Filter Results By:

Reset Filters

We have over 300 essays for "Sexually Transmitted Diseases"

View Full Essay

The Aging Population Sexual Awareness of STDs and Sexual Behaviors

Words: 1147 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63216423

Health Informatics
The Central Research Question:
What are actually the unidentified sexual issues with the geriatric set and how can they be resolved?
In line with Peterson (2017) the subject of sex amid the aging population had gradually become insignificant, a monumental time killer and sometimes an even oxymoron. This viewpoint has altered recently. The Peterson’s (2017) book on sex therapy discusses the experiences of sex within this geriatric group.
A few of the apparent sexuality issues faced by the aged are actually; declining intimacy and decreasing sexual activity and appetite. The factors for this happen to be a decline of estrogen hormone in females and testosterone hormone in males. Kalra, Subramanyam and Pinto (2011) established that elderly females frequently lose virginal secretion and male's erectile function declines concurrently as well.
Most of the patients in this group frequently try to get guidance on methods which can activate their…… [Read More]

Kalra, G., Subramanyam, A., & Pinto, C. (2011). Sexuality - Desire, activity and intimacy in the elderly. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 53, 4, 300-306.
Malakouti, S., Salehi, M., Nojomi, M., Zandi, T., & Eftekhar, M. (2012). Sexual functioning among the elderly population in Tehran, Iran. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 38(4), 365–377.
Neto, J. D., Nakamura, A. S., Cortez, L. E. R., & Yamaguchi, M. U. (2015). Sexually transmitted diseases among the elderly: a systematic review. Ciencia & Saude Coletiva, 20(12), 3853–3864. 
Park, H. (2013). Sexual behavior and awareness on STD in the elderly. Korean Journal of Adult Nursing, 25(1), 83–94.
Peterson, Z. D. (2017). Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Sex Therapy. Wiley.
Weiss, R. (2014). Baby Boomers Gone Wild! Seniors and STDs. Retrieved, 19 December, 2017, from age/201403/baby-boomers-gone-wild-seniors-and-stds
View Full Essay

Sexually Transmitted Disease Chlamydia a Disease That

Words: 1048 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 198407

Sexually transmitted disease [...] Chlamydia, a disease that can lead to female infertility if not treated, and as a health care worker how would you approach the problem. Chlamydia is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can lead to many problems, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which is a leading cause of infertility in women, and it is caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea or Chlamydia. Chlamydia is treatable, but it is hard to detect, and so sometimes goes untreated and leads to much more serious health concerns. Chlamydia is also one of the biggest health issues in STDs, because so many people get it each year, and so many people do not know they have it.

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that causes inflammation and adhesions in the vagina. It can be detected with a penile swab or a urine sample, and it is…… [Read More]


Author not Available. "An Introduction to Sexually Transmitted Infections." National Institute of Allergy and Infectious July 1999. 25 July 2005.


Nordenberg, Tamar. "Chlamydia's Quick Cure." FDA Consumer July 1999: 24.

Tomlins, Jacqueline. The Infertility Handbook: A Guide to Making Babies. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin, 2003.
View Full Essay

Sexual Transmitted Disease

Words: 1837 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78834875


Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…… [Read More]


CDC. (2013). CDC Fact Sheet: Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Retrieved from: /std/stats/STI-Estimates-Fact-Sheet-Feb-2013.pdf.

CDC. (2011). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2011. Altlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from:
View Full Essay

Improving Medication Regimen Adherence among STD Patients

Words: 6195 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 36554386

Evidence-Based Project Proposal

Graduate Project in Nursing

The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases has been increasing among adolescents in countries around the world, but there remains a dearth of timely and relevant studies concerning salient differences in knowledge level and attitudes between different cultures and ethnic populations. One common factor that has been consistently demonstrated in improving the effectiveness of treatments for sexually transmitted diseases is promoting adherence to treatment regimens, most especially for medications since these are used in all treatments for sexually transmitted diseases. While there have been some studies concerning various strategies for promoting adherence levels to treatment regimens, there remains a lack of studies concerning evidence-based practices that incorporate technological solutions. To this end, the proposed study intends to conduct an experiment using innovative face recognition and motion detection smartphone app to evaluate its effectiveness in promoting adherence to medication regimens among a population of adolescents…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Checking Ethical Decisions - The Transmission of STD

Words: 749 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67653663

Social Sciences

Living with the genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) creates several problems for the herpes sufferer. This paper delves into the emotional, physical, and social stressors that a person with genital herpes is subjected to, and it suggests a research project based on several scenarios, including the male college student who has herpes and how he approaches his health issue when it comes to intimacy with a girlfriend. In other words, there are ethical issues involved. Should a man tell his girlfriend that he has herpes, or should he just be sure not to become intimate with her when he is having an outbreak? Which decision is the most ethical?

Social Science Research on Herpes and Dating - ackground

Genital herpes causes periodic physical discomfort but it also causes "recurrent emotional distress" because one never knows when an outbreak will occur, and certainly the male in this research does…… [Read More]


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. 'What is genital herpes?' Retrieved January 16, 2015, from

Dunphy, K. 2014. 'Herpes genitalis and the philosopher's stance.' Journal of Medical Ethics. Volume 12, 793-97.

Informed Consent pdf:
View Full Essay

Sexually Active Teenagers The Use of Theory

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29013127

Sexually Active Teenagers:

The Use of Theory to Protect America's Youth

In 2003, sixty two percent of American high school seniors admitted to being sexually active. The use of condoms in the high school population has increased over the last decade; however, not all teenagers are using any form of contraception (The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005). In order to protect against unwanted pregnancies and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and infections, the public health department must influence the use of condoms to sexually active teenagers. To best assist with this task, Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen's Theories of easoned Action and Planned Behavior will be a most valuable resource in forming a thoroughly strong campaign.

In the mid- to late 1970s, Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen proposed the Theory of easoned Action, which began as solely a study of attitude. It later developed into including behavior as…… [Read More]


Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bozionelos, G. & Bennet, P. (1999). The theory of planned behavior as predictor of exercise:

The moderating influence of beliefs and personality variables. Retrieved May 21, 2011
View Full Essay

Castor Std Castor Enhanced Castor Enhanced Minor

Words: 1072 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7452280

Castor Std, Castor Enhanced, Castor Enhanced Minor policies Constructit E-Editors.

Economic issues simulation

Castor Collins is currently faced with the need to enhance its presence within the market and, in doing so, it sets out to attract more enrollees. Currently, the company has been solicited to make health care plan offers to two companies, namely Constructit and E-Editors. Each of the companies is characterized by its own traits, which generate the need for different offers.

E-Editors employs a total of 1,600 people, who are willing to pay an insurance of up to $4,500 per year. Constructit employs 1,000 individuals and these are willing to pay up to $4,000 per year for their health insurance plan. In terms of profiles, Constructit is more so populated by younger and healthier employees, who are however faced with higher risks of workplace accidents. In the case of E-Editors, this firm is characterized by a…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Words: 2543 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51889587

Pelvic inflammatoy disease, a citical poblem

Occuence o ecuence of pelvic inflammatoy disease o PID has been linked to STIs such as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. Patient education and simplified guidelines ae needed to develop accuate diagnosis. In ode fo changes to take place, moe eseach must be done to undestand the complex natue of the disease and the most effective and cost effective method of teatment.

This pape delves into the isk factos, diagnosis pocesses, teatment, elevant psychological issues, public health implications, patient and family education, and appopiate efeal to specialty by eviewing liteatue petinent to PID. The esults of the liteatue eview show vey little in the past was done in egads to eseaching symptoms of PID and teatment efficacy. New eseach shows lowe abdominal pain as a main indicato of PID as well as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. The data also elaboates on the isks…… [Read More]

references for fertility in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Fertility and Sterility, 81(5), 1344-1350.

Sweet, R.L. (2011). Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inftammatory Disease. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011(561909), 1-13.

