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Monogamy and Infidelity
Sexual attitudes and behavior: The need for monogamy vs. infidelity
Although it is difficult to quantify, it is estimated that "approximately 50% of married men and almost 40% of married women commit adultery" in the United States (Wasson 2000). Yet, despite these relatively high rates of infidelity, the U.S. is often characterized as a 'Puritan' nation regarding sexual practices. Whenever there is a sexual scandal in the United States, there are often many comments about how prudish Americans are, such as during the Monica Lewinsky scandal when a sexual indiscretion virtually paralyzed Bill Clinton's presidency. "The Associated Press reports that 90% of Americans believe that adultery is wrong, and 35% believe it should be considered a crime. Comparatively speaking, while we may be talking the talk, it seems that we are not doing a very good job of walking the walk" (Formica 2010).
Clarke, Stephen (2012). The French relaxed about infidelity? You're pulling my (frog) leg.
The Daily Mail. Retrieved: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/debate/article-2216456/The-French-relaxed-infidelity-Youre-pulling-frog-leg.html#ixzz2IKXXYNAN
Drexler, Peggy. (2012). The new face of infidelity. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved:
Sexual Behavior of Adolescents" elucidated a number of interrelated facts related to the sexual activity of teenagers. The most salient of these is the notion that there is a distinct difference between teens who are virgins and those who have had no sexual experience whatsoever. The research performed within this article expressly denotes that teenagers who have not had vaginal intercourse may still be sexually active in other ways. Other methods of sex that teens regularly engaged in as virgins include oral sex and anal sex. Therefore, one of the biggest misconceptions that this article revealed is that virgins are sexually inactive. They can be, but virgins can also have quite a wide range of sexual experience as well. The primary methodology used to determine this fact included surveying a group of students at a Los Angeles public high school in 1992.
Another fairly eminent aspect of the study utilized…
No author. (2002). "Understanding the Sexual Behaviors of Adolescents." Rand .org. 2002. Web http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/RB4543/index1.html
Socio-Cultural Influences on Sexuality
Sexuality is an integral part of our life and a recurring concept that shapes our growth. The role that sexuality performs in the lives of young people is essential because we see its impact through several resources in life like social culture and media. Throughout the society, sexuality is present; across the shopping center, whether monitoring the family lifestyle or observing teenagers interact socially. What contributes to a healthy sexual relationship? Is it intimacy, attraction, love, or communications with one another? This study focuses on the factors relating to the socio-cultural impacts on sexuality contributing to the wholeness of an individual.
In psychology, it is understood that people are developed and influenced by biological, genetic predispositions, and environmental factors. The environmental factors build schemas, values, and ideas into the way a person believes about the world. Typically, young children notice what it means to be female…
Balswick, J.K., & Balswick, J.O. (2008). Authentic human sexuality: An integrated Christian approach. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic.
Greenberg, J.S. & Conklin, S.C. (2011). Exploring the dimensions of human sexuality. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Gebhard, P.H. & Pomeroy, W.B. (2013). Sexual behavior in the human female. Philadelphia, Pa. [u.a.: Saunders.
media's influence sexual behaviors values 20 years. Examine sexual behaviors values changed time frame. Investigate types media print, film, music. Consider questions: •How laws changed? •How affected acceptable today vs. acceptable time periods? •How cultures differ media influence? •How cultures differ sexual behaviors values? •How cultures portray sexuality media? Include a minimum 10 scholarly references.
That the media exerts a rather dominant influence in the modern world is not debatable. That it has been influencing decision making, patterned thinking, behavioral responses, is also unquestionable. Much has been studied and speculated on the reasons why this has happened and why is it that our societies seem to rely extensively on the media for certain answers, guidance, etc. In this paper however, it is not the why's that interest us but rather to trace the how of what the media has brought about in terms of change in relation to behaviors and…
Park, Eunice. (1998). Physician-assisted suicide: State legislation teetering at the pinnacle of a slippery slope. William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal 7(1): 277 -- 304. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.wm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1432&context=wmborj
Smith, M. (1993). The Rodriguez case: A review of the Supreme Court of Canada decision on assisted suicide. Library of Parliament Background Paper No. BP -- 349E. Retrieved from http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection-R/LoPBdP/BP-e/bp349-e.pdf
Tiedemann, M., Nicol, J., & Valiquet, D. (2011). Euthanasia and assisted suicide: International experiences. Library of Parliament Background Paper No. 2011-67-E. Retrieved from http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/lop/researchpublications/2011-67-e.pdf
Atypical Sexual Behavior (paraphilias): Signs of a Changing Culture
New York Times article recently reported that clinical psychologists are seeing an increasing number of patients reporting that they engage in abnormal sexual behavior (Goleman, 1991). Kinsey noted that in the years 1948 and 1953 as many as half of the Americans surveyed participated in sexual activities that could be considered masochistic or sadistic (such as biting or spanking) (Kinsey, et. al, 1948: Kinsey, et. Al., 1953). This trend seems to have slightly increased in prevalence, however, still remains close to the 61% mark (Donelly and Straus, 1994).
This issue raises several questions. The first is whether society has "done something" to create this phenomenon. In other words, is there an environmental factor that is making otherwise normal people engage in deviancy? Does it mean that our definitions of "normal" are changing and that these behaviors have always been a part…
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Washington: American Psychiatric Association.
DeMause, Lloyd (1991). "The Universality of Incest." Journal of Psychohistory, 19, 123-164.
Donnelly, D., & Straus, M. (1994). "The fusion of sex and violence." In M.A. Straus, Beating the devil out of them: Corporal punishment in American families. Boston: Lexington/MacMillan.
Freud, Sigmund (1905). Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie. Vienna: Franz Deuticke (English translation)
ichards Marcum a minimum 5 sources
From ancient times, criminal laws have been created to control and ensure safety of society. Time to time changes in law as well as crime varies with the intentions to control criminal conduct and mitigate the troubles experienced by victimized people. Sexual exploitation is one such classification of wrongdoing that has been stamped by intense changes in public perception and enactment of laws. These progressions have influenced not just the way in which guilty parties are taken care of by the criminal equity framework as well as the reaction to survivors of sexual exploitation also (ichards & Marcum, 2015).
How legislation has led to an increase in number to sexual offenders?
Offenders of sexual crimes are wholly abhorred, loathed, and seen as risks to the society at large who need to be bolted up and held under reconnaissance. Following the huge publicity of cries…
Finkelhor, D., & Browne, A. (1985). The traumatic impact of child sexual abuse: A conceptualization. American Journal Of Orthopsychiatry, 55(4), 530-541. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1985.tb02703.x
Hlavka, H., & Uggen, C. (2008).Does stigmatizing sex offenders drive down reporting rates? Perverse effects and unintended consequences. Northern Kentucky Law Review, 35(4), 347-369. Retrieved from https://www.soc.umn.edu/~uggen/Hlavka_Uggen_NKLR_08.pdf
Prescott, J., & Rockoff, J. (2008). Do Sex Offender Registration and Notification Laws Affect Criminal Behavior?. SSRN Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1915394
Richards, T., & Marcum, C. (2015). Sexual victimization. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.
Peer competence was defined as a "child being well liked by others and having clearly identifiable, mutual friends. Additionally, others respect her/him, and follow his/her ideas." (Zimmer-Gembeck, et al.) Although teacher may know their students well, there is no guarantee that a teacher is completely accurate in an assessment of something with so many variables.
Based on these measures of peer acceptance and attractiveness, many questions would simply go unanswered. For example, in neighborhoods where crime is rampant, social acceptance may be based on an ability to survive yet in a different atmosphere social acceptance may be based on clothing allowance - when there is cross contamination of these two social settings, is a person still as accepted and therefore attractive?
Subjective Reflection do not want my attempt of presenting an analytical, informative, and critical assessment of this research project to understate my disappointment in the overall project. I was…
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J., et al. "A Prospective Study of Intraindividual and Peer Influences on Adolescents' Heterosexual Romantic and Sexual Behavior." Archives of Sexual Behavior August, Vol. 33 No. 4 (2004): 381-(14).
Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky Sexual Behavior
Since the ancient days of Bacchanalian celebratory worship of the Greek pantheon, the consumption of alcohol and risky sexual rites have gone hand in hand. Both drinking and sex are considered to be pleasurable activities, and conservative or religious portions of the population may consider them to be sinful or immoral on varying scales. Regardless of whether alcohol and sexual activities have a negative social stigma within a certain social group, peer group, or subculture, these activities are inevitably associated with some risk. Physical, emotional, and social well-being are put on the line when partaking in drinking or sexual modern rituals. The combination of these activities may increase the level of risk associated with them, and likewise they may also be contributing factors to the likelihood that the other will occur (e.g., drinking may increase the chance of sexual activity). However, despite the…
2000, April 28) Alcohol policy and sexually transmitted disease rates -- United States, 1981-1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Business Publishers. (2004, February) High-risk drinking and sexual assault go hand-in-hand, researchers find. Campus Crime, 14.2, 13.
Coren, C. (2003, January-February) Timming, amount of teenage alcohol or marijuana use may make future risky sex more likely. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health.
Chandra, P.S. (2003, February) High-risk sexual behaviour & sensation seeking among heavy alcohol users. Indian Journal of Medical Research.
Teenage Sexual Development:
"They Know What Boys Want"
Teenagers have always learned about sex from their peers as well as their parents and teachers. However, the Internet is another easily accessible form of information that provides uncensored and often extreme images on which very young adolescents may model their sexual selves. According to a 2011 article in New York Magazine, entitled "They know what boys want," of the students interviewed by the reporter, "every one of them said he or she had seen 'inappropriate material' online" (2011, p.2). Many of the girls reproduced the professional, pornographic sexual images they saw online in their own selfies which they posted on Facebook and other social media. Even if the teens express disgust at the images, the pictures clearly provide them with a model of how to present themselves, a way of depicting their sexuality which the teenagers are apt to mimic as…
Growing evidence links sexting to teenagers' sexual activity; link to risky behavior less clear.
(2015). Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 47: 51-52. Retrieved from: doi: 10.1363/475157_1
Morris, A. (2011). They know what boys want. New York Magazine. Retrieved from:
risky behavior, unprotected sex can lead to serious health consequences. isky sexual behaviors include having sex frequently with strangers or multiple partners, particularly without the use of condoms. Similarly, avoiding birth control can be considered a risky sexual behavior. Physiological consequences of unprotected sex include the contraction of a sexually-transmitted infection, many of which can lead to fatal illnesses like HIV / AIDS or Hepatitis. Gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted infections present serious health consequences even when they are not life-threatening. In the United States, about 15 million people are infected every year with a sexually transmitted illness (SIU School of Medicine, 2010). Morbidity rates for sexually transmitted illnesses are high overall, and in fact, STIs are the most commonly reported of all communicable diseases in some states (Washington State Department of Health, 2014). Common sexually transmitted illnesses include chlamydia and herpes. Chlamydia morbidity rates are far higher for women…
Healthwise (2015). High risk sexual behavior. http://www.webmd.com/sex/tc/high-risk-sexual-behavior-topic-overview
SIU School of Medicine (2010). Sexual behavior. Retrieved online: http://www.siumed.edu/medicine/gim/sexual_behavior.htm
Washington State Department of Health (2014). STI Fast Facts. Retrieved online: http://www.doh.wa.gov/Portals/1/Documents/Pubs/347-350-FastFacts2013.pdf
CBT can be effectively used in a variety of stressful or tense situations. Depending on the nature of the issue, focusing on changing behaviors often aids the individual in reducing an addiction, changing their approach to a situation, or focusing on interaction and dialog issues. CBT may be used, for example, with:
Severe anxiety from a recent sexual assault -- CBT may be used to unearth the issues surround the assault and resulting anxiety by helping the client focus on adaptation. The therapist should help the client understand that they were a victim, did not choose the issue, and the fault of the issue is with the perpetrator. Anxious feelings are a rational response to trauma, but by practicing assertion training, the client can take charge of their own emotions and begin to heal (SOUCE, p. 23).
A Gay/Bisexual person struggling to come out to friends and family --…
Follette, V. And J. Ruzek, eds. (2007). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for Trauma, 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press.
Fong, T. (2006). Understanding and Managing Compulsive Sexual Behaviors. Psychiatry. 3 (11): 51-58. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945841/
Wright, J. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. In J. Wright (Ed.), Review of Psychiatry (Vol. 23). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Sexual Fantasy: Coming of Age in Modern America
Portnoy's Complaint and The Brief ondrous life of Oscar ao are two bildungsroman (coming of age stories) that suggest there are profound discrepancies between exterior and interior realities. Like The Bonfire of the Vanities, another classic chronicle of the tension between social personas and the dark underbelly of individual psychologies, these stories suggest that to be an American is to have a divided self. In all three novels, main characters project a moral, often a seemingly asexual surface, but beneath that social self, darker and more passionate desires seethe within. Each character has a sexual fantasy or obsession: in the case of Alexander Portnoy, it is gentile females, in the case of Sherman McCoy it is a lower-class woman, in the case of Oscar ao it is beautiful women he can never have because of his physical appearance.
The titular hero of…
Diaz, Junot. The Brief Wondrous life of Oscar Wao. New York: Riverhead, 2007.
Roth, Phillip. Portnoy's Complaint. New York: Vintage, 1994.
Wolf, Tom. The Bonfire of the Vanities. New York: Bantam, 1998.
This links the two just as the more terse speaking style of Deborah and Dan link them. In the end, though, the characters in the play are linked largely on the basis of gender, with the two men seen more and more alike and the two women turning to one another in a world where men cannot relate to them. In spite of the way Joan talks about men, the play cannot help but depict the man as more at fault than women for the failure to connect, and the women see this as the case, while the men seem oblivious to the whole idea of their being at fault. That lack of awareness may indeed be the primary reason why the men are at fault. The women want to make a connection with the men, even if they find it difficult to do, while the men tend more toward…
Mamet, David. Sexual Perversity in Chicago and the Duck Variations. New York:
Grove Press, 1974.
For instance, according to Begley, "Men who were promiscuous back then were more evolutionarily fit since men who spread their seed widely left more descendants. By similar logic, evolutionary psychologists argued, women who were monogamous were fitter; by being choosy about their mates and picking only those with good genes, they could have healthier children" (2009, p. 52). Although modern men and women may not look like Cro-Magnums, they all want to act like them deep down inside because of these primordial drives. In sum, Begley concludes that, "We all carry genes that led to reproductive success in the Stone Age, and that as a result men are genetically driven to be promiscuous and women to be coy, that men have a biological disposition to rape and to kill mates who cheat on them, and that every human behavior is 'adaptive' -- that is, helpful to reproduction" (emphasis added) (p.…
Begley, S. (2009, June 29). Why do we rape, kill and sleep around? Newsweek, 153(26), 52.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Druzin, B.H. & Li, J.C. (2011, Spring). The criminalization of lying: Under what circumstances, if any, should lies be made criminal? Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 101(2), 529-540.
Duke, S. (2009, April 27). Kinsey: Deviancy is the new normal. The New American, 25(9), 33-35.
Freud, in fact, went as far as defining the energizing force (libido) of humans as sexual in nature (Demartino & Stacey, p. 4).
Like the instinct theory, the drive reduction theory, too, subscribed to the functional significance of actions. The difference, however, is that drive reduction theory suggested that physiological needs, or deficits, instigate behaviors that result in the offset of those needs. Hull, the chief proponent of this theory, hypothesized that "drives" were a motivational characteristic of need states, which result from physiological disequilibrium. Therefore, drives generate energy and instigate behaviors designed to return the organism to a state of equilibrium: "...a common denominator of all primary motivations, whether due to food privation, thermal deviations...the action of sex hormones...." (einer, p. 87-92) Thus, the drive reduction theory explained sexual motivation as a drive, which resulted from a state of physiological imbalance caused by hormones.
The instinct and drive reduction…
Demartino, M.F., & Stacey, C.L. "Understanding Human Motivation." Cleveland, OH:
H. Allen, 1958.
Johnson, K.M. "Human Sexual Motivation." Spring 1997. California State University,
Northridge. Accessed Nov. 21, 2004: http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/sexmotiv.htm
The former has proved to be overly adverse in effect to the extent that it invalidated any positive effect. Other drug types such as neuroleptics have also only had limited effects in treating sex offenders.
