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Smith's article raises a very interesting and alarming point, that mental health nurses who consistently deal with anti-psychotic drugs are not trained to educate and help patients suffering from sexual dysfunction. Even worse, they consistently avoid this topic because of embarrassment. Mental health nurses are one of the most highly trained nursing professions, and yet they are influenced by social stigma to not discuss one of the most common patient problems and side effects of their medication. When both patients and nurses are unwilling to attempt to solve the problem of sexual dysfunction as it is related to their medical dosage, the inevitable conclusion is that patients take their problems in their own hands.
atients will often either stop taking medication completely, which damages their recovery process and severely damages any rehabilitation program they participate in. Or even worse, they take underground and illegal methods of sexual dysfunction drug obtained…… [Read More]
4.3. The social environment and the way that sexuality is perceived or constructed by the society is also an important aspect.
4.3. There are still many areas that are not well documented or understood - especially the issue of sexual dysfunction in the elderly.
4.4. There are still questions about the definition of the term sexual dysfunction and many commentators claim that there is a male bias in the presently accepted definition of the term.
4.5. There are various research methods that have been applied in the investigation of this phenomenon. These include both quantifiable as well as qualitative methods and range from the measurement and assessment of biological data to interviews and discussions with patients.
American Society for Reproductive Medicine:
Patient's Fact Sheet: Sexual Dysfunction. 3 May 2008. http://www.asrm.org/Patients/FactSheets/Sexual_Dysfunction-Fact.pdf.
Aubin, Sylvie, and Julia R. Heiman. "20 Sexual Dysfunction from a Relationship Perspective." The Handbook of…… [Read More]
A controversial drug geared towards enhancing female sexual desire was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration after being rejected twice. The drug, which is known as flibranserin, was produced by Sprout Pharmaceuticals and is geared towards treatment of low sexual desire in women. The company manufactured the drug on the premise that low sexual desire in women has seemingly been ignored while there are 24 drugs for men for either erectile dysfunction or testosterone replacement (Thacker, 2014). However, the drug has remained controversial and attracted divergent opinions, especially with regards to its potential risks and benefits. As a result, providing recommendation to potential patients inquiring about the drug requires a critical evaluation of these arguments as well as potential risks and benefits based on scientific evidence.
Main Points from Both Sides of the Argument
One of the major arguments that has been used to support the drug…… [Read More]
When done on a basis of mutual harmony and choice, sex can be a highly satisfying and emotional activity that brings partners in closer connection to each other. Unfortunately this is not always the case.
Being connected to human interaction, emotion, freedom of choice, and individual body function, an unfortunate possibility is sexual dysfunction. This manifests itself in particular ways in men and women. Generally, problems can be treated by therapy, as many cases of dysfunction relate to how people experience sex psychologically and emotionally. When the basis of problems are addressed by the therapist, dysfunction can also be resolved. In more serious cases, dysfunction can also be resolved by medication.
Examples of sexual dysfunction (Ballas, 2006) that might be experienced by both men and women include 1) a loss of libido, 2) inability to feel aroused, 3) painful intercourse. The third is much more common in women…… [Read More]
According to Croucher (2003), there are five layers in the erotic life of human beings. The first of these is sexual identity. This is the physical differentiation between male and female, which is fixed by the end of the first trimester in the development of the foetus. Transsexuals feel that they have the "wrong sex" and therefore the wrong core identity. The second layer is sexual orientation, which refers to hetero- or homosexuality. This is also almost impossible to change, since a genetic component plays a role here. The third layer, which is sexual preferences, refers to the elements of sexual stimulation. For men, for example, this would generally be female body parts, while women are aroused by factors such as intimacy, character, and other more subtle factors. The fourth layer is sex roles, where roles are assigned accordign to gender. This demarcation is strongest in young children.…… [Read More]
Sexual Issues Affecting a Couple
Sexual dysfunctions as well as sexual recital matters are comparatively frequent tribulations in the common population. Sexual dysfunction can be brought about by numerous factors which might upshot from emotional as well as physical grounds. As per the view of Michetti, PM; Rossi, R; Bonanno, D; Tiesi, A and Simonelli, C, (2005), Sexual dysfunction may possibly crop up from emotional factors such as interpersonal or psychosomatic troubles. Interpersonal tribulations may well come up from conjugal or correlation troubles, or as of deficient in reliance as well as unwrap communication among partners. hile psychosomatic troubles tend to arose as an outcome of dejection, sexual fears, guiltiness, precedent sexual disturbance, and sexual disarrays among others.
Most of the individuals affected by Sexual dysfunction are those who have fretfulness disarrays. run of the mill anxiousness can perceptibly bring about erectile dysfunction mostly in men with no psychiatric troubles,…… [Read More]
For instance, according to Begley, "Men who were promiscuous back then were more evolutionarily fit since men who spread their seed widely left more descendants. By similar logic, evolutionary psychologists argued, women who were monogamous were fitter; by being choosy about their mates and picking only those with good genes, they could have healthier children" (2009, p. 52). Although modern men and women may not look like Cro-Magnums, they all want to act like them deep down inside because of these primordial drives. In sum, Begley concludes that, "We all carry genes that led to reproductive success in the Stone Age, and that as a result men are genetically driven to be promiscuous and women to be coy, that men have a biological disposition to rape and to kill mates who cheat on them, and that every human behavior is 'adaptive' -- that is, helpful to reproduction" (emphasis added) (p.…… [Read More]
In such circumstances the first people they look to for support are their parents. Hence parents should encourage their children to frankly discuss such issues with them lest they should be inclined to gather information from other less reliable sources. Teachers can also play a vital role in educating these children to be more receptive of the changes they are going through. At this stage their guidance can help decide the way a child may react to the sexual issues arising later in life. Primary sex education needs to be included in the syllabus of various schools so that children might learn to develop a healthy sexual drive and realize the dangers of indulging in sexual activities before the correct time.
