Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Syphilis is a highly contagious disease that is caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum. ("Syphilis - CDC Factsheet") This disease is spread primarily through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral; but can also be spread by extended kissing. Another form of the disease, called "congenital syphilis" occurs when a pregnant woman spreads the disease to their unborn child. This can result in birth defects, abnormalities, or even the death of the child. The bacterium Treponema pallidum can only be transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected one through sores found on the infected person's body. These sores are small, firm and round and appear on the genitals, anus, or mouth. ("Syphilis - CDC Factsheet") Because these sores are often not recognized as being caused by Syphilis, many people do not know they are infected and go on to infect others. Contrary to popular belief, this…… [Read More]
Once a person has been infected, there is no known cure for this Herpes hence one becomes a carrier for life, only suppressing the effects that it has on him.
Some of the more outstanding symptoms are blisters that are small and fluid filled around the genital area (vaginal lips, vagina, cervix, head/shaft/foreskin of the penis, scrotum, buttocks, anus or thighs). These small blisters are noted to burst leaving sores that are often quite painful. There is also the itchy feeling around the anal area and in the genital areas. The patient can also have backaches, flu-like conditions, swollen glands or fever as well as headaches. In some instances there can be tingling sensation around the anal area and the genitals even before the outbreak of Herpes, since it can be spread to other people even before the host shows any symptoms.
Upon outbreak, the first bout is the worst…… [Read More]
The symptoms of HIV infection are similar to the flu. In addition, the lymph glands swell. The virus can remain dormant for even decades, but eventually attack the immune system. AIDS results when the immune system is completely overwhelmed. Death results from problems with the immune system or AIDS-related complications. Dementia is one of these symptoms.
Syphilis: This is a bacterial disease that affects men more than it does women (by about 60%). It is cases by the bacterial Terponoma pallidum. It is treatable by penicillin (except in cases of those with allergies, who are treated by other antibiotics). The cure is simple, though several cases go unreported. The symptoms occur in three stages and can even culminate in death. The progress through the stages takes place if the disease is left untreated. The first stage involves painless sores on the genitals, lips and tongues. In the second stage, a…… [Read More]
However, because of their nature, it is more appropriate to study them as STIs, or sexually transmitted infections since that is the their most common form, and the manner in which they are typically spread. The distinction, particularly from a public health perspective, is that the term STI has a broader range -- meaning those who may become infected through needle sharing, sexual activity, or medical procedures; not necessarily those who develop the disease.
Studies show that approximately 1 million people are infected with an STI daily, almost half of those under the age of 30.
At least 25% of U.S. teenage girls have had a STI, 40% among those who have acknowledged they are sexually active. In the world, AIDS/HIV is the single largest cause of mortality in some countries (Sub-Saharan Africa) and one of the most hard to control and virulent STIs. In the United States, about 1.1…… [Read More]
The Central Research Question:
What are actually the unidentified sexual issues with the geriatric set and how can they be resolved?
In line with Peterson (2017) the subject of sex amid the aging population had gradually become insignificant, a monumental time killer and sometimes an even oxymoron. This viewpoint has altered recently. The Peterson’s (2017) book on sex therapy discusses the experiences of sex within this geriatric group.
A few of the apparent sexuality issues faced by the aged are actually; declining intimacy and decreasing sexual activity and appetite. The factors for this happen to be a decline of estrogen hormone in females and testosterone hormone in males. Kalra, Subramanyam and Pinto (2011) established that elderly females frequently lose virginal secretion and male's erectile function declines concurrently as well.
Most of the patients in this group frequently try to get guidance on methods which can activate their…… [Read More]
Sexually transmitted disease [...] Chlamydia, a disease that can lead to female infertility if not treated, and as a health care worker how would you approach the problem. Chlamydia is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can lead to many problems, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which is a leading cause of infertility in women, and it is caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea or Chlamydia. Chlamydia is treatable, but it is hard to detect, and so sometimes goes untreated and leads to much more serious health concerns. Chlamydia is also one of the biggest health issues in STDs, because so many people get it each year, and so many people do not know they have it.
