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SIMONE DE BEAUVOI quote false. In, source-based literature, current events, personal experience, film; support criticize relevant theme. Simone De Beauvoir Quote: " The reason women lack concrete means organizing a unit stand face corrective unit."
The Second Sex by philosopher Simone de Beauvoir emerged in 1949 in France, as a 700-page plea for the liberation of women. In its introduction, the author states "that women lack concrete means for organizing themselves into a unit which can stand face-to-face with the correlative unit." By engaging in a thorough criticism of this statement, it shall be proved false.
In terms of number, women came to represent more than half of humanity and for this reason it seems needless to think in terms of organized units. It would be only appropriate to observe "the true dimensions of women's own empowerment as a new majority" (Friedan). History is charged with situations where a category…
Friedan, B. "The Future of Feminism." In Free Inquiry, Vol. 19, No. 3. (Summer 1999)
Characters in Camus' "The Guest" Using Simone De Beauvoir's Terminology and Ideas
Daru is the main character of The Guest. At the beginning of the narrative, Daru is seen watching carefully the arrival of two guests. He lives alone in the schoolhouse and this cold winter afternoon as the pupils remain home due to the blizzard. He spends time feeding the chicken, finding coal and going to the shed other than these, he spends much time in solitude. Daru comes from this place that is portrayed as cruel, but he would rather be here than anywhere else. Daru is visited by his old acquaintance Balducci and with Balduci is an Arab with his hands tied. He host them and an exchange of words ensue which reveals Daru's personality.
Simone de Beauvoir's ambiguity plays out in this character and to be specific esthetic Attitude, a positive aspect of Ambiguity. It…
Simone de Beauvoir's argument in The Ethics of Ambiguity are two main issues: the refuting of Cartesian dualism between body and mind, and the essence of freedom. From these two points, de Beauvoir also notes how the human being struggles with the ambiguity of existence, which is at once futile and meaningful, subjective and objective. The human being is socially constructed as well as self-constructed, seeing oneself in others, as others reflect back their image of the self. When others reflect ourselves back, that image is not pure. It has been tainted by the biases and worldviews of the other. Because of this, it can also be argued that the opinions of others are not fully meaningful. The person can certainly listen to what others have to say, but it would be wiser not to internalize that information or take it seriously.
However, de Beauvoir includes some important caveats in…
Simon De Beauvoir
"Ambiguity" in Simone de Beauvoir's "The Ethics of Ambiguity" promotes the idea that people need to abandon any preconception when trying to help a person. In his struggle to help the respective individual, one would have to concentrate on putting behind him or her everything society taught him or her and try to devise an original solution -- one that would actually help the person in need rather than to be socially acceptable. Many people have the tendency to unconsciously consider their personal interests when trying to help others. While this might seem like the best thing to do in some situations, it can sometimes prevent these people from actually be able to understand how they should help individuals they want to assist.
Beauvoir emphasizes a person's role in the world as being different from his or her role in society. Society promotes a mechanism through which…
Thus, free will -- as demonstrated by moral choice -- is in actuality a series of discrete and connected choices, each dependent on those preceding it as they shape the individual's attitude.
De Beauvoir then describes the sub-man, who wishes he did not exist. Yet he is the very consciousness that is willing this non-existence, and is thus self-defeating. To escape his subjectivity, he immerses himself in the object, and Lives fro a Thing rather tan for himself. She derides nihilist thought, too, claiming that though neither the world nor the individual have inherent and objective justifications, as the nihilists claim, it is the individual's responsibility to create that justification. Several other attitudes, given archetypal names like "the adventurer" and "the passionate man" are described, along with their mistaken takes on morality and free will. The truly free will, de Beauvoir claims, is in understanding and accepting -- indeed, actively…
In other words De Beauvoir sees the opportunity of secretary, shop girl, teacher, or nurse as wholly unlikely to offer women a real sense of independence and will likely continue to be treated as temporary positions held until the woman is married, at which time she will likely give up this vocation (surrender her body) and tend to a family.