Tepper, N.K., Steenland, M.W., Gaffield, M.E., Marchbanks, P.A., & Curtis, K.M. (2013). Retention of intrauterine devices in women who acquire pelvic inflammatory disease: a systematic review. Contraception, 5(87), 655-60. Retrieved from
View Full Essay

Virginia Department of Health Sexually

Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 76832022

The State Division of HIV/STD works with local health districts to provide Chlamydia screening to all adolescents receiving pelvic examinations at STD clinics, at family planning clinics or at prenatal clinics. Although the VDH does strive to test the male partners of infected females, the emphasis of the program is obviously slanted to screening and treating females. Women and girls in general are also more likely to seek medical care, for all ailments. The Division of HIV/STD of the VHS provides educators the resources "to counsel selected high-risk teens and locate contacts for treatment. This Division also collects and disseminates aggregate data on all reportable STDs in Virginia," although again this may, because of its focus on public health clinics, disproportionately emphasize low-income youth (Adolescent, 2009, VHD). "The Division also funds HIV prevention programs targeting youth. Programs include prevention education for at-risk communities and populations and 19 projects to reach…… [Read More]


Adolescent services. (2009, May 28). The Virginia Department of Health. Retrieved January 27,

2010 at 

Mission, role, priorities, and function. (2008, July 16). The Virginia Department of Health.

Retrieved January 27, 2010 at
View Full Essay

Communicable Disease Epidemiology Has Been

Words: 2112 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 97185279

Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:

narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…… [Read More]


ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site: 

CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Web site: /hiv/aboutDHAP.htm

HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:
View Full Essay

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Conduct a

Words: 4252 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80809171, through the National Guideline Clearinghouse at

Evidence-based findings concerning chlamydia screening and treatment of PID contained in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature.

The additional resources cited at Appendix a will also be consulted.

3. Identify a specific group of people that are being affected by the disease/condition. The screening guidelines published by the USPSTF recommend that the following specific groups of women should be routinely screened, whether or not they are pregnant, if they:

Are sexually active and aged 25 or younger;

Have more than one sexual partner, regardless of age;

Have had an STD in the past, regardless of age; and Do not use condoms consistently and correctly, regardless of age (Screening for Chlamydial infection) a. Explain any unhealthy behaviors that may be contributing to the disease/condition. Some of the unhealthy behaviors that may contribute to the incidence of PID include (1) having multiple sex partners and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hubacher, D., R. Lara-Ricalde, D.J. Taylor, F. Guerra-Infante and R. Guzman-Rodriguez. (2001). "Use of copper intrauterine devices and the risk of tubal infertility among nulligravid women. New England Journal of Medicine 345: 561-67 in Mckay at 259.

Klein, Rupert and Barbel Knauper. (2003). "The Role of Cognitive Avoidance of STIs for Discussing Safer Sex Practices and for Condom Use Consistency." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 12(3-4): 137-138.

Macdonald, Noni E. And Robert Brunham. (1997). "The Effects of Undetected and Untreated Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Ectopic Pregnancy in Canada." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 6(2): 161.

Mcglynn, Elizabeth a., Eve a. Kerr, Cheryl L. Damberg and Steven M. Asch. Quality of Care for Women: A Review of Selected Clinical Conditions and Quality Indicators. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2000.
View Full Essay

The Ethics of Controlling Disease Spread

Words: 1071 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96833020

Medical Ethics

Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contact Tracing

MG is a 27-year-old graduate student, recently married, who comes into the student health clinic for a routine pelvic exam and Pap smear. During the course of the exam, the gynecology resident performing the exam obtains the Pap smear, but also obtains cervical cultures for gonorrhea and chlamydia. The examination concludes uneventfully. Several weeks later, MG receives a postcard indicating that the Pap smear was normal, with no evidence of dysplasia, but that the cervical culture for gonorrhea was positive. The card instructs her to come into the clinic to discuss treatment, and that "public health authorities" have been notified for contact tracing, which refers to the identification and diagnosis of sexual partners, as required by law. The young woman is terrified that her husband will be contacted. Is contact tracing ethically justified?

While it is definitely not a good thing that…… [Read More]


Amir-Singh, J., Upshur, R., & Padayatchi, N. (2007). XDR-TB in South Africa: No Time for Denial or Complacency. Plos Med, 4(1), e50. 

Armbruster, B., & Brandea, M. (2007). Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough. Health Care Management Science, 10(4), 341. Retrieved from 

Boskey, E. (2016). Contact tracing really is an important thing to participate in.. Health. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from 

McKay, B. (2016). Dangerous TB Patient Detained on U.S. Border. WSJ. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from
View Full Essay

Workforce Education Training and Development

Words: 1229 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93521755

exually Transmitted Diseases in Developing Countries

exually transmitted diseases (TD's) have been a problem for doctors worldwide and governments around the globe for many years.

Pre-screening, diagnosis, and treatment programs are required to stop the spread of TDs.

A host of sexually transmitted diseases have, unfortunately, exploded in large numbers in the continent of Africa. These TD's include the HIV virus and the HPV virus, or human papillomavirus. HPV causes cervical cancer, and the HIV virus causes AID (auto-immune deficiency syndrome).

It is estimated that there are 100 million cases of AID worldwide, and that AID is now claiming more lives than all wars and natural disasters around the world.

In Africa, the problem is quite tremendous.

In outh Africa alone, there are 4.7 million people infected with the AID virus. outh Africa is the world's country with the largest infected population.

adly, it is estimated that worldwide, less than…… [Read More]

See.American Social Health Association, 

See also Qualitative Methods, Cornell. Edu. Located at

USDA Information Quality Guidelines for Statistical Information, located at . Seealso Qualitative Methods, Cornell. Edu. Located at
View Full Essay

Women in NY USA With AIDS HIV Disease

Words: 2287 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15040850

Women and AIDS in New York City:

Hidden Cases, Hidden Problems

Ask most people what group of people you think of when you think of AIDS, and most people will name gay men. While it's undeniable that the AIDS epidemic was first noticed among gay men, AIDS has become an equal opportunity illness, and currently women represent the fastest growing sector of people with HIV / AIDS in the United States. This fact is true in New York City as well.

The growth in the rate of HIV / AIDS among women in New York City is a growing concern for a variety of reasons. Worse than the increase in infection among women is the death rate. Although overall, the death rate from AIDS has dropped significantly, the death rate for women with AIDS is significantly higher than that of men.

How widespread is the problem?

A look at recent…… [Read More]


Author not available. Fall, 1998. "The Children Left Behind. Harvard AIDS Institute. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. 

Author not available. "It Helps To Know." Brooklyn AIDS Task Force, Inc. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. .

Cadman, Jill. Spring 1998. "Strategies for Interrupting Mother-to-Child Transmission." CRIA Update: Vol. 7, No. 2. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02.

Center for Disease Control. "CDC: National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention." Divisions of HIV / AIDS Prevention." Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. .
View Full Essay

Alcoholism as a Disease Throughout

Words: 1556 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15817776

The research results will demonstrate that alcoholism is a disease and support this notion with overwhelming evidence.


In short, alcoholism is a major problem for all countries across the world. Alcoholism destroys lives and tears many families apart. The purpose of this argumentative research paper is to demonstrate with supporting evidence that alcoholism is a disease and not a social stigma.

orks Cited

Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. eb. 9 June 2011.

Organization, orld Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. eb. 10 June 2011.

"Survey:…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.

Organization, World Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 10 June 2011.

