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Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Syphilis is a highly contagious disease that is caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum. ("Syphilis - CDC Factsheet") This disease is spread primarily through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral; but can also be spread by extended kissing. Another form of the disease, called "congenital syphilis" occurs when a pregnant woman spreads the disease to their unborn child. This can result in birth defects, abnormalities, or even the death of the child. The bacterium Treponema pallidum can only be transmitted from an infected person to an uninfected one through sores found on the infected person's body. These sores are small, firm and round and appear on the genitals, anus, or mouth. ("Syphilis - CDC Factsheet") Because these sores are often not recognized as being caused by Syphilis, many people do not know they are infected and go on to infect others. Contrary to popular belief, this…
"Genital Herpes - CDC Factsheet." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Website. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /std/herpes/STDFact-Herpes.htm
"Syphilis - CDC Factsheet." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Website. Retrieved from
Once a person has been infected, there is no known cure for this Herpes hence one becomes a carrier for life, only suppressing the effects that it has on him.
Some of the more outstanding symptoms are blisters that are small and fluid filled around the genital area (vaginal lips, vagina, cervix, head/shaft/foreskin of the penis, scrotum, buttocks, anus or thighs). These small blisters are noted to burst leaving sores that are often quite painful. There is also the itchy feeling around the anal area and in the genital areas. The patient can also have backaches, flu-like conditions, swollen glands or fever as well as headaches. In some instances there can be tingling sensation around the anal area and the genitals even before the outbreak of Herpes, since it can be spread to other people even before the host shows any symptoms.
Upon outbreak, the first bout is the worst…
AVERT, (2011). Syphilis: Symptoms, pictures & Treatment. Retrieved December 5, 2011
CDC, (2007). Living with HIV / AIDS. Retrieved December 2, 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/resources/brochures/livingwithhiv.htm#q2
CDC, (2010). Genital Herpes - CDC Fact Sheet. Retrieved December 2, 2011 from
The symptoms of HIV infection are similar to the flu. In addition, the lymph glands swell. The virus can remain dormant for even decades, but eventually attack the immune system. AIDS results when the immune system is completely overwhelmed. Death results from problems with the immune system or AIDS-related complications. Dementia is one of these symptoms.
Syphilis: This is a bacterial disease that affects men more than it does women (by about 60%). It is cases by the bacterial Terponoma pallidum. It is treatable by penicillin (except in cases of those with allergies, who are treated by other antibiotics). The cure is simple, though several cases go unreported. The symptoms occur in three stages and can even culminate in death. The progress through the stages takes place if the disease is left untreated. The first stage involves painless sores on the genitals, lips and tongues. In the second stage, a…
However, because of their nature, it is more appropriate to study them as STIs, or sexually transmitted infections since that is the their most common form, and the manner in which they are typically spread. The distinction, particularly from a public health perspective, is that the term STI has a broader range -- meaning those who may become infected through needle sharing, sexual activity, or medical procedures; not necessarily those who develop the disease.
Studies show that approximately 1 million people are infected with an STI daily, almost half of those under the age of 30.
At least 25% of U.S. teenage girls have had a STI, 40% among those who have acknowledged they are sexually active. In the world, AIDS/HIV is the single largest cause of mortality in some countries (Sub-Saharan Africa) and one of the most hard to control and virulent STIs. In the United States, about 1.1…
STD Statistics Worldwide. (2010). Avert.org. Cited in:
The Central Research Question:
What are actually the unidentified sexual issues with the geriatric set and how can they be resolved?
In line with Peterson (2017) the subject of sex amid the aging population had gradually become insignificant, a monumental time killer and sometimes an even oxymoron. This viewpoint has altered recently. The Peterson’s (2017) book on sex therapy discusses the experiences of sex within this geriatric group.
A few of the apparent sexuality issues faced by the aged are actually; declining intimacy and decreasing sexual activity and appetite. The factors for this happen to be a decline of estrogen hormone in females and testosterone hormone in males. Kalra, Subramanyam and Pinto (2011) established that elderly females frequently lose virginal secretion and male's erectile function declines concurrently as well.
Most of the patients in this group frequently try to get guidance on methods which can activate their…
Kalra, G., Subramanyam, A., & Pinto, C. (2011). Sexuality - Desire, activity and intimacy in the elderly. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 53, 4, 300-306.
Malakouti, S., Salehi, M., Nojomi, M., Zandi, T., & Eftekhar, M. (2012). Sexual functioning among the elderly population in Tehran, Iran. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 38(4), 365–377.
Neto, J. D., Nakamura, A. S., Cortez, L. E. R., & Yamaguchi, M. U. (2015). Sexually transmitted diseases among the elderly: a systematic review. Ciencia & Saude Coletiva, 20(12), 3853–3864.
Park, H. (2013). Sexual behavior and awareness on STD in the elderly. Korean Journal of Adult Nursing, 25(1), 83–94.
Peterson, Z. D. (2017). Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Sex Therapy. Wiley.
Weiss, R. (2014). Baby Boomers Gone Wild! Seniors and STDs. Retrieved, 19 December, 2017, from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/love-and-sex-in-the-digital age/201403/baby-boomers-gone-wild-seniors-and-stds
Sexually transmitted disease [...] Chlamydia, a disease that can lead to female infertility if not treated, and as a health care worker how would you approach the problem. Chlamydia is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can lead to many problems, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which is a leading cause of infertility in women, and it is caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea or Chlamydia. Chlamydia is treatable, but it is hard to detect, and so sometimes goes untreated and leads to much more serious health concerns. Chlamydia is also one of the biggest health issues in STDs, because so many people get it each year, and so many people do not know they have it.
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease that causes inflammation and adhesions in the vagina. It can be detected with a penile swab or a urine sample, and it is…
Author not Available. "An Introduction to Sexually Transmitted Infections." National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.org. July 1999. 25 July 2005.
Nordenberg, Tamar. "Chlamydia's Quick Cure." FDA Consumer July 1999: 24.
Tomlins, Jacqueline. The Infertility Handbook: A Guide to Making Babies. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin, 2003.
From the Communicable Disease Prevention and Control Act (Section 27), venereal diseases refer to ailments like gonorrhoea, granuloma, chlamydia, chancroid, syphilis, lymphopathia venereum and inguinale (Public Health Law Research, 2014). Established by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), the California Regulations and Reportable Disease Information Exchange refer to a safe system used for automated disease diagnosis and monitoring. A number of certain conditions and diseases are authorized by State regulations and rules to be stated by laboratories and healthcare providers to the state healthcare agencies. The mission CPDH pursues is the enhancement of the efficacy of surveillance exercises as well as the quick identification of health occurrences amid public via the gathering of timely and up-to-date surveillance information across the State. This provides a platform for reporting as well as collection of health conditions in real time throughout the year. CPDHs and LHDs (or Local Health Departments) are both…
STDs: A MAJO CONTEMPOAY PUBLIC HEALTH CONCEN
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Given the advances in medicine and public health over the past several decades, most people might assume that the incidence and prevalence of sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) is declining; however, the scientific evidence suggests otherwise. ecent estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States suggest that 20 million new STD infections occur every year and cost the U.S. health care system close to $16 billion dollars annually (CDC, 2013). This is up from 12 million STD infections and $10 billion dollars annually during the mid-1990s (Zenilman, 2004). In 2011, reports of chlamydia incidence set another annual record, double from what it was just 10 years ago (CDC, 2011). To better understand the health threats facing Americans when they engage in sexual activity this report will review what is known about the most common STDs infecting…
CDC. (2013). CDC Fact Sheet: Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov /std/stats/STI-Estimates-Fact-Sheet-Feb-2013.pdf.