Mill like De Beauvoir speaks of the extreme vocation of the wife and mother as one that offers much work and little independence. He says that women already share a larger burden than men with regard to living and in addition, and by virtue of this, necessary and natural role of the woman as wife and mother she is but should not be further barred from interests that could make her a better person.
…in addition to the physical suffering of bearing children, and the whole responsibility of their care…
Mill, John Stewart, the Subjection of Women. New York, NY: D. Appleton and CO. 1869.
De Beauvoir, Simone, the Second Sex. New York, NY: Vintage Books 1989.
born, but rather becomes, a woman.
Simone de Beauvoir
In her famous quotation from The Second Sex, Simone de Beauvoir challenges the notion that biology is destiny, and one's sex determines one's character. Although males and females may possess different physical characteristics, the interpretation of those characteristics is cultural in nature. For example, women menstruate -- this is a biological fact. However, the social interpretation of this fact, that women are somehow inferior to men because they menstruate, is a product of culture. Different cultural notions are imposed upon the sexes from a very early age, in both explicit and subtle ways. A boy may be told not to cry when he falls down playing soccer; a girl may be praised for loving pink. However, over time, these messages come to shape the human personality and because human beings are social animals, such gender-related pressures are difficult to resist. This…
Jean Paul Sartre and Simone De Beauvoir on Freedom, Being-for-Others, And Sartrean Despair
Simone de Beauvoir and JP Sartre were two famous existentialists that converged and diverged on various concepts. These included the existentialist concepts of freedom, being-for-others and transcendence or despair. Their converged and divergences will be addressed in this essay.
Sartre was one of the most famous existentialists of all times. For him, existence did not base itself on an ethos of God-ordained morality nor did it have any transcendental meaning. ather meaningfulness of life -- or liberty / freedom -- depended on the meaning that one arbitrarily accorded life and he claimed that man is "what he makes of himself," or in other words "in the end one is always responsible for what is made of one" In this way, Sartre's philosophy integrated both optimism and despair: optimism in the belief that one can resolutely make something…
Fullbrook, Kate & Edward. Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre: The Remaking of a Twentieth-Century Legend. New York: Basic Books: 1994.
Jean-Paul Sartre mythosandlogos.com/Sartre.html
Vintges, Karen. Philosophy as Passion: The Thinking of Simone de Beauvoir. Translated by Anne Lavelle. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.
de Beauvoir, Simone. The Ethics of Ambiguity. New York: Citadel Press, 1976. Print.
It is key to understanding the author's view of love and even her own status as a woman and as a thinker. Of course, the book can simply be read as a love story of infidelity and sexual liberty gone wrong in the face of an ever-changing political society in a state of national and European chaos. But the Mandarins de Beauvoir referred to were also the elite, the intellectual elites of Chinese society who held themselves above from the common peasants.
Thus, by calling her fellow Left Bank intellectuals 'Mandarins' De Beauvoir symbolically calls upon her fellow intellectuals to become part and parcel of the political fray, rather than wasting their energies with entangling personal alliances that can be just as dissipating as the betrayals of Vichy and the subsequent alliances that sapped the French nation of its own vital energies. She calls upon the intellectual Mandarins of French…
Gender in Fowles and McEwan
[oman] is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her; she is the incidental, the inessential. He is the Subject, he is the Absolute -- she is the Other. -- Simone de Beauvoir.
Simone de Beauvoir's influential analysis of gender difference as somehow implying gender deference -- that the mere fact of defining male in opposition to female somehow implies placing one in an inferior or subaltern position -- becomes especially interesting when examining how fiction by male authors approaches questions of gender. I propose to examine in detail two British novels of the post-war period -- The Collector by John Fowles, published in 1963, and The Comfort of Strangers by Ian McEwan, published in 1981 -- and hope to demonstrate that, in point of fact, the existence of the feminist movement has managed to shift the portrayal of…
Cooper, Pamela. The Fictions of John Fowles: Power, Creativity, Femininity. Canada: University of Ottowa Press, 1991. Print.