Grossman, Martis and Fichtner (1999, p. 351) refer to the advent of antiandrogen medications as "among the most important" of biological interventions for sex offenders. These medications reduce the serum level of testosterone, with the effect that devious sexual fantasies and behavior are also reduced. In addition, the authors cite studies indicating that such medications also reduce other sexual functions such as libido, erections, ejaculations, and sprematogenesis. In terms of somatic treatments, the authors indicate that antiandrogen medications have so far proven to be the most effective.
On the other end of the spectrum is psychological and behavioral treatment, as it specifically manifests in cognitive-behavioral interventions (Grossman, Martis and Fichtner, 1999, p. 354). Until this…
Gordon, Harvey & Grubin, Don. (2004). Psychiatric aspects of the assessment and treatment of sex offenders. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment vol. 10, 73-80. http://apt.rcpsych.org/cgi/reprint/10/1/73
Grossman, Linda S., Martis, Brian & Fichtner, Christopher G. (1999, March). Are sex offenders treatable? A research overview. Psychiatric Services, Vol 50, No 3. http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/reprint/50/3/349.pdf
Hallett, Allison. (2006, Dec). Sex offender management programming in Massachusetts. Corrections Today. Database: FindArticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6399/is_7_68/ai_n29318728/
Kersting, Karen (2003, Jul/Aug). New hope for sex offender treatment. Monitor on Psychology. Vol. 34, No. 7. http://www.apa.org/monitor/julaug03/newhope.html
As I grew older and my friends began experimenting with and discussing sexual behavior, my attitudes began to shift. While I still highly value monogamy and a sense of faithfulness as well as the "purity" that comes with having only one loving partner -- while I still see sex and sexual acts as something more than merely physical, that is -- I also no longer believe that sex is sinful or as degrading as it is made to seem in certain Christian contexts. It was the influence of my social group that led me to believe this, as I believe my friends are good, kind, and decent human beings regardless of what their attitude towards sex is or what their sexual practices are, and I also found that an acceptance of human nature was more in keeping with my religious views than the condemnation of certain ultimately harmless behaviors if…
Sexual and Religious Ideologies of uddhism in North India
uddhism is the fourth largest religion in the world, exceeded only by Christianity, Islam and Hinduism (Robinson, 1982). The uddha, Siddhartha Gautama, founded udhiam in Northern India. When uddha was 29, he left his wife, children and community involvements in order to seek truth and Nirvana. At the time, it was acceptable for men to leave their family and seek spiritual enlightenment.
uddha rejecting both extremes of the mortification of the flesh and of hedonism as paths toward the state of Nirvana (Warren, 1963). uddha spread the belief that in order to live a life without pain and suffering, people are required to eliminate any attachments to worldly goods. Only when this is accomplished will they be afforded peace and happiness. uddhists believe that they must rid themselves of greed, hatred, and ignorance.
uddhists strive to cultivate four attitudes into their…
The Dhammapada, ed. And trans. Juna Mascaro (London, Penguin Books, 1973).
Tales from the Kathasaritsagara, trans. Arshia Sattar (London: penguin, 1994).
The Divine Madman: the Sublime Life and Songs of Drukpa Kunley. Trans. Keithe Dowman and Sonam Paljor. (London: Rider, 1980)
Ashvaghosha, Buddhacarita, in Budhist Scriptures, ed. trans. Edward Conze (London: Penguin Books, 1959)
Specifically, Schmitt addresses sexuality under what he refers to as a pluralistic perspective, asserting that men and women alike exist under a pretense of lifelong alterations in sexual desires and that in both, there may be some degree of inherent tendency toward a wide array of sexual desires across the course of a lifetime. However, the study also notes that even under this precondition, there is consistent and demonstrable empirical evidence to suggest that there is indeed some instinctual drive by the male to desire more than one sexual partner throughout his life than a is present for the female. For the female, sexual intercourse is likely to be more selective and driven by an interest in attaining certain desirable mating or socializing qualities in the partner. In contrast, the male will be more prone to apply broader standards and shorter incubation period before consent to intercourse. (Schmitt, 3) In…
Gowaty, P.A. (2003). Sexual Natures: How Feminism Changed Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 28.
Schmitt, D.P. (2003). The Big Five related to risky sexual behaviour across 10 world regions: differential personality associations of sexual promiscuity and relationship infidelity. Personality and Social Relations, 18(4).
Schmitt1, D.P. (2003). Universal Sex Differences in the Desire for Sexual Variety: Tests from 52 Nations, 6 Continents, and 13 Islands. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(1).
Whitten, R.G. (1982). Hominid Promiscuity and the Sexual Life of Proto-Savages: Did Australopithecus Swing? Current Anthropology, 23(1).
If you're confused about sex, you've come to the right place. The Bible, more than any other modern resource, offers clear-cut guidelines for how to deal with sexuality and sexual behavior. In fact, sex is one of the Bible's favorite subjects. Throughout both the Old and New Testaments, the Bible offers advice for young people and old regarding their sexual conduct, sexual morals, and heterosexual relationships. The Bible spells out clearly what behaviors will make you happy and which will cause you problems. Now, you don't need a Bible to realize that improper sexual conduct can lead to problems like disease or to parenthood before you are ready. However, when you are confused, turn to the Bible for inspiration and guidance.
In spite of what you might think, the Bible is pro-sex. The Bible teaches that sex can be a sacred and profoundly spiritual act of union between…
Janove (2001) does point out that there are many victims of sexual harassment in the workplace, but that often those most affected tend to keep quite, or attempt to avoid their harassers altogether when possible.
In a case study the author points out that some managers still fail to take action against supervisors or managers that may be engaging in sexually harassing behaviors, in part because they may be engaging in similar behaviors themselves. This was shown to be more often the case in a male dominated work environment that one that was more gender neutral.
Silence according to the author does not indicate a lack of knowledge regarding H law or sexual harassment issues, but rather suggests that many employees have expressed a desire to avoid conflict rather than face the consequences of coming forth against harassers.
The author cites a study reported by Joan Kennedy Taylor in "What…
Rotundo, M., Nguyen, DH, Sackett, P. (2001). "A Meta-Analytic Review of Gender
Differences in Perceptions of Sexual Harassment." Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5):914-922. 12, November, 2004:
Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits.
There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first stages is excitement, which Mary Jane is not getting with her partners, which is triggered by psychological or physical stimulation, and is marked by emotional changes, and increased heart rate, and vaginal swelling. Second stage is plateau, Mary Jane states she doesn't have this stimulation. The third stage is orgasm, which Mary Jane doesn't getting during intercourse, or she doesn't remember because she in under the influence of alcohol. The final phase, resolution, involves a rush of blood away…
It might be fair to say that the emotional and intellectual intelligence of the teens as it concerns sex and the choices they make for their selves is only as mature as that of their parents.
This means that there remains much work to be done in helping parents acquire the necessary skills and mindset to engage in coherent and informative conversations about sex with their children when their children are experiencing the gonadal physiological and social changes as a result of early maturation. As Levine has pointed out in her article, the number of female predators that are preying upon adolescent boys has only in recent years drawn the attention of law enforcement as a criminal behavior (p. 357). There are some states, such as Louisiana, that have actually taken steps to limit the school's ability to provide introductory sex education to adolescents (Yoo, Seunghyun, Johnson, Carolyn, ice, Janet,…
Edwards, W.M., & Coleman, E. (2004). Defining Sexual Health: A Descriptive Overview. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 33(3), 189+. Retrieved March 19, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005998311 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001138774
Herdt, G., & Mcclintock, M. (2000). The Magical Age of 10. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29(6), 587. Retrieved March 19, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001138774
Table of Contents
III. Related Topics
VI. Essay Hook
VII. Thesis Statement
B. Harvey Weinstein
C. Other Accusations
X. Works Cited
In this essay about Sexual Misconduct and the Fall of Hollywood, we examine how the allegations of sexual impropriety by some of Hollywood’s power players has led to a major shake-up in the entertainment industry. This essay will contain a list of some of the Hollywood players accused of sexual harassment or sexual assault, the allegations against them, and at least partial lists of their known accusers. The essay will also delve into an examination of the casting couch phenomenon. Although these sexual misconduct allegations may have come as a surprise to much of middle America, there is substantial evidence that many of Hollywood’s rich and powerful were well aware of the sexual…
GE commits itself to active achievement of diversity for enhancing the firm's performance through recognition and utilization of the diverse talents and skills of its directors, managers, and staff members. Diversity encompasses recognizing and appreciating the unique inputs of different members of an organization, owing to their different backgrounds, skill sets, viewpoints, and experiences, including individuals with concomitant domestic responsibilities. GE cherishes the differences among its workforce, as well as their contribution to the organization. GE further commits itself to abolition of discrimination and supporting diversity among its staff members. The company's aim is making its workforce a true representative of every societal group, and making every employee feel valued and capable of contributing their best.