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that causes inflammation and adhesions in the vagina. It can be detected with a penile swab or a urine sample, and it is…… [Read More]
From the Communicable Disease Prevention and Control Act (Section 27), venereal diseases refer to ailments like gonorrhoea, granuloma, chlamydia, chancroid, syphilis, lymphopathia venereum and inguinale (Public Health Law Research, 2014). Established by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), the California Regulations and Reportable Disease Information Exchange refer to a safe system used for automated disease diagnosis and monitoring. A number of certain conditions and diseases are authorized by State regulations and rules to be stated by laboratories and healthcare providers to the state healthcare agencies. The mission CPDH pursues is the enhancement of the efficacy of surveillance exercises as well as the quick identification of health occurrences amid public via the gathering of timely and up-to-date surveillance information across the State. This provides a platform for reporting as well as collection of health conditions in real time throughout the year. CPDHs and LHDs (or Local Health Departments) are both…… [Read More]
STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…… [Read More]
Evidence-Based Project Proposal
Graduate Project in Nursing
The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases has been increasing among adolescents in countries around the world, but there remains a dearth of timely and relevant studies concerning salient differences in knowledge level and attitudes between different cultures and ethnic populations. One common factor that has been consistently demonstrated in improving the effectiveness of treatments for sexually transmitted diseases is promoting adherence to treatment regimens, most especially for medications since these are used in all treatments for sexually transmitted diseases. While there have been some studies concerning various strategies for promoting adherence levels to treatment regimens, there remains a lack of studies concerning evidence-based practices that incorporate technological solutions. To this end, the proposed study intends to conduct an experiment using innovative face recognition and motion detection smartphone app to evaluate its effectiveness in promoting adherence to medication regimens among a population of adolescents…… [Read More]
Living with the genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) creates several problems for the herpes sufferer. This paper delves into the emotional, physical, and social stressors that a person with genital herpes is subjected to, and it suggests a research project based on several scenarios, including the male college student who has herpes and how he approaches his health issue when it comes to intimacy with a girlfriend. In other words, there are ethical issues involved. Should a man tell his girlfriend that he has herpes, or should he just be sure not to become intimate with her when he is having an outbreak? Which decision is the most ethical?
Social Science Research on Herpes and Dating - ackground
Genital herpes causes periodic physical discomfort but it also causes "recurrent emotional distress" because one never knows when an outbreak will occur, and certainly the male in this research does…… [Read More]
Sexually Active Teenagers:
The Use of Theory to Protect America's Youth
In 2003, sixty two percent of American high school seniors admitted to being sexually active. The use of condoms in the high school population has increased over the last decade; however, not all teenagers are using any form of contraception (The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005). In order to protect against unwanted pregnancies and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and infections, the public health department must influence the use of condoms to sexually active teenagers. To best assist with this task, Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen's Theories of easoned Action and Planned Behavior will be a most valuable resource in forming a thoroughly strong campaign.
In the mid- to late 1970s, Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen proposed the Theory of easoned Action, which began as solely a study of attitude. It later developed into including behavior as…… [Read More]
Castor Std, Castor Enhanced, Castor Enhanced Minor policies Constructit E-Editors.
Economic issues simulation
Castor Collins is currently faced with the need to enhance its presence within the market and, in doing so, it sets out to attract more enrollees. Currently, the company has been solicited to make health care plan offers to two companies, namely Constructit and E-Editors. Each of the companies is characterized by its own traits, which generate the need for different offers.
E-Editors employs a total of 1,600 people, who are willing to pay an insurance of up to $4,500 per year. Constructit employs 1,000 individuals and these are willing to pay up to $4,000 per year for their health insurance plan. In terms of profiles, Constructit is more so populated by younger and healthier employees, who are however faced with higher risks of workplace accidents. In the case of E-Editors, this firm is characterized by a…… [Read More]
Pelvic inflammatoy disease, a citical poblem
Occuence o ecuence of pelvic inflammatoy disease o PID has been linked to STIs such as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. Patient education and simplified guidelines ae needed to develop accuate diagnosis. In ode fo changes to take place, moe eseach must be done to undestand the complex natue of the disease and the most effective and cost effective method of teatment.
This pape delves into the isk factos, diagnosis pocesses, teatment, elevant psychological issues, public health implications, patient and family education, and appopiate efeal to specialty by eviewing liteatue petinent to PID. The esults of the liteatue eview show vey little in the past was done in egads to eseaching symptoms of PID and teatment efficacy. New eseach shows lowe abdominal pain as a main indicato of PID as well as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. The data also elaboates on the isks…… [Read More]
The State Division of HIV/STD works with local health districts to provide Chlamydia screening to all adolescents receiving pelvic examinations at STD clinics, at family planning clinics or at prenatal clinics. Although the VDH does strive to test the male partners of infected females, the emphasis of the program is obviously slanted to screening and treating females. Women and girls in general are also more likely to seek medical care, for all ailments. The Division of HIV/STD of the VHS provides educators the resources "to counsel selected high-risk teens and locate contacts for treatment. This Division also collects and disseminates aggregate data on all reportable STDs in Virginia," although again this may, because of its focus on public health clinics, disproportionately emphasize low-income youth (Adolescent, 2009, VHD). "The Division also funds HIV prevention programs targeting youth. Programs include prevention education for at-risk communities and populations and 19 projects to reach…… [Read More]
Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:
narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…… [Read More]
ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm, through the National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov.
Evidence-based findings concerning chlamydia screening and treatment of PID contained in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature.
The additional resources cited at Appendix a will also be consulted.