Dwelle, Josh. "Ian McEwan." In Schlager, Neil and Lauer, Josh. (Editors). Contemporary Novelists. Seventh Edition. New York: Saint James Press, 2001. Print.
Fowles, John. The Collector. London: Jonathan Cape, 1963. Print.
Gindin, James. "John Fowles." In Schlager, Neil and Lauer, Josh. (Editors). Contemporary Novelists. Seventh Edition. New York: Saint James Press, 2001. Print.
" Soon thereafter Marian begins struggling with eating and acting more feminine (out of character) due to the pressures imposed by the expectations of society. Atwood's implication is that this expectation of femininity dehumanizes woman, restricting their potential to self-actualize and personal freedom. The author's portrayal of Marian as feminine and weak indicates she is programmed to act this way and unable to consciously behave in any other manner. Marian is dehumanized by society.
As the story progresses Marian begins to grow into a stronger person. She begins to discover who she is and what she wants and take control over her life. Marion understands she does not want Peter and the life her has to offer. She takes her ring off places it in her change purse next to her nickels and dimes, coins of low value. Ultimately she overcomes the oppression of her culture, literally devouring a cake…
Atwood, Margaret. The Edible Woman. New York: Warner Books, 1969. Print.
Moore, Charlotte. "The Ethics of Ambiguity." Philosophy Now, March/April 2013. Web. 15 May 2013.
Warren, Karen. Ecofeminist Philosophy: A Western Perspective on What it is and Why it Matters. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000. Print.
Nietzsche's oman is by turns simply a reflection of common attitudes of the time, although he occasionally sees her in a more sympathetic view. In a modern light, the understanding of Nietzsche's philosophy has often been tainted by the view of his writings as racist and misogynist. Indeed, a cursory look shows that Nietzsche's perception of women is largely negative and unflattering. Nonetheless, the great philosopher is sometimes clearly sympathetic to women. The end result is that his work seems largely inconsistent and poorly thought out on the subject of women. Many philosophers, including Simone De Bauviour and Mill, have had a much different conception of woman than Nietzsche. Ultimately, Nietzsche has little important insight to offer on the subject of women, a disappointing oversight from a philosopher who repeatedly offered such perceptive and daring views on many important subjects.
Modern interpretation and analysis of Nietzsche's works is often tainted…
In: Paul Patton ed. Nietzsche, Feminism and Political Theory. Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1993.
Berkowitz, Peter. Nietzsche: The Ethics of an Immoralist. Oxford University Press, 1996.
Costa, Danielle. Mill and Nietzsche's Ideas about the Rightful and Natural Positions of Women in Society. Tufts University: Seminar: Liberty, Morality and Virtue, May 14, 1999.
Chodorow and Reproduction of Mothering
In, "A Room Of Her Own," the feminist novelist and author, Virginia Woolf demonstrated that one of the reasons why women writers were in overwhelmingly low numbers than their male counterparts was because of the lack of economic opportunity. (Woolf, 1991) Victorian perceptions also saddled women with the responsibilities of motherhood and domesticity. This took away the opportunity for women (except for a few) to truly come into their own. Nancy Chodorow, a preeminent social scientist addresses the issue. (Chodorow, 1999) She does not get caught up in the traditional feminist or socialization mindset. Even psychologists, Chodorow avers, have not pursued the matter at a higher granularity. All can agree that, explicitly or implicitly, women have been subjugated. Chodorow addresses the problem using psychoanalysis. She believes that the second-class status of women is associated with the issues of mothering, childbearing and childrearing -- aspects which…
Asimov, I. "Armies of God." Roving Mind. New York: Prometheus Books, 1997.
Beauvoir, S. d., and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. A limited ed. Franklin Center, Pa.: Franklin Library, 1979.
Chodorow, N. "Gender Personality and the Reproduction of Mothering." The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender: With a New Preface. Ed. N. Chodorow. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. 120-24.
Pinker, S. The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature. New York: Viking, 2002.
Serena illiams, one of the most strong and prominent young female role models for athletic women today is shown as using her tennis prowess to 'slam' nature in the face in one recent advertisement. illiams' femininity and her athleticism are clearly interconnected: illiams wears eye-catching outfits and is one of the most accomplished tennis stars of her generation. But according to Kotex, this female athlete cannot work worth 'with' Mother Nature and still be successful.
