Sigmund Freud Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Freud vs Rogers the World

Words: 1698 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43467015

This means that other aspects which could be affecting the mood of the individual (such as: a chemical imbalance) are overlooked. This is when the chances rise of some kind of misdiagnosis taking place. As a result, the strengths of this theory will provide everyone with a basic background. However, it cannot be applied to every situation involving patients. Instead, only select elements will offer a better understanding of human behavior. (ider, 2012, pp. 39 -- 40) (Greene, 2009, pp. 31 -- 58)

The biggest strength of oger's theory is that it is providing specific aspects of human behavior that will influence everyone's thoughts (i.e. The desire to move away from pain and into pleasure). This is occurring by feeling positive emotions such as love and companionship. During a clinical setting, this can help to explain human emotion and behavior from a certain basic point-of-view. This is when therapists can…… [Read More]

References

Engler, B. (2008). Personality Theories. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Freud, S. (2007). The Origin and Development of Psychoanalysis. Sioux Falls, SD: Nu Vision Publications.

Greene, R. (2009). Human Behavior Theory. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction.

Rider, E. (2012). Lifespan Human Development. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Learning.
View Full Essay

Freud's Dora the Case of

Words: 3466 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21031583



The picture is indeed emerging here of Freud as a chauvinist, perhaps (in the opinion of this paper) suffering from some testosterone imbalance himself; and perhaps, as Mahony writes on page 33 of his journal article, Freud was projecting his "male-bound wishes and fantasies" when he imagined that at the moment Mr. K first accosted Dora and "pressed his erection against her" she then experienced "an analogous change" (Freud's quote) in her clitoris. That seems a huge stretch and even a wild fantasy, hardly becoming a man of such professional prestige. But Freud's fantasy goes further into the abyss of his apparent bias; he argues that the traumatic incident with the middle-aged Mr. K must have summoned up "a distinct feeling of excitement" in a "normal girl."

Indeed, Freud noted earlier that Dora's father had discovered wetness in her bed sheets, from time to time. And on page 119 of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Freud, Sigmund. Freud: On War, Sex and Neurosis. New York: Arts & Science Press, 1947.

Hare-Mustin, Rachel T. "An Appraisal of the Relationship Between Women and Psychotherapy: 80 Years After the Case of Dora." American Psychologist 38.5 (1983):

Mahony, Patrick J. "Freud's Unadorned and Unadorable: A Case History Terminable and Interminable." Psychoanalytic Inquiry 25.1 (2005): 27-44.

Markotic, Lorraine. "Identifying Dora's Desire." Paragraph 22.3 (1999): 248-256.
View Full Essay

Freud vs Watson

Words: 535 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54344665

Freud vs. atson

Sigmund Freud and John B. atson

Sigmund Freud and John B. atson were chosen for this essay due to the distinct differences between the two. Freud is known as the Father of Psychoanalysis and atson is known as the Father of Behaviorism.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), was an Austrian physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist and is recognized as the founder of psychoanalysis (Freud pp). He is regarded as one of the most influential and authoritative thinkers of the twentieth century (Freud pp).

In the beginning, Freud worked closely with Joseph Breuer, but went on to elaborate the theory "that the mind is a complex energy-system, the structural investigation of which is proper province of psychology (Freud pp). Freud refined and further articulated the concepts of the unconscious, of infantile sexuality, of repression, and proposed a tri-partite account of the mind's structure (Freud pp).

This was all part of a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Freud, Sigmund. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/f/freud.htm

John B. Watson. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_B._Watson

Watson, John Broadus
View Full Essay

Freud's Theory of Jokes --

Words: 848 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93857101

"I'm sure you're alarmed at the big news out of ashington...Hilary Clinton has stopped using her maiden name...hat Hillary is she?" Colbert pretends to be outraged, and the presumed liberal listening audiences laughs as the commentator notes not only are: "the other 17 candidates" not "dropping their maiden names" but they are not getting adequate media attention for bad hair days, as has Clinton. Even liberal members of the media fall into the trap of judging female politicians by their appearance. Colbert quotes commentator Chris Matthew raving about Hillary's "pearls" which make her look like "Grace Kelly! Dynamite." Matthew's clip is from a real-life, supposedly serious news broadcast and Colbert's audience laughs at the absurdity of making Hillary's name, clothing, and hair the focus of so-called reputable journalism.

The media tries to use Hillary's appearance and femininity against her like a dirty joke, to intentionally and sometimes unintentionally make her…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Freud, Sigmund. Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious. New York W.W. Norton

Company, 1963.