"Survey: people still unsure whether alcoholism is disease or moral weakness." Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly 17.40 (2005): 1-5. Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.
View Full Essay

Need for Information Outreach in Camden City

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 91505835

STD Testing: Community Health Outreach

When it comes to health care in the United States, it is often those most in need that find themselves somewhat neglected and under serviced. Nonetheless, state programs and coalitions do make an effort to prevent any person, regardless of economic status or other differentiating factors, from going without the care that he or she needs. The main challenge is to make certain populations aware of programs and clinics that are available to provide for their care. As a result of low socio-economic status, these populations are often not only underserved, but also unaware of the fact that they can do something about their health status, especially when it comes to issues such as STIs. In New Jersey and Camden City specifically, statistics show that, in addition to the worsening effects of STIs and other related conditions, the population tends to neglect seeking help, mainly…… [Read More]


New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services. (2013, Jun.). New Jersey Part B Comprehensive Plan. Rutgers. Retrieved from: 

State of New Jersey Department of Health (2015). Division of HIV, STD, and TB Services -- Sexually Transmitted Diseases Program Reported Sexually Transmitted Diseases Morbidity in Camden County by Municipality for Report Year 2012. Retrieved from: 

West, B. (2014, Oct.) Public Health Coalitions in South Jersey. Rutgers University, Camden. Retrieved from:
View Full Essay

Factors Influencing Health

Words: 1736 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92979602

Conditions Associated ith a Lack of Exercise/Physical Activity

Health is one of the most important things in people's lives, but individuals often fail to focus on this aspect because they concentrate on diverse tasks that they wrongly consider to be more important. As a consequence, many end up suffering greatly as a result of their irresponsible behavior. In addition to causing significant health problems in people's lives, sedentary living is also responsible for costing society billions of dollars every year. The fact that the masses often trick themselves into thinking that they are eventually going to start exercising is extremely worrying and leads to numerous health problems.

Figures associated with sedentary living are alarming, but this is still not enough to influence some people in changing their attitudes concerning the concept. On a yearly basis, "approximately 250,000 people die prematurely because they are inactive" (Corbin & Lindsay 43). Even with…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Corbin, Charles B., and Lindsay, Ruth, "Fitness For Life," (Human Kinetics, 01.06.2006)

Evans, Lisa, "Obesity in England: why is it increasing?," Retrieved October 30, 2012, from the Guardian Website: 

Genuis, Stephen J., and Genuis Shelagh K., "Managing the sexually transmitted disease pandemic: A time for reevaluation," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2004) 191, 1103-12

"Half of UK obese by 2030'," Retrieved October 30, 2012, from the NHS Website:
View Full Essay

American Civil Rights History Has

Words: 2247 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 74971377

C. Mayor Adrian Fenty made HIV / AIDS the most important public health priority (Greenberg et al., 2009). Funding from the CDC allowed for a partnership between the D.C. Department of Health's HIV / AIDS Administration and the George Washington University School of Public Health and Healthy Services, which was responsible for the Epidemiology Annual eport for 2007 -- the first to be published for D.C. since 2002 (Greenberg et al., 2009). The Department of Health also initiated a routine HIV screening campaign to help provide testing resources and lower stigma, titled "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" (Greenberg et al., 2009).

Efforts to address the epidemic in D.C. included a combination of increased resource availability and educational services as offered by public health departments. The "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" campaign provided approximately 73,000 tests in 2008, which was a 70% testing increase from…… [Read More]


Brown, M., & Henriquez, E. (2008). Socio-demographic predictors of attitudes towards gays and lesbians. Individual Differences Research, 6(3), 193-202.

CDC HIV Fact sheet. (2011, November 07). HIV in the United States. Retrieved from /hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm

CDC Fact sheet. (2011, September). HIV and AIDS among gay and bisexual men. Retrieved from
View Full Essay

Cutaneous Candidiasis A Case Study Candidiasis This

Words: 1164 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 96332545

Cutaneous Candidiasis: A Case Study


This case study involves a 35-year-old woman diagnosed with candidiasis of the inner thighs. The goal of this report is to provide the patient with information about the most likely cause of her condition and how best to resolve the infection. In order to accomplish this goal a review of Candida pathogenesis will be presented first.

Candida Pathogenesis

Members of the Candida genus, in particular C. albicans, can be detected in the oral cavities of 75% of the general population (Mayer, Wilson, & Hube, 2013). This mostly commensal microbe colonizes oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, anal, and cutanous locations (az-Pasteur, Ullmann, & Berdicevsky, 2011). Candida species are commensal in health people and rarely cause any problems, but in persons who suffer from mild medical conditions with impaired immunity the commensal relationship can quickly evaporate and turn pathogenic (Mayer, Wilson, & Hube, 2013). For example, Candida is…… [Read More]


Mansur, A.T., Aydingoz, I.E., & Artunkal, S. (2012). Facial Candida foliculitis: Possible role of sexual contact. Mycoses, 55, e20-e22. Doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2011.02075.x.

Mayer, F.L., Wilson, D., & Hube, B. (2013). Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms. Virulence, 4(2), 119-128.

Raz-Pasteur, A., Ullmann, Y., & Berdicevsky, I. (2011). The pathogenesis of Candida infections in a human skin model: Scanning electron microscope observations. International Scholarly Research Network, 2011, 1-6. Doi: 10.5402/2011/150642.

Scheinfeld, N.S. (2004). Obesity and dermatology. Clinics in Dermatology, 22, 303-309.
View Full Essay

HIV AIDS on American Society What

Words: 3463 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33384543

HIV / AIDS on American Society

hat is HIV and where did it come from? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (a primary source) explains that HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, and once a person acquires this virus, "…you have it for life" (CDC). There is no effective cure, that is the bad news; but the better news according to the CDC is that HIV "…can be controlled" because there is a treatment called antiretroviral therapy (ART) (CDC). In fact while just a few years ago a person with HIV could expect to have full-blown AIDS within a few years, but with the ART treatment, many HIV sufferers can expect to have "…a nearly normal life…" (CDC).

The source of HIV is believed to be chimpanzees in est Africa, and how this came about related to the fact that Africans hunted the chimpanzees for food and at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Administration on Aging. (2011). Older Adults and HIV / AIDS. Retrieved August 26, 2013, from .

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). What is HIV? Retrieved August 26, 2013,


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). What Persons Aged 50 and Older Can Do.
View Full Essay

Trichomoniasis Is One of the

Words: 884 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56482322

Treatment for Trichomoniasis conventionally takes the form of prescription drugs and antibiotics such metronidazole. The drug is taken orally. Another related drug used in the treatment of disease is tinidazole. In cases where the infected individual is allergic to these drugs "...Topical medicines, or medicines applied to the skin, may be used..." (Trichomoniasis: These medicines usually only alleviate the symptoms. Another important aspect of treatment is hat both partners are usually examined and treated in cases of the disease. The aim is to eliminate the further spread of the parasite. Significantly, the disease can re-occur. "Having Trichomoniasis once does not protect a person from getting it again. Following successful treatment, people can still be susceptible to re-infection" (Trichomoniasis - CDC Fact Sheet).

Prevention is always better than cure and this applies particularly to this disease. Therefore, the most obvious way of preventing the transmission of this disease is through…… [Read More]


Infections: Trichomoniasis. Retrieved May 22, at 

Trichomoniasis - CDC Fact Sheet. Retrieved May 22, at /std/Trichomonas/STDFact-Trichomoniasis.htm#WhatIs

Trichomoniasis: Retrieved May 22, at

Wilkerson R.G. Trichomoniasis. Retrieved May 22, at
View Full Essay

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Words: 1642 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97294962

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues

Reproductive Tract Diseases for human females are typically focused in the upper reproductive tract or the lower reproductive tract. The upper tract includes the fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus, while the lower reproductive tract focuses on the vagina, cervix and vulva. There are three major types of infections: endogenous, iatrogenic and sexually transmitted diseases. Endogenous diseases arise from internal cellular structures and may be bacterial, viral or genetic, usually the most common and arise from an overgrowth of organisms that are already present in the vagina; iatrogenic diseases are the result of medical or surgical treatment, and sexually transmitted diseases occur between humans as a result of sexual behavior. In addition to infections, there are congenital abnormalities, cancers and functional problems. Each infection has its own specific cause and symptoms; caused by bacteria, virus, fungi or other organisms. Indeed, some are easily treatable and cured,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Azim, P., et al. (2011). Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Isra Medical Journal, 3(3). Retrieved November 2013, from

Davidson, B., et al. (2012). Abnormal Uterine Bleeding During the Reproductive Years. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 57(3), 248-54.