CDC. (2011). Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2011. Altlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from:
Evidence-Based Project Proposal
Graduate Project in Nursing
The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases has been increasing among adolescents in countries around the world, but there remains a dearth of timely and relevant studies concerning salient differences in knowledge level and attitudes between different cultures and ethnic populations. One common factor that has been consistently demonstrated in improving the effectiveness of treatments for sexually transmitted diseases is promoting adherence to treatment regimens, most especially for medications since these are used in all treatments for sexually transmitted diseases. While there have been some studies concerning various strategies for promoting adherence levels to treatment regimens, there remains a lack of studies concerning evidence-based practices that incorporate technological solutions. To this end, the proposed study intends to conduct an experiment using innovative face recognition and motion detection smartphone app to evaluate its effectiveness in promoting adherence to medication regimens among a population of adolescents…
Living with the genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) creates several problems for the herpes sufferer. This paper delves into the emotional, physical, and social stressors that a person with genital herpes is subjected to, and it suggests a research project based on several scenarios, including the male college student who has herpes and how he approaches his health issue when it comes to intimacy with a girlfriend. In other words, there are ethical issues involved. Should a man tell his girlfriend that he has herpes, or should he just be sure not to become intimate with her when he is having an outbreak? Which decision is the most ethical?
Social Science Research on Herpes and Dating - ackground
Genital herpes causes periodic physical discomfort but it also causes "recurrent emotional distress" because one never knows when an outbreak will occur, and certainly the male in this research does…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. 'What is genital herpes?' Retrieved January 16, 2015, from http://m.cdc.gov.
Dunphy, K. 2014. 'Herpes genitalis and the philosopher's stance.' Journal of Medical Ethics. Volume 12, 793-97.
Informed Consent pdf:
Sexually Active Teenagers:
The Use of Theory to Protect America's Youth
In 2003, sixty two percent of American high school seniors admitted to being sexually active. The use of condoms in the high school population has increased over the last decade; however, not all teenagers are using any form of contraception (The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005). In order to protect against unwanted pregnancies and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and infections, the public health department must influence the use of condoms to sexually active teenagers. To best assist with this task, Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen's Theories of easoned Action and Planned Behavior will be a most valuable resource in forming a thoroughly strong campaign.
In the mid- to late 1970s, Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen proposed the Theory of easoned Action, which began as solely a study of attitude. It later developed into including behavior as…
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Bozionelos, G. & Bennet, P. (1999). The theory of planned behavior as predictor of exercise:
The moderating influence of beliefs and personality variables. Retrieved May 21, 2011
Castor Std, Castor Enhanced, Castor Enhanced Minor policies Constructit E-Editors.
Economic issues simulation
Castor Collins is currently faced with the need to enhance its presence within the market and, in doing so, it sets out to attract more enrollees. Currently, the company has been solicited to make health care plan offers to two companies, namely Constructit and E-Editors. Each of the companies is characterized by its own traits, which generate the need for different offers.
E-Editors employs a total of 1,600 people, who are willing to pay an insurance of up to $4,500 per year. Constructit employs 1,000 individuals and these are willing to pay up to $4,000 per year for their health insurance plan. In terms of profiles, Constructit is more so populated by younger and healthier employees, who are however faced with higher risks of workplace accidents. In the case of E-Editors, this firm is characterized by a…
Pelvic inflammatoy disease, a citical poblem
Occuence o ecuence of pelvic inflammatoy disease o PID has been linked to STIs such as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. Patient education and simplified guidelines ae needed to develop accuate diagnosis. In ode fo changes to take place, moe eseach must be done to undestand the complex natue of the disease and the most effective and cost effective method of teatment.
This pape delves into the isk factos, diagnosis pocesses, teatment, elevant psychological issues, public health implications, patient and family education, and appopiate efeal to specialty by eviewing liteatue petinent to PID. The esults of the liteatue eview show vey little in the past was done in egads to eseaching symptoms of PID and teatment efficacy. New eseach shows lowe abdominal pain as a main indicato of PID as well as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. The data also elaboates on the isks…
references for fertility in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Fertility and Sterility, 81(5), 1344-1350.
Sweet, R.L. (2011). Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inftammatory Disease. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011(561909), 1-13.
Tepper, N.K., Steenland, M.W., Gaffield, M.E., Marchbanks, P.A., & Curtis, K.M. (2013). Retention of intrauterine devices in women who acquire pelvic inflammatory disease: a systematic review. Contraception, 5(87), 655-60. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23040135
Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:
narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…
ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site: http://www.slideshare.net/drsujnanendra/ab-cs-of-aids-prevention
CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Web site: http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/aboutDHAP.htm
HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:
ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm, through the National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov.
Evidence-based findings concerning chlamydia screening and treatment of PID contained in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature.
The additional resources cited at Appendix a will also be consulted.
3. Identify a specific group of people that are being affected by the disease/condition. The screening guidelines published by the USPSTF recommend that the following specific groups of women should be routinely screened, whether or not they are pregnant, if they:
Are sexually active and aged 25 or younger;
Have more than one sexual partner, regardless of age;
Have had an STD in the past, regardless of age; and Do not use condoms consistently and correctly, regardless of age (Screening for Chlamydial infection) a. Explain any unhealthy behaviors that may be contributing to the disease/condition. Some of the unhealthy behaviors that may contribute to the incidence of PID include (1) having multiple sex partners and…
Hubacher, D., R. Lara-Ricalde, D.J. Taylor, F. Guerra-Infante and R. Guzman-Rodriguez. (2001). "Use of copper intrauterine devices and the risk of tubal infertility among nulligravid women. New England Journal of Medicine 345: 561-67 in Mckay at 259.
Klein, Rupert and Barbel Knauper. (2003). "The Role of Cognitive Avoidance of STIs for Discussing Safer Sex Practices and for Condom Use Consistency." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 12(3-4): 137-138.
Macdonald, Noni E. And Robert Brunham. (1997). "The Effects of Undetected and Untreated Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Ectopic Pregnancy in Canada." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 6(2): 161.
Mcglynn, Elizabeth a., Eve a. Kerr, Cheryl L. Damberg and Steven M. Asch. Quality of Care for Women: A Review of Selected Clinical Conditions and Quality Indicators. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2000.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Contact Tracing
MG is a 27-year-old graduate student, recently married, who comes into the student health clinic for a routine pelvic exam and Pap smear. During the course of the exam, the gynecology resident performing the exam obtains the Pap smear, but also obtains cervical cultures for gonorrhea and chlamydia. The examination concludes uneventfully. Several weeks later, MG receives a postcard indicating that the Pap smear was normal, with no evidence of dysplasia, but that the cervical culture for gonorrhea was positive. The card instructs her to come into the clinic to discuss treatment, and that "public health authorities" have been notified for contact tracing, which refers to the identification and diagnosis of sexual partners, as required by law. The young woman is terrified that her husband will be contacted. Is contact tracing ethically justified?
While it is definitely not a good thing that…
Amir-Singh, J., Upshur, R., & Padayatchi, N. (2007). XDR-TB in South Africa: No Time for Denial or Complacency. Plos Med, 4(1), e50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040050
Armbruster, B., & Brandea, M. (2007). Contact tracing to control infectious disease: when enough is enough. Health Care Management Science, 10(4), 341. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428220/
Boskey, E. (2016). Contact tracing really is an important thing to participate in.. About.com Health. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from http://std.about.com/od/prevention/f/contacttracing.htm
McKay, B. (2016). Dangerous TB Patient Detained on U.S. Border. WSJ. Retrieved 20 March 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323978104578332461533970412
exually Transmitted Diseases in Developing Countries
exually transmitted diseases (TD's) have been a problem for doctors worldwide and governments around the globe for many years.
Pre-screening, diagnosis, and treatment programs are required to stop the spread of TDs.
A host of sexually transmitted diseases have, unfortunately, exploded in large numbers in the continent of Africa. These TD's include the HIV virus and the HPV virus, or human papillomavirus. HPV causes cervical cancer, and the HIV virus causes AID (auto-immune deficiency syndrome).
It is estimated that there are 100 million cases of AID worldwide, and that AID is now claiming more lives than all wars and natural disasters around the world.
In Africa, the problem is quite tremendous.
In outh Africa alone, there are 4.7 million people infected with the AID virus. outh Africa is the world's country with the largest infected population.
adly, it is estimated that worldwide, less than…
See.American Social Health Association, http://www.asha.com/programs/ccpp.html
See also Qualitative Methods, Cornell. Edu. Located at http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/kb/qualmeth.htm.