Sanitary napkin advertisements are very public, and often embarrassing to watch (even for male and female friends watching television together, eyes often head to the floor when they come on). Although it is painfully obvious what the ads are about, and what products they are promoting, the advertisements stress the secrecy and discretion of the product, especially their odor-reducing potential and the smallness of the packaging. In one ad, showing a girl on a skateboard:…
Chrisler, Joan C. & Paula Caplan. "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Ms. Hyde: How PMS
Became a Cultural Phenomenon and a Psychiatric Disorder." Annual Review of Sex
Research (2002): 274-306.
Lee, Janet. "A Kotex and a Smile': Mothers and Daughters at Menarche. Journal of Family
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
" James a.S. McPeek
further blames Jonson for this corruption: "No one can read this dainty song to Celia without feeling that Jonson is indecorous in putting it in the mouth of such a thoroughgoing scoundrel as Volpone."
asserts that the usual view of Jonson's use of the Catullan poem is distorted by an insufficient understanding of Catullus' carmina, which comes from critics' willingness to adhere to a conventional -- yet incorrect and incomplete -- reading of the love poem. hen Jonson created his adaptation of carmina 5, there was only one other complete translation in English of a poem by Catullus. That translation is believed to have been Sir Philip Sidney's rendering of poem 70 in Certain Sonnets, however, it was not published until 1598.
This means that Jonson's knowledge of the poem must have come from the Latin text printed in C. Val. Catulli, Albii, Tibulli, Sex.…
Alghieri, Dante Inferno. 1982. Trans. Allen Mandelbaum. New York: Bantam Dell, 2004.
Allen, Graham. Intertextuality. Routledge; First Edition, 2000. Print.
Baker, Christopher. & Harp, Richard. "Jonson' Volpone and Dante." Comparative
Women's Movement Timeline
The following paragraphs describe eight incredible women who lived from the 1700's through the present. This paper also includes a timeline to better place into perspective these women's incredible effort and their success at initiating change and giving women first, a voice, then, rights equal to those of men.
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
In 1792, Wollstonecraft published the most important piece relating to women's rights, a pamphlet entitled Vindication on the Rights of Women. This work advocated equality of the sexes, and elaborated upon what was later to become the central idea of the Women's Movement across Europe and America. According to scholars, Wollstonecraft "ridiculed prevailing notions about women as helpless, charming adornments in the household" and instead suggested the women should be educated and not be slavish dependents of their husbands. In fact, Wollstonecraft was one of the first women to advocate women's education above…
Schlafly was an instrumental activist during the 1970's whose efforts, according to scholars, "were largely responsible for preventing ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment." Though Schlafly's opinions are very distinctive when compared to those of the women described above, it is important to mention her as one of the last to oppose equal rights for women publicly. However, her efforts did success, in part because she argued the following:
"ERA would force women into the military, jeopardize benefits under Social Security, and weaken existing legal protections under divorce and marriage laws…"
Source: "Phyllis Schlafly in Women's Movement." Women's Movement. Web. 29 May 2012. .
Body, Identity, Gender]
From birth, humans learn, act out and experience their gendered identities. The society's concepts of femininity and masculinity form a person's relationship to his/her body and the bodies of other individuals. The issue of gender is also an aspect of prevailing norms of inequality and oppression. Discrimination based on appearances continues to be a common occurrence.
For example, feminists and philosophers, such as Simone de Beauvoir in The Second Sex question, "what is a woman?" (in Ashton-Jones101). She dislikes the traditional explanation of "woman is a womb," but recognizes that throughout history woman has been defined as "the Other" of man: "Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in herself but as relative to him." (in Ashton-Jones 102). In other words, man is the absolute being and woman takes on all of the negative bodily, mortal and irrational aspects that he prefers not to find…
de Beauvoir, Simone. "Femininity and Sisterhood." In Evelyn Ashton-Jones and Gary A. Olson (Eds.) The Gender Reader. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1991, pp. 34-350.
