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Sexual Orientation of the Parent and Child Custody Proceedings
Many scholars have noted that the struggle that has ensued in the last few decades regarding equal rights and treatment for the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) community is akin to the Civil ights Movement in the 1960s. The struggle is fundamentally the same: portions of Americans are being denied their rights for superficial reasons that they cannot control. Just as one cannot control one's skin color, one can also not control one's sexual orientation. The fact that one's sexual orientation is even a question in child custody proceedings today is something that is going to be considered unfathomable in the decades to come. This paper intends to demonstrate without a doubt that one's sexual orientation, just like one's skin color or even one's religious beliefs, does not impact a child's well-being and should have no weight or bearing on…
Aamft.org. (2013). Same-Sex Parents and their Children. Retrieved from AAmft.org: http://www.aamft.org/imis15/content/consumer_updates/Same-sex_Parents_and_Their_Children.aspx
Barlow, R. (2013, April). Gay Parents As Good As Straight Ones. Retrieved from bu.edu: http://www.bu.edu/today/2013/gay-parents-as-good-as-straight-ones/
Innes, E. (2013, June). Gay parents have 'healthier and less argumentative children'. Retrieved from dailymail.co.uk: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2336889/Gay-parents-healthier-children-better-self-esteem.html
Pappas, S. (2012, January 15). Why Gay Parents May Be the Best Parents. Retrieved from livescience.com: http://www.livescience.com/17913-advantages-gay-parents.html
Finally, it was found that the anterior commissure in homosexual men and heterosexual women is larger and in heterosexual men it is smaller.
As a final example, Savic et al. studied the activation of the brain in heterosexual women and heterosexual and homosexual men in response to the odours of and EST, two chemicals which may act as human pheromones (Carlson, 2007). They found that the brains of homosexual men and heterosexual women responded similarly, and the brains of heterosexual men and women responded differently, suggesting that the response pattern is related to sexual orientation.
Of the theories mention in this paper, I believe the first one is the most accurate because it is the only theory which can explain the reasons for all forms of sexual orientation. The other two studied heterosexual men and women but only homosexual men, not homosexual women.
Carlson, N.. (2007). Physiology of Behaviour…
Carlson, N.R. (2007). Physiology of Behaviour (9th ed.). City, State: Allyn Bacon.
sexual orientation and whether it is the result of the nature or environment has been the source of acrimonious debate for several decades. The debate has involved a wide spectrum of individuals such as scientists, religious officials, politicians, and the general public. Both sides of the issue possess strong feelings that they are correct in their assessment and the emotional nature of the issue has caused hard feelings to develop which make resolving the issue far more difficult.
Proponents of the argument that sexual orientation is determined by DNA or the result of hormonal development argue that because sexual orientation, whether gay or straight, is a function of nature it should be protected. Both gay and straight individuals should be, therefore, provided the same legal rights and protections. Opponents of the nature argument argue that sexual orientation is the result of environmental factors and, therefore, not natural. They argue that…
AMA. (1995). AMA Policy Regarding Sexual Orientation. Retrieved July 23, 2011, from American Medical Association: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/about-ama/our-people/member-groups-sections/glbt-advisory-committee/ama-policy-regarding-sexual-orientation.page
APA. (n.d.). Sexual Orientation and homosexuality. Retrieved July 23, 2011, from American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/sexual-orientation.aspx
Murphy, T.F. (2010). The Ethics of Homosexuality: Neither Genetics nor Marriage is the Answer. APA Newsletters .
Nesbitt, P.D. (1997). Sexual Orientation as a justice issue: Issues of postmodern social philosophy and religion for civil rights. Social Justice Research, 373-392.
LGBT sexual orientation: is it genetically formulated?
The discussion surrounding the sexual orientation, especially those considered widely as not the mainstream in many societies like the lesbians, gay, bisexuals and transgender, has drawn mixed reactions and differing perspectives over the years. As a matter of fact, the treatment and consideration of such people under the law has elicited protracted legal suits with ultimate varying decisions being arrived at in different cases and different states. This constant debate on the LGBT has led to a constitutional tussle especially regarding the legalization and recognition of the marriages between the gays and the other groups with the sexual orientations mentioned above. The latest decision of the courts recognizing the gay marriages has significantly reshaped the debate surrounding the gay issue, but despite such rulings, debates and the social and medical researches conducted, there has not been enough evidence and facts to convince the…
American Jewish Committee, (2000). What Is Wrong with Gay Marriage. Commentary, vol. 110: p. 35.
David Blankenhorn, (2008). Protecting Marriage to Protect Children. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved September 4,2015 from http://articles.latimes.com/2008/sep/19/opinion/oe-blankenhorn19
Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth & K. Lee Lerner (eds)(2006). Family in society: essential primary sources.. Thomson Gale. ISBN 1414403305. Primary resource collection and readings. Library of Congress. Jefferson or Adams Bldg General or Area Studies Reading Rms. Retrieved September 4,2015 from http://www.scribd.com/doc/74720998/52/LGBT-adoption
What Factors Determine Sexual Orientation
When a child is born they will look either male or female based on their genitalia and other cues that are psychologically fixed. Of course, there are children who are inter-sexed, but that is a discussion for another time. Whether that person is born obviously male or female there is no outward method for determining a baby's sexual orientation when they are born. It is a matter that is much discussed and bandied by people who want an easy answer. But easy answers to such questions as these are few and far between. Seeking to find out a child's sexual orientation when they are born, or discovering it for them as they develop, is a faulty attitude to take. This essay will look at the nature vs. nurture debate to see if it has yet been determined how a person's sexual orientation is…
In re Marriage Cases. S147999 CA 4365, (2008).
Sexual Orientation Issues Impacting Electronic Cigarette International Group
The Board of Directors of Electronic Cigarette International Group (ECIG) is at the forefront of advancing vaping technology and dynamic changes in culture. The shift away from harmful tobacco smoke to a cleaner, safer vaping experience puts ECIG in position to profit from progressive attitudes towards a technological approach to safer smoking habits. At the same time, ECIG has an opportunity to stake a position within corporate social responsibility (CS) in terms of addressing the shifting changes in social attitudes towards sexual orientation. This report will show that by embracing a CS platform of diversity and welcome to LGBT groups, ECIG can position itself to be both a mainstream and alternative sector choice for lifestyle changes. This report will provide an overview of academic analysis regarding sexual orientation and workplace environments and give insight into how this subject affects ECIG both internally…
Calzo, J., Ward, M. (2009). Media Exposure and Viewers' Attitudes Toward
Homosexuality: Evidence for Mainstreaming or Resonance? Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 53(2): 280-299.
Cartwright, B., Daniels, J., Zhang, S. (2008). Assessing multicultural competence:
Perceived versus demonstrated performance. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86(3): 318-322.
Biology and sexual orientation he topic: SEXUAL OIENTATION AND SEXUAL IDENTITY...It college Biopsychology. Please focus biopsychology (biology, nature, genetics,)
Sexual orientation: Nature or nurture?
'Baby, I was born this way.' The new Lady Gaga song sums up a common theme of the modern gay rights movement: that sexuality is genetic, rather than psychologically determined. Given that homosexuality was once listed as a mental illness in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) of the American Psychological Association, it is understandable that gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered people would wish to emphasize that sexuality is not a disorder: the only 'disordered' aspect of gay sexuality in society is the prejudice directed against gay people. Current medical research literature seems to largely support this claim.
Scientists operating from a biological paradigm have found certain 'clues' which indicate that sexual orientation is hard-wired within structure of the brain. After studying the…
Bodo, Cristian C.A. (2007). The biology of sexual orientation. National Sexuality Research
Center. Retrieved March 13, 2011, from http://nsrc.sfsu.edu/article/biology_sexual_orientation
Genetics has a role in determining sexual orientation in men (2007, November 8). ScienceDaily.
Retrieved March 13, 2011
And that's the problem. The difficulty of locating sources that document same-sex love and sexuality is legendary
The problem of tracing the movement, then, springs from the fact that historians and academicians had difficulty searching for data, information, and other documents that can prove the existence and practice of same-sex sexual orientation from the 18th to 19th centuries. More than just the problem of locating documents that could prove the existence of homosexuality in these early years, Rupp also experienced problems proving the gender differences between male and female homosexuality, since one of the objectives she tried establishing is that homosexuality "in the case of women" tend "to reveal emotional attachments to other women...we often do not know whether the behavior says anything about love or desire."