Adults may have a totally different set of problems to address in their sex lives. Some drugs and anti-depressants can reduce the desire for sex in men and women…… [Read More]
Sexual Child Abuse
Child sexual abuse involves a broad range of sexual behaviors that take place between a child and an older person. These sexual behaviors are planned to erotically stir the older person, commonly without concern for the consequences, choices, or outcome of the behavior upon the child. efinite conducts that are sexually offensive frequently involve bodily contact, such as in the state of sexual kissing, touching, fondling of genitals, and oral, anal, or vaginal contact. Nevertheless, behaviors might be sexually abusive even if they do not entail contact, such as in the case of genital exposure, verbal force for sex, and sexual abuse for purposes of prostitution or pornography.
For efinitions propose four main types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and child neglect), but seldom if ever does one form of abuse happen alone. The suggestion in itself is illogical. Physical abuse and sexual…… [Read More]
CBT can be effectively used in a variety of stressful or tense situations. Depending on the nature of the issue, focusing on changing behaviors often aids the individual in reducing an addiction, changing their approach to a situation, or focusing on interaction and dialog issues. CBT may be used, for example, with:
Severe anxiety from a recent sexual assault -- CBT may be used to unearth the issues surround the assault and resulting anxiety by helping the client focus on adaptation. The therapist should help the client understand that they were a victim, did not choose the issue, and the fault of the issue is with the perpetrator. Anxious feelings are a rational response to trauma, but by practicing assertion training, the client can take charge of their own emotions and begin to heal (SOUCE, p. 23).
A Gay/Bisexual person struggling to come out to friends and family --…… [Read More]
(American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
IV. Side Effects of Sildenafil
Side effects of taking Sildenafil include those as follows:
headache heartburn diarrhea flushing (feeling of warmth)
nosebleeds difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep numbness, burning, or tingling in the arms, hands, feet, or legs muscle aches changes in color vision (seeing a blue tinge on objects or having difficulty telling the difference between blue and green)
sensitivity to light (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
Serious side effects are the following and occurrence of this requires immediate notification of the physician:
sudden severe loss of vision (see below for more information)
blurred vision sudden decrease or loss of hearing ringing in ears
erection that is painful or lasts longer than 4 hours dizziness or lightheadedness fainting chest pain worsening shortness of breath itching or burning during urination rash (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009…… [Read More]
Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits.
There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first stages is excitement, which Mary Jane is not getting with her partners, which is triggered by psychological or physical stimulation, and is marked by emotional changes, and increased heart rate, and vaginal swelling. Second stage is plateau, Mary Jane states she doesn't have this stimulation. The third stage is orgasm, which Mary Jane doesn't getting during intercourse, or she doesn't remember because she in under the influence of alcohol. The final phase, resolution, involves a rush of blood away…… [Read More]
Physical dysfunctions caused by traumatic brain injury which are not properly addressed, such as erectile dysfunction, can cause an extreme dip in male sexual frequency.
Another way in which sexual function is affect by traumatic brain injury is through chemical changes caused by rain damage. Primary dysfunctions include hormonal changes which then result in sexual dysfunctions, (Aloni & Katz, 1999). Hormonal changes due to injury are experienced by both male and females. These changes can be caused by injury to specific brain structures in charge of producing and regulating specific hormone levels.
Changes in hormone levels can also be caused by the various medications prescribed to traumatic brain injury patients. "H2-antihistamines and stereotonegic agonists were found to decrease libido," according to Aloni and Katz in their 1999 work, "A Review of the Effect of Traumatic Brain Injury on the Human Sexual Response," (Aloni & Katz, p. 276). Only female experienced…… [Read More]
In conclusion, both juvenile sex offenders and victims of sexual abuse need to undergo treatment and counselling. The importance of treating victims of sex abuse is to ensure that the "cycle of abuse" ceases and that they can recover from their ordeal and lead normal lives. The treatment of juvenile sex offenders is to ensure their rehabilitation, depending on the problem and also separate them from the rest of society.
California Dept. Of Justic, (n.d). Megan's Law - Facts about Sex Offenders -- California
Department of Justice. etrieved April 13, 2010, from http://www.meganslaw.ca.gov/facts.htm
Harrison, L. (2009). The Ambiguity of Juvenile Sexual Offenders. Internet Journal of Criminology, 7, 1-29. etrieved April 14, 2010, from http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Harrison_Juvenile_Sexual_Offenders_J
Herrmann B, Navratil F. (2004). Sexual Abuse in Pre-pubertal Children and Adolescents.
