-on-track.aspx
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Values and Practices That Comprises

Words: 1606 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39503238

The significance of the nurturance is normal in this phase, it is thus a formative phase suitable for imposing the principles of reformulation that are taking place in the business world. The nurture capital indicates a new strategy for wealth generation. It is a strategy that generates value for the firm and for the society that it serves. The nurture capital strategy redefines priorities and entails a language for addressing such priorities. With application of such principles of nurture capital, efforts can be exerted so as to restructure the game of business, creating and clarifying mutually supporting relationships to construct a sustainable future. (Nurture Capital -- a New Paradigm for Business)

To conclude it may be pointed out the conscious business is on the rise. The differences can better be benefited out of the wise shopping, supporting green business and starting the own enterprises that makes our planet a healthy…… [Read More]

References

Caldwell, Roger. C. "Paradigms - the Big Changes and Shifts in Society" Retrieved from  http://ag.arizona.edu/futures/era/paradigmsmain.html . Accessed on 2 February, 2005

Jeantheau, Mark. "Paradigm Shift-How Some Try to Win by Changing the Rules of the Game" Retrieved from www.learnthis.info/articles/trivia/paradigm-shift -- how-some try-to-win-by-changing-the-rules-of-the-game.html http://www.learnthis.info/articles/trivia/paradigm-shift -- howsome try-to-win-by-changing-the-rules-of-the-game.html Accessed on 2 February, 2005

McNamara, Carter. (1999) "New Paradigm in Management" Retrieved at  http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/paradigm.htm . Accessed on 3 February, 2005

Paradigm Shift" Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved at  http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/paradigm.html . Accessed on 2 February, 2005
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Theory vs Practice in Bouvard and Pecuchet

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 949334

Flaubert, Bouvard and Pecuchet

Gustave Flaubert's posthumously-published novel Bouvard and Pecuchet is a sustained exercise in irony: to some extent this irony can be interpreted as the distance between theory and practice. Bouvard and Pecuchet is a text about texts. The work's eponymous protagonists begin their lives as professional copyists, dutifully transcribing documents they did not author, in the style of a Xerox machine, and Flaubert's planned ending for the unfinished work would see them return to this drudgery. Between these two bookends of the plot, Bouvard and Pecuchet, as beneficiaries of an unexpected financial windfall, retire to the country -- "No more writing! No more bosses!" (Flaubert 14) -- and proceed to devour theoretical texts on a variety of subjects, and then attempt to put them into practice, with invariably ironic disastrous results. Their freedom from "writing" (which is not really writing) turns into an overabundance of reading (which…… [Read More]

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Project Management Scope

Words: 902 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 21882746

Island Spa

Project Manager

Chuck Russell

Prioritization

Owner(s)

Claudia, Yolanda, Hopeson and Jason

Statement of Work -- Project Description and Project Product

This section is typically a detailed amplification of the project SOW and mission from the Project Charter. This also includes how you intent to accomplish the project. "We intend to do this. . . And here are the steps we intend to use to accomplish the project."

This section is typically a detailed amplification of the SOW product description from the Project Charter. What will the product of the project look like or what should it be able to do when completed?

Island Spa will accommodate the growing demand for upscale services in stress management and will offer the personal care, grooming, and hygiene services to professionals living in the target area. Island Spa will offer standard spa services such as massages, facials, manicures, and pedicures, as well…… [Read More]

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Best Practices Best Best Practice

Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92704103



The danger of best practices is that one can become too dependent on the processes. This could cause the organization to miss things simply because they have too much confidence in the system. Relying on best practices too much can mean taking away from the value of the human factor. Human observation is the best prevention that a company can have. It cannot be replaced by a system of set of rules. This is a common pitfall that lies behind many project failures, even in the presence of an excellent set of best practices for the completion of the project.

As one can see, there are both positive and negative aspects to "best practices" in many organizations. From one standpoint, best practices assures that the project will proceed in an orderly fashion. From the other, it is easy to rely too much on best practices and too little on the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kay, R. (2002). System Development Life Cycle. Computerworld. March 14, 2002. Retrieved March 22, 2007 from www.computerworld.com/developmenttopics/development/story/0,10801,71151,00.html

State of Arkansas. (2003) Best Practices for Managing State Information Technology Projects.

September 1, 2003. Office of Information Technology. Document Number: BP33-001.