After Rupp has posed the scholarly question of the origins and historicity of same-sex sexual orientation movement, "Improper Bostonians" chronicles the lives of…
Patient Sexual Orientation on Diagnosis Since DSM-IV
Since the creation of DSM-IV as a diagnostic tool, whether or not a patient is homosexual has affected their diagnosis. Whether or not this should be so is a discussion for another day, but why it is so is a more pressing question which needs to be answered. Concerns that many people are not getting the proper clinical diagnosis simply because they have a sexual orientation that varies from what is considered normal are likely not unfounded. In order to determine whether or not this effect on their diagnosis is detrimental, or even legitimate, it will be necessary to examine not only the history of clinical diagnosis, but how homosexuals are treated by psychologists in the present day.
The intent of this paper is to examine the available literature on this topic in several different ways in order to obtain a clear understanding…
Materials used for this study consisted of a series of questionnaires: Series 1 was distributed to 300 individuals and included the question identifying sexual preference; Series 2 was designed to gauge the degree to which study participants considered themselves able to disclose potentially embarrassing information in an anonymous study; Series 3 consisted of specific questions designed to reveal any perceptions or disclosures on the part of participants consistent with the hypothesis.
The procedure employed by this study consisted of distributing Series 1 questionnaires to college students on two campuses with an effort made to include homosexual and bisexual individuals by soliciting responses from members of acknowledged gay associations as well as from the general student population. The experimenters then used Series 2 questions to narrow the original field of 300 participants to a smaller field of 100 to identify those individuals who expressed confidence in their willingness to discuss the…
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Kinsey's Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale. The Kinsey Institute (2008). Retrieved April 13, 2008, from the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction website at http://www.kinseyinstitute.org/resources/ak-hhscale.html
Poole, D., Warren, a., Nunez, N. (2007) the Story of Human Development. Princeton, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Homosexual Activity as a Function of Biochemistry
Homosexuality is one of the most controversial topics among people today precisely because so few actually understand it and what prompts some to pursue a homosexual lifestyle. Some view it as sinful, others are very accepting of it because they view it as natural even if it deviates from traditional sexual norms. There are various reasons for why individuals engage in homosexual activity and many of them are personal or environmental, though some are distinctly biological. In fact, while not everyone may be born gay and may come to adopting a homosexual lifestyle as a result of some experience in their younger life (such as rape or negative experiences with the opposite sex), researchers like Dr. Wesley Muhammad, Dr. Marc Breedlove and Dr. Gunter Dorner have shown that the biology of homosexuality is in fact established during fetal development. Thus, in some…
Ayoub, P. M., & Garretson, J. (2017). Getting the message out: Media context and global changes in attitudes toward homosexuality. Comparative Political Studies, 50(8), 1055-1085.
Baer, M. (2017). When binary thinking is involved, polarization follows. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/empathy-and-relationships/201701/when-binary-thinking-is-involved-polarization-follows
Buoli, M., & Croci, R. (2015). Testosterone, Fraternal Birth Order, and Homosexuality:
Comment on Kishida and Rahman (2015). Archives of sexual behavior, 44(7), 1755.
Conrad, R. (2016). The Lure of the Gay Gene. The Gay and Lesbian Review, 25-28.
Gavrilets, S., Friberg, U., & Rice, W. R. (2018). Understanding Homosexuality: Moving on from Patterns to Mechanisms. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 47(1), 27-31.
Halperin, D. M. (2003). The normalization of queer theory. Journal of Homosexuality, 45(2-4), 339-343.
Hines, M., Constantinescu, M., & Spencer, D. (2015). Early androgen exposure and human gender development. Biology of Sex Differences, 6(1), 3.
The Population Cohort: LGBTQ
The lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) comprise a minority population. Although a diverse group in terms of socioeconomic class background, age, ethnicity, and gender identity, shared experiences of discrimination will impact mental health outcomes. In fact, self-hatred and internalized stigma due to continued exposure to prejudicial attitudes leads to problems like hiding or identity concealment—remaining in the closet—will compound mental health issues by preventing the person from seeking help when needed (Edwards, 2012). Stress due to stigma and discrimination will be compounded by additional factors like race/ethnicity and gender. The composition of the LGBTQ population is incredibly diverse, with the possibility for double or triple minority status such as with Asian American, African American, and other minority groups within the LGBTQ community (Chong-suk Han, Ayala, Paul, et al., 2015; Syzmanski & Sung, 2010). Research has shown that members of the LGBTQ community experience stressors…
Budge, S. L. (2014). Navigating the balance between positivity and minority stress for LGBTQ clients who are coming out. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 1(4), 350–352. doi:10.1037/sgd0000077
Edwards, K. M., & Sylaska, K. M. (2012). The Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence among LGBTQ College Youth: The Role of Minority Stress. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(11), 1721–1731. doi:10.1007/s10964-012-9880-6
Han, C. S., Ayala, G., Paul, J. P., Boylan, R., Gregorich, S. E., & Choi, K. H. (2015). Stress and coping with racism and their role in sexual risk for HIV among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men. Archives of sexual behavior, 44(2), 411-420.
Kelleher, C. (2009). Minority stress and health: Implications for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) young people. Counselling psychology quarterly, 22(4), 373-379.
Lewis, R. J., Derlega, V. J., Griffin, J. L., & Krowinski, A. C. (2003). Stressors for gay men and lesbians: Life stress, gay-related stress, stigma consciousness, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 22(6), 716-729.
Mink, M. D., Lindley, L. L., & Weinstein, A. A. (2014). Stress, stigma, and sexual minority status: The intersectional ecology model of LGBTQ health. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 26(4), 502-521.
Szymanski, D. M., & Sung, M. R. (2010). Minority stress and psychological distress among Asian American sexual minority persons 1?7. The Counseling Psychologist, 38(6), 848-872.
Gay and Lesbian Fight for rights based on \"One Nation Under God\" Documentary
Heterosexism is very religious in the context where the people believe that God created people in pairs of the opposite sex, and involved within the same-sex people is considered highly sinful (Rzeznik, 1993). In this sense, heterosexism is considered a natural sexual orientation. At the same time, homosexuals are contrasted in this film in different ways, where people have devised various analogies to explain this sexual orientation other than being natural. Homosexuals are considered mentally ill to the point where people have researched their family history and came up with different theories like having a distant father or mother and son relationship configuration creates a disturbance in childhood, which results in problematic sexual orientation (Rzeznik, 1993). It is considered ungodly to practice sexual orientation by the homosexuals (Rzeznik, 1993)
Some believe that heterosexuality is locked within the…
resolve conflicting evidence that male homosexuality is correlated with similarities in the genetic markers from region Xq28 of the X chromosome. While many studies suggest a strong genetic and biological basis to sexual orientation, there is little persuasive, compelling, causal evidence to support this claim. Specifically, attempts to find a genetic correlate to homosexuality have proven elusive, and several attempts to replicate the finding of similarities of region Xq28 of the X chromosome in male homosexuals have proven problematic. This study will attempt to correct the methodological problems that may have been problematic in earlier studies, including problems with the use of self-selecting samples, small sample sizes, and problems with the definition of homosexuality.
The ideas and definitions surrounding human sexuality and sexual orientation can be more fluid and confusing than appear on the surface. To the outside world, primary sexual characteristics (such as a penis or vagina) determine whether…
Bailey, J. Michael. 2003. The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism. Joseph Henry Press.
Bailey, J. M and Bell, A.P. 1993. Familiality of female and male homosexuality. Behav Genet., 23(4), 313-322. Bailey, J.M., Benishay, D.S. 1993. Familial aggregation of female sexual orientation. Am J. Psychiatry, 150(2), 272-277.
Bailey, J.M., Pillard, R.C. 1991. A genetic study of male sexual orientation. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 48(12), 1089-1096.
Bailey, J.M., Pillard, R.C., Neale, M.C. & Agyei, Y. 1993. Heritable factors influence female sexual orientation. Arch. Gen. Psychiat., 50, 217-223.