Sultan C (Editor) Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology: Evidence-Based Clinical
Practice. Pakistan: Endocr Dev, Basel, Karger
Hunter, J.A. (2000). Understanding Juvenile Sex Offenders:…… [Read More]
elationship problems is another cause for instance the woman feel that her partner is distant emotionally or abusive and her attraction to him disappears.
During attempt of vaginal penetration, there is involuntary tightening of the muscles around the vagina. Sexual intercourse is made impossible especially if there is complete closing of the vagina and the woman also experiences pain. There are two forms of vaginismus: Primary vaginismus, when no previous sexual act has been possible as a result of the condition; secondary vaginismus, when it's now difficult to have sex due to the condition but previously there has been sexual activity. Distress and problems can be caused by this condition because the sexual life is disrupted.
Female Orgasmic disorder
This is a problem which is rarely complained about but is common in the females. It is characterized by not attaining orgasm or considerable delay in achieving orgasm during a…… [Read More]
Atypical Sexual Behavior (paraphilias): Signs of a Changing Culture
New York Times article recently reported that clinical psychologists are seeing an increasing number of patients reporting that they engage in abnormal sexual behavior (Goleman, 1991). Kinsey noted that in the years 1948 and 1953 as many as half of the Americans surveyed participated in sexual activities that could be considered masochistic or sadistic (such as biting or spanking) (Kinsey, et. al, 1948: Kinsey, et. Al., 1953). This trend seems to have slightly increased in prevalence, however, still remains close to the 61% mark (Donelly and Straus, 1994).
This issue raises several questions. The first is whether society has "done something" to create this phenomenon. In other words, is there an environmental factor that is making otherwise normal people engage in deviancy? Does it mean that our definitions of "normal" are changing and that these behaviors have always been a part…… [Read More]
Female hypoactive sexual disorder occurs in roughly one-third of adult women in the United States (Basson, 2000). The foundation of HSDD is predicated on a deficiency of sexual fantasies or desires for sexual activity. Ultimately this lack of desire causes females to experience marked distress and difficulty with interpersonal relationships. Evaluation and subsequent treatment for this disorder can be become very contentious. Treatment requires careful and thoughtful consideration of the patient and the litany of influences that impact female sexual desire. For example, many female life experiences may uniquely impact the overall sexual desire of the female. Events, including the menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptives and postmenopausal states all contribute to the overall complexity of treatment. In particular, sexual dysfunctions in women have a strong correlation to low feelings of happiness and emotional satisfaction. Generally, theses feelings occur with women who are in a relationship. Logically, one of the most common…… [Read More]
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.
However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,
Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.
3.1. What is PTSD?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…… [Read More]
Similarly, women today feel the need to appear beautiful and perfect all the time in order to be a part of a class in society. According to what Kilbourne suggests, women use their bodies as masks or objects that need to be taken care of all the time and kept in perfect shape and condition. The media and the advertisements program their minds to think that their appearance is not perfect and they need to change themselves in a particular manner (Kilbourne, 2002).
One of the main roles that media has played in this subject is to make an individual perceive themselves from the eyes of others and to take it as a responsibility to be appealing to the eyes of the audience instead of what they themselves want to do. Advertisements today sell the bodies of women, not in the literal sense but metaphorically speaking, all advertisements have women…… [Read More]
It shows the selfishness of Dewey Dell, who is only concerned about her pregnancy and gives other family members little thought. It shows the long-suffering, to the point of self-immolation, of Cash. It shows the rivalry of Darl and Jewel, both vying for their dead mother's affection. And it shows the innocent simplicity, bordering on mental instability, of the young Vardaman. Each of these family members was affected in different ways by this destructive family dynamic.
Anse, in one of the most telling passages in the book regarding his relationship to the family, goes down the list of family members and whines about how each has cost him money in some way, further complaining that he has to work, when he does so, even though he doesn't have any teeth (35-37). Wadlington argues that because the story is set in the south and Anse is the "master" of the house,…… [Read More]
esearch has shown that men and women look for different characteristics when looking for long-term partners. Some research shows that men favor physical variables (attractiveness) more than women (lecture notes). This could be due to an underlying biological impetus to breed with women who have good genes. The fact that many men worldwide reveal a preference for younger partners might also be traceable to biology; younger women are more likely to bear children.
Women might value things like "vocational status, earning potential, expressiveness, kindness, consideration, dependability, and fondness for children," (athus, et al., 2002, cited in lecture notes). The fondness for children preference is linked to biology and psychological necessity as well, as women want mates who will be able to share in the childrearing duties. On the other hand, some men might value traits like "cooking ability, frugality, and youth (athus et al., 2002, cited in lecture notes).…… [Read More]
Michelson explains that buspirone could manipulate certain serotonin receptors in an attempt to ameliorate the overload of serotonin, and that amantadine was thought to increase dopamine activity. As such, either might theoretically help with SSRI-related sexual dysfunction. However, when the double-blind test was performed, it found that the success of treatment was roughly the same regardless of whether these pills were taken or a placebo was used. One significant difference was that those on admantadine had greater energy levels than they study-mates, which did not seem to directly affect sexual functioning. Michelson and his colleagues speculated that the reason for such marked improvement in all categories was the extensive journaling and attention paid to the sexual activity.