Retrieved March 22, 2007 from www.techarch.state.ar.us/domains/business_process/best_practices/BP-33-001_Proj_Mgmt.pdf
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Ethical Theory and Moral Practice

Words: 597 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 43571515

Ethical Theory and Moral Practice developed as a cohesive field in the late twentieth century, with the establishment of the Ethical Theory and Moral Practice Journal, in 1998. The theory therefore represents a culmination of scholarly thought and analysis in the fields of philosophy, sociology, and psychology. As a cross-disciplinary theory, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice reveals the increasing hybridization of fields that relate to normative ethics.

Because Ethical Theory and Moral Practice is a relatively new field of scholastic inquiry, the field is currently "undergoing change," ("Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" 2008). Changes reflect shifting social, economic, and political realities. Without falling pray to the traps of ethical relativism, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice remains heterogeneous and diverse.

The roots of the theory are difficult to trace because of the "disciplinary cross-pollination" that has occurred ("Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" 2008).…… [Read More]

References

"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online:  http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links /special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Analyzing Green Human Resource Practices and Environmental Performance

Words: 2079 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 72049734

Geen" Human Resouce Pactices And Envionmental Pefomance

A numbe of entepises have histoically adopted the appoach of compliance within thei envionmental initiatives, and by consequence, ules and legislations guiding thei envionmental appoaches. Howeve, ove the last many yeas, new consume needs, consume boycotts, global envionmental standads, dynamic pefeences, and othe envionmental factos have influenced coe values and the fundamental business stategies of copoations (Daily, Bishop and Steine, 2007). Oganizations ae pat of society, and it is impeative that they function like team playes; this is whee the concept of "geen" management becomes elevant. A key schema now is that a company's outcome is stongly impacted by envionmental concens (Taiq, Jan & Ahmad, 2016).

Envionmental and human esouce (HR) management's effect in the business context elates powefully to a moe compehensive association between oganizations' economic and envionmental pefomance. In this context, it is fequently agued that impoved envionmental pefomance esults in…… [Read More]

references for sustainability and their impact on supply chain management. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 43, 380 -- 406.

Benn, S., Teo, S. T., & Martin, A. (2015). Employee participation and engagement in working for the environment. Personnel Review, 44(4), 492-510.

Boxall, P., Purcell, J., & Wright, P. (2009). Human resource management: Scope, analysis, and significance. In J. Storey, P. Wright, & D. Ulrich (Eds.), The Routledge companion to strategic human resource management (pp. 1 -- 17). New York: Routledge.

Crotty, J., & Rodgers, P. (2012). Sustainable development in the Russia Federation: the limits of greening within industrial firms. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 19(3), 178-190.

Daily, B. F., Bishop, J. W., & Steiner, R. (2007). The mediating role of EMS teamwork as it pertains to HR factors and perceived environmental performance. Journal of Applied Business Research, 23(1), 95.
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Minnie Davis Standard Care Arrangement for a Position as an Advanced Practice Nurse ARPN

Words: 1307 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37089972

Employment Agreement

Nurse Practitioner Employment Contract

EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE FOLLOWING PARTIES:

The following party shall here in be referred to as "Corporation"

GROUP HEALTH CORPORATE,

The following party shall here in be referred to as "EMPLOYEE" or "NP"

MINNIE DAVIS ARNP,

TERMS OF EMPLOYMENT

DURATION

The contract duration is for two years with an option for renewal for five (5) years thereafter.

COMPENSATION

Salary:

The contracted position will be paid at a salary rate of $95,000 per year with a cost of living of 5% every 2 years. The pay is not based on performance.

The contract will be renewed the sixth month after review of the employee's performance.

Paychecks will be issued monthly.

TERMINATION

The termination of this contract may be made under the following conditions.

Violation of State or Federal Law

Breach of the Contract by either Party

Performance of the NP

Desire to Leave the…… [Read More]

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Oldest and Most Widely Practiced Religions in

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83145327

oldest and most widely practiced religions in the world, Hinduism is an attractive and flexible tradition. ith its colorful pantheon of deities, Hinduism has evolved over millennia, and has survived vast transformations in Indian culture. The fundamental teachings of the religion are contained within its sacred texts, namely the Vedas and the Upanishads. Hindu deities like Krishna, Ganesha, and Shiva have become well-known around the world, and Hindu practices like yoga are also renowned.