Fraser, I., et al. (2011). The FIGO Recommendations on Terminologies and Definitions for Normal and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 29(5), 383-90.

Gray, S. (2013). Menstural Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 34(1), 6-18.
View Full Essay

Genital Herpes Is Another Type

Words: 2657 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26443995

Psychological stress may have been causing it, but the recurrence itself can, of course, result to more stress to the infected person. There have been numbers of studies that show that recurrences of genital herpes are related with psychological morbidity, and the extent of which seems to be directly related to the frequency of recurrences (Taboulet,, 1999). This is just an expected outcome for any person who will be diagnosed with genital herpes will not only worry about how to cure or prevent the occurrence of another outbreak, but will also worry or think about how others might view him/her as an infected person. A person with the genital virus will be feared by the opposite sex in the same manner that the infected person will of course tend to shy away from getting into another intimate relationship. As it is pointed out, the virus will never leave the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Social Health Association. (1998), Sexually Transmitted Diseases in America: How Many Cases and at What Cost? Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.

Fleming DT, et al. (1997), Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 in the United States, 1976 to 1994. NEJM; 337:1105-11.

Gandhi, M. (February 2006), Division of Infectious Diseases, VeriMed Healthcare Network UCSF, San Francisco, CA.

Genital Herpes," (May 2005), Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
View Full Essay

Health Syphilis -- Viewed From

Words: 2554 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 12765813

These diseases may be aggravated or deteriorated because of indulgence in sexual life as well. In severe cases, indulgence in sexual life even may cause vital crises such as cerebral bleeding and myocardiac infarction. Accordingly, sexual life should be moderated during the daily health care and rehabilitation. In severe cases, sexual life should be stopped for the time being (Syphilis, n.d.).

There are several tests that can be used to for Syphilis. These include: Syphilis Serum Test, the venereal diseases research laboratory test (VDL test), unheated serum reagin test (US test), rapid plasma reagin card test (P test), and cardiophospholipid is used as an antigen to examine the anti-cardiophospholipid antibody in serum. This test is used for screening examination. In spirochete antigen test, such as fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test (FTA-ABS test), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (TPHA), usually the diagnosis of syphilis can be confirmed by positive result in the spirochete…… [Read More]


Introduction to TCM. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2010, from Traditional Chinese Medicine

Page Web site: 

Kent, Molly E. And Romanelli, Frank. (2008). Reexamining Syphilis: An Update on Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management. Retrieved January 27, 2010,

from Medscape Web site:
View Full Essay

Chlamydia Trachomatis

Words: 1117 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83474203

Chlamydia Trachomatis

Chlamydia is the most common and frequently occurring sexually transmitted disease in the United States. According to a recent CDC report there are more than 2.8 million persons infected every year. [CDC] The disease is caused by a bacterium known as Chlamydia trachomatis which is also found to exist as 15 different serotypes. The estimated annual treatment costs for Chlamydia is around $2 billion. The asymptotic nature of the disease presents a big problem in the early diagnosis and a substantial number of infected persons are unaware of their condition. Though totally curable, this 'silent disease' can cause trachoma, infertility, tubal pregnancy and other urinogenital disorders if left untreated. A brief overview of the disease, treatment options and preventive strategies would give a better insight of this medical condition.

Chlamydia trachomatis (Life Cycle)

Chlamydia trachomatis is a parasitic bacterium that cannot produce its own ATP and hence depends…… [Read More]


1) Andrea DeMets, "Chlamydia Trachomatis," Accessed on 5th November 2004, 

2) CDC, "Chlamydia Fact Sheet," Accessed on 5th November, /std/Chlamydia/STDFact-Chlamydia.htm" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
View Full Essay

Human Papillomavirus

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41055836

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes warts. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It belongs to the Papovaviridae family. HPV is a small oncogenic DNA virus, which infects epithelial cells of skin and mucous membranes. The epithelial surfaces include all areas covered by skin and/or mucous membranes of the mouth, genital and anus (the area that poop comes out of). A definitive diagnosis of HPV infection depends on the detection of nucleic acids (DNA or NA) or proteins.


HPV is a relatively small, non-enveloped virus, and 55 nm in diameter. It has an icosahedral capsid composed of 72 capsomers, which contain at least two capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Each capsomer is a pentamer of the major capsid protein, L1. Each virion capsid contains several copies (about 12 per virion) of the minor capsid protein, L2. The virus is said to somewhat…… [Read More]


Anderson, N. And Pearsall, R. (2004). Microbiology a human Perspective. New York: Mc-Graw Hill

Burd, E. (2003) Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer -- Burd 16 (1): 1 -- Clinical

Microbiology Reviews [Online]. [Accessed 25th April 2005]. Available from World Wide

View Full Essay

Management Analysis of the Center

Words: 2560 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9980047

3 Strategies of CDC

As mentioned in the introduction, the Centers for Disease Control and prevention has developed and implemented six sets of strategies as follows:

Health Impact Focus - the alignment of CDC's employees, objectives, strategies, investments and performances in order to maximize the CDC's beneficial effects upon public health

Customer Centricity - Like any other corporation, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is focused on offering those products and services required and needed by the population in order to improve and preserve their health

Public Health esearch - the CDC funds and conducts numerous researches aimed at identifying new treatments and any other issues which would positively affect the public health

Leadership - the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention possesses the best skilled and qualified employees, guided by the most committed managers and supported by strategic partners, all to improve the health system within the United…… [Read More]


Etheridge, E.W., 1994, Sentinel for Health: A History of the Centers for Disease Control, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Volume 24, Number 4

Friede, a. And O'Carroll, P.O., 1996, CDC and ATSDR Electronic Information Resources for Health Officers, Journal of Environmental Health, Volume 59

1994, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Emerging Infectious Disease Threats, Population and Development Review, Number 13

1999, CDC on Infectious Diseases in the United States: 1990-1999, Population and Development Review, Volume 25, Number 3
View Full Essay

Conjunctivitis the Term Conjunctivitis Refers to Any

Words: 1204 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64071319


The term conjunctivitis refers to any inflammatory condition of the membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the exposed surface of the sclera, and is the most common cause of "red eye" or "pink eye" (Abbott pp). Most often the etiology can be determined by a careful history and an ocular examination, however, culture is sometimes necessary to establish the diagnosis or to guide therapy (Abbott pp). The most common causes of conjunctivitis are bacteria and viruses (Abbott pp). hen severe, bilateral, purulent conjunctivitis is present in a sexually active adult or in a neonate three to five days postpartum, then Neisseria infection should be suspected (Abbott pp). Conjunctivitis that is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae requires aggressive antibiotic therapy, however, conjunctivitis due to other bacteria is usually self-limited (Abbott pp). Chronic conjunctivitis is most often associated with blepharitis, recurrent styes or meibomianitis, and treatment requires good…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Kupecz, Deborah. "Keeping up with recent ophthalmic drug approvals."

The Nurse Practitioner; 4/1/2001; pp.

Conjunctivitis. National Institutes of Health
View Full Essay

Down Low Gay Men

Words: 1408 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78010336

Gay Men Transmitting HIV

When HIV and AIDS first came to prominence in the 1980's, it was commonly assumed and projected that HIV / AIDS was an issue mostly with gay men. Of course, this has turned out not to be the case as people of all genders, sexualities and so forth are catching and spreading HIV and/or AIDS every day. However, it is most definitely a problem with gay men and that issues persists to this very day. Indeed, that will be focus of this report. Topics that will be discussed will be current statistics, current studies and evidence, current social determinants, the challenges of healthcare delivery as it relates to this issue and the construct diagnoses that will need to be looped into this issue. While the aggregate level of knowledge and education is spreading through all demographics, there are still some lagging indicators and behaviors that are…… [Read More]


CDC,. (2015). CDC - Stigma and Discrimination - Gay and Bisexual Men's Health. Retrieved 11 March 2015, from /msmhealth/stigma-and-discrimination.htm

Halkitis, P. (2015). Discrimination and homophobia fuel the HIV epidemic in gay and bisexual men. Retrieved 11 March 2015, from

HealthyPeople,. (2015). Social Determinants of Health | Healthy People 2020.
View Full Essay

Allopathic Medicine Outweigh the Risks

Words: 4631 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37148611

" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)

There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…… [Read More]


Bawaskar H.S. Non- allopathic doctors form the backbone of rural health.