Rodham." The Colbert Report. The Word. Comedy Central. 2007. http://www.comedycentral.com/motherload/player.jhtml-ml_video=88259&ml_collection=&ml_gateway=&ml_gateway_id=&ml_comedian=&ml_runtime=&ml_context=show&ml_origin_url=/shows/the_colbert_report/videos/the_word/index.jhtml&ml_playlist=&lnk=&is_large=true
View Full Essay

Freud's Concept of Daydreaming and

Words: 1526 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70540616



For those who have the literary and aesthetic chops for the task, creative writing is capable of substituting for the imaginative wish fulfillment Freud explains is a part of all childhood development. For the rest of us, creative writing is one way to vicariously experience the daydreams of others in which the ego is finally given its due and able to transcend the limitations of the real world. In the daydream, and in creative writing, it is possible to achieve a level of satisfaction that is otherwise unattainable. This is the relationship between daydreams and creative writing and the common thread that binds the two seemingly unrelated processes together.

eferences

Brewster, S. 2002, 'Creative writers and day-dreaming', the Literary Encyclopedia, Available at http://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=5653

Brophy, K. 2006, 'epulsion and day-dreaming: Freud writing Freud', International Journal for the Practice and Theory of Creative Writing, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 132-144.

Dawson, P.…… [Read More]

References

Brewster, S. 2002, 'Creative writers and day-dreaming', the Literary Encyclopedia, Available at http://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=true&UID=5653

Brophy, K. 2006, 'Repulsion and day-dreaming: Freud writing Freud', International Journal for the Practice and Theory of Creative Writing, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 132-144.

Dawson, P. 2004, Creative Writing and the New Humanities, Routledge, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Freud, S. 1908 [1985], 'Creative writers and day-dreaming', Art and Literature, trans. J. Strachey, ed. a. Dickson, Penguin Books Ltd., Great Britain.
View Full Essay

Freud's Psycho-Analysis and Psychoanalytic Object

Words: 2209 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87702437

For a person working through a shadowy part of him- or herself, the goal can be as generic as better self-knowledge and self-management.

Working through must be recognized as a process, but also as a process with a certain goal in mind. To successfully work through any part of the self, it must also be recognized that certain unpleasant elements may be uncovered before the goal is reached. The therapist must be able to help the client adhere to the process.

Stages of Development

According to object relations theory, human development entails a lifelong effort to break away from the dependency established in early childhood in order to reach the adult states of mutuality and exchange. The goal is to break the limitations of dependency in order to reach the autonomy that might be expected from the stage of adulthood. If a person does not break away from these bonds,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Freud's Five Concepts of Instincts and Drives

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25242022

Freud Concepts of Instincts, Drives

Desires, instincts, and drives are central to Freud's psychoanalytical theory. Although Sigmund Freud altered his theories throughout the course of his career, the core concepts of instincts and drives remain relatively constant. Freud first expressed the basic human instincts as being hunger and sex. Later, his theories matured, and Freud deeply analyzed the nature of human sexual drives. In his writings, Freud focused much on the conflicts that generally arise between the individual's innate instincts and the rules and mores of the society. All human beings continually struggle through various stages of their psycho-social development to restrain and express their desires, drives, and instincts. Freud framed these conflicts between desire and civilization into two major groupings: the conflict between sexual drives and civilization; and the conflict between self-serving happiness and civilization.

Freud's views on human sexuality are notorious and controversial. His Oedipus complex and other…… [Read More]

References

Stier, Marc. "Civilization/Eros." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/eros.htm>.

Stier, Marc. "Civilization/Happiness." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/happiness.htm>.

Stier, Marc. "Instincts/Drives." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/drive.htm>.

Stier, Marc. "Nature of Happiness." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/happy.htm>.
View Full Essay

Freud Rogers Freud vs Rogers Theories and Impact

Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26035075

Freud/Rogers

Freud vs. Rogers:

Theories and Impact

Sigmund Freud and Carl Rogers are two of the 20th century's most renowned figures. Both psychologists developed countless advancements in their field, and both are greatly revered by psychologists and society as a whole today, for their efforts and their genius. Another similarity between the two men is that both proposed theories of personality and psychotherapy, and both men's theories are still viewed as controversial by some segments of the field. This paper will thus discuss the contributions of the two men in the respective issues, and their impact upon society.