Thus, the goal of this diversity policy is providing fairness and equality to all employees of the company, and not discriminating against anyone on the basis of gender, race, color, religion, marital…
Acas (2006). Tackling discrimination and promoting equality. Retrieved 28 July 2015 from http://www.acas.org.uk/media/pdf/j/2/B16_1.pdf
Amaguin, R. (n.d.). Implement a Sexual Harassment Policy and Avoid a Harassment Claim EmploymentLawFirms.com. Retrieved July 28, 2015, from http://www.employmentlawfirms.com/resources/employment/workplace-safety-and-health/implement-sexual-harassment-policy.htm
Caltex Diversity Policy (n.d.). Retrieved 28 July 2015 from http://www.caltex.com.au/aboutus/documents/policiesprocesses/caltex%20diversity%20policy.pdf
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (n.d.). Sexual Harassment. Retrieved from: http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/sexual_harassment.cfm
STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…
CDC. (2013). CDC Fact Sheet: Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/STI-Estimates-Fact-Sheet-Feb-2013.pdf .
CDC. (2011). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2011. Altlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats11/Surv2011.pdf .
Dyck, E.V., Meheus, A.Z., & Piot, P. (1999). Laboratory Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Katz, A.R., Lee, M.V.C., & Wasserman, G.M. (2012). Sexually transmitted disease (STD) update: A review of the CDC 2010 STD treatment guidelines and epidemiologic trends of common STDs in Hawai'i. Hawai'I Journal of Medicine & Public Health, 71(3), 68-73.
Pluralistic Ignorance and Hooking UP
The peer-reviewed article published in The Journal of Sex Research (Pluralistic Ignorance and Hooking UP) -- written by Lambert, Kahn, and Apple from James Madison University -- seeks to find out (through research using 136 female and 128 male college students) the attitudes and level of ignorance involved in casual sexual relations.
This article was published about twelve years ago, but it is likely that the attitudes and approaches to casual sexual relations among college students is essentially the same, albeit that is an assumption that is not backed up by research. To begin with, the authors describe "pluralistic ignorance" -- a key point in this presentation -- as though each person thinks that privately he or she is unique and not part of the norm (Lambert, et al. 2003). But the individual nonetheless goes along with the norm "…because of a desire to fit…
Lambert, T.A., Kahn, A.S., and Apple, K.J. (2003). Pluralistic Ignorance and Hooking Up.
The Journal of Sex Research, 40(2), 129-133.
Subconscious Sexual Attraction and Gender
Sexual desire is a complex science, perhaps equally impacted by sociological imperatives as by innate biological imperatives. hile physical attractiveness constitutes one basic and salient reason that individuals are drawn to one another, this feature only serves as part of the explanation for what causes unilateral or mutual desire. A host of other subconscious factors enter into the reaction that is triggered when one individuals is sexually attracted to another. As the discussion hereafter will demonstrate, sexual attraction is influenced by a subconscious-level reading of DNA and a fulfillment of gender-loaded biological imperatives. The discussion will additionally demonstrate that while procreation is often the biological and the subconscious engine driving sexual attraction, sociological forces such as control and patriarchy have also long played a part in how gendered sexuality is studied, discussed and even how it is manifested. These sociological and biological forces…
Esybron Institute Female Sexuality Research Center (EIFSRC). (2007). The Nature of Sexual Desire. Esybron Institute.
Jensen, R. (2007). Getting Off: Pornography and the End of Masculinity. South End Press.
Miller, G.; Tybur, J.M. & Jordan, B.D. (2007). Ovulatory Cycle Effects on Tip Earnings by Lap Dancers: Economic Evidence for Human Estrus? Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 375-381.
Schmitt, D.P. (2003). Universal Sex Differences in the Desire for Sexual Variety: Tests from 52 Nations, 6 Continents, and 13 Islands. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(1).
Sexual Child Abuse
Child sexual abuse involves a broad range of sexual behaviors that take place between a child and an older person. These sexual behaviors are planned to erotically stir the older person, commonly without concern for the consequences, choices, or outcome of the behavior upon the child. efinite conducts that are sexually offensive frequently involve bodily contact, such as in the state of sexual kissing, touching, fondling of genitals, and oral, anal, or vaginal contact. Nevertheless, behaviors might be sexually abusive even if they do not entail contact, such as in the case of genital exposure, verbal force for sex, and sexual abuse for purposes of prostitution or pornography.
For efinitions propose four main types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and child neglect), but seldom if ever does one form of abuse happen alone. The suggestion in itself is illogical. Physical abuse and sexual…
Diagnostic and Treatment Guidelines on Mental Health Effects of Family Violence. American Medical Association Web Site.
McClendon, Patricia D. November (1991). MSSW candidate. Incest/sexual abuse of children. Internet. p.23. Available: http://www.clinicalsocialwork.com/incest.html
National Association of Social Worker News. (1997, February). States eye domestic abuse welfare option. NASW News, Volume 42, #7, pp11.
Sexual Assault Treatment Center
Describe the social problem for the community
Sexual assault is a criminal sexual act, either physical or otherwise, committed by a perpetrator against a victim (usually a child) using physical, intimidation/force, or emotional manipulation. Sexual assault subjects the victim to the perpetrator's demands through use of coercion, force, manipulation or explicit/implicit threats. Sexual assault is considered criminal because the act is committed against a victim without seeking his or her consent. Sexual assaults are also considered wrong and criminal regardless of the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim or the religion, culture, sex, sexual orientation or age of the victim. In case the victim is a child, sexual assault is termed as sexual abuse. In sexual abuse an adult uses his or her position of power to satisfy their desires. As mentioned earlier, sexual assault can be with or without physical contact and it may…
Alexander, P. (1992). Application of attachment theory to the study of sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(2), 185-95.
Amnesty International. (2005). Amnesty International Report. London: Times.
Appalachian State University. (2016). Sexual Assault Facts. Retrieved Febuary 6, 2016, from Appalachian State University: http://sexualassault.appstate.edu/sexual-assault-rape/sexual-assault-facts
Berliner, L., & Saunders, B. (n.d.). Treating fear and anxiety in sexually abused children. Research grantees report to NCCAN. Seattle, WA: Sexual Assault Center, Harborview Medical Center.
3) Implement formal and informal problem solving mechanisms, grievance procedures, investigative measures, and disciplinary procedures to resolve sexual harassment complaints.
4) at least once a year, conduct training sessions for employees. These sessions should teach employees what sexual harassment is, explain that employees have a right to a workplace free of sexual harassment and review your complaint procedure and encourage employees to use it.
5) at least once a year, conduct training sessions for supervisors and managers that are separate from the employee sessions. The sessions should educate the managers and supervisors about sexual harassment and explain how to deal with complaints.
6) Monitor your work environment by talking to employees and inspecting the workplace for offensive material
7) Take all complains seriously. Immediately investigate complains and respond to all valid threats.
8) Assess the work environment for sexual harassment awareness by surveying employees and union members.
9) Hire human…
Preventing sexual harassment in the workplace. http://cobrands.business.findlaw.com/employment_employer/nolo/ency/7440C7F8-0B89-46E4-A1DE73FE99AA61E0.html
Sexual harassment prevention http://www.workplacesolutions.org/questions/harassment.cfm
2010). That said, Perry notes that "we know surprisingly little" about whether the training actually creates "positive change"; and given that lack of specific knowledge, the authors present what they call the "best training practices" that are available for HR departments and managers (187).
The "best practices" factors that have proven successful in preparing HR professionals in matters of sexual harassment include: a) "Pre-training factors" (an assessment of who needs the training; how will the training take place; and what will the content be); b) "Training Design and Delivery Factors" (this is an area where there is no one good answer; in some situations "passive" methods might be best and in other situations "experiential" methods might be better); and c) "Post-training Factors" (once learning has taken place, thee needs to be "reinforcement" to keep trainees motivated to use what they learned during the training exercises (Perry, 190).