Bordon, Susan. "Material Girl." In Roger N. Lancaster and Micaela di Leonardo (Eds.) The Gender Sexuality Reader. New York: Routledge, pp. 335-358.
Butler, Judith. "Exerpt from 'Inroduction' to Bodies That Matter. In Roger N. Lancaster and Micaela di Leonardo (Eds.) The Gender Sexuality Reader. New York: Routledge, pp.531-542.
hooks, bell. Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press, 1992.
So by embracing the underground, as the narrator eventually does, he is attempting to regain a sense of his own identity by remaining separate from the falseness of that which occurs above him. Clearly, it is significant that he spends his time stealing electricity, writing his story, and listening to Louis Armstrong's "hat Did I Do to Be So Black and Blue" on a phonograph. The first, obviously, is his attempt to subvert the works of mainstream society; but the second two stand as the symbol for what jazz represents in the American experience. Jazz is this sense of individuality; so much so, that the narrator is able to create his own identity through words as he listens to music. Today, the invisibility of jazz has been lifted, but its importance to the meaning of the words "America" and "democracy" remains the same as Ellison understood it to be.
De Beauvoir, Simone. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975.
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. New York: Random House, 1980.
Ostendorf, Berndt. "Ralph Waldo Ellison." New Essays on Invisible Man. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Peretti, Burton. "Speaking in the Groove: Oral History and Jazz." The Journal of American History, vol. 88, no. 2, September, 2001.
Children's Literature Research
The Changing Representation of Female Characters and Feminist Heroines in Children's Literature from Baum to Montgomery
Once children can read, they are cast into the literature world – characters, themes, settings, and plots. Children's literature brings concepts like friendship, nature, education, discovery, religion, and the structure and operation of society so that the child feels connected to the material. Some have argued that children's literature only comes to existence when it can portray child or child-like characters or appeal to the child's point of view (Grenby, 2007, p.277). children's literature has a long, global history that originates in the traditional and folk oral tales. In Britain, children's books can be traced back to the eighteenth century, with such classics as John Newbery's A Little Pretty Pocket-Book (1744). In the nineteenth century, children's books formed a distinguishable genre within the literary world. Expansion of children's literature to…
Alcott, L.M. (1869). Little Women. Little, Brown, and Company.
Baum, L. F. (1900). The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. EBook. Project Gutenberg.
Becker, B. (2013). A feminist analysis of Lyman Frank Baum\\\\'s the wonderful wizard of Oz, Lucy Maud Montgomery\\\\'s Anne of Green Gables and Frances Hodgson Burnett\\\\'s the secret garden (Doctoral dissertation, University of Fort Hare).
Bender, C. (2017). Gender Stereotyping in Little Women: \\\\"Let Us Be Elegant or Die!\\\\". MJUR, Issue 8, 140-153.
Bienert, M. (2009). Imagining Anne: The Island Scrapbooks of LM Montgomery. The Lion and the Unicorn, 33(1), 115-116.
Grenby, M. O. (2007). Chapbooks, children, and children\\\\'s literature. Library, 8(3), 277-303.
Montgomery, L. M. (2004). Anne of Green Gables. Broadview Press.
Rogers, K. M. (2002). L. Frank Baum: Creator of Oz: A Biography. Macmillan.
feeling overwhelmed. The required reading felt daunting and it seemed like the expectations put upon students were rather high. I remember having the impression that a lot of my learning would entail simply memorizing and regurgitating facts and ideas. I had concerns about the amount of writing expected of us. As I explained in my "Guided Self-Placement" essay, I started this course without having had a great deal of reading and writing experience.
I feel that this course has enabled me to write and think more critically and formally. Previously, I was not aware of the necessary tone that academic essays had to take and that it's appropriate to omit colloquial phrases and words such as "like." In fact, I would still say that I sometimes have a tendency to write in too much of a conversational tone, and have to be particularly watchful of that in my writing.