Freud Theories

The first psychologist's theories to be examined here are those of Sigmund Freud, which center around three elements: the id, the ego, and the superego. Freud believed that the key to a healthy personality is true balance between these three elements, all of which work together to create complex individuals,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Freud Dreams and the Unconscious

Words: 1353 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14513870



Freud believed that dreams had the function of providing latent content that could not be easily discovered by the individual. He believed that the best way for an individual to discover the underlying meaning of dreams was to ignore the natural reaction of censoring thoughts and allow oneself to focus on the associations that can be inferred from the dream. According to Freud, in order to interpret dreams one must be able to think and remember in a visual manner and to understand the unconscious symbols that present themselves in dreams. Interpretation of dreams requires translating the visual imagery of the dream into linguistic symbols. The technique most often employed by Freud in dream analysis was free association, which seeks to uncover the underlying meaning in the dream. Freud utilized free association as a manner by which latent dreams could be manifested. In this method the client is encouraged to…… [Read More]

References

Blum, H.P. (2000). The writing and interpretation of dreams. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 17(4), 651-666. doi: 10.1037//0736-9735.17.4.651

Micheal, M. (2008). On the validity of Freud's dream interpretations. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biology & Biomedical Sciences, 39, 52-64.

Schneider, J. (2010). From Freud's dream-work to Bion's work of dreaming: The changing conception of dreaming in psychoanalytic theory. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 91(3), 521-540.

Tauber, A.I. (2009). Freud's dreams of reason: the Kantian structure of psychoanalysis. History of the Human Sciences, 22(4), 1-29.
View Full Essay

Freud and Jung on Dreams

Words: 332 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29772522



As in other areas of psychology, Carl Jung agreed with Feud on many of the basics of dream interpretation. He began to see Freud's views as overly simplistic, however, and believed that there were deeper collective archetypes that made themselves known through dreams, and which represented basic elements of the human character as ways of dealing with unconscious issues. Also of great importance to Jung, according to Hall, was the context of the dream, especially when it came to dangerous elements: "It is important to look beyond the mere presence of physical danger to the dream-ego and make some assessment of its meaning within the dream" (Hall, 49). This is similar to Freudian interpretation in its seeking of a mechanism of meaning, rather than interpreting dreams as being purely symbolic in content, but Jung developed this much further.

orks Cited

Sigmund Freud. The Interpretation of Dreams. New York: Avon, 1980.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sigmund Freud. The Interpretation of Dreams. New York: Avon, 1980.

James Albert Hall. Jungian Dream Interpretation. Toronto: Inner City Books, 1983.
View Full Essay

Freud and Surrealism

Words: 1164 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84199371

Freud and Surrealism

Art and science are strongly interrelated fields. It has been through the recognition of the compatibility between art and science that some of the greatest achievements in both areas have been created. It was Michaelangelo, the artist, that made revolutionary anatomical discoveries in the pursuit of art, discoveries which would become an integral part of the development of medicine. The early mapmakers were the first to create mathematical grids, and those principles would be translated into perspective and proportion for artists recreating three-dimensional objects in two-dimensional art. Along this same vein, the scientific study of the mind, psychology, has had a significant impact on art. The father of modern psychology, Sigmund Freud, discovered the metaphysical "psyche" in his search to understand the symptoms of his patients, opening up science and medicine to the world beyond the physical. Artists latched onto his theories about the importance of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dali, Salvador. "One Second Before Awakening from a Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee Around a Promegranate." 1944.

Rostrup, Truls. "The Surrealists and Freud." 1996. http://www.uib.no/people/ssptr/surreal.htm

Sanchez, Monica. "Surrealism: The Art of Self-Discovery." http://www.bway.net/~monique/surreal.htm
View Full Essay

Freud Mead and Malinowski Sexuality

Words: 1591 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26783134

In contrast to both Mead and Freud: "The genius of Malinowski was to perceive, and substantiate, the fact that the mind of the 'primitive' man was essentially no different than that of 'civilized' peoples. That is, although beliefs, motives, and emotional responses to situations might vary markedly from one culture to the next (a fact which would disprove the universality of Freud's Oedipal Complex), the ability of the mind to perceive and process information and to formulate creative, intelligent responses was the same regardless of race or culture" (Bronislaw Malinowski, NNMD, 2009). Myths, irrational as they might be, were common to all cultures -- and all cultures had unique elements of such irrationality. Malinowski's attitudes and expressions prefigure modern postmodernism and its emphasis on subjectivity and irrationality, and its suggestion that sexuality is merely one impulse amongst many, as opposed to the most significant impulse, as believed by Freud and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Bronislaw Malinowski." NNDB, 2009. Accessed June 19, 2009 at  http://www.nndb.com/people/320/000099023/ 

Freud, Sigmund. Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex. Translated by A.A. Brill.

