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Freud Civilization and Its Discontents
Humankind strives for happiness, but according to Sigmund Freud, the creation of civilization as a means to further this goal has instead generated unhappiness. In his book Civilization and its Discontents, Freud asserts the happiness of the individual is often sublimated to the need for civilization to establish law and order. People have an instinctual desire for absolute freedom which includes a need to be sexually promiscuous as well as to be violent. To repress these naturally occurring human instincts and create an orderly society, humans have turned to civilization. But in doing so, humans have also created the source of their unhappiness; they are no longer allowed to act in a manner that is instinctually natural. By repressing their natural urges, humans are civilized, but live in a continual state of discontent.
In his analysis of civilization and why so many of its members…
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. Buckinghamshire, England:
Chrysoma Associates. 2005. Web. 9 Dec. 2012.
I have chosen to write my I-search paper about Sigmund Freud, known today as the father of psychoanalysis. He has impacted our society a great deal and this is obvious when you simply open up a psychology textbook. This semester I am taking a psychology course and we talk about him a lot. I have learned, not only through my psychology course, but also through my dad who majored in psychology in college, that Freud has influenced how modern day psychologists treat their patients. Some people follow what Freud has said and use his theories and ideas to treat their patients. This is what made me wonder about Sigmund Freud. Who was this person and how has he impacted my decade so much? Has he really contributed as much as people say he has and if so, what exactly did he do? Do his theories even work? With…
Benjamin, Ludy T., and David N. Dixon. "Dream Analysis by Mail: An American Woman Seeks Freud's Advice." American Psychologist 51.6 (1996): 461-468.
Boeree, Dr. C. George. "Sigmund Freud." Shippensburg University. 1997. 22 Nov. 2004.
Editors. "Conflict and Culture." Library of Congress. 7 Nov. 2001. 22 Nov. 2004.
And moreover, the virtues that had been "automatically" accorded to Freud over the years -- "clinical acumen, wisdom in human affairs, dedication to his patients and to the truth" -- are now obscured by the skepticism that has come due to the deep questioning and investigation over time (Kramer, 1998, pp. 199-200). That skepticism among scholars has also been brought on by a lack of "accord" between what Freud posited and "with contemporary opinion about paranoia and post-traumatic stress disorder" (Kramer, 201).
That having been said, contemporary attacks on Freud's character tends to "diminish his work," which may not be fair Kramer continues (201). If estimates of Freud the man are dragged through the mud of unfair criticism and doubt, then Freud's work suffers as well. Kramer wonders, was Freud just a "relentless self-promoter" or do his ideas and theories have value as strong, profoundly honest science? (201).
Costigan, Giovanni. (1965). Sigmund Freud: A Short Biography. New York: The Macmillan
Ewen, Robert B. (2003). An Introduction to Theories of Personality. East Sussex, UK:
Freud's invention, 'psychoanalysis', wherein the patient would be encouraged by the doctor to talk freely about his varied memories and dreams and associations and thoughts, which became an important part of the psychiatric treatment of patients suffering from mental illnesses, in later years, was, when first introduced in the Vienna of the end of the century, openly ridiculed.
When Freud's 'Interpretation of Dreams' was released, there was a commotion as to why these theories could not be accepted. However, Freud's friend and staunch supporter, Adler, saw Freud through the turbulent times, and extended his full and complete support to him, whereby he came to Freud's defense in a medical journal and insisted that Freud's theories be given the attention that they deserved. Gradually, support for Freud did grow, and soon his ideas and theories managed to capture the attention of the rest of Europe, and then the rest of the…
Psychology Biographies - Sigmund Freud: 1856-1939. Retrieved at http://allpsych.com/biographies/freud.html . Accessed on 20 June, 2005
Schorske, Carl. Fin-de-siecle Vienna: Politics and Culture. May, 2001. Retrieved at http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/personal/reading/schorske-siecle.html . Accessed on 20 June, 2005
Sigmund Freud (1856 to 1939). Retrieved at http://cml.austincollege.edu/courses/ci11e/am/Freudsketch.htm. Accessed on 20 June, 2005
Was ist "das Ich"? Retrieved at http://www.wie.org/j17/wasist.asp . Accessed on 20 June, 2005
The personal and scientific environments within which Freud grew up therefore represent his primary influences. A further influence came in the form of physics. The second half of the nineteenth century, during which Freud did most of his important work, saw great advances in physics. According to Thornton, the discovery mostly responsible for this was Helmholz's principle of conservation energy. Helmholz held that the total amount of energy in a physical system is constant; that it could be changed but not annihilated; and that when the energy is moved from a part of the system, it would reappear in another part. This principle influenced areas such as thermodynamics, electromagneticism, and nuclear physics. The 19th century therefore saw major discoveries that changed the world.
For Freud, this meant that his field of study was significantly influenced by the principle. At the University of Vienna, for example, Freud's professor, Ernst Brucke published…
Boeree, C.G. (2009). Personality Theories: Sigmund Freud. Retrieved from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html
Chiriac, J. Freud and the "Cocaine Episode" Retrieved from http://www.freudfile.org/ cocaine.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
116). By defining these elements, he constructs a safe model that only applies to his people. Still it was this premise of the potential illness found in the Jewish male that shaped "the discourse of psychoanalysis concerning gender and identity.
The next step in his revolutionary study came with defining his style of psychology. He believed in determination as a construct. This was defined; as one's action is causally determined with consideration that one does not have free will. Freud took this notion a step further and deducted that it is possible to have freedom. This type of conclusion would be typical of Freud's thinking and may seem contradictory and confusing. Deterministic systems by nature are "large closed systems and induce claustrophobia" (Gay, 1990 p. 79). Still he did not believe that people were mere puppets to unknown forces beyond their control. To combat the nature of determination, Freud created…
Bodie, Malcolm. 1991. Inventing the "I." London: Fontana Press.
Gay, Peter. 1990. Reading Freud: Explorations and Entertainments. New Haven: Yale
Gay, Peter. 1989. The Freud Reader. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
Gilman, Sander L. 1993. Freud, Race, and Gender. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Sigmund Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche both addressed the concept of human nature and of the society in which human nature are bound by. However due to their different approaches on the matter, they formulated totally different theories for each. This paper endeavours to explore their theories behind human nature, the impact of the world they were living in at the time, religion and approaching utopia through Freud's Civilization and its Discontents and Nietzsche's eyond Good and Evil.
Regarding human nature, Freud was reticent in purporting that we are inherently sinful, but rather that we come in this world full of Id. This wild, instinctive foundation is the basis upon which the infrastructure of the human psyche is erected. We are born into a dangerous world and we endeavor to evade pain and secure pleasure. Freud perceives the Id as a product of our evolutionary progress as Darwin outlined it (e.g.…
Freud, Sigmund., Civilization and its Discontents, trans. And ed., James Strachey (New York W.W. Norton, 1961)
Nietzsche, Friedrich., Beyond Good and Evil -- Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future, trans. And ed., Marion Faber (Oxford: Oxford Paperbacks, 1998)
As a consequence many have thought that the subconscious is some sort of "mystic" area where all the secrets are hidden. These secret parts have also been considered to have negative connotations. Research done in the area after Freud suggests that the subconscious remains "hidden" not because this is its final and fundamental characteristic, but because the individual does not go through with a powerful process of introspection. The mysteries which are hidden in the subconscious remain hidden until the person decides to take a good look inside him, analyze himself and face his fears.