USDA Information Quality Guidelines for Statistical Information, located at http://www.ocio.usda.gov/irm/qi_guide/stats.html . Seealso Qualitative Methods, Cornell. Edu. Located at http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/kb/qualmeth.htm.
Women and AIDS in New York City:
Hidden Cases, Hidden Problems
Ask most people what group of people you think of when you think of AIDS, and most people will name gay men. While it's undeniable that the AIDS epidemic was first noticed among gay men, AIDS has become an equal opportunity illness, and currently women represent the fastest growing sector of people with HIV / AIDS in the United States. This fact is true in New York City as well.
The growth in the rate of HIV / AIDS among women in New York City is a growing concern for a variety of reasons. Worse than the increase in infection among women is the death rate. Although overall, the death rate from AIDS has dropped significantly, the death rate for women with AIDS is significantly higher than that of men.
How widespread is the problem?
A look at recent…
Author not available. Fall, 1998. "The Children Left Behind. Harvard AIDS Institute. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/hai
Author not available. "It Helps To Know." Brooklyn AIDS Task Force, Inc. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.batf.net/ .
Cadman, Jill. Spring 1998. "Strategies for Interrupting Mother-to-Child Transmission." CRIA Update: Vol. 7, No. 2. Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.criany.org/treatment/treatment_edu_springupdate1998.html
Center for Disease Control. "CDC: National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention." Divisions of HIV / AIDS Prevention." Accessed via the Internet 10/13/02. http://www.cdcnpin.org/topic/stats.htm .
The research results will demonstrate that alcoholism is a disease and support this notion with overwhelming evidence.
In short, alcoholism is a major problem for all countries across the world. Alcoholism destroys lives and tears many families apart. The purpose of this argumentative research paper is to demonstrate with supporting evidence that alcoholism is a disease and not a social stigma.
Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. eb. 9 June 2011.
Organization, orld Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. eb. 10 June 2011.
Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.
Organization, World Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 10 June 2011.
"Survey: people still unsure whether alcoholism is disease or moral weakness." Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly 17.40 (2005): 1-5. Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.
STD Testing: Community Health Outreach
When it comes to health care in the United States, it is often those most in need that find themselves somewhat neglected and under serviced. Nonetheless, state programs and coalitions do make an effort to prevent any person, regardless of economic status or other differentiating factors, from going without the care that he or she needs. The main challenge is to make certain populations aware of programs and clinics that are available to provide for their care. As a result of low socio-economic status, these populations are often not only underserved, but also unaware of the fact that they can do something about their health status, especially when it comes to issues such as STIs. In New Jersey and Camden City specifically, statistics show that, in addition to the worsening effects of STIs and other related conditions, the population tends to neglect seeking help, mainly…
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services. (2013, Jun.). New Jersey Part B Comprehensive Plan. Rutgers. Retrieved from: http://hpcpsdi.rutgers.edu/
State of New Jersey Department of Health (2015). Division of HIV, STD, and TB Services -- Sexually Transmitted Diseases Program Reported Sexually Transmitted Diseases Morbidity in Camden County by Municipality for Report Year 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.state.nj.us/health/std/stdstats/stdstats2012/camden.pdf
West, B. (2014, Oct.) Public Health Coalitions in South Jersey. Rutgers University, Camden. Retrieved from: http://wrand.rutgers.edu/files/FINAL-SJ-PublicHealthCoalitions.pdf
Conditions Associated ith a Lack of Exercise/Physical Activity
Health is one of the most important things in people's lives, but individuals often fail to focus on this aspect because they concentrate on diverse tasks that they wrongly consider to be more important. As a consequence, many end up suffering greatly as a result of their irresponsible behavior. In addition to causing significant health problems in people's lives, sedentary living is also responsible for costing society billions of dollars every year. The fact that the masses often trick themselves into thinking that they are eventually going to start exercising is extremely worrying and leads to numerous health problems.
Figures associated with sedentary living are alarming, but this is still not enough to influence some people in changing their attitudes concerning the concept. On a yearly basis, "approximately 250,000 people die prematurely because they are inactive" (Corbin & Lindsay 43). Even with…
Corbin, Charles B., and Lindsay, Ruth, "Fitness For Life," (Human Kinetics, 01.06.2006)
Evans, Lisa, "Obesity in England: why is it increasing?," Retrieved October 30, 2012, from the Guardian Website: http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2012/feb/23/obesity-problem-increasing
Genuis, Stephen J., and Genuis Shelagh K., "Managing the sexually transmitted disease pandemic: A time for reevaluation," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2004) 191, 1103-12
"Half of UK obese by 2030'," Retrieved October 30, 2012, from the NHS Website: http://www.nhs.uk/news/2011/08August/Pages/half-of-uk-predicted-to-be-obese-by-2030.aspx
C. Mayor Adrian Fenty made HIV / AIDS the most important public health priority (Greenberg et al., 2009). Funding from the CDC allowed for a partnership between the D.C. Department of Health's HIV / AIDS Administration and the George Washington University School of Public Health and Healthy Services, which was responsible for the Epidemiology Annual eport for 2007 -- the first to be published for D.C. since 2002 (Greenberg et al., 2009). The Department of Health also initiated a routine HIV screening campaign to help provide testing resources and lower stigma, titled "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" (Greenberg et al., 2009).
Efforts to address the epidemic in D.C. included a combination of increased resource availability and educational services as offered by public health departments. The "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" campaign provided approximately 73,000 tests in 2008, which was a 70% testing increase from…
Brown, M., & Henriquez, E. (2008). Socio-demographic predictors of attitudes towards gays and lesbians. Individual Differences Research, 6(3), 193-202.
CDC HIV Fact sheet. (2011, November 07). HIV in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm
CDC Fact sheet. (2011, September). HIV and AIDS among gay and bisexual men. Retrieved from
Cutaneous Candidiasis: A Case Study
This case study involves a 35-year-old woman diagnosed with candidiasis of the inner thighs. The goal of this report is to provide the patient with information about the most likely cause of her condition and how best to resolve the infection. In order to accomplish this goal a review of Candida pathogenesis will be presented first.
Members of the Candida genus, in particular C. albicans, can be detected in the oral cavities of 75% of the general population (Mayer, Wilson, & Hube, 2013). This mostly commensal microbe colonizes oral, vaginal, gastrointestinal, anal, and cutanous locations (az-Pasteur, Ullmann, & Berdicevsky, 2011). Candida species are commensal in health people and rarely cause any problems, but in persons who suffer from mild medical conditions with impaired immunity the commensal relationship can quickly evaporate and turn pathogenic (Mayer, Wilson, & Hube, 2013). For example, Candida is…
Mansur, A.T., Aydingoz, I.E., & Artunkal, S. (2012). Facial Candida foliculitis: Possible role of sexual contact. Mycoses, 55, e20-e22. Doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.2011.02075.x.
Mayer, F.L., Wilson, D., & Hube, B. (2013). Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms. Virulence, 4(2), 119-128.
Raz-Pasteur, A., Ullmann, Y., & Berdicevsky, I. (2011). The pathogenesis of Candida infections in a human skin model: Scanning electron microscope observations. International Scholarly Research Network, 2011, 1-6. Doi: 10.5402/2011/150642.
Scheinfeld, N.S. (2004). Obesity and dermatology. Clinics in Dermatology, 22, 303-309.
Treatment for Trichomoniasis conventionally takes the form of prescription drugs and antibiotics such metronidazole. The drug is taken orally. Another related drug used in the treatment of disease is tinidazole. In cases where the infected individual is allergic to these drugs "...Topical medicines, or medicines applied to the skin, may be used..." (Trichomoniasis: womenshealth.gov) These medicines usually only alleviate the symptoms. Another important aspect of treatment is hat both partners are usually examined and treated in cases of the disease. The aim is to eliminate the further spread of the parasite. Significantly, the disease can re-occur. "Having Trichomoniasis once does not protect a person from getting it again. Following successful treatment, people can still be susceptible to re-infection" (Trichomoniasis - CDC Fact Sheet).