Ashton and Rosen report on "Bupropion as an antidote for serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced sexual dysfunction"
Unlike the Michelson study, Ashton and Rosen's work on using bupropion to ameliorate the sexual dysfunctions associated with…… [Read More]
childhood any less safe and enjoyable now than in the past?
Childhood is a period that initiates a change in the perspective of the family or the parents involved. It entails the aspect of responsibilities and commitments for the parent to ensure safe and secure parenting for the child. However, concerns continue to arise due to the dynamic nature of the society. The society keeps on evolving, changing various aspects and practices within the community. Through these developments, the child does not escape the eventual outcomes from these changes. Social construction consists of incorporation of new practices, which develop into the norm of the society while the old are replaced through these procedures and changes. The child faces challenges in their adaptive mechanisms as these changes come with risks, anxieties, worries and fear from the eminent social changes.
The social changes led to the evolution of a generalized world, in…… [Read More]
Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction in Military Men who are Survivors of Sexual Abuse
The therapeutic definition of sexual abuse is based on varied parameters. For a therapist, the perception of a patient that they were abused sexually is the basis of the definition. The person has to recognize the act as an abusive act and so give it that label. The definition is relationship- specific (inik & Hall, 2014). Women that endorse this label tend to have been through more invasive and chronic sexual behaviors and tend to function less sexually than other people who approve of definitions that are activity-specific (Rellini & Meston, 2007).
MST -- Military Sexual Trauma -- may be a sexual violence act against one military member by another or the response of a survivor psychologically to sexual violence. The United States U.S.) Department of Defense (DOD) does not officially recognize the term MST. However, the…… [Read More]
Mary shows: A. Persistent or recurrent delay in, or absence of, orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase in a way that is less than would be reasonable for Mary's age, sexual experience, and the adequacy of sexual stimulation she receives from her husband. B. The disturbance causes marked distress or interpersonal difficulty, as Mary is disappointed with her sex life and marriage. C. The orgasmic dysfunction is not better accounted for by another Axis I disorder or to drugs, medication, or physical factors. Mary has suffered this problem all of her sexual life, thus the diagnosis specified as life long, and she has suffered this with all persons she has been intimate with, thus it is generalized, and as Mary has no physical complaints that might explain her lack of ability to achieve an orgasm, it is psychological.
3a. & 3b.
Possible causes might include John's physical and…… [Read More]
Having grown up in an era where sex-based discrimination was legal, they understand how easy it would be to return to that era. This has led to a characterization of second-wave feminists as somehow militant, a label that even third-wave feminists might apply to them.
Looking at the 2008 Democrat presidential primaries, the conflict between second and third wave feminists became apparent. Many second-wave feminists felt that it was a woman's duty to vote for the female candidate because having a woman run as a serious contender in a presidential primary could be an isolated event. In contrast, many third-wave feminists, though thrilled that Clinton was taken seriously as a candidate, simply did not think that her candidacy would be an isolated event; instead, they believed that women would continue to make credible candidates in presidential elections. Moreover, many third-wave feminists, like the author, seemed to find racial barriers more…… [Read More]
asexuality is being conceptualized. In addition to that different impacts of asexuality on relationships have also been identified by this paper. Furthermore, it also analyses various medical complications of asexuality.
The term asexuality was first used in scientific research in the year 1977 in the section of the book 'asexual and autoerotic women: two invisible groups.' The most common definition of asexuality is 'absence of sexual attraction towards someone'. (Andersson, 2013)
However, Hinderliter also said that the above definition is not the 'only way of defining Asexuality' and explained that the definition can be broadened and narrowed as per the requirements. He said that 'a need to broaden the definition seeks to include people who do not experience sexual attraction but do or feel things generally associated with sexuality. A drive to narrow the definition is used to sharply differentiate asexuality from celibacy -- people who experience sexual attraction…… [Read More]
In Chapter 11 "Anxiety Disorders," author Teresa Pigott provides an in-depth review of the definitions and types of anxiety disorders. Additionally, she provides discussions on the types of anxiety disorders that exist, and possible relationships to not only gender, but to the female reproductive cycle as well. Inferences are drawn to possible differences between reported rates of anxiety disorders between males and females, with some insight given to the psychosocial arena relating to prevalence rates among women. Further, Pigott touches upon the nature vs. nurture argument, by explaining the genotype/phenotype concept.
Pigott's descriptions, while accurate, are academic, medicinal, even sterile. It is great reading if you are studying for an exam, or attempting to self-diagnose, or even if you just want to be able to hold your own in a high-brow conversation on the topic. However, some concepts in the reading elucidate personal feelings of inadequacy. These feelings…… [Read More]
Domestic Violence on Children
Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the…… [Read More]
1. As people progress through the stages of psychosocial development, they may get fixated due to suppressed desires. As all desires is driven by libido, according to Freud, any fixation can become a sexual fixation. Thus, being fixated at the oral stage would theoretically predispose one to have some type of oral fetish. Abnormal sexual behavior can be traced to fixation or stagnation, a neurosis that is due to a previous difficulty at one of the stages of development.