A further critique that can be brought to Freud's theory regarding the interpretation of dreams refers to the powerful sexual dimension which he gives to the symbols in dreams. While the theory is very interesting and many associations can be demonstrated, such is not the case with all of them. Numerous voices have wondered to…
Freud, S. The interpretation of dreams. Avon, 1980
Freud, S., Gay, P. The Freud reader, W.W. Norton & Company, 1995
Neu, J. (editor) the Cambridge Companion to Freud (Cambridge companions to philosophy), Cambridge university press, 1991
Singler, D. The navel of the dream: Freud, Derrida and Lacan and the gap where "something happens" in SubStance, volume 39, number 2, 2010 (iisue 122) pp.17-38
Response 2: Freud
Freud's statement that the only human purpose is to reproduce does not mean that life is meaningless, but that humans are driven, much like animals, not by higher spiritual motivations as theorized in Judaism and Christianity. Even the idea of God comes from the primal, id-driven need for security in a cruel world, the type of security one desires from one's idealized parents. This not only deflates the importance of God, but also one's parents, as it suggests that one's parents are never entirely good enough to provide complete security and comfort. It also suggests that the need for God is childish as well as primitive, a desire to remain in an infantile state when a person has all of his or her needs fulfilled without real effort. Often, humans feel helpless in the face of their problems, and it is easy to look to a Higher…
Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents: Why does Freud think life is hard for human beings? people likely to be happier in a civilized or uncivilized state? What are the benefits of order? Why is civilization hostile to sexuality? How does civilization inhibit aggression?
Freud's central paradigm is that the tension between the individual and civilization is historically grounded in the violence of warfare and humanity in the early part of the century. The devastation of the First World War haunted Freud, who presumed that "the basis of [the hostility of civilization] was a deep and long-standing dissatisfaction with the ten existing state of civilization and that on that basis a condemnation of it was built up, occasioned by certain specific historical events." (91) His modified just-so stories of taming the fire and slaying the father transfer to his association of the Erziehung, the Germanic upbringing and education, to both…
He focused on the progressive replacement of " erotogenic zones in the body by others. This early biological organism of sexuality first looks for oral gratification by sucking at its mother's breast, which later will be replaced by other objects. At first, the infant is not able to recognize the distinction between itself and the breast, but it soon begins to see its mother as its first external love object. Freud would later argue that before the infant reaches this point of understanding, it is able to see its own self as a love object and develop into a narcissistic love of its personhood.
Once the child goes through this oral state during the second year of life, its erotic emphasis transfers to the anus. This is encouraged by the challenges of toilet training. The child's enjoyment from defecating comes into conflict with the need for self-control. The third phase…
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved April 23, 2008. http://www.iep.utm.edu/f/freud.htm #H5' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Some, such as Carl Jung, reconceived the nature of the unconscious, while others, such as Melanie Klein, replaced drives or instincts with interpersonal ("object") relations as the pivot of the psyche. Others, such as Alfred Adler, placed relatively greater emphasis than Freud did on the ego, while lessening the emphasis on the sexual drives. In Freud's wake, many varieties of talking therapy were created, some ultimately with little connection to the tenets of psychoanalysis, save the notion that people's ways of thinking about their lives, cultivated by their previous experience, may taint their happiness more than do the external events that befall them. Diverse therapies also share the belief that giving expression to one's concerns may both begin to lift the burden they impose and promote self-enlightenment (Freud, Sigmund, 2008, Criticism of…Section, ¶ 3).
Table 1 depicts some of these theorists and how they altered or changed Freud's theories.
Associated Press. (2006). Freud celebrated, debated at 150; many of the father of psychoanalysis ideas have been modified or discarded during the last century. Telegraph -- Herald
(Dubuque). Retrieved February 17, 2010 from HighBeam Research:
Caropreso, F. & Simanke, R.T. (2008). Life and death in Freudian metapsychology: A
None of the eighteen patients had been aware of being sexually abused prior to being treated by Freud. She quotes him: "…at the bottom of every case of hysteria there are one or more occurrences of premature sexual experience" that belong to early childhood but are "reproduced through the work of psychoanalysis" (p. 267). The very fact that Freud publicly raised this issue -- "a shocking topic…to many of his contemporaries" -- not only brought it into the public light, it showed that he recognized "the gross power imbalance implicit in such situations." Those power imbalances (a child abused by an adult) held "grave psychological consequences" for the child, he recognized.
Conclusion: To fully understand the pioneering Freud, credited with inventing psychoanalysis, one must read further than just one or two of Freud's essays, and must delve into his work deeply enough to realize his own developmental evolution. By…
Freud, Sigmund. Dora: an Analysis of a case of Hysteria. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997.
Freud, Sigmund, and Rieff, Philip. Sexuality and the Psychology of Love. New York: Simon
And Schuster, 1997.
Hoffman, Leon. "Freud's Theories About Sex as Relevant as Ever." Psychiatric News, 40.15
Freud's Interpretation Of Dreams
Sigmund Freud's 1908 work, The Interpretation of Dreams, is his attempt to place apply the psychological analysis to the study of dreams. The work relies heavily upon Freud's understanding of how the unconscious and conscious mind control both the meaning and interpretation of dreams. To Freud, the dream is often a means of wish-fulfillment, where the content of dreams represents the unconscious desires (wishes) of the dreamer. Dream content can be understood in terms of both the "manifest" (literal and conscious) meaning, and the "latent" (unconscious and symbolic) meaning. Freud argued that ultimately dreams act as an important window into the unconscious workings of the human mind.
Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams is an important attempt to reconcile the distorted, surreal world of dreams with our conscious lives and scientific understanding. The world of dreams is often distorted and disturbing, and difficult to understand with our…
Fontana, David. 2004. The Secret Language of Dreams. Chronicle Books.
Freud, Sigmund. The Interpretation of Dreams, 3rd Edition. Translated by A.A. Brill (1911). 11 April 2004. http://www.psywww.com/books/interp/toc.htm
Psychoanalysis and the Self: Sigmund Freud's Influence in 19th Century Philosophy and Science
Nineteenth century thinking was characterized by the emergence of two revolutionary ideologies that influenced the course of human history for the succeeding centuries: Karl Marx's conflict theory and Sigmund Freud's method of psychoanalysis in psychology. Marx's analysis of the political economy of the capitalist system led to the development of the Socialist movement. Freud's psychoanalytical theory, meanwhile, emphasized the pursuit for self-knowledge and individuality as the key towards personal development.
This paper gives focus on the life of Sigmund Freud, mainly because of his significant contribution towards establishing the kind of contemporary society prevalent in Western societies -- that is, an individualist society, wherein the pursuit of self-knowledge led to social and personal (individual) progress.
orn in the Czech Republic in 1856, Sigmund Freud had led the life of a true scientist and academician. Educated…
Freud, S. (1999). The Interpretation of Dreams. Translated by J. Crick. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gilman, S. (1994). Reading Freud's Reading. NY: New York University Press.
Levine, M. (1999). The Analytic Freud: Philosophy and Psychoanalysis. NY: Routledge.
Santrock, J. (2000). Psychology. NY: Prentice-Hall.
Freud even put an age on the development of the superego -- five years old. And he separated the superego into two parts: the ego ideal and the conscience. The ego ideal sets up our standards that are generally approved by parents and teachers, etc. If we obey these standards we feel good about it. The conscience is the opposite. It is composed of things that are not viewed as positive by society. These are things that lead to bad situations for us, and give us feelings of guilt.
We have dealt with two of Freud's major theories: those of the conscious vs. unconscious mind, and the id, ego, and superego. There was much more that he accomplished in the study of psychoanalysis:
Life and Death Instincts. This was the theory that we have life (or sexual) instincts that deal with survival and pleasure and the energy that is created…
Boeree, C.G. (2009). Sigmund Freud. Retrieved February 25, 2010, from webspace.ship.edu: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html
Krull, K., & Kulikov, B. (2006). Sigmund Freud. New York: Penguin Group.