3. Identify a specific group of people that are being affected by the disease/condition. The screening guidelines published by the USPSTF recommend that the following specific groups of women should be routinely screened, whether or not they are pregnant, if they:
Are sexually active and aged 25 or younger;
Have more than one sexual partner, regardless of age;
Have had an STD in the past, regardless of age; and Do not use condoms consistently and correctly, regardless of age (Screening for Chlamydial infection) a. Explain any unhealthy behaviors that may be contributing to the disease/condition. Some of the unhealthy behaviors that may contribute to the incidence of PID include (1) having multiple sex partners and…… [Read More]
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contact Tracing
MG is a 27-year-old graduate student, recently married, who comes into the student health clinic for a routine pelvic exam and Pap smear. During the course of the exam, the gynecology resident performing the exam obtains the Pap smear, but also obtains cervical cultures for gonorrhea and chlamydia. The examination concludes uneventfully. Several weeks later, MG receives a postcard indicating that the Pap smear was normal, with no evidence of dysplasia, but that the cervical culture for gonorrhea was positive. The card instructs her to come into the clinic to discuss treatment, and that "public health authorities" have been notified for contact tracing, which refers to the identification and diagnosis of sexual partners, as required by law. The young woman is terrified that her husband will be contacted. Is contact tracing ethically justified?
While it is definitely not a good thing that…… [Read More]
exually Transmitted Diseases in Developing Countries
exually transmitted diseases (TD's) have been a problem for doctors worldwide and governments around the globe for many years.
Pre-screening, diagnosis, and treatment programs are required to stop the spread of TDs.
A host of sexually transmitted diseases have, unfortunately, exploded in large numbers in the continent of Africa. These TD's include the HIV virus and the HPV virus, or human papillomavirus. HPV causes cervical cancer, and the HIV virus causes AID (auto-immune deficiency syndrome).
It is estimated that there are 100 million cases of AID worldwide, and that AID is now claiming more lives than all wars and natural disasters around the world.
In Africa, the problem is quite tremendous.
In outh Africa alone, there are 4.7 million people infected with the AID virus. outh Africa is the world's country with the largest infected population.
adly, it is estimated that worldwide, less than…… [Read More]
Women and AIDS in New York City:
Hidden Cases, Hidden Problems
Ask most people what group of people you think of when you think of AIDS, and most people will name gay men. While it's undeniable that the AIDS epidemic was first noticed among gay men, AIDS has become an equal opportunity illness, and currently women represent the fastest growing sector of people with HIV / AIDS in the United States. This fact is true in New York City as well.
The growth in the rate of HIV / AIDS among women in New York City is a growing concern for a variety of reasons. Worse than the increase in infection among women is the death rate. Although overall, the death rate from AIDS has dropped significantly, the death rate for women with AIDS is significantly higher than that of men.
How widespread is the problem?
A look at recent…… [Read More]
The research results will demonstrate that alcoholism is a disease and support this notion with overwhelming evidence.
In short, alcoholism is a major problem for all countries across the world. Alcoholism destroys lives and tears many families apart. The purpose of this argumentative research paper is to demonstrate with supporting evidence that alcoholism is a disease and not a social stigma.
Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. eb. 9 June 2011.
Organization, orld Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. eb. 10 June 2011.
"Survey:…… [Read More]
STD Testing: Community Health Outreach
When it comes to health care in the United States, it is often those most in need that find themselves somewhat neglected and under serviced. Nonetheless, state programs and coalitions do make an effort to prevent any person, regardless of economic status or other differentiating factors, from going without the care that he or she needs. The main challenge is to make certain populations aware of programs and clinics that are available to provide for their care. As a result of low socio-economic status, these populations are often not only underserved, but also unaware of the fact that they can do something about their health status, especially when it comes to issues such as STIs. In New Jersey and Camden City specifically, statistics show that, in addition to the worsening effects of STIs and other related conditions, the population tends to neglect seeking help, mainly…… [Read More]
Conditions Associated ith a Lack of Exercise/Physical Activity
Health is one of the most important things in people's lives, but individuals often fail to focus on this aspect because they concentrate on diverse tasks that they wrongly consider to be more important. As a consequence, many end up suffering greatly as a result of their irresponsible behavior. In addition to causing significant health problems in people's lives, sedentary living is also responsible for costing society billions of dollars every year. The fact that the masses often trick themselves into thinking that they are eventually going to start exercising is extremely worrying and leads to numerous health problems.
Figures associated with sedentary living are alarming, but this is still not enough to influence some people in changing their attitudes concerning the concept. On a yearly basis, "approximately 250,000 people die prematurely because they are inactive" (Corbin & Lindsay 43). Even with…… [Read More]
C. Mayor Adrian Fenty made HIV / AIDS the most important public health priority (Greenberg et al., 2009). Funding from the CDC allowed for a partnership between the D.C. Department of Health's HIV / AIDS Administration and the George Washington University School of Public Health and Healthy Services, which was responsible for the Epidemiology Annual eport for 2007 -- the first to be published for D.C. since 2002 (Greenberg et al., 2009). The Department of Health also initiated a routine HIV screening campaign to help provide testing resources and lower stigma, titled "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" (Greenberg et al., 2009).
Efforts to address the epidemic in D.C. included a combination of increased resource availability and educational services as offered by public health departments. The "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" campaign provided approximately 73,000 tests in 2008, which was a 70% testing increase from…… [Read More]
Cutaneous Candidiasis: A Case Study
This case study involves a 35-year-old woman diagnosed with candidiasis of the inner thighs. The goal of this report is to provide the patient with information about the most likely cause of her condition and how best to resolve the infection. In order to accomplish this goal a review of Candida pathogenesis will be presented first.