Freud’s theory is interesting, certainly, and has its own internal logic. However, Freud’s model is not at all scientific. Freud also focused almost exclusively on male libido, being personally perplexed by female sexual desire and by women in general (“Modules on Freud: On Psychosexual Development,” n.d.). Without any substantial research to back up his theories, Freud’s work remains theoretical. Therefore, I do not necessarily agree with the details of the theory.…… [Read More]
However, proper treatment may restore fertility. During pregnancy, existing fibroids may grow at a greater pace due to the increased blood flow and estrogen levels but they usually return to their original size after delivery.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Definition & Cause: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a general term for infection of the lining of the uterus, the fallopian tubes. It is a very common disease and in the United States alone, nearly 1 million women develop PID each year and more than 100,000 women become infertile as a result of PID (NAID Fact sheet, 2005). It is caused in a majority of cases through sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea but PID-causing bacteria may also cause infection through other means such as during childbirth, abortion, or IUD insertion.
Complications: PID can damage the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and cervix, leading to chronic pelvic pain and serious damage…… [Read More]
The grand jury returned a 112-count indictment against Steve Warshak, company president; his mother, Harriet Warshak; general counsel Paul Kellogg; and former employees Charles Clarke Jr., Steven Pugh and Amar Chavan. A company called TCI Media, which was allegedly used to launder money, was also part of the indictment. The charges include 77 counts of money laundering, 12 counts of mail fraud and four counts of bank fraud (Berkeley president, others indicted for fraud, 2006).
After the Grand Jury indictments were handed down The U.S. Attorney's Office in Cincinnati filed a new complaint against Berkeley Premium Nutraceuticals that included the freezing of various assets worth almost $2 million. The complaint alleged that Berkeley owner Steven Warshak and others participated in a complex, large scale mail and wire fraud operation. This amounted to another felony charge being added to the long list that had already been handed down. The frozen assets…… [Read More]
(Book & andall, 2002, p. 130) Both of these lines of research are ripe for additional investigation, as they seem to clearly complicate and possibly exacerbate the social affect of the disorder to a large degree and are secondary problems shared by many who experience the disorder.
Other related disorders also give more clear insight into panic disorder, as post traumatic stress disorder has increased in severity as well as incidence, given the prolonged state of national crisis, war and other issues involving over stimulation in the fast paced society we share. One review work, demonstrates the conflicts and controversy that surrounds PTSD, often a precursor to panic disorder as the disorder leaves the individual with a cognitive reaction to normal events in an exaggerated panicked, fashion and in many ways correlates to panic disorder. The article states that victims in the past have been treated ineffectually due to preconceived…… [Read More]
For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…… [Read More]
The creation of useful segments for Cialis in relation to the most relevant dimensions comes from examining the demographic area that contains:
2. Marital Status
5. Occupation/Life Stage (Retired/Employed, Student)
The other area to examine is psychographic meaning values and usage patterns. Why examine demographics like age? Age presents a strong and positive association with erectile dysfunction (ED) occurrence. The demographic data presents men suffering from ED as either living together with their romantic interest or married. The motivation then, to stop suffering from ED becomes clear and thus shows age as a vital dimension for the study.
When considering income and education, it permits an exploration of various purchasing powers. Along with buying power, one can explore the different perceptions of people as well as sense the product. In relation to usage patterns, the potentially best means of ungrouping would-be customers…… [Read More]
History of Paxil
In the 1960s a Danish company named Ferrosan began performing research on aspects of the central nervous system. Ferrosan was most interested in the relationship between the neurotransmitter serotonin and depressed mood in people. The original idea was that if a drug could be developed to increase serotonin levels in the brain it might lead to improvements in treating people with depression (DeGrandpre, 2006). The research resulted in the development of a formula for a compound then known as the "Buus-Lassen Compound" which allegedly had the capability to relieve the depression in people. The compound was patented in the United States in 1977 and the company later sold all rights and research surrounding this patent to SmithKline (now GlaxoSmithKline) in 1980 (DeGrandpre, 2006).
SmithKline put significant effort into developing the compound and much of this development occurred in the SmithKline plant in Harlow, England (DeGrandpre, 2006).…… [Read More]
The 1964 film Dr. Strangelove uses the context of Cold ar brinksmanship in order to uncover a more fundamental problem with patriarchy and the maintenance of a destructive masculinity. This masculinity is under threat as a result of sexual frustration, and the characters of Ripper, Turgidson, and Kong embody three different kinds of this frustration. Ripper's sexual frustration is the most explicit, and leads to the most overtly violent reaction. Turgidson's sexual frustration is not the result of a physiological problem but rather due to pent-up energy, and thus his reaction is to cheer on the violence perpetrated by Ripper, even if he cannot engage in it himself. Finally, Kong, who is denied the kind of sexual immediacy granted Turgidson, nonetheless is able to overcome the frustration experienced by the other two men when he finally succeeds in dropping a nuclear bomb. Thus, the film suggests that the true threat…… [Read More]
Chung, W., Lim, S., Yoo, J., & Yoon, H. (2013). Gender difference in brain activation to audio-visual sexual stimulation; do women and men experience the same level of arousal in response to the same video clip? International journal of impotence research, 25(4), 138-142. doi: 10.1038/ijir.2012.47
The researchers wanted to examine the factors related to human sexual arousal and their differences in men and women. The research examined the conditions that result in the arousal of women and men. It has been noted previously that the sexual response cycle for women and men is very different. Men have been noted to experience sexual satisfaction from physical attraction while women are affected by emotions and the environment in order to experience sexual satisfaction. Previous research has shown that men respond more to sexual stimuli than women. The reasoning behind this stimulation is vital to establish. Based on this the researchers wanted to…… [Read More]
The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.