According to Croucher (2003), there are five layers in the erotic life of human beings. The first of these is sexual identity. This is the physical differentiation between male and female, which is fixed by the end of the first trimester in the development of the foetus. Transsexuals feel that they have the "wrong sex" and therefore the wrong core identity. The second layer is sexual orientation, which refers to hetero- or homosexuality. This is also almost impossible to change, since a genetic component plays a role here. The third layer, which is sexual preferences, refers to the elements of sexual stimulation. For men, for example, this would generally be female body parts, while women are aroused by factors such as intimacy, character, and other more subtle factors. The fourth layer is sex roles, where roles are assigned accordign to gender. This demarcation is strongest in young children.…
Berman, J.R. (2005). Physiology of female sexual function and dysfunction. International Journal of Impotence Research, Vol. 17. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/ijir/journal/v17/n1s/full/3901428a.html
Croucher, R. (2003, Jan 4). What you Can Change and What you Can't. John Mark Ministeries. Retrieved from: http://jmm.aaa.net.au/articles/2136.htm
Hucker, S.J. (2005). Paraphilias. Forensic Psychiatry.ca. Retrieved from: http://www.forensicpsychiatry.ca/paraphilia/overview.htm
Magnus Hirschfield Archive for Sexology. (2011). The Role of Hormones. Retrieved from: http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/ATLAS_EN/html/the_role_of_hormones.html
6). But this evidence of a strong fetal environmental predisposition for homosexuality ignores the admission of the authors that "the odds of homosexual participants being NCRH [non-consistently-right-handedness]" was 39% "although the odds for homosexual women alone" were 91%, thus significantly greater than for homosexual men 34% (Kauth 2008, p.6).
If these numbers were so different, the question arises as to why left-handedness is more common in female homosexuals, versus male homosexuals, and also, the criteria used by researchers in their categorization of female homosexuality. Thus invisible, subconscious biases about the nature of homosexuality, and the acceptance of one's cultural construction of homosexuality as a self-evident fact underlines the fact that science, particularly the science of sexuality, always takes place in a social context that affects the perception of the researchers.
Diamond, M. (2009). Clinical implications of the organizational and activational effects of hormones. Hormones and Behavior, 55(5), 621-632.…
Diamond, M. (2009). Clinical implications of the organizational and activational effects of hormones. Hormones and Behavior, 55(5), 621-632. Retrieved September 22, 2009,
from Research Library. (Document ID: 1719302541).
Graceffo, S. (2008, July 23). Homo Made. Syracuse New Times, p. 12. Retrieved September 22,
2009, from Alt-Press Watch (APW). (Document ID: 1532821511).
The vaginal fluids that may contain the infection are shared freely between partners. This also is the same with anal penetration. Oral sex between partners also is a source of transmission, particularly oral vaginal to kissing on the mouth. ubbing against each other leads to transmission of vaginal fluids. Another practice that can lead to transmission of STDs is the lack of hand washing during sex. As with heterosexual sex and with gay men sex, the practice of having sex with unknown partners is a great risk. Not knowing the person you are having sex with certainly increases the risk that the partner has had sex with an HIV infected person. This is particularly true of bisexual women. isky behavior occurs in each strata of sexual orientation. Drugs and alcohol lead to risky behavior, multiple partners and the lack of hygiene while engaging in the sex act.
All of this…
Hillier, S. & Holmes, KK. (1999). Bacterial vaginosis, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, third ed., 563-586.
Institute of Medicine. (1990). Lesbian Health: Current Assessment and Directions for the Future, Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine.
Marrazzo, J., Coffey, P. & Bingham, a. (2005). Sexual practices, risk perception and knowledge of sexually transmitted disease risk among lesbian and bisexual women, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, Volume 37, Number 1.
Retrieved May 1, 2005, from http:www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3700605.html.
It is apparent that the queer identified in Zimbabwe has not yet been socially accepted enough to even begin to look at the ways marriage laws discriminate against them. The most basic rights that are assumed when looking at the discrimination of LGB community and what are thought of as given human rights seen through a North American lense do not exist. The most basic laws of protection from active discrimination in public do not exist. Thus, to try and apply our notion of equal marriage rights within this society would be like trying to run before learning to walk. There are more pressing rights that need to be addressed, such as changing the laws that make ____ punishable by death for the LGB people who live within Zimbabwe before marital status and how the laws surrounding marriage are oppressive can begin to be examined.
From the previous three examples,…
Engelke, M. "We wondered what human rights he was talking about': Human rights,
homosexuality and the Zimbabwe international book fair." Critique of anthropology, 19 (1999):289.
Mandigo, J. "New blow for gay rights in Zimbabwe." Institute for war and peace reporting.
74(2006):1. Web 31 March 2010.
Indeed, we live in a system with a long history of treating homosexuals as deviants, criminals, outcasts, and just plain unworthy of familial love and acceptance.
In sum, there are several lessons which the critical thinker and the civil rights advocate can take from these three texts. First, it must be admitted that gays, lesbians, and transgender individuals are not treated equally in this society as well as in societies around the world. Second, there is a rich pattern of historical persecution of homosexuals and in order to eradicate and move forward, we must understand the history of gays in America and work toward finding ways that each day, we can move further and further away from the inhumanity of the Justinian Codes as well as the modern-day statutes which forbid marriage between homosexuals.
Amnesty International report reveals alarming and widespread police mistreatment of gays in USA. (2005, September…
Amnesty International report reveals alarming and widespread police mistreatment of gays in USA. (2005, September 22). UK Gay News.
Davies, C. (1982). Sexual taboos and social boundaries. The University of Chicago, 87(5), 1035. Retrieved from JSTOR.org.
Greenberg, D.F. (1988). The construction of homosexuality. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.
Grigoryan, M. (2010). ARMENIA: GAYS LIVE WITH THREATS of VIOLENCE, ABUSE. Civil Society. Retrieved from Eurasianet.com.
homosexuals in the school system. The writer explores how the mindset of the system as well as the attitudes of fellow students impacts their self-esteem, and their educational experience. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
America is recognized worldwide for its acceptance and encouragement of diversity. One of the final frontiers along those lines has been in the arena of homosexuality. Advocates of the homosexual community have lobbied for the equal treatment of homosexuals in the work place, in civic duty and even in the legal recognition of couples. With all of the advances that have been made in the area of homosexuality there is still a stigma for homosexuals within the American school system. From dealings with administrators, to the bullying that occurs to the bias in general education regarding gender issues, homosexual students are often caught in a compulsory system that makes them feel self-conscious…
ATTWOOD Steve, Headmaster blasts gay school report., Sunday Star Times (New Zealand), 03-31-1996, pp 8.
Gay-books sale hits opposition, Gay-books sale hits opposition., The Washington Times, 07-22-2002.
Gay California teachers 'come out' in classroom, Gay California teachers 'come out' in classroom., The Washington Times, 05-25-2002.
Tolerance in schools a homosexual ploy, conservatives say, Tolerance in schools a homosexual ploy, conservatives say., The Washington Times, 05-07-2002.
GE commits itself to active achievement of diversity for enhancing the firm's performance through recognition and utilization of the diverse talents and skills of its directors, managers, and staff members. Diversity encompasses recognizing and appreciating the unique inputs of different members of an organization, owing to their different backgrounds, skill sets, viewpoints, and experiences, including individuals with concomitant domestic responsibilities. GE cherishes the differences among its workforce, as well as their contribution to the organization. GE further commits itself to abolition of discrimination and supporting diversity among its staff members. The company's aim is making its workforce a true representative of every societal group, and making every employee feel valued and capable of contributing their best.
Thus, the goal of this diversity policy is providing fairness and equality to all employees of the company, and not discriminating against anyone on the basis of gender, race, color, religion, marital…
Acas (2006). Tackling discrimination and promoting equality. Retrieved 28 July 2015 from http://www.acas.org.uk/media/pdf/j/2/B16_1.pdf
Amaguin, R. (n.d.). Implement a Sexual Harassment Policy and Avoid a Harassment Claim EmploymentLawFirms.com. Retrieved July 28, 2015, from http://www.employmentlawfirms.com/resources/employment/workplace-safety-and-health/implement-sexual-harassment-policy.htm
Caltex Diversity Policy (n.d.). Retrieved 28 July 2015 from http://www.caltex.com.au/aboutus/documents/policiesprocesses/caltex%20diversity%20policy.pdf
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (n.d.). Sexual Harassment. Retrieved from: http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/sexual_harassment.cfm
biological definition of sex? Give your own definition and what you think it means in the context of society.