Project Gutenberg, 1920. June 19, 2009.

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/14969/14969-h/14969-h.htm
View Full Essay

Freud and Berne Comparing and

Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51170221

Poor and unproductive interaction was a sign of a problem in one of the ego states. Berne concluded that nearly everyone suffered from a problematic ego, and that most people tried to make up for their defects by "playing games" with other people.

Although Berne's idea of ego states (parent, adult, child) does not correlate to Freud's idea of id, ego, super-ego -- both explanations offer a similar kind of view of the psyche.

However, as each person presents his or her own unique ego-state, no universal ego-state may apply to humanity as a whole. In fact, transactional analysis relies upon the observation of individual patients' manifestation of their own ego-state through interaction with others. Freudian psychoanalysis, however, applies a universal model, sexually oriented in nature, to a universal psyche. While transactional analysis attempts to define the ego-state for the individual so that the individual can be cured, Freudian psychoanalysis…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Freud Skinner Freud vs Skinner

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48064502

Childhood history for Skinner is a series of learning opportunities, which may or may not facilitate healthy adult functioning.

Focus of counseling and therapy

Getting to the root of childhood traumas is at the heart of Freudian therapy. This is often done by free association, or tapping into associations that the individual might not be immediately aware of, but inhibit mature social relationships. There is also a focus on understanding how a crisis at a stage during the child's psychosexual development has lead to a regression or a fixation in one of these states, and resulted in a malformed personality, such as an antisocial personality. Therapy for Skinner is focused on reconditioning the individual to no longer perform negative behaviors, and conditioning them to perform positive behaviors.

Human learning

Human learning in Freud is the imposition of the superego, or social rules and emotions (such as guilt) that curtail the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Freud Erikson Pavlov Freud Erikson

Words: 1146 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82109187

For Pavlov, there was less an emphasis on constant, internal conflict and strife, and an even greater stress than Erikson upon the ability of the environment to shape behavior, and by shaping external behavior shape the psyche. Conflict did not occur within the individual, rather it was imposed upon the individual externally by a stimulus, positive or negative associations were given with that stimulus, and learning and development took place as behaviors continued, even in the absence of the original reward or punishment. This learning could be sexual or asexual in nature, and learning took place throughout an individual's lifetime.

All theorists, albeit to different degrees, addressed the complex interaction of cognitive, physical and emotional development on the overall development of the child.

Freud stressed that a child 'learns' the correct sexual and social identity from the conflicts of early childhood, and the way these conflicts are resolved can produce…… [Read More]

Works Cited

David, Doug & Alan Clifton. "Psychosocial Theory: Erikson." Haverford College. Retrieved 5 Aug 2008. http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html

Ivan Pavlov." (1998). PBS.org. Retrieved 5 Aug 2008.  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/bhpavl.html 

Stevenson, David. "Id, Ego, and Superego." The Freud Web. Retrieved 5 Aug 2008.  http://www.victorianweb.org/science/freud/freud_ov.html
View Full Essay

Freud Erikson and Pavlov -

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12284687

Freud's multi-tiered stages of development stresses the sexual nature of the evolution of human personality to the exclusion of all other drives.

he third key concept of Freud's theories centers on the importance of repression, and the long-term affects of the first five years of life. A fixation on the mother causes the young boy to develop an Oedipal complex, as he desires to kill his father and supplant his father's position. he girl develops resentment of her mother because she was not born with a penis, and as a result of penis envy, transfers her desire for a penis to a desire for her father. Eventually, the boy learns to identify with his father to 'have' his mother, just as the girl learns to emulate her mother to 'have' a penis in the form of a husband and son. Freud theorized that the repressive stage of sexual development, which…… [Read More]

The third key concept of Freud's theories centers on the importance of repression, and the long-term affects of the first five years of life. A fixation on the mother causes the young boy to develop an Oedipal complex, as he desires to kill his father and supplant his father's position. The girl develops resentment of her mother because she was not born with a penis, and as a result of penis envy, transfers her desire for a penis to a desire for her father. Eventually, the boy learns to identify with his father to 'have' his mother, just as the girl learns to emulate her mother to 'have' a penis in the form of a husband and son. Freud theorized that the repressive stage of sexual development, which occurs after age five, temporarily arrests this conflict and enables the child to become a fully socialized adolescent and adult later on, with appropriate, non-familial, transferred objects of affection.