Sigmund Freud. (2010). Retrieved February 25, 2010, from notablebiographies.com: http://www.notablebiographies.com/Fi-Gi/Freud-Sigmund.html
Strupp, H. (1967). An introduction to Freud and modern psychoanalysis. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series.
The ego is objective, and basically deals with the reality of the environment and acts as a control center of the personality (Rana). Freud believed that an individual's experiences in the early years of childhood determined his adulthood, what kind of person he or she will become (Rana). The stages of childhood include: 1st year is the oral stage; 2nd year is the anal stage; 3rd-5th year is the phallic stage; 6th-12th is a period of latency; and after puberty is the genital stage (Rana). He also believed that the personality uses defense mechanisms to protect the individual from anxiety, when information is pushed down into the unconscious it is referred to as repression (Rana). hen an individual assigns his own faults or shortcomings to another person, it is referred to as projection (Rana).
Other aspects include rationalization, denial, identification, regression, and fixation (Rana).
Psychoanalysis has become a common therapy…
Boeree, George C. Dr. "Sigmund Freud: 1856-1939." 2006. Retrieved December 07, 2006 at http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/freud.html
Gay, Peter. Freud: A Life for Our Time. W.W. Norton & Company. 1988. Pp. 4.
Rana, Himmat. Muskingum College. May 1997. Retrieved December 07, 2006 at http://muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/freud.htm
.. But they seem to have observed that this newly-won power over space and time, this subjugation of the forces of nature, which is the fulfillment of a longing that goes back thousands of years, has not increased the amount of pleasurable satisfaction which they may expect from life and has not made them feel happier." This insight then, marked the point in which he asserted that in order for civilization to further improve self-control in society must be enforced, for temperance was needed in a society that aspired too much without contemplating its consequences on people's changing standards of happiness, contentment, and morality.
Foucault expressed a similar assertion concerning self-control, although he differed from Freud in that he proposed that while self-control was needed in society, he also argued that too much control over society can only cause detriment, eventually stagnating improvement and development of civilization. He best described…
Freud may have attempted to do too much with his analysis; he attempts to defragment the mystery of group dynamics into easily adjustable and important social dynamics. This book raises some extremely important psychological lessons in its application to human resources management. HR focuses on creating a cohesive team that can operate within the framework of the corporation. In order to create this cohesive team, Freud argues that a strong leader must be present that develops rapport with other members of the group as the father of the "primal clan." This relationship itself must be fashioned so that the values of the members reflect the values of the leader and thus they symbiotically form bonds of love. Although on a theoretical level these statements may have implicit truth, application in real world HR is extremely difficult. To nurture this type of culture, HR managers must stress the development of strong…
Much like other notable psychologists preceding him such as Le Bon, Freud attempts to explain the phenomena of the collective life through individual psychology. In doing so, Freud utilized this book as a means to eliminate the commonplace notions of heredity, mentality and suggestion as motives for collective behavior. Instead replacing them with a self-constructed model of unconscious identification. Freud's purpose within this seminal work is to clarify the irrationality of the group in order to reduce it. Despite his strong claims and the backing of his contemporaries, many current psychologists view this work on psychoanalysis as less provocative than his other works. One such expert, Robert E. Park, on review of this book explains, "Suggestion, imitation, the herd instinct, and every other attempt to solve the problem of human relations by the magic of a single word - all these resolve themselves into some one of the varied manifestations of the fundamental sexual impulse" (Park, npg). Freud may have attempted to do too much with his analysis; he attempts to defragment the mystery of group dynamics into easily adjustable and important social dynamics. This book raises some extremely important psychological lessons in its application to human resources management. HRM focuses on creating a cohesive team that can operate within the framework of the corporation. In order to create this cohesive team, Freud argues that a strong leader must be present that develops rapport with other members of the group as the father of the "primal clan." This relationship itself must be fashioned so that the values of the members reflect the values of the leader and thus they symbiotically form bonds of love. Although on a theoretical level these statements may have implicit truth, application in real world HRM is extremely difficult. To nurture this type of culture, HR managers must stress the development of strong infrastructural values at the outset of corporate development so that members of the group assume the group objective at an early stage. Furthermore, the expansion of social cohesion is extremely important because it will destroy the fabric of social institutions.
Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego., Review author[s]: Robert E. Park
The American Journal of Sociology © 1925
Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality and the structure of the human mind have been among the most influential in all of the social sciences. Freud had a tremendous influence on his contemporaries like Carl Jung and also Alfred Adler, and also went on to influence the next generation of psychologists, culminating in Neo-Freudian psychology and modern psychoanalysis (Funder, 2016, G-7). Jung, Adler, and others then went on to develop their own psychological theories and practices, whereas some followers of Freud became more entrenched in the psychoanalytic tradition, which uses a specialized form of talk therapy that focuses on the patient’s early childhood.
Freud’s methods initiated what has become nearly synonymous with psychotherapy: talk therapy. Free association, hypnosis, dream analysis, and other methods are used to help a patient bring into conscious awareness that which lies buried in the unconscious mind. Freud would have treated mainly wealthy women—those who could afford…
Funder, D. C. (2016). The personality puzzle (7th ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Co. “Sigmund Freud,” (n.d.). Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. https://www.iep.utm.edu/freud/
revos (2005) further states,
"…A person's identity is formed through a series of personal experiences, which reflect how the individual is perceived by both him or herself and the outside world -- the phenomeno-logical field. Individuals also have experiences of which they are unaware and the phenomenological field contains both conscious and unconscious perceptions. The concept of the self is, according to Rogers, however, primarily conscious. The most important determinants of behavior are the one's that are conscious or are capable of becoming conscious. Roger argues that a definition of the self that includes a reference to the unconscious (as with Freud) can not be studied objectively as it can not be directly known."
This perfect description given by revos (2005) is precisely what Rogers would have envisioned of his theory. His aims, unlike Freud, were to allow humanity to return, instead of alienating individuals by placing them in categories…
Prevos, P. (2005). Hidden Personalities According to Freud and Rogers. Retrieved September 29, .
Prevos, P. (2005). Hidden Personalities According to Freud and Rogers. Retrieved September 29, .
Ansbacher, Corey, Phillips and Schultz. (2005). Freud's Strengths and Weaknesses. Retrieved September 30, .
Freud Civilization and Its Discontents
Sigmund Freud's volume, Civilization and its Discontents, he tackles no less than the broad and ambitious concept of man's place in the world. In this volume, he looks at culture from his unique psychoanalytical perspective, and touches upon a number of important concepts, including aggression, civilization and the individual, organized religion, the death drive and Eros, and the super-ego and conscience. Civilization and its Discontents was written a mere decade before the great psychoanalysts death, and is in many ways an important compilation of many of his most renowned theories on the mind, human nature, and the structure of human society.
First published in German in 1929, Civilization and its Discontents delves deeply into Freud's theories of aggression, the death drive, and its adversary, Eros. In the book, Freud seeks to look into the relationship between man's inner desires, and the establishment of modern civilization.…
Freud, Sigmund. 1989. Civilization and its Discontents. W.W. Norton & Company.
Instead of canceling the visit, the person grudgingly gets ready to go and at the train station accidentally gets on the train that takes home back home instead of the one that takes him to the relative's house. This in Freud's mind would be a bundled action because the person did not feel comfortable canceling so instead his subconscious took over and provided a way for him to get out of going by doing what he secretly wanted to do in the first place, which was to remain at home.
Accidental self-injury has long been attributed to the theory of bungled actions. If a person gets into a car accident and is killed or almost killed one may later discover that the person in the wreck was depressed and was facing a court date, or a divorce or financial ruin. The accident in the car according to Freud would not…
Sigmund Freud developed the theory of bungled actions for the purpose of explaining why people have accidents. In his practice there was no such thing as an accident, but instead, every accident had an underlying often subconscious reason for happening. Freud believed strongly that it was not only necessary to explore these bungled actions but to understand their foundational roots so that the person could let go of the problem and have a healthier mental attitude.