Bordo, Susan. The male body: a new look at men in public and in private. "Beauty
(Re)Discovers the Male Body." New York: Farrar, Straus and Girror, 1999.
Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Pantheon, 1977.
Tompkins, Jane. "Indians": Textualism, Morality, and the Problem of History." Styles of cultural activism: from theory and pedagogy to women, Indians. Ed. Philip Goldstein. Boston: Associated University Presses, 1994
hat is gender? Is it a biological condition or a social construction? In today's modern world, it appears that it can be one or the other or even a mixture of both. Transgender people like Caitlyn Jenner (formerly Bruce Jenner, an Olympian) have raised awareness about the issue of gender, and so have others, like the achowski siblings, famous Hollywood directors, who have brought attention to the issue through their exploration of sexual and gender identity issues. Researchers have also added to the debate about what is gender identity by performing both qualitative and quantitative studies about it, ranging from discussions of the difference between sex and gender to neurobiological brain scans of brain wave patterns in men, women, straight and transgender. Results, findings and conclusions remain contested and controversial, suggesting that even today little is known about why gender identity is an issue for some and not…
Beauvoir, Simone de. The Second Sex. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004.
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. NY:
Routledge, 1990. Print.
Italy is a cultural hub of gender identity where issues of feminism and masculinism have been deeply entrenched for many years. For centuries Italy has been considered a more masculine country, though the majority of work documented related to masculinism actually is sparse. Issues of feminism and masculinity has surfaced in the workplace, where naturally access to issues such as equal employment and technology have surfaced. Gender inequality issues in Italy have in fact created a basis for the continuance of a feminism-masculinism dichotomy.
Masculinism has been defined as "the property by which humans of the male sex are defined as manly" (Noumenal, 2004). Alternatively, Simone de Beauvoir described femininity as "neither a natural nor an innate entity, but rather a condition brought about by society." This statement is more true than any other, as evidenced by gender inequality differences largely the result of the paternalistic nature of the culture…
Angier, N. 2000. "Women: An Intimate Geography." Anchor.
Barker, P. 1998. "Michel Foucault -- An Introduction." Edinburgh University Press.
Beccalli, B. 1994. The Modern Women's Movement in Italy, in New Left Review. Volume a, Issue 204: 86-112.
Boccia, M.L. 1991. "The Gender Representation." In Bono and Kemp, "Italian Feminism." Blackwell.
Yellow Wallpaper,' the nameless narrator is compelled by those that surround her to spend time in a colonial mansion in order to rest and get well. The opposite happens; we see her descend into madness in a way that is vaguely reminiscent of the main character in 'The Shining.' We are given the sense of a controlled environment, in which a narrator is placed by male figures representing authority and familiarity (doctors: her husband and brother) in a situation where she is condemned to stare at a wall. The response of her subconscious is embodied in the changes she perceives in the character of the wall.
She sees a yellow female woman trying to break free of the wall, which we interpret to represent the constrained parameters of her activity. She is a complete subordinate, dominated by men who possess professional accolades. Her attitudes mirror those we see in Ibsen…
Eastern influences are revealed in 'A Room of One's Own.' There Woolf expresses her concern for unity and balance between the male and female principles. She writes of "two sexes in the mind corresponding to the two sexes in the body" which "require to be united in order to get complete satisfaction and happiness." In each of us, she says, "two powers preside, one male, one female." According to Woolf, "The normal and comfortable state of being is that when the two live in harmony together, spiritually cooperating... Coleridge perhaps meant this when he said that a great mind must be androgynous. It is when this fusion takes place that the mind is fully fertilized and uses all its faculties."
Jean-Charles Seigneuret. Dictionary of Literary Themes and Motifs Vol. 1. Greenwood Press, 1988
Katie Conboy, Nadia Medina, Sarah Stanbury. Writing on the Body: Female Embodiment and Feminist Theory; Columbia University Press, 1997
“One is not born but rather becomes a woman.” This famous statement by the French existential feminist Simone de Beauvoir highlights the fact that gender, as opposed to physical sex, is something into which someone is socialized, not which exists as a universal construct (Butler, 1988, p. 519). The 20th century feminist theorist Judith Butler took De Beauvoir’s thesis one step further to argue that gender is a performance not connected to the physical body at all and both men and women can effectively perform the female role. This notion is not as radical and contemporary as it may seem. As the film Shakespeare in Love highlights, in Elizabethan times, women were considered to be inferior beings, incapable of acting on stage at all. The film is a highly fictionalized version of life on the Elizabethan stage, and its final, climatic scene is that of a young woman named Viola…
) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.
c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?