Meanwhile, Canada certainly…
Boxall, P. (2013). Mutuality in the Management of Human Resources: Assessing the Quality of Alignment in Employment Relationships. Human Resource Management Journal, 23(1), 3-
Perry, E.L., Kulik, C.T., and Field, M.P. (2009). Sexual Harassment Training: Recommendations
To Address Gaps Between the Practitioner and Research Literatures. Human Resource
The term sexual harassment refers to unreasonable intrusion into a person's personal space in relation to comments or actions of a sexual nature. There are laws dating back to the 1960s under the Civil ights Act that target this issue in the workplace. This law was enacted to prohibit this type of behavior at work in addition to providing a framework or guidelines for employers to resolve the issue. There are several types of harassment considered unlawful and the focus here is to understand and determine how employees can respond to sexual actions in the workplace that create a hostile work environment (Employment Law 2011).
There are several circumstances in the workplace where sexual advances or comments are considered inappropriate, unreasonable, even hostile according to Employment and the Law (2011). Comments that repeat innuendo of a sexual nature such as dirty jokes, lewdness or slurs against the opposite…
EEOC. com. (2011). Policy guidance on current issues of sexual harassment. Retrieved December 2, 2011 from http://www. eeoc. gov/facts/fs-sex. html
Employment Law. (2011). Sexual harassment. Retrieved December 2, 2011 from http://employment-law. freeadvice. com/sexual_harassment/types_harassment. htm
Klein, K. (2007). Unwelcome attention disorder. Business Week. Retrieved December 2,
2011 from http://www. businessweek. com/smallbiz/content/apr2007/sb20070404_174075. htm
Sexual harassment is a dangerous weed which needs to be rooted out from our society. This malady threatens our fundamental constitutional basis of freedom and equality for all. Implementing a good sexual harassment policy at the organizational level and strict enforcement of punishments for offenders is the rightful solution to the problem.
Sexual harassment has assumed huge proportions and is an omnipresent problem raising its hood in all social and professional domains. Women, being the weaker sex are the most affected by this social evil and all the positive achievements of the women's liberation movement have been spoilt by this malady. Gender discrimination continues to haunt us and at every level and it has cast a doubt on the general notion of America as a nation of liberty and gender equality. The corporate sector is no more a secure place for women, with sexual harassment cases getting revealed one by…
Juliene Hefter, "Sexual harassment Training for Part time or Seasonal Staff - Tip -Off," July 2003, Accessed on August 10th 2004, at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1145/is_7_38/ai_106226864
Anita Hoffman, Louis Hamlin, 'Perioperative Nurses and Sexual Harassment', Retrieved on August 10th 2004, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0FSL/5_76/94538204/p1/article.jhtml?term=
Patricia A Marvel, "Motivational Factors That Keep Women Silent About Sexual Harassment," Retrieved on August 11th 2004 from, http://www.iusb.edu/~journal/1998/Paper8.html
Kimberly A. Lambert, "An Employer's Shield: Prompt And Effective Investigation of Sexual Harassment Charges," Accessed on August 12th 2004, from, http://www.boonesmith.com/anemploy.html
This must be done with care so that the accused offender does not attempt to take retaliatory action against the accuser. The Goforth article discusses how the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Ohio Civil Rights Commission use outreach programs to show business leaders how a proactive approach to sexual harassment issues can prevent lawsuits, protect bottom lines and preserve reputations. The article recommends that employers must take an active role in creating an atmosphere in which employees like to come to work. Sexual harassment in this case must be addressed on a personal level with employees, to put the challenge out in the open.
A third suggestion of how to deal with sexual harassment in the workplace is mentioned in Elliot's article. Elliot suggestions that all employers should implement and strictly enforce a sexual harassment policy, and he offers a list of items that any good policy must include.…
(American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
IV. Side Effects of Sildenafil
Side effects of taking Sildenafil include those as follows:
headache heartburn diarrhea flushing (feeling of warmth)
nosebleeds difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep numbness, burning, or tingling in the arms, hands, feet, or legs muscle aches changes in color vision (seeing a blue tinge on objects or having difficulty telling the difference between blue and green)
sensitivity to light (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
Serious side effects are the following and occurrence of this requires immediate notification of the physician:
sudden severe loss of vision (see below for more information)
blurred vision sudden decrease or loss of hearing ringing in ears
erection that is painful or lasts longer than 4 hours dizziness or lightheadedness fainting chest pain worsening shortness of breath itching or burning during urination rash (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009…
Sildenafil (2009) AHFS Consumer Medication Information. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Online available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=meds&log$=drug_bottom_one&part=a699015
Swearingen, S. And Klausner, J. (2009) Sildenafil Use, Sexual Risk Behavior, and Risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases including HIV infection. The American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 118, Issue 6. Online available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002934305000860
Rosenfeld, Dana and Faircloth, Christopher a. (2006) Medicalized Masculinities. Temple University Press 2006. Online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=8rXT7-EL0jcC&dq=SEXUAL+ENHANCEMENT:+viagra,+levitra+and+cialis&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Loe, Meika (2004) the Rise of Viagra: How the Little Blue Pill Changed Sex in America. NYR Press 2004. Online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=h25piGXAHukC&dq=SEXUAL+ENHANCEMENT:+viagra,+levitra+and+cialis&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Moreover, the television show uses the same tactics that law enforcement does when they want to catch sexual predators online. Both law enforcement and the staff of "To Catch a Predator" pretend to be young people. By playing the same game as the sexual predator, police are effectively capturing criminals before they get away with their crimes. Although sneaky, the method of luring sexual predators using their own game is one of the most effective ways of preventing the problem. Knowing they can get easily caught, the sexual predator might think twice before befriending a new child. Using this method of capturing criminals, law enforcement can prevent predators from victimizing young people psychologically, sexually and violently.
Sexual predators should be prosecuted to the full extent of the law. In Canada, the law "makes it a criminal offense to use the Internet to lure or exploit children for sexual purposes," (Media…
Camber, Rebecca. "Arrogant Facebook failing to tackle paedophile threat,' claims child protection expert." Mail Online. 9 Apr 2010. Retrieved online April 10, 2010 from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1264609/Facebook-tackling-paedophile-threat-child-protection-expert-claims.html#ixzz0khN214sB
Doctorow, Cory. "Sexual Predators Online: The Real Story." Boing. 2007. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from http://boingboing.net/2007/06/13/sexual-predators-onl.html
Family Watchdog. Website retrieved April 10, 2010 from http://www.familywatchdog.us/
"Internet Predators." Wired Kids. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from http://www.wiredsafety.org/internet_predators/index.html
Anderson, Sherwood. (1919). inesburg, Ohio. New York: B.. Huebsch. Bartleby.com, 1999. 8 Jan. 2008 www.bartleby.com/156/.
Dragan, Edward F. "Setting Boundaries for Sexual Harassment." School Administrator Dec. 2006: 53. Questia. 7 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019026469.
Duffy, Jim, Stacey areham, and Margaret alsh. "Psychological Consequences for High School Students of Having Been Sexually Harassed." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 50.11-12 (2004): 811+. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008171353.
Lucero, Margaret a., Robert E. Allen, and Karen L. Middleton. "Sexual Harassers: Behaviors, Motives, and Change over Time." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (2006): 331+. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022552162.
Packman, Jill, illiam J. Lepkowski, Christian C. Overton, and Marlowe Smaby. "e're Not Gonna Take it: A Student Driven Anti-Bullying Approach." Education 125.4 (2005): 546+. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009846899.
"Parents Should Speak Up about School Problems." The Register-Guard (Eugene, or) 5 Nov. 2007: A9. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023891271.
Anderson, Sherwood. (1919). Winesburg, Ohio. New York: B.W. Huebsch. Bartleby.com, 1999. 8 Jan. 2008 www.bartleby.com/156/.
Dragan, Edward F. "Setting Boundaries for Sexual Harassment." School Administrator Dec. 2006: 53. Questia. 7 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019026469 .
Duffy, Jim, Stacey Wareham, and Margaret Walsh. "Psychological Consequences for High School Students of Having Been Sexually Harassed." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 50.11-12 (2004): 811+. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008171353 .
Lucero, Margaret a., Robert E. Allen, and Karen L. Middleton. "Sexual Harassers: Behaviors, Motives, and Change over Time." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (2006): 331+. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022552162 .
Sexual selection is a form of natural selection that deserves attention because of the complexities involved with that selection. Sexual selection focuses on the idea that certain traits give competitors an edge. Studies around the world attempt to clarify the elements involved with this type of selection.