Freud, Sigmund (1960) The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. Volume VI. Translated By James Strachey. London: The Hogarth Press, 1960.
Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Max Weber (1864-1920) were the distinguished German scholars of their time and both of them individually contributed a great deal in the understanding of society and its paraphernalia.
There is not much to compare between the two scholars apart from the fact they both were Germans and prominent sociologists. Karl Marx is regarded as the founder of 'socialism'. He was a great philosopher and intellectual. His philosophy essentially articulates that it's in the very nature of man to bring change in the world. This transformation process is called labor and this capacity to bring change is termed as labor power. Karl Marx's thought on sociology and philosophy had deep rooted impact on society. He was of the view that ideologies are the product of the social structure and by that he meant the theoretical perception of right being the driving force for setting up of mechanism…
Gillespie, a. 2005. G.H. Mead: Theorist of the social act. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 35, 19-39.
George Herbert Mead. March 15, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Herbert_Mead "
Freud, Sigmund. General Psychology Theory (Macmillan, 1963).
Freud, S., Civilization and its Discontents (Standard Edition), 21 (1930), pp. 59-145.
In this regard, Demorest concludes that, "Together these and other theorists have provided accounts of what it means to be a person that all fit within the psychodynamic paradigm, a perspective that holds a vision of people as at their core driven by dynamic forces in their unconscious minds" (2005, p. 3).
Freud's influence on psychoanalytic thought, though, required some time to take hold and many of his methods were rejected outright by the contemporary medical establishment, particularly in the United States. For example, following Freud's only trip to North America in 1909, one psychiatrist believed that, "Many patients were psychotically disturbed and deemed to be beyond the reach of Freud's intellectual 'talk therapy'" (Beam, 2001, p. 94). Not only did others think that Freud's methods were not appropriate for some patients, Freud himself acknowledged their limitations. In fact, Beam points out as well that, "Freud himself thought most schizophrenics…
Beam, A. (2001). Gracefully insane: The rise and fall of America's premier mental hospital.
New York: Public Affairs.
Cherry, K. (2010). Freud's patients and therapy. About.com: Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/sigmundfreud/ig/Sigmund-Freud-Photobiography/Freud-s-Patients-and-Therapy.htm .
Demorest, A. (2005). Psychology's grand theorists: How personal experiences shaped professional ideas. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Jokes and Their Relation to the Unconscious
Although the general theme of Sigmund Freud's Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious (first published in 1905) is the characteristics and composition of jokes, and their relationship with the unconscious mind, the content of Chapter VI is rather narrower and more specific. Entitled The Relation of Jokes to Dreams and to The Unconscious, Chapter VI deals almost exclusively with Freud's theoretical arguments.
A large section, at the beginning of the chapter, digresses from book's overall theme as Freud provides a summary of the ideas and theories proposed in his previous work, Interpretation of Dreams (1900). This is relevant because of the similarities that are subsequently drawn between jokes (through the joke-work) and dreams (through the dream-work). Freud details the processes that he considers to be involved with both jokes and dreams, namely displacement, condensation (with or without the formation of substitutes), representation…
Billig, Michael. "Freud and the Language of Humour." The Psychologist. 15.9 2002:
Freud, Sigmund. Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious. Toronto: Hogarth Press
The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology.
Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and emphasizes the internal experiences such as feelings and thoughts and the individual's feelings of worth. It believes that humans are naturally good and have a positive drive towards their own self-fulfilment. Rogers was most interested in the interaction between mental health, self-concept and self-esteem. Maslow believed that every person has an in-born drive to develop all their talents and capacities and calls this self-actualization. The critics of this theory felt that it is naive to assume that all people are good and think it takes a narrow view of personality.
Social-Cognitive Theory- by Albert Bandura believes that personality comes from the person's history of interaction with the environment. He believes that self-efficacy comes from having a strong belief…
Freud's Psychosocial Development Theory Presumes That Adult Character Is Established By Age 5
Freud finds that we humans are extremely symbolic creatures; we have a common set of symbols that provide us a very effective language for our shared wishes. What case does he make that we are accustomed to symbolic experience and that we talk about these symbols in the bigger society of humankind? Freud's theory presumes that adult character is established by age 5, with the resolution of the Oedipus issue. Hence, it only explains character growth into adolescence. On the other hand, Jung regarded that character continued to develop across the lifespan and explains levels of mature growth not regarded by Freud. Both theorists highlighted the subconscious, but Erickson went beyond to talk about the significance of the combined unconscious; an idea Freud particularly refused. Both had little actual physical proof to back up their speculation. However,…
Sigmund Feud is popularly referred to as "the father of psychoanalysis." He lived between 1856 and 1939. His work and ideas have greatly influenced psychological imaginations and popularized notions such as Freudian sleep and dream symbolism, defense mechanism, unconsciousness, and many more. These notions have greatly contributed to films, literature, and theories such as feminism, psychology, philosophy and criticism.
Freud is also known for theories such as unconscious mind, specifically those revolving around repression mechanism. He redefined sexual desire as mobile and believed that it is directed towards a wide variety of objects. His therapeutic techniques improved the understanding of transference in therapeutic relationship. The technique presumed that human beings are able to gain insight into the unconscious desires through dreams.
Freud's psychoanalysis had an objective of bringing the repressed feelings and thoughts to consciousness. Freud's successors including his daughter Anna Freud postulated that the goal of the therapy was…
personality - Sigmund Freud.
In a healty person, parts interact? 3) In unhealthy person, interact? Give a faulty interaction lead problems a person? 4) In ur words Defense Mechanisms? 5) Give 2 examples Defense Mechanism: Repression Displacement Rationalization Regression Projection Reaction Formation Sublimation.
Sigmund Freud's personality theory describes the three parts of the personality as the id, the ego, and the superego. The Austrian psychoanalyst considered that people are born with an id, a feature that assists them in getting them whatever pleasures them. The Id will stop at nothing from accomplishing an individual's basic needs and does not allow him or her to express any interests in things other than his or her own well being. As a child's understanding of the world evolves, the ego starts to govern his or her thinking as he or she starts to notice that other people's interests are also important. The ego…
Sigmund Freud enumerates that the human psyche consists of the unconscious id, the ego (which is partly conscious and partly unconscious), and the superego (also partly conscious and partly unconscious). At first, a newborn has only an id, which consists of blind drives that seek satisfaction. In a few months, the ego is developed when the newborn experiences resistance and frustration of its drives by the outside world: it realizes that it is separate from that external world and develops a sense of self. The superego will develop later, when it has internalized the rules, prohibitions and ideals of its parents. In the meantime, the ego is the infant's structure that relates with the outside world on the basis of the reality principle, whereby the developing child learns to weigh its choices according to the consequences. This it does while pursuing or fulfilling the innate pleasure principle, whereby it…
Lavine, Thelma Z. From Socrates to Sartre: the Philosophic Quest. reissue edition. Bantam Books, 1985
Stevenson, Leslie. SevenTheories of Human Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, second edition, 1987
Christianity and the views of Sigmund Freud and William James
This paper discusses the concept of a Creator in Christianity and also focuses on the views held by Sigmund Freud and William James on this subject. While Christianity believes firmly in the existence of Creator, Freud maintains that this concept has originated from man's deep-rooted neurosis. James on the other hand felt that religious beliefs had some biological and psychological connections and therefore it is important for man to devise his own concept of a Creator rather than believing on the one that he has inherited from his ancestors.
CONCEPT OF A CEATO
Most religions in the world support the concept of a Universal Creator, the one being who has single-handedly created the entire Universe and is considered to be a benevolent merciful soul. While in some polytheist religions, the concept of Creator may differ slightly, but in all three…
William James: The Varieties of Religious Experience
Freud, Sigmund, The Future of an Illusion, 1927.