Members of the Candida genus, in particular C. albicans, can be detected in the oral cavities of 75% of the general population (Mayer, Wilson, & Hube, 2013). This mostly commensal microbe colonizes oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, anal, and cutanous locations (az-Pasteur, Ullmann, & Berdicevsky, 2011). Candida species are commensal in health people and rarely cause any problems, but in persons who suffer from mild medical conditions with impaired immunity the commensal relationship can quickly evaporate and turn pathogenic (Mayer, Wilson, & Hube, 2013). For example, Candida is…… [Read More]
HIV / AIDS on American Society
hat is HIV and where did it come from? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (a primary source) explains that HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, and once a person acquires this virus, "…you have it for life" (CDC). There is no effective cure, that is the bad news; but the better news according to the CDC is that HIV "…can be controlled" because there is a treatment called antiretroviral therapy (ART) (CDC). In fact while just a few years ago a person with HIV could expect to have full-blown AIDS within a few years, but with the ART treatment, many HIV sufferers can expect to have "…a nearly normal life…" (CDC).
The source of HIV is believed to be chimpanzees in est Africa, and how this came about related to the fact that Africans hunted the chimpanzees for food and at…… [Read More]
Treatment for Trichomoniasis conventionally takes the form of prescription drugs and antibiotics such metronidazole. The drug is taken orally. Another related drug used in the treatment of disease is tinidazole. In cases where the infected individual is allergic to these drugs "...Topical medicines, or medicines applied to the skin, may be used..." (Trichomoniasis: womenshealth.gov) These medicines usually only alleviate the symptoms. Another important aspect of treatment is hat both partners are usually examined and treated in cases of the disease. The aim is to eliminate the further spread of the parasite. Significantly, the disease can re-occur. "Having Trichomoniasis once does not protect a person from getting it again. Following successful treatment, people can still be susceptible to re-infection" (Trichomoniasis - CDC Fact Sheet).
Prevention is always better than cure and this applies particularly to this disease. Therefore, the most obvious way of preventing the transmission of this disease is through…… [Read More]
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues
Reproductive Tract Diseases for human females are typically focused in the upper reproductive tract or the lower reproductive tract. The upper tract includes the fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus, while the lower reproductive tract focuses on the vagina, cervix and vulva. There are three major types of infections: endogenous, iatrogenic and sexually transmitted diseases. Endogenous diseases arise from internal cellular structures and may be bacterial, viral or genetic, usually the most common and arise from an overgrowth of organisms that are already present in the vagina; iatrogenic diseases are the result of medical or surgical treatment, and sexually transmitted diseases occur between humans as a result of sexual behavior. In addition to infections, there are congenital abnormalities, cancers and functional problems. Each infection has its own specific cause and symptoms; caused by bacteria, virus, fungi or other organisms. Indeed, some are easily treatable and cured,…… [Read More]
Psychological stress may have been causing it, but the recurrence itself can, of course, result to more stress to the infected person. There have been numbers of studies that show that recurrences of genital herpes are related with psychological morbidity, and the extent of which seems to be directly related to the frequency of recurrences (Taboulet, et.al., 1999). This is just an expected outcome for any person who will be diagnosed with genital herpes will not only worry about how to cure or prevent the occurrence of another outbreak, but will also worry or think about how others might view him/her as an infected person. A person with the genital virus will be feared by the opposite sex in the same manner that the infected person will of course tend to shy away from getting into another intimate relationship. As it is pointed out, the virus will never leave the…… [Read More]
These diseases may be aggravated or deteriorated because of indulgence in sexual life as well. In severe cases, indulgence in sexual life even may cause vital crises such as cerebral bleeding and myocardiac infarction. Accordingly, sexual life should be moderated during the daily health care and rehabilitation. In severe cases, sexual life should be stopped for the time being (Syphilis, n.d.).
There are several tests that can be used to for Syphilis. These include: Syphilis Serum Test, the venereal diseases research laboratory test (VDL test), unheated serum reagin test (US test), rapid plasma reagin card test (P test), and cardiophospholipid is used as an antigen to examine the anti-cardiophospholipid antibody in serum. This test is used for screening examination. In spirochete antigen test, such as fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test (FTA-ABS test), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (TPHA), usually the diagnosis of syphilis can be confirmed by positive result in the spirochete…… [Read More]
Chlamydia is the most common and frequently occurring sexually transmitted disease in the United States. According to a recent CDC report there are more than 2.8 million persons infected every year. [CDC] The disease is caused by a bacterium known as Chlamydia trachomatis which is also found to exist as 15 different serotypes. The estimated annual treatment costs for Chlamydia is around $2 billion. The asymptotic nature of the disease presents a big problem in the early diagnosis and a substantial number of infected persons are unaware of their condition. Though totally curable, this 'silent disease' can cause trachoma, infertility, tubal pregnancy and other urinogenital disorders if left untreated. A brief overview of the disease, treatment options and preventive strategies would give a better insight of this medical condition.