Traditional vaginal intercourse is probably where I would go with that because it's the usual/traditional form that is used. Of course, this is when a male inserts his penis into a woman's vagina in a stimulating and consensual manner. However, there are other forms of sex that have taken on new prominence and/or are specific to LGBT lifestyles where vaginal intercourse is either not possible or not preferred. The discussion of these "alternative" methods and so forth are becoming more and more acceptable in the modern society but vaginal intercourse will never go away for obvious reasons.
How do you believe the sexual revolution and counter-revolution, has influenced the events taking place in this class? Support your statements with examples (from textbook or other sources).
There have obviously been some major…
Sexual Child Abuse
Child sexual abuse involves a broad range of sexual behaviors that take place between a child and an older person. These sexual behaviors are planned to erotically stir the older person, commonly without concern for the consequences, choices, or outcome of the behavior upon the child. efinite conducts that are sexually offensive frequently involve bodily contact, such as in the state of sexual kissing, touching, fondling of genitals, and oral, anal, or vaginal contact. Nevertheless, behaviors might be sexually abusive even if they do not entail contact, such as in the case of genital exposure, verbal force for sex, and sexual abuse for purposes of prostitution or pornography.
For efinitions propose four main types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and child neglect), but seldom if ever does one form of abuse happen alone. The suggestion in itself is illogical. Physical abuse and sexual…
Diagnostic and Treatment Guidelines on Mental Health Effects of Family Violence. American Medical Association Web Site.
McClendon, Patricia D. November (1991). MSSW candidate. Incest/sexual abuse of children. Internet. p.23. Available: http://www.clinicalsocialwork.com/incest.html
National Association of Social Worker News. (1997, February). States eye domestic abuse welfare option. NASW News, Volume 42, #7, pp11.
Sexual Assault Treatment Center
Describe the social problem for the community
Sexual assault is a criminal sexual act, either physical or otherwise, committed by a perpetrator against a victim (usually a child) using physical, intimidation/force, or emotional manipulation. Sexual assault subjects the victim to the perpetrator's demands through use of coercion, force, manipulation or explicit/implicit threats. Sexual assault is considered criminal because the act is committed against a victim without seeking his or her consent. Sexual assaults are also considered wrong and criminal regardless of the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim or the religion, culture, sex, sexual orientation or age of the victim. In case the victim is a child, sexual assault is termed as sexual abuse. In sexual abuse an adult uses his or her position of power to satisfy their desires. As mentioned earlier, sexual assault can be with or without physical contact and it may…
Alexander, P. (1992). Application of attachment theory to the study of sexual abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(2), 185-95.
Amnesty International. (2005). Amnesty International Report. London: Times.
Appalachian State University. (2016). Sexual Assault Facts. Retrieved Febuary 6, 2016, from Appalachian State University: http://sexualassault.appstate.edu/sexual-assault-rape/sexual-assault-facts
Berliner, L., & Saunders, B. (n.d.). Treating fear and anxiety in sexually abused children. Research grantees report to NCCAN. Seattle, WA: Sexual Assault Center, Harborview Medical Center.
CBT can be effectively used in a variety of stressful or tense situations. Depending on the nature of the issue, focusing on changing behaviors often aids the individual in reducing an addiction, changing their approach to a situation, or focusing on interaction and dialog issues. CBT may be used, for example, with:
Severe anxiety from a recent sexual assault -- CBT may be used to unearth the issues surround the assault and resulting anxiety by helping the client focus on adaptation. The therapist should help the client understand that they were a victim, did not choose the issue, and the fault of the issue is with the perpetrator. Anxious feelings are a rational response to trauma, but by practicing assertion training, the client can take charge of their own emotions and begin to heal (SOUCE, p. 23).
A Gay/Bisexual person struggling to come out to friends and family --…
Follette, V. And J. Ruzek, eds. (2007). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies for Trauma, 2nd ed. New York: Guilford Press.
Fong, T. (2006). Understanding and Managing Compulsive Sexual Behaviors. Psychiatry. 3 (11): 51-58. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945841/
Wright, J. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. In J. Wright (Ed.), Review of Psychiatry (Vol. 23). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
The author of this report has been asked to assess and review an article that is related to the subject matter in the class text for this class. The topics that are there to be chosen from include regulation of employment, the employee/employer relationship, the Civil ights Act/Title VII, affirmative action, race, gender, sexual harassment and affinity orientation. The author of this report shall focus on sexual harassment. While the ubiquity of sexual harassment training and enforcement of laws (not to mention lawsuits) relating to the same would seem to reduce the practice by offenders, sexual harassment is apparently still alive and well.
As described by the class text, sexual harassment is basically any behavior, action or condition that is sexualized in nature and that leads to a person being sexually threatened, denigrated or made uncomfortable. Examples of sexual harassment would include having a picture of a bikini-clad…
Bennett-Alexander, D., & Hartman, L. (2007). Employment law for business. Boston, Mass.: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Lachman, S. (2015). A Shocking Number of States Don't Protect Unpaid Interns From Discrimination & Sexual Harassment. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 31 October
2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/05/27/unpaid-interns-harassment_n_7453826.html
Employees should be trained and educated about this issue. In case sexual harassment cases emerge, the H department must provide professional help and support for the victims. The complaints channel should be very well organized, and it should use both formal and informal methods for solving harassment cases (aymond, 2003).
A hostile environment, or a harassing one, is consisted of "unwelcome verbal or physical conduct based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, sexual orientation, or retaliation" (FCC, 2007). The law is very clear regarding this aspect, but individuals' perception varies in multiple ways. Individuals' perception regarding this subject should be the starting point for any anti-harassment strategy that should try to change these perceptions in order to prevent or at least diminish harassment cases.
Sexual harassment (2007). Wiipedia, the free encyclopedia. etrieved May 10, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexual_harassment#Sexual_harassment_in_the_workplace.
aymond, Neeta (2003). Sexual harassment at work. Combat…
Sexual harassment (2007). Wiipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexual_harassment#Sexual_harassment_in_the_workplace .
Raymond, Neeta (2003). Sexual harassment at work. Combat Law. Vol. No2, Issue No.3. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at http://www.indiatogether.org/combatlaw/vol2/issue3/harass.htm .
Workplace Harassment is a Form of Discrimination (2007). Federal Communications Commissions. Office of Workplace Diversity. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at http://www.fcc.gov/owd/understanding-harassment.html .
Herdt, G. (2004). Sexual development, social oppression, and local culture. Sexuality esearch
& Social Policy, 1(1), 39-62. doi:10.1525/srsp.2004.1.1.39
One of the most contentious debates in the field of psychology today is the question of nature vs. nurture, or the extent to which biology influences personal psychology vs. cultural constructs. Although it has fallen out of favor somewhat, there is also the Freudian 'essentialist' argument, which suggests that certain mental models span across cultures. According to the article, "Sexual development, social oppression, and local culture," traditional theories of adolescent development have emphasized the importance of the individual, and focused upon the creation of an adult self as if it existed outside of culture in both the Freudian and biological discourses of psychology. Herdt (2004) conducts a review of Freudian and developmental psychology, to argue for a more culturally-informed understanding of the progression of adolescent development.
In the field, a philosophy of…
Herdt, G. (2004). Sexual development, social oppression, and local culture. Sexuality Research
& Social Policy, 1(1), 39-62. doi:10.1525/srsp.2004.1.1.39
Orientation and Career Management
Employee Orientation and Management
Employee Orientation: Q1. Orienting new employees serves several critical functions for an organization. First and foremost, it ensures that employees have the practical skills to function at their new jobs. Even if employees have previous experience, education, and training in the workplace, there are specific skills particular to the organization for every new job that must be learned. Orientation kick-starts the learning process. Even more importantly, orientation grounds employees in the culture of the organization. Being a good fit for the organization's culture is often equally as important as possessing specific skills. While most organizations take this into consideration when hiring new employees, it will always take a period of time for employees to acclimate and become part of the 'team.' For some organizations, such as Zappos.com, the importance of an organizational fit is so great that employees are offered a 'bonus'…
Bruce, Steve. (2011). Bonus to quit. HR Daily Advisor. Retrieved:
Smith, M.K. (2001). The learning organization. The Encyclopedia of Informal Education.
Retrieved: http://www.infed.org/biblio/learning-organization.htm .