The Vedas are considered to be divine teachings containing immutable knowledge. However, their scope is wide and diverse. A supreme being is espoused, one who is personal and impersonal, immanent and transcendent. The Supreme Being is viewed as creator of the universe of both seen and unseen realities. The existence of other realms of existence, including deities, is central to Hindu cosmology. Communion with the gods is made possible by spiritual practice, devotion, ritual, sacrifice, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aiyar, C.P.Ramaswami; Dutt, Nalinaksha; Wadia, A.R.; Mujeeb, Pal; Dharm M., and D'Souza, Jerome. "An Introduction to Hinduism." Hindusim. The Gazetteer of India, Volume 1: Country and people. Delhi, Publications Division, Government of India, 1965. 11 June 1997. 3 July 2003.  http://www.uni-giessen.de/~gk1415/hinduism.htm#intro .

Hinduism: The World's Third Largest Religion." About.com. 3 July 2003.  http://www.religioustolerance.org/hinduism.htm .
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Analyzing The Application of Critical Thinking in Evidence Based Practice

Words: 785 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88328881

Evidence-Based Practice

Critical Thinking

Palmer and coworkers (2007) write that the aspect of critical thinking forms a crucial part of the nursing profession, as nurses always encounter complex scenarios that call for precise judgments, constant learning, and taking clinical decisions. Therefore, critical thinking covers a large problem-solving and reasoning process wherein every view and clinical choice has its basis in evidence. This process incorporates the active components of deliberation, insight, and emotional intelligence, in addition to information credibility, learning, and scope for study. Critical thinking within the nursing context is impacted chiefly by environmental, psychological, and physiological factors such as confidence level, age, competences, anxiety, exhaustion, prejudice and colleagues.

The process of critical thinking proves critical to the development of evidence-based practices (EBPs) of nursing. These practices promote customized nursing care, are more efficient, dynamic, and modernized, and maximize clinical judgment outcomes. EBPs may exhibit a positive contribution to patient…… [Read More]

References

Palmer, A., Berman, C. L., Bernardo, L. D., Lobato, C., Howard, E., Cramer, S. (2007). Critical Thinking and Evidence-Based Nursing. The Journal of Nursing. Retrieved from American Society of Registered Nurses: http://www.asrn.org

Proffeto-Mcgrath, J. (2005). Critical Thinking and Evidence-Based Practice. Journal of Professional Nursing, Vol 21, No 63, 64 -- 371. Retrieved from HYPERLINK " https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ " National Center for Biotechnology Information:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
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Various Treatment Practices

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92237373

Multiculturalism

The utterance of multiculturalism generally refers to an applied ideology of racial, cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a specified place, usually at the scale of an organization such as a school, business, neighborhood, city or nation. (Britannica, 2008). Multiculturalism should embody different ethnic clusters living separately but equally together, while sharing in an enhanced capacity to build up the community, as a diverse single unit. However, the word multiculturalism is often viewed or associated with extremist or immigration issues. According to one article on multiculturalism, the vision of multiculturalism is about creating group solidarity, not social disconnection from society. (Anthony Giddens, 2008). A sense of meaning and belonging are powerful agents when it comes to self-orientation or identity. The importance of identity has been nurtured by state policies over the last two decades, which privilege the importance of different cultural identities. (Munira Mirza, 2005)

Bridging the…… [Read More]

Some of the typical stereotypes about Asian-Americans all being financially and socially successful, in addition to being intelligent, are inaccurate. As with any cultural group there is a degree of success as well as failure. There are those who are gifted and those who are average. Cultural conflicts exist in the Asian-American community because of identity problems, thus forcing another culture's value system and methods of healing on to Asian-American clients may send a patient into withdrawal. The English language of communication is another barrier within the Asian-American community. (Sue and Sue, 1990).

In many verbal social-orders, the seniors in the group are pursued for counsel as a sign of respect towards their years of wisdom. For additional assistance beyond the scope of the elder in the community, the counsel of a traditional healer for the culture is approached. Thus, the individual's ethnicity influences the duty of helper to their society. This is dramatically different from the standards for helpers in Western societies. Educational training and any required license to practice is the only requirements of the culture. (C. E. Vontress, 2002).

In emergent countries the relationship between counsel and patient is not governed by a strict