Probably the most fundamental explanation of sexual selection is that of choosing a mate that is most likely to survive and a mate that is fertile. But sexual selection goes deeper than that, making an interesting case of study. This paper will focus on female selection and try to examine the reasoning behind it.
Darwin realized that something else was going on when it came to mate selection, as demonstrated though the example of the male and female peacocks. Other examples to back this theory up are female finches zebra finches choosing male zebra finches whose legs were decorated with black or red…
Burley, N. "Wild Zebra Finches Have Color-Band Preferences." Animal Behavior. Vol. 36. 1988.
Fisher, R.A. "The Evolution of Sexual Preference." Eugenics Review. Vol.7 1915.
Starr, Cecie. Biology, Concepts and Applications. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company. 1991.
The vaginal fluids that may contain the infection are shared freely between partners. This also is the same with anal penetration. Oral sex between partners also is a source of transmission, particularly oral vaginal to kissing on the mouth. ubbing against each other leads to transmission of vaginal fluids. Another practice that can lead to transmission of STDs is the lack of hand washing during sex. As with heterosexual sex and with gay men sex, the practice of having sex with unknown partners is a great risk. Not knowing the person you are having sex with certainly increases the risk that the partner has had sex with an HIV infected person. This is particularly true of bisexual women. isky behavior occurs in each strata of sexual orientation. Drugs and alcohol lead to risky behavior, multiple partners and the lack of hygiene while engaging in the sex act.
All of this…
Hillier, S. & Holmes, KK. (1999). Bacterial vaginosis, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, third ed., 563-586.
Institute of Medicine. (1990). Lesbian Health: Current Assessment and Directions for the Future, Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine.
Marrazzo, J., Coffey, P. & Bingham, a. (2005). Sexual practices, risk perception and knowledge of sexually transmitted disease risk among lesbian and bisexual women, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Volume 37, Number 1.
Retrieved May 1, 2005, from http:www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3700605.html.
In such circumstances the first people they look to for support are their parents. Hence parents should encourage their children to frankly discuss such issues with them lest they should be inclined to gather information from other less reliable sources. Teachers can also play a vital role in educating these children to be more receptive of the changes they are going through. At this stage their guidance can help decide the way a child may react to the sexual issues arising later in life. Primary sex education needs to be included in the syllabus of various schools so that children might learn to develop a healthy sexual drive and realize the dangers of indulging in sexual activities before the correct time.
Adults may have a totally different set of problems to address in their sex lives. Some drugs and anti-depressants can reduce the desire for sex in men and women…
MikeMcCabe - Report of the working group on sex education in scottish schools. Published on: 16/06/2000.Page Number: 9
Margaret r. h. Nusbaum, Carol Hamilton, Patricia Lenahan-Chronic Illness and Sexual Functioning. Posted on:15/01/2003.Available at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20030115/347.html [Accessed on:13/11/05]
Sexual harassment is one of the most common forms of gender-based discrimination that has spread in the recent past despite its impact on victims with regards to depriving them equality and dignity. Generally, sexual harassment involves sexual discrimination that infringes civil rights through unwanted sexual advances, verbal or physical sexual conduct, and requests for sexual favors in a manner that affects a person's work performance or social relations. The victims of this form of gender-discrimination and crime usually feel powerless and have low self-esteem because its most common injuries are emotional. The prevalence of this crime is evident in its current spread in the education environment as well as other workplaces.
Actions Constituting Sexual Harassment in the Education Environment
Given its current spread, sexual harassment has become common in the modern education environment. Similar to other workplaces, sexual harassment in the education environment occurs between teachers and their employers. However,…
"Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education." (1999). Wrightslaw. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://www.wrightslaw.com/law/caselaw/case_Davis_Monroe_SupCt_990524.html
Education Dept. Inspector General Off. Investigation Office. (1997). Sexual Harassment: It's Not Academic. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://corporate.findlaw.com/law-library/sexual-harassment-it-s-not-academic.html
Stier, W.F. (2005, March/April). An Overview of Sexual Harassment. Strategies, 18(4), 13-15. Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08924562.2005.10591145#.U-0pcKOwU08
The author of this report has been asked to assess and review an article that is related to the subject matter in the class text for this class. The topics that are there to be chosen from include regulation of employment, the employee/employer relationship, the Civil ights Act/Title VII, affirmative action, race, gender, sexual harassment and affinity orientation. The author of this report shall focus on sexual harassment. While the ubiquity of sexual harassment training and enforcement of laws (not to mention lawsuits) relating to the same would seem to reduce the practice by offenders, sexual harassment is apparently still alive and well.
As described by the class text, sexual harassment is basically any behavior, action or condition that is sexualized in nature and that leads to a person being sexually threatened, denigrated or made uncomfortable. Examples of sexual harassment would include having a picture of a bikini-clad…
Bennett-Alexander, D., & Hartman, L. (2007). Employment law for business. Boston, Mass.: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Lachman, S. (2015). A Shocking Number of States Don't Protect Unpaid Interns From Discrimination & Sexual Harassment. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 31 October
2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/05/27/unpaid-interns-harassment_n_7453826.html
Interestingly, this is a stereotype that she herself promotes, rather than having it imposed on her by others or by external prejudices.
In the film, most prejudice seems to be externally imposed rather than being perpetuated by the persons themselves. One exception to this might be the Iranian family, where Farhad and his daughter apparently deliberately speak their native language in the gun shop despite the irritation of the shop owner. When Daniel installs the lock, Farhad does not understand him sufficiently to have his door fixed, with disastrous consequences. One might wonder why his daughter or some other mediator was not there to help them communicate more clearly.
Farhad, also seems to be subject to a very specific cultural pride, which precludes him from either seeking help to understand Daniel, or at least learning English properly. The dismay of the family at the perpetrators of the vandalism not realizing…
Social learning theory views education as an inculcation in social norms. Sexuality education requires the individual to learn the biological mechanics of sexuality, but also to understand the social assumptions connected to this facet of human life. Sexuality is not acquired instinctively, even though puberty is a biological phenomenon all adolescents experience. Sexuality is also about acquiring social norms and knowledge. Learning never takes place in isolation. Sexual norms are not learned simply through formal sex education, but also from peers and the media. However, sexual education must strive to counteract misinformation and negative stereotypes, empowering students with facts. Sexual education in the classroom must counteract some of the negative misinformation students will learn, and better equip them to make intelligent decisions.
Because a principle of social learning theory is that it takes place all of the time, adult role models are important for…
Cherry, Kendra. (2011). Moral development. Retrieved:
Social learning theory. (2009). National Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention.
). This is especially true since American men and women tend to hold dramatically different views concerning what types of behaviors equate to sexual harassment, making the management of this issue even more challenging (Elkins et al.). There remains a lack of research, though, concerning what types of actions are most effective in reducing the number of sexual harassment claims in the workplace, as well as how employees actually feel about organizations that take actions against sexual harassers.
In this environment, it is not surprising that the number of sexual harassment claims continues to grow and that the awards being assigned to victims of sexual harassment continue to increase. There is simply no room in the American workplace for behaviors that discriminate against individuals based on gender or race or religion, of course, but the fact that there are some important biological differences involved in sexual harassment cases indicates that…
Elkins, T.J., Phillips, J.S. & Ward, S.G. (2008). Organizational sexual harassment investigations: Observers' perceptions of fairness. Journal of Managerial Issues, 20(1),
Sociological Explanation of Sexual Initiation and Negotiation
Part of the desire to initiate and negotiate sex stems from the sociological desire to couple or be partnered with another human being. Many people grow up with fantasies and notions of finding Mr. Of Mrs. ight, hoping that at some point in their life they will fall into love and have "an affair of the heart" (Michael, et. al, 1994: 67). The reality of existence however is that most meetings that result in long-term relationships can be mundane. Choice of long-term partners and sexual partners can sometimes differ. In general however, most people seek out people that they think are similar in nature and personality to themselves, even without having intimate knowledge of the social context in which the potential partner lives and exists (Michael, et. al, 1994: 69).