Integrated Counseling Orientation
Key Concepts of the Integrated Approach
My theoretical orientation as a counselor will be based on an integration between the psychoanalytical approach, the cognitive-behavior therapy approach and the reality therapy approach. These approaches complement one another and serve to address issues of concern in a multicultural society. The key concepts in the psychoanalytical approach are the conflict between the id, ego and superego. This conflict is created as an individual tries to balance needs with social norms and expectations, pleasure and reality. These conflicts are generally present in the unconscious but psychoanalysis helps to bring these issues into the conscious of the client so that their ego strength is increased and they can take better control of their behavior.
In cognitive-behavior therapy, the key concepts are learning and skill acquisition. A number of interventions are formulated, administered and evaluated to enable the client to acquire…
Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
Hofmann, S.G. (2012). An introduction to modern CBT: Psychological solutions to mental health problems. John Wiley & Sons
Wubbolding, R.E. (2010). Reality therapy. American Psychological Association
From the perspective of pure plot, David Mamet's 1974 play, Sexual Perversity in Chicago, is not exactly easy to summarize, although this difficulty is formally built in to the play, itself, which quite consciously rejects a standard narrative flow from one event to another for a cut-up collagistic style that rapidly jumps between scenes and events. Indeed, this sort of experimentation is hardly new in creative works, and was, in fact, a mainstay of modernist literature at the early part of the 20th century, but it can indeed still be jarring in the realm of theater, where one often tends to expect an emphasis on plot and narrative vision. Mamet's play, on the other hand, prefers to eschew these things in order to suggest something like the fractured nature of our own existences, and, rather than letting the plot hold the interest of the viewers, he realizes on…
About Last Night." MSN.com. retrieved November 5, 2003 at http://entertainment.
Frey, Hans-Jost. "On Presentation in Benjamin." Walter Benjamin: Theoretical
Questions. David S. Harris, ed. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1996.
Rosman JP, Resnick PJ. Sexual attraction to corpses: a psychiatric review of necrophilia. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1989;17(2):153-63.
It is not legal for me to reprint the article and copy you on it, since you are purchasing this paper (and copyright would be breached because you would, in form, be purchasing the article without reprint permission) -- but the article IS available for free online (your college should provide access to Google SCHOLAR and that gives not only the full article but all the times since its publication in which it has been cited or invoked in another academic or professional publication) of from PubMed. I can, however, legally provide you with the abstract
JAKE and JSTOR, both journals of jointly administered knowledge, offer the article in-full to students through their libraries.
Department of Psychiatry, Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital, Ohio 44109.
The authors review 122 cases (88 from the…
open today than they have ever been before. While it is a little sad that some states remain set against fully offering the choice of marriage to all who would love another person, regardless of gender, an increasing number of states have become sufficiently open to offer full equality of marriage. At the heart of the debate regarding marriage equality is the idea of whether the law should promote some sort of collective morality by enforcing the dominance of conventional sexual preference or not. My view is that, although the law does promote a sense of how one should interact with others, i.e. avoiding murder and the like, sexual preference should not form part of what the law allows citizens to do.
Devlin (1965, p. 371) suggests that there are those who feel that immorality and criminal offenses should not be synonymous, unless there are public features involved, such as…
Devlin, P. (1965). Morals and the Criminal Law. In Law and Morality: Readings in Legal Philosophy, edited by David Dyzenhaus, Sophia Reibetanz Moreau, and Arthur Ripstein.
Dworkin, R. (1977). Liberty and Moralism. In Law and Morality: Readings in Legal Philosophy, edited by David Dyzenhaus, Sophia Reibetanz Moreau, and Arthur Ripstein.
The problems faced by gays and lesbians are multiplied or intensified because stress cannot be reduced in the way it can be by other minority groups. In other words, while other minority groups would find support from families, the same is not true for gays or lesbians who fail to find any support especially if they have been in the "closet."
Harper et al. 2003 writes: "Minority stress has particular manifestations for LGBT people who cope with pervasive oppression, discrimination, and marginalization by remaining closeted. But unlike other marginalized groups, LGBT people often cannot find support in their family and community of origin. While the "closet" is safe it has its own problems -- the increased stress of hiding. Hiding means that ordinary daily interactions become minefields; it requires constant vigilance to avoid mentioning partners, same-gender attractions or dating experiences, as well as other activities that involve a LGBT community."…
Brooks, V.R. (1981). Minority stress and lesbian women. Lexington, MA D.C. Heath.
Donna Chrobot-Mason, Scott B. Button, and Jeannie D. Diclementi, (2001) "Sexual Identity Management Strategies: An Exploration of Antecedents and Consequences," Sex Roles: A Journal of Research
Gary W. Harper, Margaret Schneider; Oppression and Discrimination among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered People and Communities: A Challenge for Community Psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 31, 2003
Gonsiorek, J.C. (1991). The empirical basis for the demise of the illness model of homosexuality. In J.C. Gonsiorek & J.D. Weinrich (Eds.), Homosexuality: Research implications for public policy (pp. 115-136). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Employment Law Policies for XYZ
Describe and explain all the possible employment laws that could govern the employment at XYZ.
Job discrimination. Title VII of the Civil ights Act of 1964 prohibits hiring, firing or pay discrimination based solely upon a person's race, religion, sex or national origin. It also prohibits sexual harassment. Employees and applicants must be treated equally and harassment will not be tolerated.
Age discrimination. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act prevents discrimination against applicants or employees older than 40 because of their age. A person's age or proximity to retirement cannot be taken into account when making decisions on hiring, firing, pay, benefits or promotions.
Disability discrimination. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits job discrimination against qualified people with disabilities who can reasonably perform a job's function. If hired, managers need to work with H to help create reasonable accommodations for disabled employees.
Cornock, M. (2012). What to do when an employer acts unfairly. Nursing Standard, 26(38), 63.
Cullen, L. (2007). The Diversity Delusion. Time, 169(19), 74.
Henneman, T. (2011). Making the Pieces Fit. Workforce Management, 90(8), 12-18.
Hutson, B. (2012). How Is Your Relationship with Your Boss, Do You Know? Black Enterprise, 42(11), 56.
C. Mayor Adrian Fenty made HIV / AIDS the most important public health priority (Greenberg et al., 2009). Funding from the CDC allowed for a partnership between the D.C. Department of Health's HIV / AIDS Administration and the George Washington University School of Public Health and Healthy Services, which was responsible for the Epidemiology Annual eport for 2007 -- the first to be published for D.C. since 2002 (Greenberg et al., 2009). The Department of Health also initiated a routine HIV screening campaign to help provide testing resources and lower stigma, titled "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" (Greenberg et al., 2009).
Efforts to address the epidemic in D.C. included a combination of increased resource availability and educational services as offered by public health departments. The "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" campaign provided approximately 73,000 tests in 2008, which was a 70% testing increase from…
Brown, M., & Henriquez, E. (2008). Socio-demographic predictors of attitudes towards gays and lesbians. Individual Differences Research, 6(3), 193-202.
CDC HIV Fact sheet. (2011, November 07). HIV in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm
CDC Fact sheet. (2011, September). HIV and AIDS among gay and bisexual men. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/docs/fastfacts-msm-final508comp.pdf
Greenberg, A., Hader, S., Masur, H., Young, A., Skillicorn, J., & Dieffenbach, C. (2009). Fighting HIV / AIDS in washington, d.c. Health Affairs, 28(6), 1677-1687.
Sexual Orientation and Openness:
The Role of the Media
It wasn't long ago that many gays and lesbians remained in the closet for most of their lives. Although there is little question that the percentage of gays and lesbians in past generations was comparable to the overall percentage within the general population today, the actual numbers of "admitted" homosexuals was much less in previous decades than those "out" today. Much of this difference can be directly attributed to the role of the media -- specifically prime-time television.
Although the story of Rock Hudson is no longer new, many consider him to be the pinnacle of the representation of the "closeted for life" gay man. Further, many also consider him to be an excellent example of the rigidity of the entertainment industry concerning issues of sexual orientation -- especially in the years during the 1950's and 60's…
WNYC Radio. (2001). "Queer as Folk." Transcript. Retrieved on October 8, 2004, from, http://www.wnyc.org/onthemedia/transcripts/transcripts_022401_queer.html
sexual relationships figure in the construction of a transgendered person?