Prevention is always better than cure and this applies particularly to this disease. Therefore, the most obvious way of preventing the transmission of this disease is through…
Infections: Trichomoniasis. Retrieved May 22, at http://www.kidshealth.org/parent/infections/std/trichomoniasis.html
Trichomoniasis - CDC Fact Sheet. Retrieved May 22, at http://www.cdc.gov /std/Trichomonas/STDFact-Trichomoniasis.htm#WhatIs
Trichomoniasis: womenshealth.gov. Retrieved May 22, at http://www.4woman.gov/faq/stdtrich.htm
Wilkerson R.G. Trichomoniasis. Retrieved May 22, at http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic613.htm
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues
Reproductive Tract Diseases for human females are typically focused in the upper reproductive tract or the lower reproductive tract. The upper tract includes the fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus, while the lower reproductive tract focuses on the vagina, cervix and vulva. There are three major types of infections: endogenous, iatrogenic and sexually transmitted diseases. Endogenous diseases arise from internal cellular structures and may be bacterial, viral or genetic, usually the most common and arise from an overgrowth of organisms that are already present in the vagina; iatrogenic diseases are the result of medical or surgical treatment, and sexually transmitted diseases occur between humans as a result of sexual behavior. In addition to infections, there are congenital abnormalities, cancers and functional problems. Each infection has its own specific cause and symptoms; caused by bacteria, virus, fungi or other organisms. Indeed, some are easily treatable and cured,…
Azim, P., et al. (2011). Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Isra Medical Journal, 3(3). Retrieved November 2013, from http://184.108.40.206/Isra%20Medical%20Journal%20Volume-III%20Issue-III.pdf#page=6
Davidson, B., et al. (2012). Abnormal Uterine Bleeding During the Reproductive Years. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 57(3), 248-54.
Fraser, I., et al. (2011). The FIGO Recommendations on Terminologies and Definitions for Normal and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 29(5), 383-90.
Gray, S. (2013). Menstural Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 34(1), 6-18.
Psychological stress may have been causing it, but the recurrence itself can, of course, result to more stress to the infected person. There have been numbers of studies that show that recurrences of genital herpes are related with psychological morbidity, and the extent of which seems to be directly related to the frequency of recurrences (Taboulet, et.al., 1999). This is just an expected outcome for any person who will be diagnosed with genital herpes will not only worry about how to cure or prevent the occurrence of another outbreak, but will also worry or think about how others might view him/her as an infected person. A person with the genital virus will be feared by the opposite sex in the same manner that the infected person will of course tend to shy away from getting into another intimate relationship. As it is pointed out, the virus will never leave the…
American Social Health Association. (1998), Sexually Transmitted Diseases in America: How Many Cases and at What Cost? Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.
Fleming DT, et al. (1997), Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 in the United States, 1976 to 1994. NEJM; 337:1105-11.
Gandhi, M. (February 2006), Division of Infectious Diseases, VeriMed Healthcare Network UCSF, San Francisco, CA.
Genital Herpes," (May 2005), Division of STD Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/genital-herpes/DS00179/DSECTION=8
These diseases may be aggravated or deteriorated because of indulgence in sexual life as well. In severe cases, indulgence in sexual life even may cause vital crises such as cerebral bleeding and myocardiac infarction. Accordingly, sexual life should be moderated during the daily health care and rehabilitation. In severe cases, sexual life should be stopped for the time being (Syphilis, n.d.).
There are several tests that can be used to for Syphilis. These include: Syphilis Serum Test, the venereal diseases research laboratory test (VDL test), unheated serum reagin test (US test), rapid plasma reagin card test (P test), and cardiophospholipid is used as an antigen to examine the anti-cardiophospholipid antibody in serum. This test is used for screening examination. In spirochete antigen test, such as fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption test (FTA-ABS test), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (TPHA), usually the diagnosis of syphilis can be confirmed by positive result in the spirochete…
Introduction to TCM. (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2010, from Traditional Chinese Medicine
Page Web site: http://www.tcmpage.com/
Kent, Molly E. And Romanelli, Frank. (2008). Reexamining Syphilis: An Update on Epidemiology, Clinical Manifestations, and Management. Retrieved January 27, 2010,
from Medscape Web site: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/571812
Chlamydia is the most common and frequently occurring sexually transmitted disease in the United States. According to a recent CDC report there are more than 2.8 million persons infected every year. [CDC] The disease is caused by a bacterium known as Chlamydia trachomatis which is also found to exist as 15 different serotypes. The estimated annual treatment costs for Chlamydia is around $2 billion. The asymptotic nature of the disease presents a big problem in the early diagnosis and a substantial number of infected persons are unaware of their condition. Though totally curable, this 'silent disease' can cause trachoma, infertility, tubal pregnancy and other urinogenital disorders if left untreated. A brief overview of the disease, treatment options and preventive strategies would give a better insight of this medical condition.
Chlamydia trachomatis (Life Cycle)
Chlamydia trachomatis is a parasitic bacterium that cannot produce its own ATP and hence depends…
1) Andrea DeMets, "Chlamydia Trachomatis," Accessed on 5th November 2004,
2) CDC, "Chlamydia Fact Sheet," Accessed on 5th November,
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes warts. HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). It belongs to the Papovaviridae family. HPV is a small oncogenic DNA virus, which infects epithelial cells of skin and mucous membranes. The epithelial surfaces include all areas covered by skin and/or mucous membranes of the mouth, genital and anus (the area that poop comes out of). A definitive diagnosis of HPV infection depends on the detection of nucleic acids (DNA or NA) or proteins.
HPV is a relatively small, non-enveloped virus, and 55 nm in diameter. It has an icosahedral capsid composed of 72 capsomers, which contain at least two capsid proteins, L1 and L2. Each capsomer is a pentamer of the major capsid protein, L1. Each virion capsid contains several copies (about 12 per virion) of the minor capsid protein, L2. The virus is said to somewhat…
Anderson, N. And Pearsall, R. (2004). Microbiology a human Perspective. New York: Mc-Graw Hill
Burd, E. (2003) Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer -- Burd 16 (1): 1 -- Clinical
Microbiology Reviews [Online]. [Accessed 25th April 2005]. Available from World Wide
3 Strategies of CDC
As mentioned in the introduction, the Centers for Disease Control and prevention has developed and implemented six sets of strategies as follows:
Health Impact Focus - the alignment of CDC's employees, objectives, strategies, investments and performances in order to maximize the CDC's beneficial effects upon public health
Customer Centricity - Like any other corporation, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is focused on offering those products and services required and needed by the population in order to improve and preserve their health
Public Health esearch - the CDC funds and conducts numerous researches aimed at identifying new treatments and any other issues which would positively affect the public health
Leadership - the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention possesses the best skilled and qualified employees, guided by the most committed managers and supported by strategic partners, all to improve the health system within the United…
Etheridge, E.W., 1994, Sentinel for Health: A History of the Centers for Disease Control, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Volume 24, Number 4
Friede, a. And O'Carroll, P.O., 1996, CDC and ATSDR Electronic Information Resources for Health Officers, Journal of Environmental Health, Volume 59
1994, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Emerging Infectious Disease Threats, Population and Development Review, Number 13
1999, CDC on Infectious Diseases in the United States: 1990-1999, Population and Development Review, Volume 25, Number 3
The term conjunctivitis refers to any inflammatory condition of the membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the exposed surface of the sclera, and is the most common cause of "red eye" or "pink eye" (Abbott pp). Most often the etiology can be determined by a careful history and an ocular examination, however, culture is sometimes necessary to establish the diagnosis or to guide therapy (Abbott pp). The most common causes of conjunctivitis are bacteria and viruses (Abbott pp). hen severe, bilateral, purulent conjunctivitis is present in a sexually active adult or in a neonate three to five days postpartum, then Neisseria infection should be suspected (Abbott pp). Conjunctivitis that is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae requires aggressive antibiotic therapy, however, conjunctivitis due to other bacteria is usually self-limited (Abbott pp). Chronic conjunctivitis is most often associated with blepharitis, recurrent styes or meibomianitis, and treatment requires good…
Kupecz, Deborah. "Keeping up with recent ophthalmic drug approvals."