"Inner-directed mockery, Jewish self-satire, and self-criticism are found in the Pentateuch itself, as when the Children of Israel look up at Moses just before the parting of the Red Sea and say, "Are there no graves in Egypt, that you have taken us to die in the desert?" (Ex. 14:11, cited by Kirschenblatt-Gimblett and ex).
Laughter becomes a healing salve, which is uniquely human. Freudian views of Jewish humor are among the richest and most accurate interpretations of the phenomenon of masochism because Freud was unafraid to explore the darkness of the human experience. Jewish humor is "dipped in tragedy," ("Laugh and the orld Laughs ith You" 2011). As Ben-Amos states, "The current conception of Jewish humor originated, as many modern ideas have, with Sigmund Freud," (112).
The Freudian view of Jewish humor is absolutely applicable to Jewish humor in America. American Jewish humor begins with the premise that a…
Abrami, Leo M. "Psychoanalyzing Jewish Humor." My Jewish Learning. Retrieved online: http://mobile.myjewishlearning.com/culture/2/Humor/What_is_Jewish_Humor/Defining_Jewish_Humor/Psychoanalyzing_Humor.shtml
Ben-Amos, Dan. "The "myth' of Jewish humor." Western Folklore 32(2), April 1973.
Kirschenblatt-Gimlett & Wex.
"Laugh and the World Laughs With You," (2011). Living a Jewish Life. Retrieved online: http://www.mazorguide.com/Culture/Humor/background-2.htm
Martin Heidegger's Being and Time addresses both of these complex philosophical concepts, being and time. Being means existence, or the fact that something can exist. Heidegger approaches the concept of being from multiple perspectives. Being is the quality of existence, or the fact that something exists. Does this mean the opposite of Being is Nothingness? What does Heidegger say about anti-matter? Heidegger also probes the force that causes a thing or concept to come into being. It may only be possible to contemplate the quality or state of being if the thinker exists, meaning that a nothing cannot think about a something. Heidegger comes close to suggesting the existence of a collective human soul, a grand Being, which he calls Dasein. The Dasein is not quite like the Nietzsche, but it is an archetypal super being that has the potential to contemplate existence.
For Heidegger, Being and Time…
"The Myth of Sisyphus" by Albert Camus explores the nature of reality via what the author calls the "absurd." Life has an absurd character to it, which human beings grapple with and find either confusing or funny. The concept of the absurd resolves a classic existential dilemma: that is, the meaning of life. Camus suggests that it is acceptable if life has no meaning, and that people can still live happy and fulfilling lives without an ultimate sense of meaning. The search for meaning can in itself be viewed as an absurdity in the human condition. In "The Myth of Sisyphus," Camus claims that the only way to resolve existential angst is accepting the absurdity of life and moving through it. The central allegory of the Myth of Sisyphus is a Greek story of Sisyphus, who is punished to eternal damnation on earth by having to roll a rock up a hill. The rock rolls down again, and so Sisyphus is in a state of perpetual motion. Nothing is happening, but if Sisyphus can accept the absurdity in the situation, he can achieve liberation. This mentality can be applied to any frustrating situation in life. Any time a person feels trapped, the simple awareness and acceptance of that fact can lead to mental liberation. Camus's philosophy can be applied to any life situation in which a person can find the humor in the absurdity of an event or a person.
Sigmund Freud wrote "Civilization and its Discontents" in 1929. Freud discusses social psychology, explaining how an individual struggles to maintain a personal identity as well as a collective identity. The social norms that pressure the individual to conform to society are often in conflict with one's inner truth or desire. In fact, a person's desires are frequently in conflict with the social norms. They are taboos. Freud expanded upon this general concept in his theory of the personality as being divided into id, ego, and superego. The superego represents the social norms and cultural values that constrain the individual; whereas the ego is the person's individualism which struggles to assert itself. The id is the desire that all people have for food, sex, and pleasure. This is what Freud refers to as the pleasure principle.
Freud's writings have had a huge impact on the field of psychology but also on sociology and anthropology. More than that, Freud's writings have had an impact on the way people perceive the world. Most people have heard of the Freudian concepts that are outlined in "Civilization and its Discontents."
When one thinks about Freud's theory one has to presume Freud's conscious thoughts or his theory regarding an Oedipus complex represents not his real thoughts but his defensive condensations, displacements, reversals, omissions, and distortions of his real thoughts. If one wishes to look inside his real thoughts regarding an Oedipus complex, one has to analyze and interpret the manifest content of his thought with these defenses in mind. According to Freud, a person must use this method of analysis to overcome such defenses and resistances. The first rule of Freud's technique was to reject the manifest content or the apparent meaning of the dream, symptom, or activity as merely a distorted substitute for one's real thoughts (Freud's Theory Analyzed -- a eport on esearch n.d).
Freud thought that one's conscious thoughts would be unconsciously determined and distorted by what one had censored. One's conscious thoughts condensed, displaced, reversed, omitted, covertly…
A Brief Outline of Psychoanalytic Theory, n.d., Available at:
Bridle, S. And Edelstein, a., 2009, Was ist "das Ich"?, Available at:
"The work of civilization has become increasingly the business of men, it confronts them with ever more difficult tasks and compels them to carry out instinctual sublimations of which women are little capable" (Rosenfels 21).
When considering leaders and their followers, Freud believed that some people were meant to be controlled as a result of their laziness and of their instinctual abandonment. These individuals influence each-other in adopting an indifferent attitude with regard to their own fate. They are saved by people who are capable to set an example through their strength of will and who take on managerial positions in order to control the masses (Rosenfels 21).
One of the reasons for which Freud expressed dissatisfaction with his experience in the U.S. was the fact that he did not appreciate the attitude that American husbands had in regard to their wives. He believed that one had to control his…
Rosenfels, P. (1980). Freud and the scientific method. Ninth Street Center.
Paul Rosenfels discuses Freud's determination to consider that inequality governed the human society. In addition to expressing his opinion regarding the "men are superior to women" concept that was common at the time, he also related to a series of other relationships that he considered imbalanced. Freud practically considered that there was no relationship that did not involve an inequality rapport, as he typically focused on people's problems and tried to emphasize them in order for individuals to understand the reason for their inferiority while in a relationship. Rosenfels also speaks about how Freud used personal experience in producing theories regarding social inequalities.
Boeree, George. "Sigmund Freud." Retrieved October 16, 2011, from the Shippensburg University Website: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html
Boeree describes some of the basic characteristics of Freud's personality theory and focuses on the importance of the unconscious in comparison to the conscious and the preconscious. The doctor also relates to how Freud came to consider that human behavior is determined by factors that are not immediately accessible. Boeree also relates to each trait of the personality theory in particular and explains the way that it functions in regard to people's activities. This source recounts Freud's determination to discuss a subject that people living contemporary to him generally considered to be unimportant, especially given that most individuals were inclined to favor easy explanations when trying to come up with a solution for some mental illnesses.
Therefore, it is necessary to account for the acquisition of habits.
Due to certain limitations of the behaviorism approach, there have been revisions to the theory over the century. For example, although behaviorism helped people to forecast, alter, and change behavior over time, it did not attempt nor intend to understand how or why the theory worked. The present-day social cognitive approach asserts that behavior is results from an ongoing reciprocal three-way relationship among the individual (cognition), the environment (physical context, which consists of the organizational structure and design, social context or other people), and the person's past behavior. This broader view, called cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporates the cognitive in addition to the behavioral approaches to therapy and view people "as active seekers and interpreters of information, not just responders to environmental influences" (Nevid, 2007, p. 484). Many psychologists now believe that behavior is understood best by studying the…
Fall, K.A., Holden, J.M. & Marquis, A. (2004) Theoretical models of counseling and psychotherapy New York: Taylor and Francis.