Sexual relationships or sexual preferences tend to be the elements that are usually accepted as defining factors in the sexual and social identity of an individual. This means that sexual relationships are often seen to be the determining factors that constitute the very psychological and social identity of the person. This view of sexuality presents a number of problems -- particularly with regard to the transgendered person. Firstly, as the following definitions of transgender will make clear, there are many variations and ambiguities to the term transgendered, which can be confusing. Secondly and more importantly, there is an ongoing debate which revolves around opposing views of what constitutes sexual identity. One point-of-view sees sexual relationships and identity as innate or "naturally" constituted. This view is opposed by the social construction theory which sees sexual identity as a "construction" engineered by…
Bockting, W.O. 1999. Accessed August 9, 2005. (SIECUS Report, 1999. 28(1), 3-7.) http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3781/is_199910/ai_n8875386#continue
Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
Foucault: Sex, Power and the Politics of Identity." Interview by Bob Gallagher and Alexander Wilson. In Foucault Live: Collected Interviews 1961-1984, ed. Sylvere Lotringer. New York: Semiotext (e), pp. 382-390. Originally published in The Advocate, No. 400, August 7, 1984. Interview conducted in June, 1982.
Groenewald, D. The Man Question: Foucault and the Politics of Male Sexuality. August 9, 2005. http://www.newcastle.edu.au/discipline/sociol-anthrop/staff/kibbymarj/foucault.html
sexual orientation and proclivity, the times are definitely changing. Once, tolerance was something that people simply talked about and did not actually have to practice. Today, tolerance is something that people need to simply keep pace with a number of developments that have impacted various members of the gay, lesbian, and transgender community. Gay pride has become more and more common; there are specific time periods dedicated to this sort of pride. Personally, I have mixed feelings about these developments. There are some scientific and sociological aspects of this phenomenon that seem unsettling, although there are also some noteworthy advancements related to tolerance for which this movement deserves commendation.
One of the most notable aspects of the changes that have affected the lesbian, gay and transgender community pertains to the military. Once, homosexuals were not allowed in the military. It was not uncommon for those who did infiltrate the ranks…
Tragically, it harms the most vulnerable among us -- children. This must stop
Please, send Senate Bill 1172 to the Assembly floor for a vote. It is the right thing to do. Thank you. (Domi,, 2012 ).
Advocates of conversion therapy are correct in maintaining that as long as the therapy helps a quantifiable amount of people, and these people voluntarily choose that theory, it should be maintained. The question is, however, how many other people has it harmed, and what is the extent and intensity of this harm... As in every other aspect, an approach that is harmful needs to be curtailed by the government. The government restricts smoking and drugs since harmful to the person. Advocates label this system as 'therapy', and therefore, say that a patient can choose the type of therapy that he or she wishes. However, the Ninth Circuit addressed this point in…
American Psychological Association, February 2008 (PDF) Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality http://www.apa.org/topics/sexuality/orientation.aspx?item=8
Buchanan, W (September 29, 2012). State bans gay-repair therapy for minors. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/State-bans-gay-repair-therapy-for-minors-3906032.php
Domi, T (June 26, 2012 ) UPDATE: Prop 8 Witness Ryan Kendall Testifies on Conversion Therapy; Committee Approves 5-2
In addition, I believe society pushes children into one sexual orientation by often making statements that refer to a heterosexual lifestyle, the way Janice told Maria to hold her boyfriend's hand. Because of this, I think teachers should address this very challenging issue even at this young of an age. Teachers can show their students that different people believe different things, making sure to state that family and religious views on the topic are valid ones. I think that children who can work out their own gender roles and sexual orientation will probably thank teachers and parents when they are older. Teachers' job is to encourage children to grow, learn, and explore in who they will be. It makes sense that teachers should play a role in encouraging students in developing their gender roles and sexual orientation as well.
Sex can be described as a biological distinction between males and females, particularly regarding reproductive functions. On the other hand gender tends to concentrate on socially constructed differences between men and women that reveal masculinity and feminity. More importantly while gender can be applied to individual difference, it can also be applied to institutional, cultural as well as structural difference.
There are theories that explain gender: Among them are biological theory and sociological theory. In terms of sociological theory, there are three concepts involved in explaining social science of gender. They include socialization, gender role, and opportunity structure. Gender role is described as a collection of acceptable behavior which is dissimilar in terms of sex within a given behavioral domain, such as parenting, in support of gendered norms. The sex determines the boundary of acceptable behavior, and where these boundaries have been violated there are consequences that follow as…
Barbara L. Frankowski, Sexual Orientation and Adolescents, 2004.American Academy of Pediatrics.
J. Richard Udry, "The Nature of Gender" Vol.31, No4. Population Association of America . http://www.jstor.org/stable/2061790.
Susan E. Short, PhD, Yang Claire Yang, PhD, and Tania M. Jenkins, MA,. (2013) FRAMING HEALTH MATTERS Sex, Gender, Genetics, and Health, Vol 103, No. S1 | American Journal of Public Health
McVeigh (Oklahoma City bomber) terms acts violence, childhood background, situational factors,
In the last several years, there has been a significant degree of research into the nature of homosexuality. Traditionally, homosexuality was regarded as a preference and a mere by-product of an individual's nurturing. However, a bevy of research has been produced in the past decade that alludes to the fact that there may be biological, social, as well as psychological or cognitive processes that significantly affect an individual's proclivity towards sexual orientation. Although there has yet to be a conclusive determinant for the specific psychological processes that possibly affect an individual's sexual orientation, the bulk of research points to both genetic and biological processes that may affect the psychological perceptions of gender and attraction. An examination of the articles within this document reveals that there is more evidence that supports biological factors affecting the psychology involved in determining whether…
Bocklandt, S. Vilain, E. (2007). "Sex differences in brain and behavior: hormones vs. genes." Advances in Genetics. 59: 245-266.
Jenkins, W.J. (2010). "Can anyone tell me why I'm gay? What research suggests regarding the origins of sexual orientation?." North American Journal of Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.freepatentsonline.com/article/North-American-Journal-Psychology/226818615.html
Kraemer, B., Noll, T., Delsignore, A., Milos, G., Schnyder, U., Hepp, U. (2006). "Finger length ratio (2D:4D) and dimensions of sexual orientation." Neuropsychobiology. 53 (4): 201-214.
LeVay, Simon. (2011). Gay, straight and the reason why: the science of sexual orientation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Black Colleges Homosexuality
In order to create more egalitarian, prosocial, and productive campus environments, it is necessary to understand attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexual students. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students experienced relatively high rates of substance abuse, depression, and stress related to discrimination, difficulties forming social relationships, and low self-esteem (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). As Kirby (2011) points out, "Having a negative self-concept plays a major role in youth suicides, in how well one does in school, and in how one interacts with society at large." Therefore, the need for a more supportive social environment on college campuses is a pressing one.
Unfortunately, traditionally white universities and historically black universities in the United States have addressed the needs of the LGBT student community differently. Historically black colleges and institutions are defined as "institutions classified as higher education that were chartered prior to 1964 and created with the…
Burleson, Douglas A. "Sexual orientation and college choice: Considering campus climate." About Campus 14, no. 6 (January 2010): 9-14. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed October 14, 2013).
Eisen, V., & Hall, L. (Eds.). (1996). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and education [Special issue]. Harvard Educational Review, 66(2).
Griffin, H. (2000). Their Own Received Them Not: African-American Lesbians and Gays in Black Churches. Theology & Sexuality: The Journal Of The Institute For The Study Of Christianity & Sexuality, 6(12), 1.
Heck, N.C., Flentje, A., & Cochran, B.N. (2011). Offsetting risks: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. School Psychology Quarterly, 26(2), 161-174. doi:10.1037/a0023226
Thus it is important that diversity initiatives focus on these differences and help individuals understand one another's perspectives in order to maximize understanding and facilitate positive interactions in the workplace.
There are also many stereotypes that exist with regard to gender. There are those for example that believe that men are 'natural leaders' because they are more likely to exhibit traits including aggression and assertiveness. However most of these traits may be attributed more to gender stereotyping rather than the actual ability of a man or a woman to be an effective leader (Essed & Gircour, 1996).
It is vital that a diversity program incorporate a wide range of training mechanisms that help individuals overcome the gender roles that they might feel they are 'assigned' so that there true 'colors' may come out and they can excel as much as possible on a personal and a professional level.