Erickson: Freud's Adversary

Erik Erickson was a key critic of Freud's psychoanalytic theories. Erickson stressed the social component and influence upon human development, and advocated a multi-stage process of human development, in contrast to Freud's emphasis on infant sexuality (David & Clifton 2008). Eriksson's first key concept stressed that human conflict was never-ending, and suggested that rather than focusing on the conflict of personal identity. Erickson's second key concept is that each stage of development was marked by a more general conflict of, for example, "trust vs. mistrust" (David & Clifton 2008). The third concept is that not only the family was involved
View Full Essay

Freud's Writing by Socrates and Socrates' Writing

Words: 1407 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65155062

Freud's Writing by Socrates and Socrates' Writing by Freud

Socrates Commenting on Freud's Civilization and its Discontents

Sigmund Freud presents a very interesting set of principles in his work Civilization and its Discontents. Here, he describes his belief in the true identity of the nature of man. More than anything else, man is aggressive. This aggression is essentially caused out of the tension and conflict between innate primal desires and the demands of social mores. Such aggression is often channeled through the death drive, the primal need to destroy which must be released in one way or another, even in a modern context.

In this view, society then attempts to civilize that aggressiveness so that we can live together without killing each other. It redirects primal and sexual energies into more positively viewed energies and behaviors. In Freud's view, religion serves as an institute of society, and aims to tame…… [Read More]

References

Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its Discontents. Norton & Company. 1989.

Freud, Sigmund. Interpretation of Dreams. Megalodon Entertainment LLC. 2010.

Plato. Five Dialogues. 2nd ed. Hackett Publishing. 2002.

The Holy Bible. New International Version. Harper Publishing, 1983.
View Full Essay

Freud and His Complete Theory of Grief Bereavement

Words: 3008 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50942874

Grief

Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement

Grade Course

Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Butler, J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Freud, S. (1914). On narcissism: An introduction. Standard Edition. 14:73 -- 102.

Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and melancholia. Standard Edition 14:243 -- 258

Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. Standard Edition 19:12 -- 66.
View Full Essay

Freud's Death Instinct The Writer

Words: 1663 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41220250



When this theory is applied to those who are suffering from major depression it drives home the possible underlying cause of one of the key signs of depression. When one no longer gets pleasure out of things that at one time gave them pleasure it is a sign of depression. Even if those activities one time gave them pleasure if they do not now, it is possible that it is because the person is giving in to their subconscious death instinct desire.

CONCLUION

As the field of mental health continues to advance many of the original founders' theories and opinions may find that they are tossed aside as more knowledge about the working of the mind is gathered. Freud has had many of his theory come under scrutiny over the years and some of his theories are no longer considered applicable.

The Death Instinct theory however, is one theory that…… [Read More]

Strachey, James (2002) the standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Unknown Binding) by Sigmund Freud W.W. Norton & Company

Sousa, Ronald (2003) Perversion and death. The Monist (Accessed 9-30-06)

Theory http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/freud.html
View Full Essay

Freud's Lens Application of Freud's

Words: 2132 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9414640

hen it comes to Jim Jones, it is a fact that the declaration of the day of dooms 5th May, 1967 not a reality to any normal person. Jones followers were so much brainwashed to believe that Guyanese Jungle could be immune from nuclear war. Freud's believe that religions grow out of homicide are evident in Madhis movement (Hicks 64). Due to the factor that Sudan was under colonial rule, it is likely that the country experience killing and persecution of those who failed to obey the colonizers rule. This factor contributed eminently to the resign of the Madhi movement. The same is evident in Jim Jones followers. Initially majority of his followers were black and historically, most countries including United States of America were undergoing racialism. This factor made majority of the blacks join Jim Jones movement.

Freud's theory on religion explains that most people join religion because of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Craig, William L, Antony Flew, and Stan W. Wallace. Does God Exist?: The Craig-Flew Debate. Aldershot, Hants, England, Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002. Print.

Ellens, JH. Explaining Evil. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger, 2011. Print.

Hicks, David. Ritual and Belief: Readings in the Anthropology of Religion. Lanham, Md: AltaMira Press, 2010. Print.

Kirkland, Russell. "An Introduction to the Philosophy & Religion of Taoism: Pathways to Immortality." CHOICE Current Reviews for Academic Libraries 43.1 (2006): 1617(1). Print.