Freud, Sigmund. (1926). Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety, SE, 20(14): 111-205.
Kohlenberg, R.J., Bolling, M.Y., Kanter, J.W. & Parker, C.R. (2002) Clinical behavior analysis: where it went wrong, how it was made good again, and why its future is so bright. Behavior Analyst Today. 3(3): 248-253
Martz, E (2002) Principles of Eastern philosophies viewed from the framework of Yalom's four existential concerns. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling. 24(1): 31-42
Cliff likes to challenge people to games, sometimes making bets. Yet when he loses, he does not take the situation too seriously. Cliff does not avoid conflict or argument, and yet he also tries to create win-win situations. Cliff is frequently portrayed as the voice of reason in the show, such as when he tries to talk his wife out of having another baby. He points out where his children are acting on their impulses, and proves to be a good disciplinarian. A psychoanalytic personality perspective suggests that Cliff Huxtable is an ideal person with a healthy, well-developed ego.
In the Cosby Show, the Huxtable children are developing their superegos based on what they learn from their parents and Cliff serves as an excellent role model for them. Cliff Huxtable is a well-adjusted man who does not demonstrate any apparent neuroses. Difficult emotions such as anger, fear, and embarrassment are…
Stevenson, D.B. (1998). Freud's division of the mind. The Victorian Web. retrieved April 30, 2010 from http://www.victorianweb.org/science/freud/division.html
This means that other aspects which could be affecting the mood of the individual (such as: a chemical imbalance) are overlooked. This is when the chances rise of some kind of misdiagnosis taking place. As a result, the strengths of this theory will provide everyone with a basic background. However, it cannot be applied to every situation involving patients. Instead, only select elements will offer a better understanding of human behavior. (ider, 2012, pp. 39 -- 40) (Greene, 2009, pp. 31 -- 58)
The biggest strength of oger's theory is that it is providing specific aspects of human behavior that will influence everyone's thoughts (i.e. The desire to move away from pain and into pleasure). This is occurring by feeling positive emotions such as love and companionship. During a clinical setting, this can help to explain human emotion and behavior from a certain basic point-of-view. This is when therapists can…
Engler, B. (2008). Personality Theories. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Freud, S. (2007). The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis. Sioux Falls, SD: Nu Vision Publications.
Greene, R. (2009). Human Behavior Theory. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction.
Rider, E. (2012). Lifespan Human Development. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Learning.
The picture is indeed emerging here of Freud as a chauvinist, perhaps (in the opinion of this paper) suffering from some testosterone imbalance himself; and perhaps, as Mahony writes on page 33 of his journal article, Freud was projecting his "male-bound wishes and fantasies" when he imagined that at the moment Mr. K first accosted Dora and "pressed his erection against her" she then experienced "an analogous change" (Freud's quote) in her clitoris. That seems a huge stretch and even a wild fantasy, hardly becoming a man of such professional prestige. But Freud's fantasy goes further into the abyss of his apparent bias; he argues that the traumatic incident with the middle-aged Mr. K must have summoned up "a distinct feeling of excitement" in a "normal girl."
Indeed, Freud noted earlier that Dora's father had discovered wetness in her bed sheets, from time to time. And on page 119 of…
Freud, Sigmund. Freud: On War, Sex and Neurosis. New York: Arts & Science Press, 1947.
Hare-Mustin, Rachel T. "An Appraisal of the Relationship Between Women and Psychotherapy: 80 Years After the Case of Dora." American Psychologist 38.5 (1983):
Mahony, Patrick J. "Freud's Unadorned and Unadorable: A Case History Terminable and Interminable." Psychoanalytic Inquiry 25.1 (2005): 27-44.
Markotic, Lorraine. "Identifying Dora's Desire." Paragraph 22.3 (1999): 248-256.
Freud vs. atson
Sigmund Freud and John B. atson
Sigmund Freud and John B. atson were chosen for this essay due to the distinct differences between the two. Freud is known as the Father of Psychoanalysis and atson is known as the Father of Behaviorism.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), was an Austrian physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist and is recognized as the founder of psychoanalysis (Freud pp). He is regarded as one of the most influential and authoritative thinkers of the twentieth century (Freud pp).
In the beginning, Freud worked closely with Joseph Breuer, but went on to elaborate the theory "that the mind is a complex energy-system, the structural investigation of which is proper province of psychology (Freud pp). Freud refined and further articulated the concepts of the unconscious, of infantile sexuality, of repression, and proposed a tri-partite account of the mind's structure (Freud pp).
This was all part of a…
Freud, Sigmund. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
John B. Watson. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_B._Watson
Watson, John Broadus
"I'm sure you're alarmed at the big news out of ashington...Hilary Clinton has stopped using her maiden name...hat Hillary is she?" Colbert pretends to be outraged, and the presumed liberal listening audiences laughs as the commentator notes not only are: "the other 17 candidates" not "dropping their maiden names" but they are not getting adequate media attention for bad hair days, as has Clinton. Even liberal members of the media fall into the trap of judging female politicians by their appearance. Colbert quotes commentator Chris Matthew raving about Hillary's "pearls" which make her look like "Grace Kelly! Dynamite." Matthew's clip is from a real-life, supposedly serious news broadcast and Colbert's audience laughs at the absurdity of making Hillary's name, clothing, and hair the focus of so-called reputable journalism.
The media tries to use Hillary's appearance and femininity against her like a dirty joke, to intentionally and sometimes unintentionally make her…
Freud, Sigmund. Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious. New York W.W. Norton
Rodham." The Colbert Report. The Word. Comedy Central. 2007. http://www.comedycentral.com/motherload/player.jhtml-ml_video=88259&ml_collection=&ml_gateway=&ml_gateway_id=&ml_comedian=&ml_runtime=&ml_context=show&ml_origin_url=/shows/the_colbert_report/videos/the_word/index.jhtml&ml_playlist=&lnk=&is_large=true
For those who have the literary and aesthetic chops for the task, creative writing is capable of substituting for the imaginative wish fulfillment Freud explains is a part of all childhood development. For the rest of us, creative writing is one way to vicariously experience the daydreams of others in which the ego is finally given its due and able to transcend the limitations of the real world. In the daydream, and in creative writing, it is possible to achieve a level of satisfaction that is otherwise unattainable. This is the relationship between daydreams and creative writing and the common thread that binds the two seemingly unrelated processes together.
Brewster, S. 2002, 'Creative writers and day-dreaming', the Literary Encyclopedia, Available at http://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=5653
Brophy, K. 2006, 'epulsion and day-dreaming: Freud writing Freud', International Journal for the Practice and Theory of Creative Writing, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 132-144.
Brewster, S. 2002, 'Creative writers and day-dreaming', the Literary Encyclopedia, Available at http://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=5653
Brophy, K. 2006, 'Repulsion and day-dreaming: Freud writing Freud', International Journal for the Practice and Theory of Creative Writing, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 132-144.
Dawson, P. 2004, Creative Writing and the New Humanities, Routledge, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Freud, S. 1908 , 'Creative writers and day-dreaming', Art and Literature, trans. J. Strachey, ed. a. Dickson, Penguin Books Ltd., Great Britain.
For a person working through a shadowy part of him- or herself, the goal can be as generic as better self-knowledge and self-management.
Working through must be recognized as a process, but also as a process with a certain goal in mind. To successfully work through any part of the self, it must also be recognized that certain unpleasant elements may be uncovered before the goal is reached. The therapist must be able to help the client adhere to the process.