Barrick, M.R., Higgins, C.A., Judge, T.A. & Thoresen, C.J. (1999). "The big five personality traits, general mental ability and career success across the life span." Personnel Psychology, 52(3): 621
Essed, P. & Gircour, R. (1996). "Diversity: Gender, color and culture." Amherst:
James, E.H. & Murrell, a.J. (2001). "Gender and diversity in organizations: Past, present and future directions." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research
Klimely, a. (1997). "Diversity programs: Coming of age." Black Enterprise, 27(12):115
Advice on Handling Dismissals
The Minimum Wage
Working Time egulations
WOKES AND EMPLOYMENT
Gender and Sexual Orientation Discrimination
Discrimination on Grounds of ace or eligion or Age
Treatment of employees has come under scrutiny in the last few decades. Legislation has been passed to help facilitate effective regulation of a business/work environment. The areas covered by legislation are: employment contracts, work-related regulations (ie. Breaks and work conditions), minimum wage rates, unlawful/unfair dismissal, and discrimination/harassment on the grounds of gender, sexual preference, race, religious beliefs, disability, and in recent years, age. Legislation of this nature need to be a major concern for employers to not only follow, but implement. Dismissal of legislation could lead to large penalties, associated with compensation and legal fees.
Infringement of employees rights may also lead to a company/organization's poor public image. As most businesses know, maintaining a positive public…
Ashworth, A. 1995. Principles of criminal law. Oxford [England]: Clarendon Press, p. 87.
Computer World. 1996. IT security managers too focused on compliance, experts say. [online] Available at: http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9237254/IT_security_managers_too_focused_on_compliance_experts_say [Accessed: 12 Jun 2013].
Fay, J. 2007. Encyclopedia of Security Management. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, p. 249.
Fletcher, G. 1998. Basic Concepts of Criminal Law. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, p. 45.
Today he is not bitter towards them at all; he believes that all they did was what they thought to be in his best interest at the time. When his love for them came into conflict with his opportunity to be happy, Chiun knew that he had to try and resolve the issue before giving up on their love. On the other hand, he also knew that he could not forever remain blindly loyal to family tradition if this meant a life sentence to unhappy duty.
To this day, Chiun is grateful that his parents based their traditions and ideals in love rather than duty. It is this basis of love that allowed them to accept Chiun, even if they did not understand him. In turn, Chiun is sensitive to their feelings, and does not bring his romantic partners home. When he is ready to marry, it is another hurdle…
As previously mentioned, Crisp is openly homosexual and his exhibitionist impulses and self-destructive behavior motivates the struggle within his life vs. unoriginal heroic desire. Similarly to Dil who lives his life, at times showing self-destruction as she guns down Jude and ties up Fergus, by her own rules, choosing to be a woman amidst a time when being transgendered was severely frowned upon. The journey for both Crisp and Dil though hard, ultimately led to a strong sense of gender identity and an awakening of both sexuality and eroticism as they found their way through gender and sex.
The journey for Crisp began after leaving his parent's home and venturing off into various jobs like a tap dance instructor and commercial artist. Although he met some initial success in these jobs, he ends up one of the few places that allows openly gay men. And even with constant ridicule from…
Isabelle and Therese from the 1968 movie Therese and Isabelle is a story about two lesbian women who defy convention by having a love affair in their boarding school. Their love is very intimate with scenes of conformity as Therese has sexual intercourse with a boy as an attempt to normafy herself as Goffman states on page 12 of his book, Stigma. Scenes in the beginning of Therese's mother preparing her for marriage put pressure on the young woman to adhere to the gender identity and sexuality society predetermined for her. The scenes are sweet and innocent laced with a tinge of fear as they are become fearful of someone coming into the room to find them making love. A scene in Isabelle's room gets interrupted by a noise the couple hear from outside the hallway. Their relationship ends much like that of Maurice and Clive.
In the novel, Maurice, Maurice and Clive are two college friends who engage in a homosexual relationship. Unlike with Isabelle and Therese, they are not as intimate and the relationship lasts longer, for two years. Similarly however, Clive like Therese wishes to conform and be normal and decides to marry leaving Maurice alone. The story however continues and Maurice finds solace and connection in Alec. However Alec blackmails him and in his attempt to cure what Dr. Larken terms, "congenital homosexuality" tries hypnosis. Eventually his desire to rebel against society's norms and be with Alec lead him and Alec to relinquish leading closeted gay lives for a happy life with each other.
Overall movies and films tend to show the world a different or unique perspective. The characters of Crisp, Dil, Isabelle, Therese, Clive, and Maurice offer a rare look into the life of a homosexual and in the case of Dil, a transgender/transsexual. These people like any other people struggle to conform, to meet the expectations of society, but also lead their own lives and fulfill their gender identity and sexual orientation. After all, sexuality is a large part of a person.
eparative Therapy for Homosexuals
The issue of homosexuality needs to be a major controversy within the social environment. All across the world people are still struggling with the idea that they may or may not be, homosexual, especially within the context of society that tends to look down and discriminate against individuals based on sexual orientation. In the light of this controversy, there are some therapeutic methods which have been created and regarded by many within conservative or religious institution as being effective in helping remold one's sexual identity. Also known as reparative therapies, these are psychological or other style implementations of therapeutic methods designed at rewiring one's sexual identity. Still, the majority of psychologists and professionals view these therapies as more harmful than beneficial; this makes it crucial for pastor therapist to help guide potentially concerned individuals towards more productive use of therapeutic models that would focus on self-acceptance…
Herek, Gregory M. (2012). APA council of representatives passes resolution on so-called reparative therapy. Resolution 97. Web. http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/html/resolution97.html
National Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues. (2000). Reparative and conversion therapies for lesbians and gay men. National Association of Social Workers. Web. http://www.naswdc.org/diversity/lgb/reparative.asp
Schumacher-Matos, Edward. (2012). The furor over gay conversion therapy. NPR. Web. http://www.npr.org/blogs/ombudsman/2011/08/05/138963061/the-furor-over-gay-conversion-therapy
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
Media Articulation Of The ites Of
HETEOSEXUAL vs. HOMOSEXUAL MAIAGE IGHTS
In the Land of the Free where the Bill of ights is supreme, all marital unions between consenting adults should be accorded the same level of societal respect and legality under federal and state laws. It was just a few decades ago when the Gay ights Movement was born in a raucous Greenwich Village bar, but homosexuals have become increasingly accepted in mainstream American society in the years since and a growing number of states are legalizing same-sex marriage in response to this trend. Unfortunately, the path to equal rights for all American citizens has been hampered by negative media coverage of homosexuals in the United States in recent years in ways that are frequently subtle but which are discernible through careful analysis. This type of analysis is important because prejudicial public information or notice of the…
Black's law dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. (2011). Library of Congress. Retrieved from http://
Gallagher, M. (2006, May 15). Banned in Boston. The Weekly Standard, 11(33), 3.
While both gender and race are positionalities that are difficult to hide (not that one should need or want to, anyway), sexual orientation is not necessarily something that is known about a person, and its affects on the learning process can be very different. The very fact that sexual orientation can be hidden can create a situation where the learner closes off, hiding not only their sexuality but demurring away from other opportunities of expression and engagement as well. Conversely, if an individual with an alternative sexuality was open about this fact, it could very well cause discomfort in other adult learners who have a marked generational bias against many alternative sexualities and lifestyles (Cain). Both situations could provide useful grounds for personal growth in self-acceptance and self-security, for the learner of a minority sexual orientation and for the other learners in the class, respectively (Cain).
Situated Cognition v. Experiential…
Cain, M. "Theorizing the effects of class, gender, and race on adult learning in nonformal and informal settings."
Cranton, P. (2002). "Teaching for transformation." New directions for adult and continuing education 93, pp. 63-71.
Hansman, C. (2001). "Context-based adult learning." New directions for adult and continuing education 89, pp. 63-71.
Isopahkala-Bouret, U. 92008). "Transformative learning in managerial role transitions." Studies in continuing education 30(1), pp. 69-84.
Positive Discrimination -- Do We Need it?
For centuries, the global community has strived to eliminate discrimination against minority groups. For centuries, women had been emotionally and/or physically abused; they were prohibited from voting and working. Today, they are allowed to work outside the household, but they are still paid less than their male counterparts. Additionally, the responsibility of raising the children and completing the household chores remains heavily preponderant among the female categories.
The women represent one of the most obvious categories of people discriminated against; but they only represent a mere fraction of the overall population subjected to discrimination. And the grounds for the discrimination are multiple, to include anything and everything from gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, political and religious appurtenance, age or disability.