Retrieved March 8, 2007, at 

Death by Modern Medicine. Retrieved March 8, 2007, at 

Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved March 6, 2007, at
View Full Essay

Nedss What Do You Think Would Be

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60337313

NEDSS: What do you think would be three hurdles to successful implementation (at CDC and in the state of Mississippi)?

"The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) is a secure online framework that allows healthcare professionals and government agencies to communicate about disease patterns and coordinate national response to outbreaks…. The CDC mandates that hospitals, clinics and state health agencies all adopt NEDSS standards so that the speed, accuracy, standardization and viability of data about diseases are improved" (National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS, 2012, Tech Target). The goal of NEDSS is seamless integration and coordination between state and federal authorities when combatting sudden epidemics (such as H1N1) or long-standing chronic diseases that must be addressed over time, such as obesity.

One problem with implementing such a system "is the delay experienced from incident awareness, through laboratory testing and ultimately to public health investigation" (Tracking silent killers, 2012, Center for…… [Read More]


Centers for Disease Control (2011). National electronic disease surveillance system: NEDSS

overview. Retrieved from /phin/tools/NEDSS/

Mississippi State Department of Health. (2004). State Health Plan FY- 2004: Priority Needs.

Retrieved from:,835,184,210,pdf/SectionA-Chapter4-PriorityNeeds.pdf
View Full Essay

Effects Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky Sexual Behavior

Words: 4729 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33616752

Alcohol Consumption Has on Risky Sexual Behavior

Since the ancient days of Bacchanalian celebratory worship of the Greek pantheon, the consumption of alcohol and risky sexual rites have gone hand in hand. Both drinking and sex are considered to be pleasurable activities, and conservative or religious portions of the population may consider them to be sinful or immoral on varying scales. Regardless of whether alcohol and sexual activities have a negative social stigma within a certain social group, peer group, or subculture, these activities are inevitably associated with some risk. Physical, emotional, and social well-being are put on the line when partaking in drinking or sexual modern rituals. The combination of these activities may increase the level of risk associated with them, and likewise they may also be contributing factors to the likelihood that the other will occur (e.g., drinking may increase the chance of sexual activity). However, despite the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

2000, April 28) Alcohol policy and sexually transmitted disease rates -- United States, 1981-1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Business Publishers. (2004, February) High-risk drinking and sexual assault go hand-in-hand, researchers find. Campus Crime, 14.2, 13.

Coren, C. (2003, January-February) Timming, amount of teenage alcohol or marijuana use may make future risky sex more likely. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health.

Chandra, P.S. (2003, February) High-risk sexual behaviour & sensation seeking among heavy alcohol users. Indian Journal of Medical Research.
View Full Essay

Kaplan M S Crespo C J Huguet N &

Words: 764 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38056611

Kaplan, M.S., Crespo, C.J., Huguet, N. & Marks, G. (2009). Ethnic/Racial Homogeneity Sexually ransmitted Disease: A Study 77 Chicago Community Areas. Sexually ransmitted Diseases 32(2): 108-111.

Knowledge of SDs around the world

Kaplan, M.S., Crespo, C.J., Huguet, N. & Marks, G. (2009). Ethnic/racial homogeneity and Sexually-transmitted disease: A study of 77 Chicago community areas. Sexually ransmitted Diseases 32(2): 108-111.

he article "Ethnic/racial homogeneity and sexually-transmitted disease: A study of 77 Chicago community areas" by Kaplan (et al. 2009) examined the association between SDs, race, and poverty in America. Americans of color have historically manifested higher rates of SDs. o shed further light upon this phenomenon, the researchers studied 77 enclosed neighborhoods in Chicago. he findings were that communities that were majority African-American (60% or more of residents) had higher rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea than communities that were majority Hispanic, even when other influential socio-demographic variables were controlled. Overall, regardless…… [Read More]

The article "Apprentices' knowledge and attitudes about sexually transmitted disease" by Oncel (2012) was a study of 'apprentices' in Turkey, or students who did not go on to higher education but instead entered a trade (apprenticeship) school. An in-class questionnaire was used to determine attitudes about STDs. While 60.9% of the apprentices recognized the name of at least one STDs, 83.6% of the participants did not know about the symptoms of any STDs and only 28.1% were knowledgeable about effective protection methods. A significant majority believed incorrect information about STDs, such as the idea that healthy-looking people could not have an STD (51.4% of the tested population). Chi-square and regression models were used to assess the data. Turkey is a conservative Muslim country and the results are troubling regarding the state of knowledge of STDs amongst young people.

Which research studies seems to yield the most meaningful and valid results, and which seems to be the weakest or most questionable

The most comprehensive study was that of Adebowale (2013), using large scale numbers based upon statistical analysis of the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. However, the idea that poverty and ignorance increases one's risk of STDs is not a novel one, and no data was used to determine if the same predictors were true of males, and how male attitudes towards condom use might differ amongst various socio-economic groups, which could affect public education campaigns: if men are unwilling to use condoms, focusing on educating women might be less effective. The Kaplan (et al. 2009) study of Chicago residents was valuable in its contrast of African-American and Latino populations of similar demographic characteristics in terms of STD rates, although for all persons regardless of race, poverty and lower education levels were strongly associated with higher rates of STDs. Although it took the form of a relatively narrowly-based questionnaire, the Oncel (2012) offers interesting preliminary research about a failure to educate the majority of working-class Turkish youths about STDs. More demographic data on the participants would have been helpful to fully contextualize the results. Given that men, persons specializing in hygiene education, and graduates from STD education programs had higher rates of accurate knowledge, this suggests that religious and cultural attitudes may impede the dissemination of accurate information.
View Full Essay

Correlation Methods the Problems That

Words: 568 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26583111

Postpartum Sexually Transmitted Disease Refining Our Understanding of the Population at Risk Yale University, UMI Dissertations, 2011, 1505365.

The researchers developed a study to assess STD incidence during and after pregnancy and to determine risk factors associated with postpartum STD infections among mothers in their teens and early 20s. For this analysis, they included 848 women who were less than 24 weeks pregnant, ages 14 to 25. A total of 27.1% of participants were diagnosed with an STD within one year postpartum. Among those who were diagnosed with an STD during pregnancy, 43.4% also contracted an STD during the postpartum period. By comparison, 18.7% of participants with no history of infection and 24% of women who had a history of STDs before pregnancy contracted one postpartum.

heeler (2011) presents the best research for my specific topic. My hypothesis suggests that high rates of postpartum STI infections may be reduced using…… [Read More]

Wheeler (2011) presents the best research for my specific topic. My hypothesis suggests that high rates of postpartum STI infections may be reduced using pregnancy as window of prevention. This article gives some solid facts to base my research upon. The conclusions in this article give clear relationships to pertinent information that is needed to build my case.

The other two articles contain some useful information, however there are a significant number of confounding variables within each that tends to muddy my argument and stretches the definition of correlation. One such variable is the BMI index. Although this is an important indicator of STIs, it does not directly relate to pregnancy as an opportunity to prevent.