A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.
Greater Recovery Among Children
Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.
The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…… [Read More]
Diabetes and Drug Treatments
TYPE II DIABETES AND DUG TEATMENTS
Type I Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus type 1 result from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas. Subsequent shortage of insulin translates to increased urine and blood glucose. The developed world is associated with increasingly variant type I diabetes with a large cause of kidney failure and non-traumatic blindness. The link is based on an increased dementia and cognitive dysfunction risk through disease processes of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The complications are inclusive of sexual dysfunction, acanthosis nigricans, and frequent infections (Jones, et al., 2012).
Type II Diabetes
The classic diabetes symptoms include polyuria (frequent urination), increased thirst, increased hunger (polyphagia), and weight loss. Alternative symptoms commonly presented in the diagnosis include histories of blurred vision, fatigue, recurrent vaginal infections, peripheral neuropathy, and itchiness (Barnett, 2012). However, many people lack symptoms in the initial years and while…… [Read More]
transference and transference love, as it is manifest in the psychoanalytic environment. Different therapists have recommended different methods of dealing with this love, which range from simple, knowing transference to idealized transference, and erotic transference. These range from exploring such issues verbally, to the use of surrogates for sex therapy, to sexual involvement with patients. Certain factions within the therapeutic community advocate some or none of these methodologies.
Answering his own question, "What are transferences?" he wrote: "A whole series of psychological experiences are revived, not as belonging to the past, but as belonging to the person of the physician at the present moment.... Psychoanalytic treatment does not create transferences, it merely brings them to light.... Transference, which seems ordained to be the greatest obstacle to psychoanalysis, becomes its most powerful ally if its presence can be detected each time and explained to the person" (1895:116-120). Freud went on to…… [Read More]
accepting slavery in the west may never be uncovered to a level of acceptance of those who suffered under the terrible treatment. Slavery was an unjust and evil order which structured society on the basis of skin color, nationality, and land ownership. While understanding this concept is difficult to some, alternate theories which have been brought forth over the past three decades as a result of the merging of advancing sociology, psychological, and political studies are even more difficult to comprehend, unless the proponents of the same are still holding an axe which needs to be ground.
One such theory is expounded in White on Black. The article, which propounds to be a piece of scholarly research, attempts to piece together apples and oranges in order to create a reasonable theory. But what seems to be more the object of the article is to give black Americans, and blacks world…… [Read More]
However, when all said and done the situation is still critical and those having resorted to abortion have a hard time getting over the psychological traumas that they suffer. Of course, such an experience is difficult to put behind and the best solution for abortion victims should be their subjection to intense psychological discussions in order to get over the shock more easily.
It seems that the women that cannot psychologically recover from an abortion describe similar symptoms. Most have reported having nightmares about children, blood, and voices calling them. It is horrible for someone that underwent an abortion to be reminded of the episode, as images immediately spring to their minds making them go into a state of distress. It is not surprising that consequent to undergoing an abortion, one's self-esteem drops significantly, as women feel that they have been incompetent at performing one of humanity's basic functions-that of…… [Read More]
family, friendship and love are addressed by the collection of authors in the readings. Specifically, these include issues of sexuality, gender, homosexuality, and the relationship between parents and children. All these issues have changed as the world developed sociologically and technologically. Current technological and informational developments for example have a profound effect on the morals and norms relating to the above issues.
In terms of sexuality, Erich Fromm suggests that erotic love is frequently deceptive, as it is mistaken for the phenomenon of love itself, rather than an extension of the emotion. When the union is however achieved, no barriers are left to conquer and the tendency is to crave a new union with another stranger. This urge is however frequently curbed by the ethics of sexuality imposed by society as described by Bertrand Russell. Although the structure of society favors polygamy, monogamy is often imposed by the subconscious that…… [Read More]
Since its approval for use in the United States by the FDA in 1987, fluoxetine (commonly known as Prozac) has been the subject of great debate. Fluoxetine, now available in generic form, has been proven useful in the treatment of depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, some eating disorders, panic disorder, insomnia, migraines, schizophrenia, and more (Schmetzer, 2002). However, this drug does have a range of possible side effects including sexual dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, agitation, tremors, irritability, hypomania, impulsivity, and gastrointestinal distress (Kerr, 2008). In addition, it may be too early to tell what the consequences of long-term (more than 20 years) use of fluoxetine might be on the human brain (Murray, 2006).