The modern day society is making intense efforts to ensure that discrimination is eliminated -- or at least decreased to the minimum level…
Barnes, C., Disabled people in Britain and discrimination: a case for anti-discrimination legislation, (1991)
Bentham, J., Jeremy Bentham to his fellow-citizens of France, on houses of Peers and Senates, (1830)
Carr, E.A., Attitudes toward and knowledge of affirmative action in higher education, (2007)
Edwards, J., Batley, R., The politics of positive discrimination: an evaluation of the Urban Programme, 1967-77, (1980)
Throughout my studies in psychology, I find the classes and topics on emotion and motivation interesting and educative. This is because the class touched a lot on the issues that made me understand myself better than I did before the topic was introduced. The class aided my understanding on the aspect of sexual orientation, especially homosexuality. This is due to the information that was present on the materials offered in class. There was adequacy of explanation on the issue of motivation and emotion in relation to human psychology (Weiten, 2011). The topic on motivation and emotion touched on various issues, for example, the significance of groups, power plus obedience, and the perception about us and other people.
The aspect of social psychology seemed to fascinate me most, because of information regarding how the people we interact with influence our lives. I came to understand that the perception about…
Whitehead, Neil. 2011. Neither Genes nor Choice: Same-Sex Attraction Is Mostly a Unique
Reaction to Environmental Factors, Journal of Human Sexuality 3 (1), 81-114.
Weiten, Wayne. 2011. Psychology: themes and variations. Australia: Wadsworth Cengage
Black, J.S., & Porter, L.W. (1991). Managerial Behaviors and Job Performance: A Successful Manager in Los Angeles May Not Succeed in Hong Kong. Journal of International Business Studies, 22(1), 99+. etrieved March 27, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000126798
Business Case for Diversity. etrieved March 27, 2009, from http://www.chubb.com/diversity/chubb4450.html
Clarke, .D. (2005, September). Workplace Bias Abounds: New Study Confirms the American Workplace Has Much Farther to Go to Achieve True Diversity. Black Enterprise, 36, 38. etrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011221717
Hicks, D.A. (2003). eligion and the Workplace: Pluralism, Spirituality, Leadership. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. etrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110647891
Madden, ussell SHATTEING THE GLASS CEILING. etrieved March 29,
2009, from http://home.earthlink.net/~rdmadden/webdocs/Shattering_the_Glass_Ceili.html
Mor Barak, M.E. (2000). The Inclusive Workplace: An Ecosystems Approach to Diversity Management. Social Work, 45(4), 339. etrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001074518
Stretch, J.J. (2006). Managing Diversity: Toward a…
Black, J.S., & Porter, L.W. (1991). Managerial Behaviors and Job Performance: A Successful Manager in Los Angeles May Not Succeed in Hong Kong. Journal of International Business Studies, 22(1), 99+. Retrieved March 27, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000126798
Business Case for Diversity. Retrieved March 27, 2009, from http://www.chubb.com/diversity/chubb4450.html
Clarke, R.D. (2005, September). Workplace Bias Abounds: New Study Confirms the American Workplace Has Much Farther to Go to Achieve True Diversity. Black Enterprise, 36, 38. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011221717
Hicks, D.A. (2003). Religion and the Workplace: Pluralism, Spirituality, Leadership. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110647891
John Brown applied for a job as a grounds worker at a federal facility and was denied employment because of his sexual orientation. He asks you to explain the law relevant to his situation. What if the same thing happened at Boston University?
Unfortunately title VII does not prohibit discrimination because of an individual's sexual orientation. Though Title VII prohibits discrimination because of sex, the word sex is interpreted gender. However, the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA), is a proposed U.S. federal law that would prohibit discrimination against employees on the basis of sexual orientation. If it happened at Boston University, the University would pursue affirmative action and adherence to state and federal laws.
Six months after Harry was hired as a part-time retail clerk, twenty hours a week, he called in sick on a Wednesday morning..At first, his mother told the store manager that Harry had the flu and would…
PRIVACY and CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION
Protection and safeguarding of information created in the conduct of Lenox Hill
Hospital and its affiliates business including patient information, staff data, financial data, research data, strategic plans, statistical information, purchasing agreements and contracts.
The words information created are an unnecessary limitation that narrow the applicability of the provision, contrary to its obvious intent to apply as broadly as possible. Under a literal interpretation, the provision, as drafted, does not apply to any of the types of information listed unless that information is "created" by the hospital.
Therefore, a better formulation of that portion of the provision would read as follows:
Protection and safeguarding of any and all information created, accessed, maintained, collected, transmitted, duplicated, or utilized by the hospital or by any of the hospital's employees, agents, associates, consultants, contractors, and any other person or entity affiliated in any way with the hospital..."
Diversity in the Workplace
The increase in globalization has resulted in greater levels of interaction of individuals from diverse cultures and beliefs than ever before in the history of the world. As noted in the work of Green, Lopez, Wysocki and Kepner (2002) "People no longer live and work in an insular marketplace; they are now part of a worldwide economy with competition coming from nearly every continent." (p.1) Diversity is defined as "The variety of experiences and perspective which arise from differences in race, culture, religion, mental or physical abilities, heritage, age, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, and other characteristics." (University of California, San Francisco, 2012, p.1)
Challenges, arriers, and enefits to Workplace Diversity
The Multicultural Advantage website reports that there are specific barriers and challenges to workplace diversity and that these are inclusive of: (1) communication; (2) resistance to change; (3) Implementation of diversity in the workplace policies;…
1. A Diverse Workforce Is Integral to a Strong Economy. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/labor/news/2012/07/12/11900/the-top-10-economic-facts-of-diversity-in-the-workplace/
2. Andrade, R. And Rivera, A. (2012) Developing a Diversity-Patent Workforce: The UA Libraries' Experience. Journal of Library Administration. 51:7-8, 692-727
3. Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity (2010) U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved from: http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/library/workforce-diversity.pdf
4. DuPont, K. (1999) Handling Diversity in the Workplace; Communication is the Key. American Media, Inc. Retrieved from: http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/ad_hoc/54400000NewEmployeeResources/Handling%20Diversity%20in%20the%20Workplace.pdf
The school aims to recruit students that will balance the spectrum of diversity. Before this can be accomplished however, existing and future employees of the university will need to be prepared. "Diversity is about encouraging and enabling all employees to draw on their talents, skills, and experience for the benefit of the business." (Bruno, 2004) Schools that are diversity sensitive will more often be prepared for the competitive recruitment markets and thus attract higher potential students and employees. The school has implemented the necessary training that will bring the entire student recruitment process together.
No matter what the level of need, a good diversity training program will maintain the most important aspects of the school's initiative. Diversity training has been proven to reduce the potential for misunderstandings, conflict and litigation which is often related to basic differences in communications and expectations. "All of the admissions staff has been…
Bruno, Jeanne-Marie (2004). "Implementing Diversity in a Meaningful Way." American Works Association Journal, Vol. 96(10), 47.
Lehigh University (2005). Lehigh University Home Page. Retrieved on 8 February 2005, from http://www3.lehigh.edu/path/visitors.asp .
Lehigh President's Speech. (n.d.) "Diversity Speech."
Thus the concentration is not on basketball, the sport he is supposed to love, but on sex. The picture in the book is clear about the happenings when the over-sexed teenagers reach college. Within a day of her arrival in college, Charlotte is "sexiled." This means that she was compelled to leave her room when her roommate brought a young man in for sex. The contest among the freshmen in fraternities is to find out how fast they can get fresh faces for sex. The least amount of time given in that book was seven minutes. (Bonfire of the sexuality)
egarding the view of women in media, one of the professors said that the American society is becoming a society of predators. The stage has come when 1.3 women are raped every minute and a large proportion of one in three women will be raped in her lifetime. This is…
Educators discuss student sexual activity. 2000. Retrieved at http://www.uwrf.edu/thisweek/20001113.htm . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Freeman, John. Bonfire of the sexuality. 11 November, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.newsreview.com/issues/sacto/2004-11-11/arts.asp . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Goulet, Nicole. Gender Barriers: When Will the Ridicule Cease? Retrieved at http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/local/scisoc/sports02/papers/ngoulet.html . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Polk, Khary. Love and Basketball. 3 February, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.nyunews.com/brownstone/sexuality/6825.html . Accessed on 30 July, 2005