Stages of Development
According to object relations theory, human development entails a lifelong effort to break away from the dependency established in early childhood in order to reach the adult states of mutuality and exchange. The goal is to break the limitations of dependency in order to reach the autonomy that might be expected from the stage of adulthood. If a person does not break away from these bonds,…
Freud Concepts of Instincts, Drives
Desires, instincts, and drives are central to Freud's psychoanalytical theory. Although Sigmund Freud altered his theories throughout the course of his career, the core concepts of instincts and drives remain relatively constant. Freud first expressed the basic human instincts as being hunger and sex. Later, his theories matured, and Freud deeply analyzed the nature of human sexual drives. In his writings, Freud focused much on the conflicts that generally arise between the individual's innate instincts and the rules and mores of the society. All human beings continually struggle through various stages of their psycho-social development to restrain and express their desires, drives, and instincts. Freud framed these conflicts between desire and civilization into two major groupings: the conflict between sexual drives and civilization; and the conflict between self-serving happiness and civilization.
Freud's views on human sexuality are notorious and controversial. His Oedipus complex and other…
Stier, Marc. "Civilization/Eros." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/eros.htm>.
Stier, Marc. "Civilization/Happiness." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/happiness.htm>.
Stier, Marc. "Instincts/Drives." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/drive.htm>.
Stier, Marc. "Nature of Happiness." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/happy.htm>.
Freud vs. Rogers:
Theories and Impact
Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers are two of the 20th century's most renowned figures. Both psychologists developed countless advancements in their field, and both are greatly revered by psychologists and society as a whole today, for their efforts and their genius. Another similarity between the two men is that both proposed theories of personality and psychotherapy, and both men's theories are still viewed as controversial by some segments of the field. This paper will thus discuss the contributions of the two men in the respective issues, and their impact upon society.
The first psychologist's theories to be examined here are those of Sigmund Freud, which center around three elements: the id, the ego, and the superego. Freud believed that the key to a healthy personality is true balance between these three elements, all of which work together to create complex individuals,…
Freud believed that dreams had the function of providing latent content that could not be easily discovered by the individual. He believed that the best way for an individual to discover the underlying meaning of dreams was to ignore the natural reaction of censoring thoughts and allow oneself to focus on the associations that can be inferred from the dream. According to Freud, in order to interpret dreams one must be able to think and remember in a visual manner and to understand the unconscious symbols that present themselves in dreams. Interpretation of dreams requires translating the visual imagery of the dream into linguistic symbols. The technique most often employed by Freud in dream analysis was free association, which seeks to uncover the underlying meaning in the dream. Freud utilized free association as a manner by which latent dreams could be manifested. In this method the client is encouraged to…
Blum, H.P. (2000). The writing and interpretation of dreams. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 17(4), 651-666. doi: 10.1037//0736-9718.104.22.1681
Micheal, M. (2008). On the validity of Freud's dream interpretations. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biology & Biomedical Sciences, 39, 52-64.
Schneider, J. (2010). From Freud's dream-work to Bion's work of dreaming: The changing conception of dreaming in psychoanalytic theory. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 91(3), 521-540.
Tauber, A.I. (2009). Freud's dreams of reason: the Kantian structure of psychoanalysis. History of the Human Sciences, 22(4), 1-29.
As in other areas of psychology, Carl Jung agreed with Feud on many of the basics of dream interpretation. He began to see Freud's views as overly simplistic, however, and believed that there were deeper collective archetypes that made themselves known through dreams, and which represented basic elements of the human character as ways of dealing with unconscious issues. Also of great importance to Jung, according to Hall, was the context of the dream, especially when it came to dangerous elements: "It is important to look beyond the mere presence of physical danger to the dream-ego and make some assessment of its meaning within the dream" (Hall, 49). This is similar to Freudian interpretation in its seeking of a mechanism of meaning, rather than interpreting dreams as being purely symbolic in content, but Jung developed this much further.
Sigmund Freud. The Interpretation of Dreams. New York: Avon, 1980.…
Sigmund Freud. The Interpretation of Dreams. New York: Avon, 1980.
James Albert Hall. Jungian Dream Interpretation. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1983.
Freud and Surrealism
Art and science are strongly interrelated fields. It has been through the recognition of the compatibility between art and science that some of the greatest achievements in both areas have been created. It was Michaelangelo, the artist, that made revolutionary anatomical discoveries in the pursuit of art, discoveries which would become an integral part of the development of medicine. The early mapmakers were the first to create mathematical grids, and those principles would be translated into perspective and proportion for artists recreating three-dimensional objects in two-dimensional art. Along this same vein, the scientific study of the mind, psychology, has had a significant impact on art. The father of modern psychology, Sigmund Freud, discovered the metaphysical "psyche" in his search to understand the symptoms of his patients, opening up science and medicine to the world beyond the physical. Artists latched onto his theories about the importance of the…
Dali, Salvador. "One Second Before Awakening from a Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee Around a Promegranate." 1944.
Rostrup, Truls. "The Surrealists and Freud." 1996. http://www.uib.no/people/ssptr/surreal.htm
Sanchez, Monica. "Surrealism: The Art of Self-Discovery." http://www.bway.net/~monique/surreal.htm
In contrast to both Mead and Freud: "The genius of Malinowski was to perceive, and substantiate, the fact that the mind of the 'primitive' man was essentially no different than that of 'civilized' peoples. That is, although beliefs, motives, and emotional responses to situations might vary markedly from one culture to the next (a fact which would disprove the universality of Freud's Oedipal Complex), the ability of the mind to perceive and process information and to formulate creative, intelligent responses was the same regardless of race or culture" (Bronislaw Malinowski, NNMD, 2009). Myths, irrational as they might be, were common to all cultures -- and all cultures had unique elements of such irrationality. Malinowski's attitudes and expressions prefigure modern postmodernism and its emphasis on subjectivity and irrationality, and its suggestion that sexuality is merely one impulse amongst many, as opposed to the most significant impulse, as believed by Freud and…
"Bronislaw Malinowski." NNDB, 2009. Accessed June 19, 2009 at http://www.nndb.com/people/320/000099023/
Freud, Sigmund. Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex. Translated by A.A. Brill.
Project Gutenberg, 1920. June 19, 2009.
Poor and unproductive interaction was a sign of a problem in one of the ego states. Berne concluded that nearly everyone suffered from a problematic ego, and that most people tried to make up for their defects by "playing games" with other people.
Although Berne's idea of ego states (parent, adult, child) does not correlate to Freud's idea of id, ego, super-ego -- both explanations offer a similar kind of view of the psyche.
However, as each person presents his or her own unique ego-state, no universal ego-state may apply to humanity as a whole. In fact, transactional analysis relies upon the observation of individual patients' manifestation of their own ego-state through interaction with others. Freudian psychoanalysis, however, applies a universal model, sexually oriented in nature, to a universal psyche. While transactional analysis attempts to define the ego-state for the individual so that the individual can be cured, Freudian psychoanalysis…
Childhood history for Skinner is a series of learning opportunities, which may or may not facilitate healthy adult functioning.
Focus of counseling and therapy
Getting to the root of childhood traumas is at the heart of Freudian therapy. This is often done by free association, or tapping into associations that the individual might not be immediately aware of, but inhibit mature social relationships. There is also a focus on understanding how a crisis at a stage during the child's psychosexual development has lead to a regression or a fixation in one of these states, and resulted in a malformed personality, such as an antisocial personality. Therapy for Skinner is focused on reconditioning the individual to no longer perform negative behaviors, and conditioning them to perform positive behaviors.
Human learning in Freud is the imposition of the superego, or social rules and emotions (such as guilt) that curtail the…
For Pavlov, there was less an emphasis on constant, internal conflict and strife, and an even greater stress than Erikson upon the ability of the environment to shape behavior, and by shaping external behavior shape the psyche. Conflict did not occur within the individual, rather it was imposed upon the individual externally by a stimulus, positive or negative associations were given with that stimulus, and learning and development took place as behaviors continued, even in the absence of the original reward or punishment. This learning could be sexual or asexual in nature, and learning took place throughout an individual's lifetime.