The Nurse Practitioner; 4/1/2001; pp.
Conjunctivitis. National Institutes of Health
Gay Men Transmitting HIV
When HIV and AIDS first came to prominence in the 1980's, it was commonly assumed and projected that HIV / AIDS was an issue mostly with gay men. Of course, this has turned out not to be the case as people of all genders, sexualities and so forth are catching and spreading HIV and/or AIDS every day. However, it is most definitely a problem with gay men and that issues persists to this very day. Indeed, that will be focus of this report. Topics that will be discussed will be current statistics, current studies and evidence, current social determinants, the challenges of healthcare delivery as it relates to this issue and the construct diagnoses that will need to be looped into this issue. While the aggregate level of knowledge and education is spreading through all demographics, there are still some lagging indicators and behaviors that are…
CDC,. (2015). CDC - Stigma and Discrimination - Gay and Bisexual Men's Health.
CDC.gov. Retrieved 11 March 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov /msmhealth/stigma-and-discrimination.htm
Halkitis, P. (2015). Discrimination and homophobia fuel the HIV epidemic in gay and bisexual men. http://www.apa.org. Retrieved 11 March 2015, from http://www.apa.org/pi/aids/resources/exchange/2012/04/discrimination-homophobia.aspx
HealthyPeople,. (2015). Social Determinants of Health | Healthy People 2020.
" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)
There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…
Bawaskar H.S. Non- allopathic doctors form the backbone of rural health.
Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/044ed112.html
Death by Modern Medicine. Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.ashtreepublishing.com/bookshop/carolyn-dean.php
Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved March 6, 2007, at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010938986
NEDSS: What do you think would be three hurdles to successful implementation (at CDC and in the state of Mississippi)?
"The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) is a secure online framework that allows healthcare professionals and government agencies to communicate about disease patterns and coordinate national response to outbreaks…. The CDC mandates that hospitals, clinics and state health agencies all adopt NEDSS standards so that the speed, accuracy, standardization and viability of data about diseases are improved" (National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS, 2012, Tech Target). The goal of NEDSS is seamless integration and coordination between state and federal authorities when combatting sudden epidemics (such as H1N1) or long-standing chronic diseases that must be addressed over time, such as obesity.
One problem with implementing such a system "is the delay experienced from incident awareness, through laboratory testing and ultimately to public health investigation" (Tracking silent killers, 2012, Center for…
Centers for Disease Control (2011). National electronic disease surveillance system: NEDSS
overview. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /phin/tools/NEDSS/
Mississippi State Department of Health. (2004). State Health Plan FY- 2004: Priority Needs.
Retrieved from: http://msdh.ms.gov/msdhsite/index.cfm/19,835,184,210,pdf/SectionA-Chapter4-PriorityNeeds.pdf
Kaplan, M.S., Crespo, C.J., Huguet, N. & Marks, G. (2009). Ethnic/Racial Homogeneity Sexually ransmitted Disease: A Study 77 Chicago Community Areas. Sexually ransmitted Diseases 32(2): 108-111.
Knowledge of SDs around the world
Kaplan, M.S., Crespo, C.J., Huguet, N. & Marks, G. (2009). Ethnic/racial homogeneity and Sexually-transmitted disease: A study of 77 Chicago community areas. Sexually ransmitted Diseases 32(2): 108-111.
he article "Ethnic/racial homogeneity and sexually-transmitted disease: A study of 77 Chicago community areas" by Kaplan (et al. 2009) examined the association between SDs, race, and poverty in America. Americans of color have historically manifested higher rates of SDs. o shed further light upon this phenomenon, the researchers studied 77 enclosed neighborhoods in Chicago. he findings were that communities that were majority African-American (60% or more of residents) had higher rates of chlamydia and gonorrhea than communities that were majority Hispanic, even when other influential socio-demographic variables were controlled. Overall, regardless…
The article "Apprentices' knowledge and attitudes about sexually transmitted disease" by Oncel (2012) was a study of 'apprentices' in Turkey, or students who did not go on to higher education but instead entered a trade (apprenticeship) school. An in-class questionnaire was used to determine attitudes about STDs. While 60.9% of the apprentices recognized the name of at least one STDs, 83.6% of the participants did not know about the symptoms of any STDs and only 28.1% were knowledgeable about effective protection methods. A significant majority believed incorrect information about STDs, such as the idea that healthy-looking people could not have an STD (51.4% of the tested population). Chi-square and regression models were used to assess the data. Turkey is a conservative Muslim country and the results are troubling regarding the state of knowledge of STDs amongst young people.
Which research studies seems to yield the most meaningful and valid results, and which seems to be the weakest or most questionable
The most comprehensive study was that of Adebowale (2013), using large scale numbers based upon statistical analysis of the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. However, the idea that poverty and ignorance increases one's risk of STDs is not a novel one, and no data was used to determine if the same predictors were true of males, and how male attitudes towards condom use might differ amongst various socio-economic groups, which could affect public education campaigns: if men are unwilling to use condoms, focusing on educating women might be less effective. The Kaplan (et al. 2009) study of Chicago residents was valuable in its contrast of African-American and Latino populations of similar demographic characteristics in terms of STD rates, although for all persons regardless of race, poverty and lower education levels were strongly associated with higher rates of STDs. Although it took the form of a relatively narrowly-based questionnaire, the Oncel (2012) offers interesting preliminary research about a failure to educate the majority of working-class Turkish youths about STDs. More demographic data on the participants would have been helpful to fully contextualize the results. Given that men, persons specializing in hygiene education, and graduates from STD education programs had higher rates of accurate knowledge, this suggests that religious and cultural attitudes may impede the dissemination of accurate information.
Postpartum Sexually Transmitted Disease Refining Our Understanding of the Population at Risk Yale University, UMI Dissertations, 2011, 1505365.
The researchers developed a study to assess STD incidence during and after pregnancy and to determine risk factors associated with postpartum STD infections among mothers in their teens and early 20s. For this analysis, they included 848 women who were less than 24 weeks pregnant, ages 14 to 25. A total of 27.1% of participants were diagnosed with an STD within one year postpartum. Among those who were diagnosed with an STD during pregnancy, 43.4% also contracted an STD during the postpartum period. By comparison, 18.7% of participants with no history of infection and 24% of women who had a history of STDs before pregnancy contracted one postpartum.
heeler (2011) presents the best research for my specific topic. My hypothesis suggests that high rates of postpartum STI infections may be reduced using…
Wheeler (2011) presents the best research for my specific topic. My hypothesis suggests that high rates of postpartum STI infections may be reduced using pregnancy as window of prevention. This article gives some solid facts to base my research upon. The conclusions in this article give clear relationships to pertinent information that is needed to build my case.
The other two articles contain some useful information, however there are a significant number of confounding variables within each that tends to muddy my argument and stretches the definition of correlation. One such variable is the BMI index. Although this is an important indicator of STIs, it does not directly relate to pregnancy as an opportunity to prevent.
During these SLP assignments I realized how precise and focused research can be. General ideas are mostly not present in these research articles as detail and statistical analysis serve as more persuasive evidence. I have also learned that inference is very important in the research process, as adding one's own take on the subject is necessary to truly grasp the knowledge presented within the literature.
Life Cycle of Chlamydia Trachomatis in the Human Body
Infection & Symptoms
Prevention of Chlamydia Infection
Chlamydia trachomatis, a bacterium, has a tendency to infect the columnar epithelium of the cervix, the urethra, and the rectum. Apart from genital areas the bacteria can affect and infect other areas of the body like the lungs and the eyes. This bacterium is one of the prime sources of most of the sexually transmitted diseases. There are practically no prior symptoms of infection by this bacterium (Breguet, 2007). However several complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy in women can occur if the infection if left untreated for a long time. Men can also develop disease complications like epididymitis and orchitis from this bacterium.