There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Primary Source
Documents, History 100.
Hitler, a. Mein Kampf. Primary Source Documents, History 100.
Marx, Karl and F. Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Primary Source
Still, Goffman's point is, when both members of the team play their roles that send a message that those new people in the audience will now expect to see. This is "team performance" and in this case, and others like it, each member of the team has the power to ruin the show, or keep it on track, by his or her behavior. This is the "bond of reciprocal dependence" (p. 82).
In Chapter III ("Regions and Region Behavior") there is more to learn, this time about "regions" (such as a cocktail party where several couples gather in one room in "subgroups" which "constantly shift in size and membership") (107). People talking and responding to others in regions are actually putting on a performance. Some realize it, some don't. Decorum is the expected polite behavior while in a region. "Make-work" is the performance that workers put on when the supervisor…
Goffman, Erving. 1959. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Doubleday
Wulf, S.J. (2000). "The skeptical life in Hume's political thought. Polity, 33(1), 77.
Wulf uses David Hume's well-known skepticism to advance his concerning the extreme degrees to which philosophy had been taken before returning to less radical modes. He develops material about the antithetical ideas to those investigated here; that is, he puts into a context the ideas of those philosophers who, working at the edge of the intelligible, refused to "accede to the judgment of reason and even their own senses."
ukav, Gary. (1984) the dancing Wu Li masters: An overview of the new physics. New York: Bantam.
One of the first statements ukav makes in this book is that he found, visiting the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Berkeley, California, that physics "was not the sterile, boring discipline that I had assumed it to be. It was a rich, profound venture, which had become inseparable from philosophy. Incredibly, no…
Zumbrunnen, J. (2002). Courage in the Face of Reality: Nietzsche's Admiration for Thucydides. Polity, 35(2), 237+. Retrieved July 13, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
The Hundredth Monkey Theory is this: On a desert island at least 20 miles from another desert island, one of the monkeys decides to wash his fruit in the ocean before he eats it. Soon, his fellow monkeys see him doing it and follow suit. There is no communication between the first and second islands; nonetheless, one day shortly after the final monkey on the first island begins to wash his fruit, the monkeys on the second island begin to wash their fruit. They did not hear it through the 'monkey grapevine.' In New Thought, they heard it because ideas, thought to be intangible, are actually tangible, traveling in ways as yet unknown to us throughout the universe and popping up as 'new' ideas.
This story, if one wants to trace it through quarks and string theory and even the fact that airplanes and bumblebees are both incapable of flight but do it anyway, marries science and philosophy very neatly.
He can then be influenced to live what he now understands but has yet to do. The therapist or doctor must encourage the patient or awaken his social interest and raise his level of energy along with it. y developing a genuine human relationship with the patient, the therapist or doctor can re-establish the basic form of social interest, which the patient can use in transferring it to others. oth therapist and patient must realize that the latter's ultimate cure can come only from him.