Chlamydia trachomatis (Life Cycle)
Chlamydia trachomatis is a parasitic bacterium that cannot produce its own ATP and hence depends…… [Read More]
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes warts. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It belongs to the Papovaviridae family. HPV is a small oncogenic DNA virus, which infects epithelial cells of skin and mucous membranes. The epithelial surfaces include all areas covered by skin and/or mucous membranes of the mouth, genital and anus (the area that poop comes out of). A definitive diagnosis of HPV infection depends on the detection of nucleic acids (DNA or NA) or proteins.
HPV is a relatively small, non-enveloped virus, and 55 nm in diameter. It has an icosahedral capsid composed of 72 capsomers, which contain at least two capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Each capsomer is a pentamer of the major capsid protein, L1. Each virion capsid contains several copies (about 12 per virion) of the minor capsid protein, L2. The virus is said to somewhat…… [Read More]
3 Strategies of CDC
As mentioned in the introduction, the Centers for Disease Control and prevention has developed and implemented six sets of strategies as follows:
Health Impact Focus - the alignment of CDC's employees, objectives, strategies, investments and performances in order to maximize the CDC's beneficial effects upon public health
Customer Centricity - Like any other corporation, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is focused on offering those products and services required and needed by the population in order to improve and preserve their health
Public Health esearch - the CDC funds and conducts numerous researches aimed at identifying new treatments and any other issues which would positively affect the public health
Leadership - the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention possesses the best skilled and qualified employees, guided by the most committed managers and supported by strategic partners, all to improve the health system within the United…… [Read More]
The term conjunctivitis refers to any inflammatory condition of the membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the exposed surface of the sclera, and is the most common cause of "red eye" or "pink eye" (Abbott pp). Most often the etiology can be determined by a careful history and an ocular examination, however, culture is sometimes necessary to establish the diagnosis or to guide therapy (Abbott pp). The most common causes of conjunctivitis are bacteria and viruses (Abbott pp). hen severe, bilateral, purulent conjunctivitis is present in a sexually active adult or in a neonate three to five days postpartum, then Neisseria infection should be suspected (Abbott pp). Conjunctivitis that is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae requires aggressive antibiotic therapy, however, conjunctivitis due to other bacteria is usually self-limited (Abbott pp). Chronic conjunctivitis is most often associated with blepharitis, recurrent styes or meibomianitis, and treatment requires good…… [Read More]
Gay Men Transmitting HIV
When HIV and AIDS first came to prominence in the 1980's, it was commonly assumed and projected that HIV / AIDS was an issue mostly with gay men. Of course, this has turned out not to be the case as people of all genders, sexualities and so forth are catching and spreading HIV and/or AIDS every day. However, it is most definitely a problem with gay men and that issues persists to this very day. Indeed, that will be focus of this report. Topics that will be discussed will be current statistics, current studies and evidence, current social determinants, the challenges of healthcare delivery as it relates to this issue and the construct diagnoses that will need to be looped into this issue. While the aggregate level of knowledge and education is spreading through all demographics, there are still some lagging indicators and behaviors that are…… [Read More]
" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)
There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…… [Read More]
NEDSS: What do you think would be three hurdles to successful implementation (at CDC and in the state of Mississippi)?
"The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) is a secure online framework that allows healthcare professionals and government agencies to communicate about disease patterns and coordinate national response to outbreaks…. The CDC mandates that hospitals, clinics and state health agencies all adopt NEDSS standards so that the speed, accuracy, standardization and viability of data about diseases are improved" (National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS, 2012, Tech Target). The goal of NEDSS is seamless integration and coordination between state and federal authorities when combatting sudden epidemics (such as H1N1) or long-standing chronic diseases that must be addressed over time, such as obesity.
One problem with implementing such a system "is the delay experienced from incident awareness, through laboratory testing and ultimately to public health investigation" (Tracking silent killers, 2012, Center for…… [Read More]
Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky Sexual Behavior
Since the ancient days of Bacchanalian celebratory worship of the Greek pantheon, the consumption of alcohol and risky sexual rites have gone hand in hand. Both drinking and sex are considered to be pleasurable activities, and conservative or religious portions of the population may consider them to be sinful or immoral on varying scales. Regardless of whether alcohol and sexual activities have a negative social stigma within a certain social group, peer group, or subculture, these activities are inevitably associated with some risk. Physical, emotional, and social well-being are put on the line when partaking in drinking or sexual modern rituals. The combination of these activities may increase the level of risk associated with them, and likewise they may also be contributing factors to the likelihood that the other will occur (e.g., drinking may increase the chance of sexual activity). However, despite the…… [Read More]
Kaplan, M.S., Crespo, C.J., Huguet, N. & Marks, G. (2009). Ethnic/Racial Homogeneity Sexually ransmitted Disease: A Study 77 Chicago Community Areas. Sexually ransmitted Diseases 32(2): 108-111.