Treatment for the uncomplicated state of this infection is fairly simple and should include simple antibiotics like azithromycin or doxycycline.…
Breguet, A. (2007). Chlamydia. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.
Landers, D., Wiesenfeld, H., Phillip Heine, R., Krohn, M., & Hillier, S. (2004). Predictive value of the clinical diagnosis of lower genital tract infection in women. American Journal Of Obstetrics And Gynecology, 190(4), 1004-1008. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2004.02.015
Marrazzo, J., & Cates, W. (2011). Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV Infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 53(suppl 3), S64-S78. doi:10.1093/cid/cir695
Miller, W. (2004). Prevalence of Chlamydial and Gonococcal Infections Among Young Adults in the United States. JAMA, 291(18), 2229. doi:10.1001/jama.291.18.2229
HIV testing/Screening be made part of Primary Prevention?
This analysis backs up research on behavioral interventions that lower HIV transmission. The aim of the analysis are to reinforce interdisciplinary research that develops, implements, and evaluates practically and theoretically based interventions intended to prevent HIV transmission. This knowledge needs to progress understanding of the interaction between psychological, behavioral, biological and social factors that influence the acquirement of HIV in our populations. The analysis supports research that acts as the base for an empirically-based public health policy plan to prevent several new HIV infections as possible. Similarly, ASPQ supports basic prevention and intervention research that tackle multiple levels factors that facilitate or obstruct lowering of HIV risk.
Immense progress have been made over the ancient times decade in behavioral research on how to assist people prevent contracting HIV infections (primary prevention) and how to reduce or alleviate unfavorable consequences among individuals…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). HIV / AIDS Surveillance Report. Vol. 19. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
CDC (2004). Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States
HIV / AIDS, Surveillance Report 2005; 16:16 -- 45.
CDC. (2001) Revised recommendations for HIV screening of pregnant women. MMWR; 50(No. RR-19):63 -- 85.
WA 2 social sciences
Genital herpes affliction owing to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), causes ill health and even death across the globe. Although in most cases symptoms are not found, the possibility of severe clinical manifestations cannot be ruled out, specifically in people living in inhospitable and unhygienic conditions. People additionally have a scope of mental responses to the determination; for a few, stresses about telling accomplices and the effect on their sexuality are very critical, especially immediately after the revelation. Moreover, genital herpes can be prenatally transferred and cause life-debilitating neonatal HSV contamination. In addition, it proffers the danger of acquiring HIV two to three-fold and additionally HIV transmission in those dually afflicted. This level of danger of ailment makes counteractive action and treatment of genital herpes disease very important globally. Be that as it may, this has still been…
Ashley, R.L., & Wald, A. (1999). Genital herpes: review of the epidemic and potential use of type-specific serology. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12(1), 1-8.
Genital Herpes and Self-Image (2001).
HA Weiss, SL Thomas, SK Munabi, and RJ Hayes. (2006). Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sex Transm Infect; 82(2): 101 -- 110.
Hofstetter, A. Rosenthal, S. Stanberry, L (2014). Current Thinking on Genital Herpes. Retrieved January 26, 2015, from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/820140
Epidemiology of HIV
Epidemiology & Communicable Disease
Description of HIV
HIV is short for human immunodeficiency virus, and it the viral infection that can lead to AIDS or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The HIV virus remains in the body for life as the human body cannot rid itself of the virus; this is true even if the overt symptoms of HIV are absent ("CDC," 2015). The HIV virus spreads through body fluids, affecting specific cells (CD4 or T cells) associated with the immune system ("CDC," 2015). HIV destroys many CD4 cells over time to a degree that compromises the body's overall immune system leaving it incapable of fighting off infections and disease: this end stage of HIV infection is referred to as AIDS ("CDC," 2015). The CD4 cell count is fundamental to monitoring people living with HIV ("CDC," 2015).
HIV progresses through several stages with the first stage often -- but…
Osmond, DH (2003, March). Epidemiology of HIV / AIDS in the United States. HIV InSite Knowledge Base Chapter, University of California at San Francisco. Retreived from http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kb-01-03 #S2X
____. (2013). Global Health Observatory (GHO) Data. World Health Organization (WHO). Retreived from http://www.who.int/gho/hiv/en/
____. (2012). Epidemiology of HIV Infection through 2012. National Center for HIV / AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD & TB Prevention. Division of HIV / AIDS Prevention. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved from ____. (2015). HIV 101. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Retreived from http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/basics/index.html
In this regard, Hackl and her colleagues emphasize, "Women who share their HIV or AIDS diagnosis with family or friends risk stigmatization (including reactions of fear, shock, and blame), isolation (as a result of others' fears of casual transmission and the possibility of desertion), and potential loss of self-esteem (lack of confidence and self-blame)" (p. 53).
The alternative to sharing their diagnosis is also not viable: "Keeping the diagnosis of HIV a secret may hinder a woman's ability to develop effective coping strategies and leave her vulnerable to fear, anger, and depression. These problems may worsen as the progression of HIV disease creates significant changes in behavior, attitudes, and physical appearance" (Hackl et al., p. 54). As osenberg emphasizes, though, "Medical experts know that those who get tested and counseled reduce risky sexual behaviors. Treatment also reduces the stigma of AIDS. One of the biggest reasons people don't change their…
Blumberg, S.J., Osborn, M.L., Larry, C. & Olson, L. (2003). The impact of touch-tone data entry on reports of HIV and STD risk behaviors in telephone interviews. The Journal of Sex Research, 40(2), 121.
Hak-Su, K. (2004, March-May). Why we must defeat HIV / AIDS. UN Chronicle, 41(1), 51.
Hackl, K.L., Somlai, a.M., Kelly, J.A. & Kalichman, S.C. (1997). Women living with HIV / AIDS: The dual challenge of being a patient and caregiver. Health and Social Work, 22(1), 53.
HIV / AIDS and women. (2008). U.S. Centers for Disease Control. [Online]. Available: http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/topics/women/index.htm.
AIDS on South African Development
Today, the chromium, platinum, gold and diamond mining sectors provide the largest percentage of export revenues for South Africa. One of the inevitable consequences of these natural resource extraction industries is the proliferation of mining camps that house the migrant domestic and foreign workers from neighboring countries that support the industry. Although conditions vary, most mining camps are squalid affairs that lack running water, electricity or the other basic amenities of modern life that most people take for granted. These harsh living conditions, combined with the loneliness that results from being forced to spend long periods of time away from family and friends, create an ideal environment for the spread of communicable diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV / AIDS). This paper provides a review of the related primary and secondary literature concerning mining camps and their role in the spread…
Boe, Hans-Petter and Crush, Jonathan. HIV / AIDS, Population Mobility and Migration in Southern Africa: Defining a Research and Policy Agenda. Pretoria: Regional HIV / AIDS
Programme for Southern Africa of the Netherlands' Embassy in Pretoria, 2005.
Lurie, M. et al. (1999). "Circular Migration and Sexual Networking in Rural KwaZulu-Natal:
Implications for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Health
The second session had camera instruction. The third session had each participant given a camera and they were instructed to "(t)ake pictures of the challenges and solution in addressing HIV and AIDS" (Mitchell et al., 2005). The fourth session saw the photos developed and asked small groups to compare and contrast their pictures by creating posters. The authors draw on previous research on photo-voice techniques, as well as memory and photography and self-representation through photography.
In the end, the authors' qualitative research concluded that although many projects use photography to give voice to participants, it is especially significant in the giving a voice to community health workers and teachers in rural South African communities. In these remote areas, the communities do not have to wait for researchers to provide them answers, instead they are able to take action themselves and give a visible face to the HIV and AIDS plight…
Origin of HIV
The mystery of HIV and its origins is one that cannot be easily solved. In the thirty-odd years which have passed since the official recognition of AIDS by the CDC and the subsequent search for its cause, various theories have been floated regarding its nature, its development, its ability to adapt, our ability to combat it, and -- most importantly for some -- its origin. How did the virus come into being? Viruses are known for altering over time and according to circumstances. They have a way of "bending" in order to make due -- of manipulating themselves in such a way so as to survive. This is no less true for HIV than for influenza. Just as variants of influenza appear each year to wreak havoc on the human population, variant-strains of HIV continue to be discovered, suggesting that the virus is still developing, still finding…
Apetrei, C., et al. (2005) 'Molecular epidemiology of simian immunodeficiency virus
SIVsm in U.S. primate centers unravels the origin of SIVmac and SIVstm', J Virol, 79(14):8991-9005.