During these SLP assignments I realized how precise and focused research can be. General ideas are mostly not present in these research articles as detail and statistical analysis serve as more persuasive evidence. I have also learned that inference is very important in the research process, as adding one's own take on the subject is necessary to truly grasp the knowledge presented within the literature.
View Full Essay

Chlamydia Trachomatis

Words: 1724 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 60923996

Chlamydia Trachomatis

Scientific Details

Life Cycle of Chlamydia Trachomatis in the Human Body

Infection & Symptoms



Prevention of Chlamydia Infection

Chlamydia trachomatis, a bacterium, has a tendency to infect the columnar epithelium of the cervix, the urethra, and the rectum. Apart from genital areas the bacteria can affect and infect other areas of the body like the lungs and the eyes. This bacterium is one of the prime sources of most of the sexually transmitted diseases. There are practically no prior symptoms of infection by this bacterium (Breguet, 2007). However several complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy in women can occur if the infection if left untreated for a long time. Men can also develop disease complications like epididymitis and orchitis from this bacterium.

Treatment for the uncomplicated state of this infection is fairly simple and should include simple antibiotics like azithromycin or doxycycline.…… [Read More]


Breguet, A. (2007). Chlamydia. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.

Landers, D., Wiesenfeld, H., Phillip Heine, R., Krohn, M., & Hillier, S. (2004). Predictive value of the clinical diagnosis of lower genital tract infection in women. American Journal Of Obstetrics And Gynecology, 190(4), 1004-1008. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2004.02.015

Marrazzo, J., & Cates, W. (2011). Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV Infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 53(suppl 3), S64-S78. doi:10.1093/cid/cir695

Miller, W. (2004). Prevalence of Chlamydial and Gonococcal Infections Among Young Adults in the United States. JAMA, 291(18), 2229. doi:10.1001/jama.291.18.2229
View Full Essay

Incidence and Morbidity of Unprotected Sexual Behavior

Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98106939

risky behavior, unprotected sex can lead to serious health consequences. isky sexual behaviors include having sex frequently with strangers or multiple partners, particularly without the use of condoms. Similarly, avoiding birth control can be considered a risky sexual behavior. Physiological consequences of unprotected sex include the contraction of a sexually-transmitted infection, many of which can lead to fatal illnesses like HIV / AIDS or Hepatitis. Gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted infections present serious health consequences even when they are not life-threatening. In the United States, about 15 million people are infected every year with a sexually transmitted illness (SIU School of Medicine, 2010). Morbidity rates for sexually transmitted illnesses are high overall, and in fact, STIs are the most commonly reported of all communicable diseases in some states (Washington State Department of Health, 2014). Common sexually transmitted illnesses include chlamydia and herpes. Chlamydia morbidity rates are far higher for women…… [Read More]


Healthwise (2015). High risk sexual behavior. 

SIU School of Medicine (2010). Sexual behavior. Retrieved online: 

Washington State Department of Health (2014). STI Fast Facts. Retrieved online:
View Full Essay

Should HIV Testing Screening Be Made Part of Primary Prevention

Words: 3311 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44959222

HIV testing/Screening be made part of Primary Prevention?

This analysis backs up research on behavioral interventions that lower HIV transmission. The aim of the analysis are to reinforce interdisciplinary research that develops, implements, and evaluates practically and theoretically based interventions intended to prevent HIV transmission. This knowledge needs to progress understanding of the interaction between psychological, behavioral, biological and social factors that influence the acquirement of HIV in our populations. The analysis supports research that acts as the base for an empirically-based public health policy plan to prevent several new HIV infections as possible. Similarly, ASPQ supports basic prevention and intervention research that tackle multiple levels factors that facilitate or obstruct lowering of HIV risk.


Immense progress have been made over the ancient times decade in behavioral research on how to assist people prevent contracting HIV infections (primary prevention) and how to reduce or alleviate unfavorable consequences among individuals…… [Read More]


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). HIV / AIDS Surveillance Report. Vol. 19. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,

CDC (2004). Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States

HIV / AIDS, Surveillance Report 2005; 16:16 -- 45.

CDC. (2001) Revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. MMWR; 50(No. RR-19):63 -- 85.
View Full Essay

WA 2 Social Sciences Genital Herpes Affliction

Words: 2016 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 11252909

WA 2 social sciences

Genital herpes affliction owing to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), causes ill health and even death across the globe. Although in most cases symptoms are not found, the possibility of severe clinical manifestations cannot be ruled out, specifically in people living in inhospitable and unhygienic conditions. People additionally have a scope of mental responses to the determination; for a few, stresses about telling accomplices and the effect on their sexuality are very critical, especially immediately after the revelation. Moreover, genital herpes can be prenatally transferred and cause life-debilitating neonatal HSV contamination. In addition, it proffers the danger of acquiring HIV two to three-fold and additionally HIV transmission in those dually afflicted. This level of danger of ailment makes counteractive action and treatment of genital herpes disease very important globally. Be that as it may, this has still been…… [Read More]


Ashley, R.L., & Wald, A. (1999). Genital herpes: review of the epidemic and potential use of type-specific serology. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12(1), 1-8.

Genital Herpes and Self-Image (2001).

HA Weiss, SL Thomas, SK Munabi, and RJ Hayes. (2006). Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sex Transm Infect; 82(2): 101 -- 110.

Hofstetter, A. Rosenthal, S. Stanberry, L (2014). Current Thinking on Genital Herpes. Retrieved January 26, 2015, from
View Full Essay

Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About HIV in the USA

Words: 1652 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83204211

Epidemiology of HIV

Epidemiology & Communicable Disease

Description of HIV

HIV is short for human immunodeficiency virus, and it the viral infection that can lead to AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The HIV virus remains in the body for life as the human body cannot rid itself of the virus; this is true even if the overt symptoms of HIV are absent ("CDC," 2015). The HIV virus spreads through body fluids, affecting specific cells (CD4 or T cells) associated with the immune system ("CDC," 2015). HIV destroys many CD4 cells over time to a degree that compromises the body's overall immune system leaving it incapable of fighting off infections and disease: this end stage of HIV infection is referred to as AIDS ("CDC," 2015). The CD4 cell count is fundamental to monitoring people living with HIV ("CDC," 2015).

HIV progresses through several stages with the first stage often -- but…… [Read More]


Osmond, DH (2003, March). Epidemiology of HIV / AIDS in the United States. HIV InSite Knowledge Base Chapter, University of California at San Francisco. Retreived from #S2X

____. (2013). Global Health Observatory (GHO) Data. World Health Organization (WHO). Retreived from 

____. (2012). Epidemiology of HIV Infection through 2012. National Center for HIV / AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD & TB Prevention. Division of HIV / AIDS Prevention. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved from ____. (2015). HIV 101. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Retreived from /hiv/basics/index.html
View Full Essay

HIV AIDS on Women

Words: 2012 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66067703

In this regard, Hackl and her colleagues emphasize, "Women who share their HIV or AIDS diagnosis with family or friends risk stigmatization (including reactions of fear, shock, and blame), isolation (as a result of others' fears of casual transmission and the possibility of desertion), and potential loss of self-esteem (lack of confidence and self-blame)" (p. 53).

The alternative to sharing their diagnosis is also not viable: "Keeping the diagnosis of HIV a secret may hinder a woman's ability to develop effective coping strategies and leave her vulnerable to fear, anger, and depression. These problems may worsen as the progression of HIV disease creates significant changes in behavior, attitudes, and physical appearance" (Hackl et al., p. 54). As osenberg emphasizes, though, "Medical experts know that those who get tested and counseled reduce risky sexual behaviors. Treatment also reduces the stigma of AIDS. One of the biggest reasons people don't change their…… [Read More]


Blumberg, S.J., Osborn, M.L., Larry, C. & Olson, L. (2003). The impact of touch-tone data entry on reports of HIV and STD risk behaviors in telephone interviews. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(2), 121.

Hak-Su, K. (2004, March-May). Why we must defeat HIV / AIDS. UN Chronicle, 41(1), 51.

Hackl, K.L., Somlai, a.M., Kelly, J.A. & Kalichman, S.C. (1997). Women living with HIV / AIDS: The dual challenge of being a patient and caregiver. Health and Social Work, 22(1), 53.