Knowledge of SDs around the world
Kaplan, M.S., Crespo, C.J., Huguet, N. & Marks, G. (2009). Ethnic/racial homogeneity and Sexually-transmitted disease: A study of 77 Chicago community areas. Sexually ransmitted Diseases 32(2): 108-111.
he article "Ethnic/racial homogeneity and sexually-transmitted disease: A study of 77 Chicago community areas" by Kaplan (et al. 2009) examined the association between SDs, race, and poverty in America. Americans of color have historically manifested higher rates of SDs. o shed further light upon this phenomenon, the researchers studied 77 enclosed neighborhoods in Chicago. he findings were that communities that were majority African-American (60% or more of residents) had higher rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea than communities that were majority Hispanic, even when other influential socio-demographic variables were controlled. Overall, regardless…… [Read More]
Postpartum Sexually Transmitted Disease Refining Our Understanding of the Population at Risk Yale University, UMI Dissertations, 2011, 1505365.
The researchers developed a study to assess STD incidence during and after pregnancy and to determine risk factors associated with postpartum STD infections among mothers in their teens and early 20s. For this analysis, they included 848 women who were less than 24 weeks pregnant, ages 14 to 25. A total of 27.1% of participants were diagnosed with an STD within one year postpartum. Among those who were diagnosed with an STD during pregnancy, 43.4% also contracted an STD during the postpartum period. By comparison, 18.7% of participants with no history of infection and 24% of women who had a history of STDs before pregnancy contracted one postpartum.
heeler (2011) presents the best research for my specific topic. My hypothesis suggests that high rates of postpartum STI infections may be reduced using…… [Read More]
Life Cycle of Chlamydia Trachomatis in the Human Body
Infection & Symptoms
Prevention of Chlamydia Infection
Chlamydia trachomatis, a bacterium, has a tendency to infect the columnar epithelium of the cervix, the urethra, and the rectum. Apart from genital areas the bacteria can affect and infect other areas of the body like the lungs and the eyes. This bacterium is one of the prime sources of most of the sexually transmitted diseases. There are practically no prior symptoms of infection by this bacterium (Breguet, 2007). However several complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy in women can occur if the infection if left untreated for a long time. Men can also develop disease complications like epididymitis and orchitis from this bacterium.
Treatment for the uncomplicated state of this infection is fairly simple and should include simple antibiotics like azithromycin or doxycycline.…… [Read More]
risky behavior, unprotected sex can lead to serious health consequences. isky sexual behaviors include having sex frequently with strangers or multiple partners, particularly without the use of condoms. Similarly, avoiding birth control can be considered a risky sexual behavior. Physiological consequences of unprotected sex include the contraction of a sexually-transmitted infection, many of which can lead to fatal illnesses like HIV / AIDS or Hepatitis. Gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted infections present serious health consequences even when they are not life-threatening. In the United States, about 15 million people are infected every year with a sexually transmitted illness (SIU School of Medicine, 2010). Morbidity rates for sexually transmitted illnesses are high overall, and in fact, STIs are the most commonly reported of all communicable diseases in some states (Washington State Department of Health, 2014). Common sexually transmitted illnesses include chlamydia and herpes. Chlamydia morbidity rates are far higher for women…… [Read More]
HIV testing/Screening be made part of Primary Prevention?
This analysis backs up research on behavioral interventions that lower HIV transmission. The aim of the analysis are to reinforce interdisciplinary research that develops, implements, and evaluates practically and theoretically based interventions intended to prevent HIV transmission. This knowledge needs to progress understanding of the interaction between psychological, behavioral, biological and social factors that influence the acquirement of HIV in our populations. The analysis supports research that acts as the base for an empirically-based public health policy plan to prevent several new HIV infections as possible. Similarly, ASPQ supports basic prevention and intervention research that tackle multiple levels factors that facilitate or obstruct lowering of HIV risk.
Immense progress have been made over the ancient times decade in behavioral research on how to assist people prevent contracting HIV infections (primary prevention) and how to reduce or alleviate unfavorable consequences among individuals…… [Read More]
WA 2 social sciences
Genital herpes affliction owing to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), causes ill health and even death across the globe. Although in most cases symptoms are not found, the possibility of severe clinical manifestations cannot be ruled out, specifically in people living in inhospitable and unhygienic conditions. People additionally have a scope of mental responses to the determination; for a few, stresses about telling accomplices and the effect on their sexuality are very critical, especially immediately after the revelation. Moreover, genital herpes can be prenatally transferred and cause life-debilitating neonatal HSV contamination. In addition, it proffers the danger of acquiring HIV two to three-fold and additionally HIV transmission in those dually afflicted. This level of danger of ailment makes counteractive action and treatment of genital herpes disease very important globally. Be that as it may, this has still been…… [Read More]
Epidemiology of HIV
Epidemiology & Communicable Disease
Description of HIV
HIV is short for human immunodeficiency virus, and it the viral infection that can lead to AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The HIV virus remains in the body for life as the human body cannot rid itself of the virus; this is true even if the overt symptoms of HIV are absent ("CDC," 2015). The HIV virus spreads through body fluids, affecting specific cells (CD4 or T cells) associated with the immune system ("CDC," 2015). HIV destroys many CD4 cells over time to a degree that compromises the body's overall immune system leaving it incapable of fighting off infections and disease: this end stage of HIV infection is referred to as AIDS ("CDC," 2015). The CD4 cell count is fundamental to monitoring people living with HIV ("CDC," 2015).