Clavel, F., et al. (1986) 'Isolation of a new human retrovirus from West African patients
with AIDS', Science, 233(4761):343-346.
prevent AIDS in the Gay community
In all culture sex among men is present. The receptive companion is at the risk of carrying a HIV transmission if involved in anal sex and when unshielded. In some parts of the world the HIV transmission is mainly because of the sex among men, while in some other areas other ways of transmission is also possible. But almost everywhere sex amongst men is the major and regular cause for this spate. It should not be overlooked. These sex-actions are done only by option. The occurrence of sex between male-to-male is frequent in the establishments in which male are forced to spend longer periods in full male company like the military, prisons and men-only educational organizations. Antagonism and misunderstandings about sex among men have lead to insufficient protection procedures in many countries.
Defective and lack of epidemiological facts is the barrier for HIV deterrence…
Altman, Lawrence K. "Many Gay Men in U.S. Unaware They Have H.I.V., Study Finds" The New York Times, July 7, 2002, A7
Carrns, Ann "HIV Study Shows 44% Infection Rate for Young Gay Men." Wall Street journal 1January2001:B2.
Coyle, Adrian. "Lesbian and Gay Psychology; New Perspectives." Oxford, UK. Maiden, MA, Bps Blackwell, 2002, p.23
Diaz, Johnny. Study: "Young gays lax about safe sex" Miami Herald - Sunday, June 10, 2001,p6
prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…
1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.
3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance. http://www.cdc.gov /drugresistance/actionplan/html/
4. Jones RN, Pfaller MA (1998). Bacterial resistance: a worldwide problem. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Jun;31(2):379-88.
(American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
IV. Side Effects of Sildenafil
Side effects of taking Sildenafil include those as follows:
headache heartburn diarrhea flushing (feeling of warmth)
nosebleeds difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep numbness, burning, or tingling in the arms, hands, feet, or legs muscle aches changes in color vision (seeing a blue tinge on objects or having difficulty telling the difference between blue and green)
sensitivity to light (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009 )
Serious side effects are the following and occurrence of this requires immediate notification of the physician:
sudden severe loss of vision (see below for more information)
blurred vision sudden decrease or loss of hearing ringing in ears
erection that is painful or lasts longer than 4 hours dizziness or lightheadedness fainting chest pain worsening shortness of breath itching or burning during urination rash (American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. 2009…
Sildenafil (2009) AHFS Consumer Medication Information. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Online available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=meds&log$=drug_bottom_one&part=a699015
Swearingen, S. And Klausner, J. (2009) Sildenafil Use, Sexual Risk Behavior, and Risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases including HIV infection. The American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 118, Issue 6. Online available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002934305000860
Rosenfeld, Dana and Faircloth, Christopher a. (2006) Medicalized Masculinities. Temple University Press 2006. Online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=8rXT7-EL0jcC&dq=SEXUAL+ENHANCEMENT:+viagra,+levitra+and+cialis&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Loe, Meika (2004) the Rise of Viagra: How the Little Blue Pill Changed Sex in America. NYR Press 2004. Online available at: http://books.google.com/books?id=h25piGXAHukC&dq=SEXUAL+ENHANCEMENT:+viagra,+levitra+and+cialis&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
" hile it is true that some plane crashes cannot be prevented, there are measures that can be taken to ensure that when a crash does occur, the proper help gets to the scene in time.
The first secondary measure for a plane crash is "Foster informed, empowered individuals and communities." hether the witness of a crash is a doctor or a hospital secretary, everyone can play a role in assisting at the scene. If nothing else, the person can call authorities and report the crash. For hospital staff, education in basic first-aid is standard at most hospitals and this includes sufficient knowledge to aid a victim in stopping bleeding or splinting a leg.
The second measure is "Develop and maintain the workforce needed for national health security." ith most hospitals understaffed, there is a real need for more nurses in the event of an emergency. Otherwise, a nearby hospital…
Baker S, Brady J, Shanahan D, Guohua L (2009). Aviation-Related Injury Morbidity and Mortality: Data from U.S. Health Information Systems. Aviat Space Environ Med, 80(12): 1001-5.
Center for Disease Control (1992). A Framework for Assessing the Effectiveness of Disease and Injury Prevention. Accessed on 30 April 2012 at
graphs were complied from the results of the demographic breakdown of people who tested for HIV in a study conducted in 8 counties and across 27 zip codes. The test was conducted over a period of approximately 2 1/2 years.
Counselors, who conducted the tests, were able to contact and test a total of 270 people. The test subjects were screened and coded for behavioral or other risk factors, such as hemophilia, blood recipient, intravenous drug users, etc. The subjects were further broken down by race, age and gender.
The subjects were further broken down by how many additional times they visited the testing centers and follow up visits. In all 242 people chose to visit the test centers 1 additional time, while 22 returned twice and 1 subject returned 3 times. Of the subjects who tested positive for HIV, none returned to the center more then once. Fourteen of…
The importance of this study is threefold: 1) it allows a new series of assays to be used in the clinical setting to detect the more common HPVs that cause genital and anal warts; 2) the assays are both robust and yet inexpensive enough to use globally, and, 3) the tests are designed to use real-time PC technology, which allows for the rapid identification and quantification of these pathogenic types of HPV. The technology and protocols used in this development will also likely have an effect on the ability to roll out testing for other HPV-like viruses, ostensibly even the HIV virus in a real-time, inexpensive manner. The lab results also suggest that as the at risk population for HPV increases, early testing and intervention might reduce the number of symptomatic individuals since they will have been tested and potentially treated much earlier.
The developing world notwithstanding, HPV…
Learn About HPV. (2011). American Social Health Association. Cited in:
Wallboomers, J., et al., (1999). Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. Journal of Pathology. 189 (1): 9-12.
The colorful and rich culture and heritage should be used to counter such menaces by the community or non-governmental organizations working for the prevention and awareness of AIDS/HIV.
Latino is a large group comprising further sub-categories like Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent that identify as American and other Indian civilizations. Each group cannot be targeted with the same message. These different groups have different social mindsets and have different social status. For example, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent will be more aware of the issues and problems related to their health and well being then new immigrants in the country belonging to this community. The migrant people belonging to this community have more pressing needs like housing, food, and employment as compared to Chicanos who are more concerned with political implications. Hence, one message fits all strategy cannot work with…
Borges-Hernandez, Adalisse, Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rafael a. & Velez-Pastrana, Maria C. 'Family Functioning and Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse in Latino Adolescents.' Adolescence. 40.160 (2005): 777+.
Diaz, Rafael M. 'Macho, Latino HIV+'. The Advocate. 747(November 25, 1997): 9.
Peterson, John L. 'Introduction to the Special Issue: HIV / AIDS Prevention through Community Psychology'. American Journal of Community Psychology. 26.1. (1998): 1+.
Carmona, Jennifer Vargas, Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia, Newcomb, Michael D., Romero, Gloria J., Solis, Beatriz, Tucker, M. Belinda, Wayment, Heidi a. & Wyatt, Gail E 'Acculturation, Sexual Risk Taking and HIV Health Promotion Among Latinas'. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 45.4(1998): 454.
Behavioral risk for HIV infection among gay and bisexual men in the United States
According to reports published by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), they state that by the year 2004, more than nine hundred and forty thousand individuals in the United States of America had been diagnosed with AIDS, majority of who were gay men and African-Americans. This report including others have brought the issue of HIV infection in gay and bisexual men into sharp focus and more in particular the behavioral risks that the group exposes themselves to, which have contributed to the sharp increase in HIV infection amongst members of this group. This research intends to focus of this behavioral risk and preventive measures that have been established to prevent HIV infection in gay and bisexual men in the United States.