HIV / AIDS and women. (2008). U.S. Centers for Disease Control. [Online]. Available: /hiv/topics/women/index.htm.
View Full Essay

Impact of AIDS on African Development

Words: 2794 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39638956

AIDS on South African Development

Today, the chromium, platinum, gold and diamond mining sectors provide the largest percentage of export revenues for South Africa. One of the inevitable consequences of these natural resource extraction industries is the proliferation of mining camps that house the migrant domestic and foreign workers from neighboring countries that support the industry. Although conditions vary, most mining camps are squalid affairs that lack running water, electricity or the other basic amenities of modern life that most people take for granted. These harsh living conditions, combined with the loneliness that results from being forced to spend long periods of time away from family and friends, create an ideal environment for the spread of communicable diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS). This paper provides a review of the related primary and secondary literature concerning mining camps and their role in the spread…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boe, Hans-Petter and Crush, Jonathan. HIV / AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda. Pretoria: Regional HIV / AIDS

Programme for Southern Africa of the Netherlands' Embassy in Pretoria, 2005.

Lurie, M. et al. (1999). "Circular Migration and Sexual Networking in Rural KwaZulu-Natal:

Implications for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Health
View Full Essay


Words: 6090 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28504650

The second session had camera instruction. The third session had each participant given a camera and they were instructed to "(t)ake pictures of the challenges and solution in addressing HIV and AIDS" (Mitchell et al., 2005). The fourth session saw the photos developed and asked small groups to compare and contrast their pictures by creating posters. The authors draw on previous research on photo-voice techniques, as well as memory and photography and self-representation through photography.

In the end, the authors' qualitative research concluded that although many projects use photography to give voice to participants, it is especially significant in the giving a voice to community health workers and teachers in rural South African communities. In these remote areas, the communities do not have to wait for researchers to provide them answers, instead they are able to take action themselves and give a visible face to the HIV and AIDS plight…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Origin of HIV the Mystery of HIV

Words: 6006 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35184502

Origin of HIV

The mystery of HIV and its origins is one that cannot be easily solved. In the thirty-odd years which have passed since the official recognition of AIDS by the CDC and the subsequent search for its cause, various theories have been floated regarding its nature, its development, its ability to adapt, our ability to combat it, and -- most importantly for some -- its origin. How did the virus come into being? Viruses are known for altering over time and according to circumstances. They have a way of "bending" in order to make due -- of manipulating themselves in such a way so as to survive. This is no less true for HIV than for influenza. Just as variants of influenza appear each year to wreak havoc on the human population, variant-strains of HIV continue to be discovered, suggesting that the virus is still developing, still finding…… [Read More]


Apetrei, C., et al. (2005) 'Molecular epidemiology of simian immunodeficiency virus

SIVsm in U.S. primate centers unravels the origin of SIVmac and SIVstm', J Virol, 79(14):8991-9005.

Clavel, F., et al. (1986) 'Isolation of a new human retrovirus from West African patients

with AIDS', Science, 233(4761):343-346.
View Full Essay

How to Prevent AIDS in the Gay Community

Words: 3659 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9440599

prevent AIDS in the Gay community

In all culture sex among men is present. The receptive companion is at the risk of carrying a HIV transmission if involved in anal sex and when unshielded. In some parts of the world the HIV transmission is mainly because of the sex among men, while in some other areas other ways of transmission is also possible. But almost everywhere sex amongst men is the major and regular cause for this spate. It should not be overlooked. These sex-actions are done only by option. The occurrence of sex between male-to-male is frequent in the establishments in which male are forced to spend longer periods in full male company like the military, prisons and men-only educational organizations. Antagonism and misunderstandings about sex among men have lead to insufficient protection procedures in many countries.

Defective and lack of epidemiological facts is the barrier for HIV deterrence…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Altman, Lawrence K. "Many Gay Men in U.S. Unaware They Have H.I.V., Study Finds" The New York Times, July 7, 2002, A7

Carrns, Ann "HIV Study Shows 44% Infection Rate for Young Gay Men." Wall Street journal 1January2001:B2.

Coyle, Adrian. "Lesbian and Gay Psychology; New Perspectives." Oxford, UK. Maiden, MA, Bps Blackwell, 2002, p.23

Diaz, Johnny. Study: "Young gays lax about safe sex" Miami Herald - Sunday, June 10, 2001,p6
View Full Essay

Prokaryotes Consist of Millions of Genetically Distinct

Words: 2739 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60665561

prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…… [Read More]


1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.

3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance. /drugresistance/actionplan/html/

4. Jones RN, Pfaller MA (1998). Bacterial resistance: a worldwide problem. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Jun;31(2):379-88.
View Full Essay

Sexual Enhancement Viagra Levitra and

Words: 1669 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 74006254

(American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )

IV. Side Effects of Sildenafil

Side effects of taking Sildenafil include those as follows:

headache heartburn diarrhea flushing (feeling of warmth)

nosebleeds difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep numbness, burning, or tingling in the arms, hands, feet, or legs muscle aches changes in color vision (seeing a blue tinge on objects or having difficulty telling the difference between blue and green)

sensitivity to light (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )

Serious side effects are the following and occurrence of this requires immediate notification of the physician:

sudden severe loss of vision (see below for more information)

blurred vision sudden decrease or loss of hearing ringing in ears

erection that is painful or lasts longer than 4 hours dizziness or lightheadedness fainting chest pain worsening shortness of breath itching or burning during urination rash (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009…… [Read More]


Sildenafil (2009) AHFS Consumer Medication Information. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Online available at:$=drug_bottom_one&part=a699015 

Swearingen, S. And Klausner, J. (2009) Sildenafil Use, Sexual Risk Behavior, and Risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases including HIV infection. The American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 118, Issue 6. Online available at: 

Rosenfeld, Dana and Faircloth, Christopher a. (2006) Medicalized Masculinities. Temple University Press 2006. Online available at:,+levitra+and+cialis&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s 

Loe, Meika (2004) the Rise of Viagra: How the Little Blue Pill Changed Sex in America. NYR Press 2004. Online available at:,+levitra+and+cialis&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
View Full Essay

Man Made Disaster The More

Words: 1179 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21009972

" hile it is true that some plane crashes cannot be prevented, there are measures that can be taken to ensure that when a crash does occur, the proper help gets to the scene in time.

The first secondary measure for a plane crash is "Foster informed, empowered individuals and communities." hether the witness of a crash is a doctor or a hospital secretary, everyone can play a role in assisting at the scene. If nothing else, the person can call authorities and report the crash. For hospital staff, education in basic first-aid is standard at most hospitals and this includes sufficient knowledge to aid a victim in stopping bleeding or splinting a leg.

The second measure is "Develop and maintain the workforce needed for national health security." ith most hospitals understaffed, there is a real need for more nurses in the event of an emergency. Otherwise, a nearby hospital…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker S, Brady J, Shanahan D, Guohua L (2009). Aviation-Related Injury Morbidity and Mortality: Data from U.S. Health Information Systems. Aviat Space Environ Med, 80(12): 1001-5.

Center for Disease Control (1992). A Framework for Assessing the Effectiveness of Disease and Injury Prevention. Accessed on 30 April 2012 at /mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00016403.htm" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
View Full Essay

Graphs Were Complied From the Results of

Words: 810 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75675538

graphs were complied from the results of the demographic breakdown of people who tested for HIV in a study conducted in 8 counties and across 27 zip codes. The test was conducted over a period of approximately 2 1/2 years.

Counselors, who conducted the tests, were able to contact and test a total of 270 people. The test subjects were screened and coded for behavioral or other risk factors, such as hemophilia, blood recipient, intravenous drug users, etc. The subjects were further broken down by race, age and gender.

The subjects were further broken down by how many additional times they visited the testing centers and follow up visits. In all 242 people chose to visit the test centers 1 additional time, while 22 returned twice and 1 subject returned 3 times. Of the subjects who tested positive for HIV, none returned to the center more then once. Fourteen of…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Seaman W T Andrews E Et

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 16520091

, 2010).