As a psychoactive drug, fluoxetine works by affecting the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters in the brain are synthesized in neurons, stored in vesicles, and upon nerve impulse stimulation, are released into the synaptic cleft. Here they…… [Read More]
Country combines a coming of age story with personal insights into the psychological effects of war. Haunted by her father's and uncle's experiences in Vietnam, seventeen-year-old Sam Hughes continually seeks to understand and to make real the facts surrounding her father's death. Set during the crucial summer after high school graduation, Bobbie Ann Mason's novel traces the development of its protagonist over a relatively short period of time, but offers great character insight. As her nickname suggests, Sam is a tomboyish, spunky teen who both acts and feels older than her chronological age. One of her closest friends and confidants is her veteran uncle, who she suspects suffers from Agent Orange. Sam's concerns about Emmett's health border on the obsessive, but her attempts to unearth the past equal a deeper investigation into her father. Because he died before she was born, and not much older than Sam herself, Dwayne Hughes…… [Read More]
Female Gender Mutilation
Female Genital Mutilation
The procedures that constitute the removal of the external genitalia of the females, whether in part or wholly, is referred to as female genital mutilation or briefly as FGM. It also constitutes other forms of injury to such organs for non-medical reasons. The practice is usually carried out by traditional circumcisers who are recognized individuals in communities, and are often present at important functions such as child births. There are instances when health care providers carry out the procedures under the false assumption that it is safe to do it in controlled medical facilities (UNICEF 87). However, the world Health organization requests all medical professionals to refrain from carrying out such procedures. The practice has been recognized all over the world as a violation of the rights of women. It is a sign of major inequalities between males and females of the human species,…… [Read More]
What appears to explain their shared high rates of violent behavior is their increased interpersonal dependency. They are socially withdrawn and entertain a negative view of themselves. These difficulties with trust are common in the two disorders. They are thus more personally dependent on their partners. Furthermore, veterans with a major physical health problem are likelier to commit domestic violence than the other veterans surveyed. The physical problem tends to increase their irritability and dependence on their partners. Other studies found this characteristic high partner-specific dependency among physically abusive men who exhibit personal inadequacy, low social self-confidence and increased reliance on those nearest them. Many of these physically abusive men greatly fear abandonment and are anxiously attached. They are thus hypersensitive to rejection and often show anger in their intimate relationships. Veterans often display excessive coercion to which the partners respond by distancing themselves. The veterans' fear and dependencies can…… [Read More]
Chemical Addiction Progress More apidly in Young People than Adults?
Chemical dependency is the obsessive use of chemicals like drugs, alcohol, and tobacco and the incapacity to stop using them, in spite of all the troubles caused by their use. People with a chemical dependency can stop using for a while but find it hard to start all together. This is where professional help is needed to stop it for life. Those who quit without professional help, typically overcome with an agonizing desire to resume alcohol, tobacco or drug use. Alcohol and drug addiction are progressive diseases. In most, addictions begin gradually and grow until one's life becomes increasingly uncontrollable. As recurring efforts to gain control over the addiction are unsuccessful, life for the person who has developed a chemical dependency begins to fall apart (Chemical dependency, n.d.).
Drug addictions in young people have been found to progresses more quickly…… [Read More]
("St. John's ort," 2006, NCAM: National Council of Alternative Medicine)
Research, at present, is inconclusive. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a 3-year study of 336 patients with major depression of moderate severity. The study randomly assigned patients to an 8-week trial. One-third of patients received a uniform dose of St. John's ort, another third a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) commonly prescribed for depression, and the final group received a placebo. The study participants who responded positively were followed for an additional 18 weeks. At the end of the first phase of the study, participants were measured on two scales, one for depression and one for overall functioning. There was no significant difference in rate of response for depression, but the scale for overall functioning was better for the antidepressant than for either St. John's ort or placebo. ("Depression," 2000, National Institute of Health)
Another study, described in…… [Read More]
Furthermore, it appeared that the consumption of alcoholic beverages among the youth increased throughout the three-year duration of the survey. In terms of the young females (in high school), the drinking path has been described as "an absolute disaster" (Fyfe, 2010). The primary explanation as to why alcopops became even more popular among the youth is given by the inability of the tax to impact the parents -- who in most cases are the very sources of alcohol. "As parents were the primary source of alcohol among current drinkers, their ongoing preference for premixed spirits may not be surprising, as it is likely that these beverages are affordable to most parents, even after the tax increase" (Fyfe, 2010).
The Australian case of the excise tax on alcopops reveals a limited efficiency in reducing binge drinking among adolescents and it is expected that the same results would be registered within the…… [Read More]
608). Hence, Spears is seen as transcending from teen pop star to "vamp." Some of her fans refer to her as "slore" (the combined words "slut" and "whore") because of her move from teen cuteness to adult soft core pornography.
Although it is possible, it doesn't seem likely that Spears suffers from schizophrenia. In his book, Dr. David Barlow lists the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia, and while Spears has shown "grossly disorganized…" behavior, to our knowledge she does not have disorganized speech, delusions or hallucinations. There is nothing in the literature about Spears that indicates she has had autistic issues or psychotic lapses, but again, schizophrenia is a remote possibility (Barlow, et al., 2008).
hat interventions may be appropriate for Spears, given the widespread believe among those close to her and professionals that she has psychological problems?
Does Spears suffer from a bipolar condition? According to Medline Plus (part of…… [Read More]
Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).
Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).
Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…… [Read More]
" Long-term use may develop psychoses, like schizophrenia and severe depression. The use of MDMA may produce psychological difficulties, like confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, severe anxiety and paranoia, even weeks after the use of the drug. MSMA develops symptoms, such as muscle tension, nausea, blurred vision, rapid eye movements, faintness, chills, sweating, and increased heart rate and blood pressure. it, therefore, poses a special risk for those with heart disease. Overuse can lead to death (Kurtzweil).