Another recent research conducted by Centre for Disease Control and Prevention…
Hockenbury, D., & Hockenbury, E., (2008), Psychology, Word publishers, pp 232-234
Kelly, J.A. (1992). HIV risk behavior reduction following intervention with key opinion leaders of population: An experimental analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 1483 -- 1489.
Latkin, C.A., Sherman, S., & Knowlton, A. (2003). HIV prevention among drug users: Outcome of a network-oriented peer outreach intervention. Health Psychology, 22, 332 -- 339.
Wasserheit, J.N., & Aral, S.O., (1996), the dynamic topology of sexually transmitted disease epidemics: Implications for prevention strategies. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 201 -- 213.
He saw no problem with his decision. AIDS, like hemophilia, could not be transmitted by casual contact between people. Thus Ryan saw no difficulty in his resolve to go to school like a normal adolescent.
However, Ryan's high school was not as understanding. Like many communities, the town he lived in was motivated by fear and even by hate towards AIDS sufferers. This fear inhibited their generosity and willingness to open their minds and hearts to Ryan. In addition to the tremendous suffering Ryan experienced because of his medical battles, Ryan was also forced to suffer the prejudices of the people around him, who he wished would befriend him. His worst blow came when he was barred from attending his high school. He had to battle in the courts of the United States to win what for most teens is an ordinary act, the daily right to go to school…
Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwell
The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference is a book about epidemics. However, Gladwell is not writing about diseases. He is writing about how the behaviors and attitudes of a population change in much the way an epidemic spreads. As Gladwell describes, only one child has to go to school with measles. The next week, almost every child at the school can have measles. It only took one change in this one child to make a significant difference. This situation where seemingly small changes make big differences is the focus of the book. Gladwell uses the metaphor of a spreading virus to explain how ideas, products, messages, and behaviors can all spread in the same way. He explains how something can suddenly become an accepted fashion item, how people's behavior can change on a mass scale, how information can spread via…
Gladwell, M. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York: Back Bay Books, 2004.
Sex and AIDS: a Study in Contrasts
AIDS is one of the most hotly debated topics of modern times. Whether it is a question of what should be done to help those who have the disease, what may be done to prevent others from contracting it, or of the many moral arguments pro and con regarding the lifestyle or lifestyles that results in its spread, it is definitely a subject that is viewed from many, often widely-differing angles. What one newspaper or magazine can cover as a matter of science, another can describe as a cultural inspiration, or a religious sin. Film, television, radio, and the arts all play their role in constructing what we see as the impact of this dread disease. For the purposes of this paper, we shall take a look at AIDS and how it is depicted in one geographically small urban area: the New York…
Kramer, William. (10 May 1999). "Subway Art Raises AIDS Awareness." The Bronx Beat. New York, NY: Columbia University School of Journalism.
Lombroso, Linda. (4 April 2003) "Review of Homeless to Harvard: The Liz Murray Story © 2003 Lifetime Network." The Journal News. Gannet Co, Inc.: New York.
Meenan, Mick. (14-20 Feb. 2004). "Gay Pols Look to the Bronx." Gay City News, II, 7. Community Media: New York, NY.
Perez-Pena, Richard. (5 Oct. 2003). "New York's Vital Signs." The New York Times. New York, NY: The New York Times Company.
In the studies quoted herein the numbers show evidence that blacks suffer a much higher rate of incidence than do whites or Latinos, and that black women suffer a much higher rate when compared against their white counterparts and they are a significant percentage of the overall rate of incidence in both Baltimore and the United States. There is not much potential in numbers for a bias, after all, they are what they are. The number of incidences reported can only be interpreted as being either a person of African-American descent, white heritage or Latino in nature. ith numbers there can hardly be any quibbling back and forth, especially when the numbers are as lopsided as they are in this paper.
The answer to the question of whether culture affects the incidence of AIDS/HIV infection seems to be numerically clear, in that the statistics show that in Baltimore and…
Brown, G. (2003) HIV / AIDS among African-Americans and U.S. women: Minority and young women, Minority Nurse Newsletter, Fall Issue 2003
Elder, M.C. (1999) AIDS conference addresses African-American AIDS epidemic, New York Amsterdam News, Vol. 90, Issue 36
Ferguson, Y.O.; Quinn, S.C.; Eng, E.; Sandelowski, M.; (2006) the gender ratio imbalance and its relationship to risk of HIV / AIDS among African-American women at historically black colleges and universities, AIDS Care, Vol. 18, Issue, 4, pp. 323-331
More women infected by AIDS virus (1994) Futurist, Vol. 28, Issue 2, p. 62
Streetwalkers are generally the lowest-paid of all prostitutes. They are also in the most danger. As a result, those who work as streetwalkers are likely to be more desperate than other prostitutes, suggesting that, regardless of chosen profession, they would experience greater levels of mental distress than the normal population.
hat is fascinating is that when research does not look at streetwalkers, but at higher status prostitutes, prostitutes do not seem to suffer from a greater rate of mental health issues than women in other professions. Ine Vanwesenbeeck examined burnout levels of indoor sex workers in the Netherlands and compared them to nurses and to mental health patients. Her results suggested that prostitution did not necessarily lead to psychological issues. "Female indoor sex workers in the Netherlands do not exhibit a higher level of work-related emotional exhaustion or a lower level of work-related personal competence than a comparison group of…
Cundiff, Kirby. Prostitution and Sex Crimes. The Independent Institute. N.p. 8 Apr. 2004.
Web. 13 Nov. 2012.
Farley, Melissa. "Bad for the Body, Bad for the Heart: Prostitution Harms Women Even if
Legalized or Decriminalized." Violence Against Women 10.10 (2004), 1087-1125.
Certainly it would give rise to debate within the community, and would perhaps because it circumvents the authority that was asserted by the community in limiting the teen's awareness to abstinence, would eventually have to be abandoned because of the ways in which the community would relate the process to what it actually is: getting the kids the information on birth control.
If educating the kids as to the alternatives available to them is prohibited, then it becomes incumbent upon the health professionals to take the discussions to the parents. Since most kids, estimated at 47%, say that their decisions about sex are most influenced by their parents (the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2007, found online at then educating the parents must become the focus of the effort. If Vermilion Parish and other places within and outside of Louisiana would tie the hands of educators and health professionals…
The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Sexual Health Statistics for Teenagers and Young Adults in the United States, September, 2006.
The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 'American Opinion on Teen
Pregnancy and Related Issues 2007, found online at retrieved 14 March 2009.
How can we expect our children to learn how to think critically if we do not teach them about sex?
Cheers to The Dallas News for pointing out the woeful inconsistencies and shortcomings in Texan state education. The majority of Texas school districts "either teach an abstinence-only health curriculum or avoid talking about sex altogether" and the result? Texas has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy in the nation. When evidence proves that our methods are not working, it is time to change them. Some teens are blessed with parents who make up for their state's lack of sex education programs. Unfortunately, many Texan teens remain ignorant at the behest of irresponsible parents. If withholding medical treatment for minors is against the law, then so too should withholding access to information about safe sex.
Finally, I would like to add that young people have a right to information:…
This decision has proved to be the wrong one, both morally and for their health. Thus, their decision makings skills are called into question, and their behavior has influenced their ability to weigh situations carefully and make the right choices. They did not weigh the side affects at the time, (or did not understand them), and thus paid a price for their choice.
Socially, STDs are a growing problem in America because they erode the health of mostly young Americans, and until the rise in STDs stops, health care costs will continue to rise. More education on the negative results of poor behavioral choices is necessary, as is basic education in STDs, what they are and how they are acquired, could be one way to help stop the epidemic and create a better social environment at the same time.
Furby, L., Ochs, L.M. And Thomas Smith, C.W. (1997) Sexually…
Furby, L., Ochs, L.M. And Thomas Smith, C.W. (1997) Sexually transmitted disease prevention: Adolescents' perceptions of possible side effects. Retrieved from the Find Articles Web site: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_n128_v32/ai_206087303 Aug. 2006.