The importance of this study is threefold: 1) it allows a new series of assays to be used in the clinical setting to detect the more common HPVs that cause genital and anal warts; 2) the assays are both robust and yet inexpensive enough to use globally, and, 3) the tests are designed to use real-time PC technology, which allows for the rapid identification and quantification of these pathogenic types of HPV. The technology and protocols used in this development will also likely have an effect on the ability to roll out testing for other HPV-like viruses, ostensibly even the HIV virus in a real-time, inexpensive manner. The lab results also suggest that as the at risk population for HPV increases, early testing and intervention might reduce the number of symptomatic individuals since they will have been tested and potentially treated much earlier.

The developing world notwithstanding, HPV…… [Read More]


Learn About HPV. (2011). American Social Health Association. Cited in:

Wallboomers, J., et al., (1999). Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. Journal of Pathology. 189 (1): 9-12.
View Full Essay

Latina & AIDS Hispanic Population

Words: 1617 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15524811

The colorful and rich culture and heritage should be used to counter such menaces by the community or non-governmental organizations working for the prevention and awareness of AIDS/HIV.


Latino is a large group comprising further sub-categories like Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent that identify as American and other Indian civilizations. Each group cannot be targeted with the same message. These different groups have different social mindsets and have different social status. For example, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent will be more aware of the issues and problems related to their health and well being then new immigrants in the country belonging to this community. The migrant people belonging to this community have more pressing needs like housing, food, and employment as compared to Chicanos who are more concerned with political implications. Hence, one message fits all strategy cannot work with…… [Read More]


Borges-Hernandez, Adalisse, Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rafael a. & Velez-Pastrana, Maria C. 'Family Functioning and Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse in Latino Adolescents.' Adolescence. 40.160 (2005): 777+.

Diaz, Rafael M. 'Macho, Latino HIV+'. The Advocate. 747(November 25, 1997): 9.

Peterson, John L. 'Introduction to the Special Issue: HIV / AIDS Prevention through Community Psychology'. American Journal of Community Psychology. 26.1. (1998): 1+.

Carmona, Jennifer Vargas, Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia, Newcomb, Michael D., Romero, Gloria J., Solis, Beatriz, Tucker, M. Belinda, Wayment, Heidi a. & Wyatt, Gail E 'Acculturation, Sexual Risk Taking and HIV Health Promotion Among Latinas'. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 45.4(1998): 454.
View Full Essay

Behavioral Risk for HIV Infection Among Gay and Bisexual Men in the United States

Words: 1273 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47726134

Behavioral risk for HIV infection among gay and bisexual men in the United States

According to reports published by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), they state that by the year 2004, more than nine hundred and forty thousand individuals in the United States of America had been diagnosed with AIDS, majority of who were gay men and African-Americans. This report including others have brought the issue of HIV infection in gay and bisexual men into sharp focus and more in particular the behavioral risks that the group exposes themselves to, which have contributed to the sharp increase in HIV infection amongst members of this group. This research intends to focus of this behavioral risk and preventive measures that have been established to prevent HIV infection in gay and bisexual men in the United States.

Behavioral risk

Another recent research conducted by Centre for Disease Control and Prevention…… [Read More]


Hockenbury, D., & Hockenbury, E., (2008), Psychology, Word publishers, pp 232-234

Kelly, J.A. (1992). HIV risk behavior reduction following intervention with key opinion leaders of population: An experimental analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 1483 -- 1489.

Latkin, C.A., Sherman, S., & Knowlton, A. (2003). HIV prevention among drug users: Outcome of a network-oriented peer outreach intervention. Health Psychology, 22, 332 -- 339.

Wasserheit, J.N., & Aral, S.O., (1996), the dynamic topology of sexually transmitted disease epidemics: Implications for prevention strategies. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 201 -- 213.
View Full Essay

White Ryan My Story Ryan

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 323862

He saw no problem with his decision. AIDS, like hemophilia, could not be transmitted by casual contact between people. Thus Ryan saw no difficulty in his resolve to go to school like a normal adolescent.

However, Ryan's high school was not as understanding. Like many communities, the town he lived in was motivated by fear and even by hate towards AIDS sufferers. This fear inhibited their generosity and willingness to open their minds and hearts to Ryan. In addition to the tremendous suffering Ryan experienced because of his medical battles, Ryan was also forced to suffer the prejudices of the people around him, who he wished would befriend him. His worst blow came when he was barred from attending his high school. He had to battle in the courts of the United States to win what for most teens is an ordinary act, the daily right to go to school…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwell the Tipping

Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41193097

Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwell

The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference is a book about epidemics. However, Gladwell is not writing about diseases. He is writing about how the behaviors and attitudes of a population change in much the way an epidemic spreads. As Gladwell describes, only one child has to go to school with measles. The next week, almost every child at the school can have measles. It only took one change in this one child to make a significant difference. This situation where seemingly small changes make big differences is the focus of the book. Gladwell uses the metaphor of a spreading virus to explain how ideas, products, messages, and behaviors can all spread in the same way. He explains how something can suddenly become an accepted fashion item, how people's behavior can change on a mass scale, how information can spread via…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gladwell, M. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York: Back Bay Books, 2004.
View Full Essay

AIDS Epidemic in the Bronx

Words: 1258 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87406000

Sex and AIDS: a Study in Contrasts

AIDS is one of the most hotly debated topics of modern times. Whether it is a question of what should be done to help those who have the disease, what may be done to prevent others from contracting it, or of the many moral arguments pro and con regarding the lifestyle or lifestyles that results in its spread, it is definitely a subject that is viewed from many, often widely-differing angles. What one newspaper or magazine can cover as a matter of science, another can describe as a cultural inspiration, or a religious sin. Film, television, radio, and the arts all play their role in constructing what we see as the impact of this dread disease. For the purposes of this paper, we shall take a look at AIDS and how it is depicted in one geographically small urban area: the New York…… [Read More]


Kramer, William. (10 May 1999). "Subway Art Raises AIDS Awareness." The Bronx Beat. New York, NY: Columbia University School of Journalism.

Lombroso, Linda. (4 April 2003) "Review of Homeless to Harvard: The Liz Murray Story © 2003 Lifetime Network." The Journal News. Gannet Co, Inc.: New York.

Meenan, Mick. (14-20 Feb. 2004). "Gay Pols Look to the Bronx." Gay City News, II, 7. Community Media: New York, NY.

Perez-Pena, Richard. (5 Oct. 2003). "New York's Vital Signs." The New York Times. New York, NY: The New York Times Company.
View Full Essay

Culture Found in Baltimore Maryland

Words: 1441 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Multiple Chapters Paper #: 38532480

In the studies quoted herein the numbers show evidence that blacks suffer a much higher rate of incidence than do whites or Latinos, and that black women suffer a much higher rate when compared against their white counterparts and they are a significant percentage of the overall rate of incidence in both Baltimore and the United States. There is not much potential in numbers for a bias, after all, they are what they are. The number of incidences reported can only be interpreted as being either a person of African-American descent, white heritage or Latino in nature. ith numbers there can hardly be any quibbling back and forth, especially when the numbers are as lopsided as they are in this paper.


The answer to the question of whether culture affects the incidence of AIDS/HIV infection seems to be numerically clear, in that the statistics show that in Baltimore and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, G. (2003) HIV / AIDS among African-Americans and U.S. women: Minority and young women, Minority Nurse Newsletter, Fall Issue 2003

Elder, M.C. (1999) AIDS conference addresses African-American AIDS epidemic, New York Amsterdam News, Vol. 90, Issue 36

Ferguson, Y.O.; Quinn, S.C.; Eng, E.; Sandelowski, M.; (2006) the gender ratio imbalance and its relationship to risk of HIV / AIDS among African-American women at historically black colleges and universities, AIDS Care, Vol. 18, Issue, 4, pp. 323-331

More women infected by AIDS virus (1994) Futurist, Vol. 28, Issue 2, p. 62