The initiation and negotiation of sex often stems from familiarity. Most people fantasize…
Clements-Schreiber, M.E., Rempel, J.K., and Desmarais, S. (1998). "Women's Sexual Pressure Tactics and Adherence to Related Attitudes: A Step Toward Prediction." Journal of Sex Research, 35, 2, 197-205
Holland, J., Ramazanoglu, C. & Thomson, R. (1996). "In the Same Boat? The Gendered (in) Experience of First Heterosex." Richardson, D. (ed) Theorizing Heterosexuality: Open University Press, Buckingham.
Michael, R.T., Gagnon, J.H., Laumann, E.D. & Kolata, G. (1994). Sex in America: A Definitive Survey. Little, Brown & Co.: Boston, Chapter 4
O'Sullivan, L.F., & Allgeier, E.R. (1998). "Feigning Sexual Desire: Consenting to Unwanted Sexual Activity in Heterosexual Dating Relationships." Journal of Sex Research, 35, 3, 234-243
Physical dysfunctions caused by traumatic brain injury which are not properly addressed, such as erectile dysfunction, can cause an extreme dip in male sexual frequency.
Another way in which sexual function is affect by traumatic brain injury is through chemical changes caused by rain damage. Primary dysfunctions include hormonal changes which then result in sexual dysfunctions, (Aloni & Katz, 1999). Hormonal changes due to injury are experienced by both male and females. These changes can be caused by injury to specific brain structures in charge of producing and regulating specific hormone levels.
Changes in hormone levels can also be caused by the various medications prescribed to traumatic brain injury patients. "H2-antihistamines and stereotonegic agonists were found to decrease libido," according to Aloni and Katz in their 1999 work, "A Review of the Effect of Traumatic Brain Injury on the Human Sexual Response," (Aloni & Katz, p. 276). Only female experienced…
Aloni, Ronit and Katz, Shlome. "A Review of the Effect o Traumatic Brain Injury on the Human Sexual Response." Brain Injury. Vol. 3. Number 4. p. 269-280. 1999.
Bianci-Demichel, Francesco and Ortigue, Stephanie. "Toward an Understanding of the Cerebral Substrates of a Woman's Orgasm." Neuropsychologia. Vol 45. Number 12. P. 2645-2659. 2007.
Blumer, D and Waler, a.E. "The Neural Basis of Sexual Behavoir." Psychiatric Aspects of Neurological Disease. P. 199-216. 1974.
Elliott, Mike Laurel. "Head Injury." Brain Injury. October 1996.
In conclusion, both juvenile sex offenders and victims of sexual abuse need to undergo treatment and counselling. The importance of treating victims of sex abuse is to ensure that the "cycle of abuse" ceases and that they can recover from their ordeal and lead normal lives. The treatment of juvenile sex offenders is to ensure their rehabilitation, depending on the problem and also separate them from the rest of society.
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. etrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. etrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Herrmann B, Navratil F. (2004). Sexual Abuse in Pre-pubertal Children and Adolescents.
Sultan C (Editor) Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: Evidence-Based Clinical
Practice. Pakistan: Endocr Dev, Basel, Karger
Hunter, J.A. (2000). Understanding Juvenile Sex Offenders:…
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. Retrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. Retrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected).
The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the…
Bobo, J.H. (2000). Sociocultural Influences on Smoking and Drinking. Alcohol Research & Health, 225-234.
Cooper, T.K. (2003). A prospective evaluation of the relationships between smoking dosage and body mass index in an adolescent, biracial cohort. Addictive Behaviors, 501-512.
Falba, T. (2005). Health events and the smoking cessation of middle aged Americans. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, n.p.
Gies, C.B. (2007). Effect of an Inpatient Nurse-Directed Smoking Cessation Program. Western Journal of Nursing Research, n.p.
The director makes this point very clearly in the scene where David and Dianna win some money.
They tumble among the bills, consummating their love for money as much as, or more so than, their love for each other. The scene is quite remarkable even beyond the basic idea of sex literally on top of money. Lyne spends significant amounts of time exploring the cash-filled crevices of his stars. While certainly a cinematic first, this union of love and money is a hollow pleasure.
The above quote also emphasizes the attitude projected by the film, which is a reflection of the contemporary world, where money and sex and power are closely associated. In a sense the film also points to another problematic aspect of the modern world; that the value of money is regarded above all else - including love and human relationships. The entire film is built around an…
Berardinelli, J. Indecent Proposal. Retrieved March 9, 2005. Web site: http://movie-reviews.colossus.net/movies/i/indecent.html
Dirks, T. Deliverance (1972). Retrieved March 9, 2005 from Filmsite Org. Web site: http://www.filmsite.org/deli.html
Howe, D. 'Midnight Cowboy' (R) (1994) Retrieved march 8, 2005 from the Washington Post. Web site: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/movies/videos/midnightcowboyrhowe_a0b04a.htm
Koller B. Midnight Cowboy (1969) Retrieved March 7, 2005. Web site: http://us.imdb.com/Reviews/131/13153
health is affected by behaviors, economics, and social structure.
Health is affected by behaviors in that if good habits are formed from the latter, the former is then influenced positively. However, if practices like smoking and excess alcohol consumption, the former is impacted negatively. Williams and Torrens (2010) has noted that intake of alcohol "beyond a moderate level is associated with numerous physiological complications including cirrhosis of the liver, various cancers, intestinal disorders, and brain function deterioration…Alcohol abuse results in illness and injury to others, including-but certainly not limited to-vehicular accidents, workplace injuries, poor fetal outcomes associated with fetal alcohol syndrome, and spousal and child abuse." The dietary behaviors people make in their lives has an effect in their lives, for example it may cause "enhanced morbidity and mortality…elevated consumption of fat, sodium, and sugar, leading to an epidemic of obesity and associated problems" (Williams and Torrens, 2010). Health is…
Cohen, M. (2000). Changing patterns of infectious disease. Nature, 406, 762-767.
Fauci, A. (2001). Infectious Diseases: Considerations for the 21st Century. Clin Infect Dis, 32(5), 675-685.
OTA. (1976). Development of medical technology opportunities for assessment.. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment.
Olshansky, S., Passaro, D., Hershow, R., Layden, J., Carnes, B., Brody, J., et al. (2005). A Potential Decline in Life Expectancy in the United States in the 21st Century. N Engl J. Med, 352, 1138-1145. Retrieved April 24, 2011, from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsr043743#t=article
sexual harassment, and discuss aspects like defenses, judge ruling basis, cause of action, and employee's and employer's civil liability. Both discrimination and employee laws will be applied here.
Sexual Harassment Background Information
The issue of sexual harassment at workplaces poses an ethical problem, with around 50% of all women employees experiencing it during some point of time at their workplace; the effects of sexual harassment on people are always negative, and harmful (Bimrose, 2004). Thus, career guidance has a significant role to play in preparing and supporting working women, who may have already faced, or are currently, facing sexual harassment at work. ecent studies on workplace-related gender inequalities have recommended combating of stereotyping by urging women to take up non-traditional vocational training, education, and jobs.
Though the above solution is pertinent, the problem of workplace sexual harassment is not accorded due recognition. There are several reasons for this; the foremost…
Bimrose, J. (2004). Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: An Ethical Dilemma for Career Guidance Practice? British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 23(1), 109-121. Retrieved, from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ680404
Fetter-Harrott, A. (2007). How to avoid liability under federal civil rights laws for third-party harassment. Law Trends, 3(2).Retrieved, from http://www.americanbar.org/newsletter/publications/law_trends_news_practice_area_e_newsletter_home/howtoavoidliability.htm
ISACS (n.d.).Sexual Harassment Liability under Title VII .Retrieved August 30, 2015, from http://www.isacs.org/uploads/file/Monographs/Business%20Operations/Sexual%20Harassment%20Liability%20Under%20Title%20VII.p
Mallor, J., Barnes, Bowers, T., & Langvardt, A. (n.d.). Business Law: The Ethical, Global, and E-Commerce Environment. You Be the Judge. Retrieved August 30, 2015, from http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0073524980/student_view0/you_be_the_judge.html
Female hypoactive sexual disorder occurs in roughly one-third of adult women in the United States (Basson, 2000). The foundation of HSDD is predicated on a deficiency of sexual fantasies or desires for sexual activity. Ultimately this lack of desire causes females to experience marked distress and difficulty with interpersonal relationships. Evaluation and subsequent treatment for this disorder can be become very contentious. Treatment requires careful and thoughtful consideration of the patient and the litany of influences that impact female sexual desire. For example, many female life experiences may uniquely impact the overall sexual desire of the female. Events, including the menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptives and postmenopausal states all contribute to the overall complexity of treatment. In particular, sexual dysfunctions in women have a strong correlation to low feelings of happiness and emotional satisfaction. Generally, theses feelings occur with women who are in a relationship. Logically, one of the most common…
1. Basson R, Berman J, Burnett A, et al. Report on the International Consensus Development Conference on female sexual dysfunction: definition and classification. J Urol. 2000;163(3):888-893.