HIV progresses through several stages with the first stage often -- but…… [Read More]
In this regard, Hackl and her colleagues emphasize, "Women who share their HIV or AIDS diagnosis with family or friends risk stigmatization (including reactions of fear, shock, and blame), isolation (as a result of others' fears of casual transmission and the possibility of desertion), and potential loss of self-esteem (lack of confidence and self-blame)" (p. 53).
The alternative to sharing their diagnosis is also not viable: "Keeping the diagnosis of HIV a secret may hinder a woman's ability to develop effective coping strategies and leave her vulnerable to fear, anger, and depression. These problems may worsen as the progression of HIV disease creates significant changes in behavior, attitudes, and physical appearance" (Hackl et al., p. 54). As osenberg emphasizes, though, "Medical experts know that those who get tested and counseled reduce risky sexual behaviors. Treatment also reduces the stigma of AIDS. One of the biggest reasons people don't change their…… [Read More]
AIDS on South African Development
Today, the chromium, platinum, gold and diamond mining sectors provide the largest percentage of export revenues for South Africa. One of the inevitable consequences of these natural resource extraction industries is the proliferation of mining camps that house the migrant domestic and foreign workers from neighboring countries that support the industry. Although conditions vary, most mining camps are squalid affairs that lack running water, electricity or the other basic amenities of modern life that most people take for granted. These harsh living conditions, combined with the loneliness that results from being forced to spend long periods of time away from family and friends, create an ideal environment for the spread of communicable diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS). This paper provides a review of the related primary and secondary literature concerning mining camps and their role in the spread…… [Read More]
The second session had camera instruction. The third session had each participant given a camera and they were instructed to "(t)ake pictures of the challenges and solution in addressing HIV and AIDS" (Mitchell et al., 2005). The fourth session saw the photos developed and asked small groups to compare and contrast their pictures by creating posters. The authors draw on previous research on photo-voice techniques, as well as memory and photography and self-representation through photography.
In the end, the authors' qualitative research concluded that although many projects use photography to give voice to participants, it is especially significant in the giving a voice to community health workers and teachers in rural South African communities. In these remote areas, the communities do not have to wait for researchers to provide them answers, instead they are able to take action themselves and give a visible face to the HIV and AIDS plight…… [Read More]
Origin of HIV
The mystery of HIV and its origins is one that cannot be easily solved. In the thirty-odd years which have passed since the official recognition of AIDS by the CDC and the subsequent search for its cause, various theories have been floated regarding its nature, its development, its ability to adapt, our ability to combat it, and -- most importantly for some -- its origin. How did the virus come into being? Viruses are known for altering over time and according to circumstances. They have a way of "bending" in order to make due -- of manipulating themselves in such a way so as to survive. This is no less true for HIV than for influenza. Just as variants of influenza appear each year to wreak havoc on the human population, variant-strains of HIV continue to be discovered, suggesting that the virus is still developing, still finding…… [Read More]
prevent AIDS in the Gay community
In all culture sex among men is present. The receptive companion is at the risk of carrying a HIV transmission if involved in anal sex and when unshielded. In some parts of the world the HIV transmission is mainly because of the sex among men, while in some other areas other ways of transmission is also possible. But almost everywhere sex amongst men is the major and regular cause for this spate. It should not be overlooked. These sex-actions are done only by option. The occurrence of sex between male-to-male is frequent in the establishments in which male are forced to spend longer periods in full male company like the military, prisons and men-only educational organizations. Antagonism and misunderstandings about sex among men have lead to insufficient protection procedures in many countries.
Defective and lack of epidemiological facts is the barrier for HIV deterrence…… [Read More]
prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…… [Read More]
(American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
IV. Side Effects of Sildenafil
Side effects of taking Sildenafil include those as follows:
headache heartburn diarrhea flushing (feeling of warmth)
nosebleeds difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep numbness, burning, or tingling in the arms, hands, feet, or legs muscle aches changes in color vision (seeing a blue tinge on objects or having difficulty telling the difference between blue and green)
sensitivity to light (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
Serious side effects are the following and occurrence of this requires immediate notification of the physician:
sudden severe loss of vision (see below for more information)
blurred vision sudden decrease or loss of hearing ringing in ears
erection that is painful or lasts longer than 4 hours dizziness or lightheadedness fainting chest pain worsening shortness of breath itching or burning during urination rash (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009…… [Read More]
" hile it is true that some plane crashes cannot be prevented, there are measures that can be taken to ensure that when a crash does occur, the proper help gets to the scene in time.
The first secondary measure for a plane crash is "Foster informed, empowered individuals and communities." hether the witness of a crash is a doctor or a hospital secretary, everyone can play a role in assisting at the scene. If nothing else, the person can call authorities and report the crash. For hospital staff, education in basic first-aid is standard at most hospitals and this includes sufficient knowledge to aid a victim in stopping bleeding or splinting a leg.
The second measure is "Develop and maintain the workforce needed for national health security." ith most hospitals understaffed, there is a real need for more nurses in the event of an emergency. Otherwise, a nearby hospital…… [Read More]
graphs were complied from the results of the demographic breakdown of people who tested for HIV in a study conducted in 8 counties and across 27 zip codes. The test was conducted over a period of approximately 2 1/2 years.