All theorists, albeit to different degrees, addressed the complex interaction of cognitive, physical and emotional development on the overall development of the child.
Freud stressed that a child 'learns' the correct sexual and social identity from the conflicts of early childhood, and the way these conflicts are resolved can produce…
David, Doug & Alan Clifton. "Psychosocial Theory: Erikson." Haverford College. Retrieved 5 Aug 2008. http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html
Ivan Pavlov." (1998). PBS.org. Retrieved 5 Aug 2008. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bhpavl.html
Stevenson, David. "Id, Ego, and Superego." The Freud Web. Retrieved 5 Aug 2008. http://www.victorianweb.org/science/freud/freud_ov.html
Freud's multi-tiered stages of development stresses the sexual nature of the evolution of human personality to the exclusion of all other drives.
he third key concept of Freud's theories centers on the importance of repression, and the long-term affects of the first five years of life. A fixation on the mother causes the young boy to develop an Oedipal complex, as he desires to kill his father and supplant his father's position. he girl develops resentment of her mother because she was not born with a penis, and as a result of penis envy, transfers her desire for a penis to a desire for her father. Eventually, the boy learns to identify with his father to 'have' his mother, just as the girl learns to emulate her mother to 'have' a penis in the form of a husband and son. Freud theorized that the repressive stage of sexual development, which…
The third key concept of Freud's theories centers on the importance of repression, and the long-term affects of the first five years of life. A fixation on the mother causes the young boy to develop an Oedipal complex, as he desires to kill his father and supplant his father's position. The girl develops resentment of her mother because she was not born with a penis, and as a result of penis envy, transfers her desire for a penis to a desire for her father. Eventually, the boy learns to identify with his father to 'have' his mother, just as the girl learns to emulate her mother to 'have' a penis in the form of a husband and son. Freud theorized that the repressive stage of sexual development, which occurs after age five, temporarily arrests this conflict and enables the child to become a fully socialized adolescent and adult later on, with appropriate, non-familial, transferred objects of affection.
Erickson: Freud's Adversary
Erik Erickson was a key critic of Freud's psychoanalytic theories. Erickson stressed the social component and influence upon human development, and advocated a multi-stage process of human development, in contrast to Freud's emphasis on infant sexuality (David & Clifton 2008). Eriksson's first key concept stressed that human conflict was never-ending, and suggested that rather than focusing on the conflict of personal identity. Erickson's second key concept is that each stage of development was marked by a more general conflict of, for example, "trust vs. mistrust" (David & Clifton 2008). The third concept is that not only the family was involved
Freud and Psychology
In the field of psychology, Freud's work is a popular topic. Much of what he created is very controversial, and some of it has been discredited and changed (Leahey, et al., 2014). However, there is also a lot of it that is still used today, and that provides information for psychologists and psychotherapists who want to help people live better lives. There are two main areas of Freud's work that are still important today. These are his theory of personality development and his theory of psychotherapy. It is also important to consider why they are valid or not valid in current practice, so one can determine what direction one wants to take with proper techniques. Freud's theory of personality has three components, which are the Id, the Ego, and the Superego (Sulloway, 1991). According to Freud, all of these work together to make up a person's specific…
Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education.
Pigman, G.W. (1995). Freud and the history of empathy. The International Journal of Psycho-analysis, 76( Pt 2): 237 -- 256.
Sulloway, F.J. (1991). Reassessing Freud's case histories: The social construction of psychoanalysis. Isis, 82(2): 266
Freud's Writing by Socrates and Socrates' Writing by Freud
Socrates Commenting on Freud's Civilization and its Discontents
Sigmund Freud presents a very interesting set of principles in his work Civilization and its Discontents. Here, he describes his belief in the true identity of the nature of man. More than anything else, man is aggressive. This aggression is essentially caused out of the tension and conflict between innate primal desires and the demands of social mores. Such aggression is often channeled through the death drive, the primal need to destroy which must be released in one way or another, even in a modern context.
In this view, society then attempts to civilize that aggressiveness so that we can live together without killing each other. It redirects primal and sexual energies into more positively viewed energies and behaviors. In Freud's view, religion serves as an institute of society, and aims to tame…
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. Norton & Company. 1989.
Freud, Sigmund. Interpretation of Dreams. Megalodon Entertainment LLC. 2010.
Plato. Five Dialogues. 2nd ed. Hackett Publishing. 2002.
The Holy Bible. New International Version. Harper Publishing, 1983.
Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement
Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…
Butler, J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Freud, S. (1914). On narcissism: An introduction. Standard Edition. 14:73 -- 102.
Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and melancholia. Standard Edition 14:243 -- 258
Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. Standard Edition 19:12 -- 66.
When this theory is applied to those who are suffering from major depression it drives home the possible underlying cause of one of the key signs of depression. When one no longer gets pleasure out of things that at one time gave them pleasure it is a sign of depression. Even if those activities one time gave them pleasure if they do not now, it is possible that it is because the person is giving in to their subconscious death instinct desire.
As the field of mental health continues to advance many of the original founders' theories and opinions may find that they are tossed aside as more knowledge about the working of the mind is gathered. Freud has had many of his theory come under scrutiny over the years and some of his theories are no longer considered applicable.
The Death Instinct theory however, is one theory that…
Strachey, James (2002) the standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Unknown Binding) by Sigmund Freud W.W. Norton & Company
Sousa, Ronald (2003) Perversion and death. The Monist (Accessed 9-30-06)
hen it comes to Jim Jones, it is a fact that the declaration of the day of dooms 5th May, 1967 not a reality to any normal person. Jones followers were so much brainwashed to believe that Guyanese Jungle could be immune from nuclear war. Freud's believe that religions grow out of homicide are evident in Madhis movement (Hicks 64). Due to the factor that Sudan was under colonial rule, it is likely that the country experience killing and persecution of those who failed to obey the colonizers rule. This factor contributed eminently to the resign of the Madhi movement. The same is evident in Jim Jones followers. Initially majority of his followers were black and historically, most countries including United States of America were undergoing racialism. This factor made majority of the blacks join Jim Jones movement.
Freud's theory on religion explains that most people join religion because of…
Craig, William L, Antony Flew, and Stan W. Wallace. Does God Exist?: The Craig-Flew Debate. Aldershot, Hants, England, Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002. Print.
Ellens, JH. Explaining Evil. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger, 2011. Print.
Hicks, David. Ritual and Belief: Readings in the Anthropology of Religion. Lanham, Md: AltaMira Press, 2010. Print.
Kirkland, Russell. "An Introduction to the Philosophy & Religion of Taoism: Pathways to Immortality." CHOICE Current Reviews for Academic Libraries 43.1 (2006): 1617(1). Print.
Mead and Freud
One of the most fundamental questions for the field of psychology - indeed of all human questing for knowledge - is how it is that we come to be the way that we are. What is it that makes us human? And to what extent is human nature shared and to what extent are we each unique? Two of the founding scholars of the discipline of psychology - Sigmund Freud and George Herbert Mead - both created models to explain how fundamental and arguably universal human psychic structures developed. Their models do not entirely refute each other, but they do propose distinctly different interior roadmaps of the human psyche as well as very different pathways by which core psychic structures develop.
We may begin by examining Mead's model, which was an Interactionist one. Interactionism was one of the most important developments in psychological (as well as educational…
Freud, S. (1989). Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. New York: Liveright.
Freud, S. (1965). New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. New York: Norton.
Mead, G.H. (1967). Mind, Self and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Mead, G.H. (a. Strauss, ed.) (1964). On social psychology. Chicago: University of Chicago.