2. Brotto L, Bitzer J, Laan E, Leiblum S, Luria M. Women's sexual desire and arousal disorders. J Sex Med. 2010;7(1 Pt 2):586-614.
3. Sand M, Fisher WA. Women's endorsement of models of female sexual response: the nurses' sexuality study. J Sex Med. 2007;4(3):708-719.
In most societies, GM is considered a cultural tradition, which is often used as an argument for its continuation.
Though a tremendous range of practices fall under the title of female genital mutilation, understanding what is involved in the process really helps one understand why it is internationally condemned as a violation of human rights. The most drastic type of female genital mutilation is infibulation. A standard infibulation process is as follows:
The amount of tissue removed is extensive. The most extreme form involves the complete removal of the clitoris and labia minora, together with the inner surface of the labia majora. The raw edges of the labia majora are brought together to fuse, using thorns, poultices or stitching to hold them in place, and the legs are tied together for 2-6 weeks. The healed scar creates a hood of skin which covers the urethra and part or most of…
From an international perspective, it is difficult to impose human rights on other people who claim cultural tradition as a basis for a ritual, because that opens up claims of racism and cultural insensitivity, which would also violate human rights. One difficulty is that there is no single international standard for human rights.
On December 10, 1948, the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which outlines basic human rights. Since that time, there have been nine total core international human rights treaties, some of them dealing specificially with children and with gender discrimination. At the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, United Nations member nations ratified a prohibition against any type of gender-based discrimination. In addition, the Convention on the Rights of the Child discusses a child's right to be raised by her parents in a family environment without undue governmental interference, but also discusses the child's right to be raised by a best interests standard. Clearly, in the case of something like breast ironing, reconciling the two is impossible. In addition, while these declarations of rights are admirable, they are only enforceable on UN member nations, and have only been enforced in the context of state action. Cameroon has criminalized the practice of breast ironing, so it would be difficult, if not impossible, to suggest that state actors are playing a role in perpetuating the process. That is not to say that some have not suggested that other sexual mutilations, most notably female genital mutilation, be treated and prosecuted as torture, but the international community has not responded positively to those calls.
There is also the problem of accountability. Establishing international human rights standards is a lofty ideal, but there has not been a practical means established to deal with offenses. Of course, there are international human rights tribunals established to try government officials for violations of human rights. Research shows that human rights trials do have a positive impact on the citizens of the country in question and can actually have an ancillary positive impact on neighboring countries. In addition, the United States has taken steps to try to enforce international law in a domestic context. 18 U.S.C.S. 2340A (a) provides that: "Whoever outside the United States commits or attempts to commit torture shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both, and if death results to any person from conduct prohibited by this subsection,
Celibacy and Sexual Deviance by Priests
Many psychologists have suggested that clergy who take a vow of celibacy are more likely to engage in sexual deviance than clergy who are allowed to marry. Many others argue that this is completely untrue. This research paper aims to examine these points-of-view to either prove or disprove the relationship between celibacy and sexual deviances by priests.
In today's society, the Catholic Church is confronted with two important issues regarding sexuality. The first is the scandal of sexual abuse of children by priests, which is a highly publicized issue that it damaging the reputation of the Catholic Church in the United States. The second is the question of whether priest should take a vow of celibacy and remain unmarried.
In order to fully address this hypothesis, it is important to address these questions but not regard them as two aspects of one problem.
Berry, Jason. Lead Us Not Into Temptation: Catholic Priests and the Sexual Abuse of Children. Doubleday, 1992.
Burkett, Elinor, and Frank Bruni. A Gospel of Shame: Children, Sexual Abuse, and the Catholic Church. Viking, 1993.
Hudson, Dean. Ten Myths About Priestly Pedophilia. Crisis, July, 2001.
Isely, P. Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church: A Historical and Contemporary Review. Pastoral Psychology, 1997.
resolve conflicting evidence that male homosexuality is correlated with similarities in the genetic markers from region Xq28 of the X chromosome. While many studies suggest a strong genetic and biological basis to sexual orientation, there is little persuasive, compelling, causal evidence to support this claim. Specifically, attempts to find a genetic correlate to homosexuality have proven elusive, and several attempts to replicate the finding of similarities of region Xq28 of the X chromosome in male homosexuals have proven problematic. This study will attempt to correct the methodological problems that may have been problematic in earlier studies, including problems with the use of self-selecting samples, small sample sizes, and problems with the definition of homosexuality.
The ideas and definitions surrounding human sexuality and sexual orientation can be more fluid and confusing than appear on the surface. To the outside world, primary sexual characteristics (such as a penis or vagina) determine whether…
Bailey, J. Michael. 2003. The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism. Joseph Henry Press.
Bailey, J. M and Bell, A.P. 1993. Familiality of female and male homosexuality. Behav Genet., 23(4), 313-322. Bailey, J.M., Benishay, D.S. 1993. Familial aggregation of female sexual orientation. Am J. Psychiatry, 150(2), 272-277.
Bailey, J.M., Pillard, R.C. 1991. A genetic study of male sexual orientation. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 48(12), 1089-1096.
Bailey, J.M., Pillard, R.C., Neale, M.C. & Agyei, Y. 1993. Heritable factors influence female sexual orientation. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 50, 217-223.
Research Proposal for Couples Counseling
Sexual addiction is currently not recognized by the DSM-V as an addiction, and therefore some discrepancy among counselors about how to approach this issue exists, particularly when it comes to couples counseling. Research indicates, however, that sexual addiction is on the rise and that counselors require advanced training in this area to know how to treat it effectively and help couples address this issue that may be negatively impacting their relationship (Gilbert, 2014; Griffiths & Dhuffar, 2014; Karila et al., 2014; Rosenberg, Carnes & O’Connor, 2014; Phillips, Hajela & Hilton, 2015; Kraus, Voon & Potenza, 2016). In order to better understand how to help counselors address the issue of sexual addiction in couples counseling, there needs to be more research on how counselors themselves view this issue and whether or not they recognize it as something that serves as an obstacle for healthy relationships…
The gender-based sexual double standard is logically indefensible on any level.
Piercing the thin veil of justifications offered supporting it requires little more than substitution of the identity of the subjects in any hypothetical or analogy based on the premise. Nevertheless, it persists throughout most of American culture, and sadly, its manifestations in the Western World are infinitely more benign than the cruelty it inspires elsewhere. Ultimately, its roots lie both in the usefulness of rationalization for justifying the truly immoral pursuit of sexual conquests by deception, and (likely) male psychological fears of sexual inadequacy whose details far exceed the scope of this essay.
Baker, ., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Committee on the College Student, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Sex and the College Student. New York: Atheneum
Geddes, D.P. (1954) an Analysis of the Kinsey eports on Sexual behavior in…
Baker, R., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Committee on the College Student, Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry. (1966). Sex and the College Student. New York: Atheneum
Geddes, D.P. (1954) an Analysis of the Kinsey Reports on Sexual behavior in the Human Male and Female. New York: Mentor
Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essential of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Unfortunately, hormone effects and interactions can be so complex that even the best known hormones are not completely understood." (MacDougall) Hormones are most often discussed in connection with sexual behavior. But they are responsible for almost every reaction and action. When a person takes on too much stress, stress hormones are to blame and these hormones cause the behavior from that. Similarly during a phase of depression when a person is undergoing acute pessimism, the production of endorphins stopped or is lowered which is the really cause of depression. For this reasons, medication is given which balances chemical reactions in the body to normalize behavior. Human behavior is thus a sum total of different influences including heredity, hormones, environment and psychology. Dr. Leary has explained this in an apt manner when he said:
The science of human behavior in the largest sense of the word behavior, the sense which includes…
Leary, Daniel B., Modern Psychology: Normal and Abnormal, Philadelphia and London, J.B. Lippincott Co., I928
Peter MacDougall, UBC archives. Accessed online 10th Jan, 2006 from, http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/432/THE432_1988_02_10.pdf