Counselors, who conducted the tests, were able to contact and test a total of 270 people. The test subjects were screened and coded for behavioral or other risk factors, such as hemophilia, blood recipient, intravenous drug users, etc. The subjects were further broken down by race, age and gender.
The subjects were further broken down by how many additional times they visited the testing centers and follow up visits. In all 242 people chose to visit the test centers 1 additional time, while 22 returned twice and 1 subject returned 3 times. Of the subjects who tested positive for HIV, none returned to the center more then once. Fourteen of…… [Read More]
The importance of this study is threefold: 1) it allows a new series of assays to be used in the clinical setting to detect the more common HPVs that cause genital and anal warts; 2) the assays are both robust and yet inexpensive enough to use globally, and, 3) the tests are designed to use real-time PC technology, which allows for the rapid identification and quantification of these pathogenic types of HPV. The technology and protocols used in this development will also likely have an effect on the ability to roll out testing for other HPV-like viruses, ostensibly even the HIV virus in a real-time, inexpensive manner. The lab results also suggest that as the at risk population for HPV increases, early testing and intervention might reduce the number of symptomatic individuals since they will have been tested and potentially treated much earlier.
The developing world notwithstanding, HPV…… [Read More]
The colorful and rich culture and heritage should be used to counter such menaces by the community or non-governmental organizations working for the prevention and awareness of AIDS/HIV.
Latino is a large group comprising further sub-categories like Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent that identify as American and other Indian civilizations. Each group cannot be targeted with the same message. These different groups have different social mindsets and have different social status. For example, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent will be more aware of the issues and problems related to their health and well being then new immigrants in the country belonging to this community. The migrant people belonging to this community have more pressing needs like housing, food, and employment as compared to Chicanos who are more concerned with political implications. Hence, one message fits all strategy cannot work with…… [Read More]
Behavioral risk for HIV infection among gay and bisexual men in the United States
According to reports published by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), they state that by the year 2004, more than nine hundred and forty thousand individuals in the United States of America had been diagnosed with AIDS, majority of who were gay men and African-Americans. This report including others have brought the issue of HIV infection in gay and bisexual men into sharp focus and more in particular the behavioral risks that the group exposes themselves to, which have contributed to the sharp increase in HIV infection amongst members of this group. This research intends to focus of this behavioral risk and preventive measures that have been established to prevent HIV infection in gay and bisexual men in the United States.
Another recent research conducted by Centre for Disease Control and Prevention…… [Read More]
He saw no problem with his decision. AIDS, like hemophilia, could not be transmitted by casual contact between people. Thus Ryan saw no difficulty in his resolve to go to school like a normal adolescent.
However, Ryan's high school was not as understanding. Like many communities, the town he lived in was motivated by fear and even by hate towards AIDS sufferers. This fear inhibited their generosity and willingness to open their minds and hearts to Ryan. In addition to the tremendous suffering Ryan experienced because of his medical battles, Ryan was also forced to suffer the prejudices of the people around him, who he wished would befriend him. His worst blow came when he was barred from attending his high school. He had to battle in the courts of the United States to win what for most teens is an ordinary act, the daily right to go to school…… [Read More]
Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwell
The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference is a book about epidemics. However, Gladwell is not writing about diseases. He is writing about how the behaviors and attitudes of a population change in much the way an epidemic spreads. As Gladwell describes, only one child has to go to school with measles. The next week, almost every child at the school can have measles. It only took one change in this one child to make a significant difference. This situation where seemingly small changes make big differences is the focus of the book. Gladwell uses the metaphor of a spreading virus to explain how ideas, products, messages, and behaviors can all spread in the same way. He explains how something can suddenly become an accepted fashion item, how people's behavior can change on a mass scale, how information can spread via…… [Read More]
Sex and AIDS: a Study in Contrasts
AIDS is one of the most hotly debated topics of modern times. Whether it is a question of what should be done to help those who have the disease, what may be done to prevent others from contracting it, or of the many moral arguments pro and con regarding the lifestyle or lifestyles that results in its spread, it is definitely a subject that is viewed from many, often widely-differing angles. What one newspaper or magazine can cover as a matter of science, another can describe as a cultural inspiration, or a religious sin. Film, television, radio, and the arts all play their role in constructing what we see as the impact of this dread disease. For the purposes of this paper, we shall take a look at AIDS and how it is depicted in one geographically small urban area: the New York…… [Read More]
In the studies quoted herein the numbers show evidence that blacks suffer a much higher rate of incidence than do whites or Latinos, and that black women suffer a much higher rate when compared against their white counterparts and they are a significant percentage of the overall rate of incidence in both Baltimore and the United States. There is not much potential in numbers for a bias, after all, they are what they are. The number of incidences reported can only be interpreted as being either a person of African-American descent, white heritage or Latino in nature. ith numbers there can hardly be any quibbling back and forth, especially when the numbers are as lopsided as they are in this paper.
The answer to the question of whether culture affects the incidence of AIDS/HIV infection seems to be numerically clear, in that the statistics show that in Baltimore and…… [Read More]