West Africans used ibogaine as a stimulant and aphrodisiac in the early 1900s (Kurtzweil 1995). Native Americans used mescaline from peyote cactus in religious rituals. LSD was first synthesized in 1938. Throughout history, it was considered a source of many types of medications. Its psychedelic effects were first discovered in 1943. Two decades after World War II, LSD was used to determine its effects on patients with schizophrenia and other mental disorders.…… [Read More]
Probably, one of the most logical statements made by a nonbiased researcher and commentator on the subject of emotional effects of abortion is that;
In spite of psychological problems suffered by a few women after abortion, the existence of post abortion syndrome is doubted by most experts. There is little need to posit a unique disorder in this case, since abortion is not significantly different from any other stressful life experience that might cause trauma in certain people.
This trauma can then be dealt with in a logical and constructive manner, befitting any other stressful life event, such as the loss of a partner in a separation, being fired from a job or getting into a car accident. Depression, protracted grief or general feelings of guilt, when they occurs must be treated as a logical outgrowth of life stress not as a special case of social…… [Read More]
Et al. "Psychological Responses of Women After First-Trimester Aortion." Arch Gen Psychiatry. Volume 57.8 (2000): 777-84. Lexis Nexis
Rearden, David C. "Aortion and Susequent Sustance Ause." The Journal of Drug and Alcohol Ause. Vol 26.1 (2000): 61-75. Wiley Online Lirary
Rosen, Gerald; Spitzer, Roert; McHugh, Paul. "Prolems with the post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosis and its future in DSM-V." British Journal of Psychology. Volume 192 (2008): 3-4. Hard Copy
Speckhard, Anne; Rue, Vincent. "Complicated mourning: Dynamics of impacted post aortion grief." Journal of Prenatal Psychology Health. Volume 8.1 (1993): 32
Speckhard, Anne; Rue, Vincent. "Postaortion Syndrome: An Emerging Pulic Health Concern." Journal of Social Issues. Volume 48.3 (2010): 95-119. Referenced in Government Study
"Mental Health and Aortion." American Psychology Association. 2008. We. 25 Fe. 2012.… [Read More]
The primary objectives of the training seminar are as follows:
To assist the trainee in developing a content knowledge base of counseling theory, research and practice from a multicultural point-of-view.
To assist the trainee in defining their professional identity and knowlegde and adherence to ehtical practice.
For the trainee to receive monitoring of their strengths and weaknesses as a counselor.
To acquire new skills in counseling.
To be able to identify personal issues involved with being a counselor.
To learn to develop and write case studies in a professional manner.
To be able to have a comfortable and supportive environment wherein sharing information, reactions and concerns can take place.
Knowing that individual, group, and seminar situations are important in providing a student optimal training it is also important to be able to recommend new situations wherein counselor training can be brought about. To this end, an area that has been…… [Read More]
Citalopram hydrobromide (Celexa) belongs to a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It works by raising the amount of serotonin, a natural substance in the brain that aids in maintaining mental balance. Citalopram comes as a tablet and a liquid solution to take by mouth. It is typically taken once a day with or without food and should be taken at around the same time every day (Medications and Drugs, 2012). Citalopram is also sometimes used to treat eating disorders, alcoholism, panic disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and social phobia (Citalopram, 2011).
Nausea, dry mouth, trouble sleeping, loss of appetite, weakness, tiredness, drowsiness, dizziness, increased sweating, blurred vision, or yawning may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, one should tell their doctor promptly. This medication may rarely cause a very serious condition called serotonin syndrome. The risk increases when this medication is used with certain…… [Read More]
Spinal Disc Herniation, also called slipped disc or herniated disc, is a medical condition that affects the spine. This may be caused by trauma, injury, or idiopathic causes that are combinations of issues. Physiologically, an injury causes a tear in the outer ring of the intervertebral disc, more specifically in the fibrous ring that surrounds the disc. This injury then allows the softer, central portion of the disc to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings. This tear sometimes causes the release of inflammatory chemicals causing intense pain, even with there is no severe root compression. In addition, herniated discs are almost always postero-lateral because of the way the ligaments are attached to the spinal cord (Postacchini, 1999).
Most minor herniations heal within several weeks using anti-inflammatory treatment for pain and swelling. However, severe herniations, the so-called slipped disc, even though it is not accurate from a medical…… [Read More]
Making Prescription Drugs Affordable?
Parallel Trade and the Pharmaceutical Industry
The skyrocketing cost of prescription drugs remains one of the most contentious issues in America. In this presidential election year, especially, politicians are continually debating ways to make life-saving drugs more affordable. Alone in the world, the United States prohibits the free importation of prescription medications from abroad. Yet, as is so often pointed out by those in favor of changing the law, such drugs are nearly always much less expensive in foreign countries - even medicines that are actually manufactured by American corporations. Of central importance in the argument is the precise rationale for current pricing levels. The pharmaceutical companies and their allies claim that high prices are necessary to finance the continuing innovation of American medicine. Foreign nations, they say, artificially control drug costs, thereby depriving corporations of the sizeable funds required for new research. New medications…… [Read More]