Adler's approach has similarities with that of Socrates (Stein 1991). Socrates exhorted others to "know thyself," while Adler urged that people should think for themselves (Meyer 1980 as qtd in Stein 1991). Like Socrates, he would lead the person or patient through a series of questions to a contradiction within himself as revealed by his own answers. oth philosophers were committed to the search for…
Adler, A. (1932). Mind and Body. What Life Should Mean to You. Unwin Books. http://www.marxists.org/references.org/subject/philosophy/works/at/adler.htm
Boeree, G. (1997). Alfred Adler. Shippensburg University. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/adler.htm
Holmes, L. (2002). Clinicians' Personal Theories Influence Diagnosis of Mental Disorders. Mental Health Resource: Vanderbilt University. http://mentalhealth.about.com/library/sci/1202/blscdx1202.htm
Center for Existential Depth Psychology. (2004). Philosophical Forerunners of Existential Psychotherapy. Louis Hoffman. http://www.existential.therapy.co/Key%20Figures/Philosophical_Forerunners.htm
Moral Messages in Children's Literature
I chose four children's classics: Charlotte's web (1952) by E.B. White, and other three children's fairy tales, two by Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm (Cinderella and Snow white and the seven dwarfs) and one by Charles Perrault (Sleeping Beauty). These were among my personal childhood favorites. Looking back on all four as an adult, I see many similarities, but also many differences, in these books' inherent moral messages. All have been positively reviewed (e.g., have received awards or good critical reviews, and/or have stood the test of time). Each contains many distinct moral messages, some plain, others less so. Each also deals with situations that require moral decisions.
Charlotte's web is a story about eight-year-old Fern, who, while growing up on a farm, loves and nurtures a pet pig, Wilbur. Wilbur grows up (with help from Fern and various animal friends, including a wise…
Elaine Brown, a Taste of Power
Elaine Brown's autobiography A Taste of Power: A Black Woman's Story provides a snapshot of life in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when Brown briefly rose to the leadership of the Black Panther Party. In North Philadelphia born and raised, Brown dropped out of Temple University and traveled west seeking a musical career in Hollywood, much like another noteworthy figure from this period obsessed with the mass insurrection of America's black population, Charles Manson. Brown, however, ended up not at the Spahn Ranch but at the Pink Pussycat, working as a cocktail waitress in "the hottest spot in West Hollywood" (74). She soon acquired a white lover, who talks of Stokely Carmichael over a meal of "Piper Heidieck champagne, bottled in 1952…beluga caviar…cracked crab with a mustard sauce. Our dinner was lamb, served on skewers, with wild rice" (80). After this a "radicalization"…
gender roles in the workplace pre-exist much of what we think defines what work really is; not only do they pre-exist the modern working world of offices and factories, but they also seems older than more basic things, like writing and currency. From the world of the Tasaday tribe in the Philippines to that of such fields as genetic engineering and astrophysics, men and women are compelled to function within the workforce in different ways. In the United States, women dominate fields such as nursing, teaching, and clerical positions, while fields like engineering, programming and accounting are thought to be the domain of men. Some positions, such as those of flight attendants and nurses, are considered so intrinsically "female" that many men refuse to enter these fields for fear that others will question their sexual preference. Other more coveted positions, such as that of the CEO of a large company,…
Last chapter to include a section for reflection-comments on the research process and, explanation of what I have learned while doing research. Research project must have practical impact on an organization. Purely academic studies are not acceptable. Need to establish measurable objectives.
This action research project is the final component in my degree program.
Women at Work: What causes lack respect towards women in the workplace. http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/friedan.htm
The four Educational Philosophies
Essentialism argues that a common core of knowledge needs to be passed to learners in a disciplined and systematic manner. The concentration in this traditional viewpoint is on moral and intellectual standards that academic institutions should educate. The curriculum focuses on knowledge, skills, and academic rigor. Although this academic viewpoint is similar in some ways to Perennialism, Essentialism accepts the idea that this core curriculum may change. Education should be realistic, preparing learners to become useful people in the society. It should concentrate on facts and "the fundamentals," training learners to speak, write, read and think clearly and rationally. Schools must not try to set or influence guidelines. Students should be trained self-discipline, respect for authority, and hard work. Instructors are to help learners keep their non-productive intuition in checks, such as mindlessness or aggression. This strategy was in response to progressivism techniques…
Barnes, W. (2008). The Philosophy And Literature Of Existentialism. Woodbury, N.Y: Barron's Educational Series, Inc.
Bigge, M.L. (2012). Educational Philosophies For Teachers. Columbus: Merrill.
Segall, W.E., & Wilson, A.V. (2004). Introduction To Education: Teaching In A Diverse Society. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
The concept of feminism is not new, although it is often associated with the latter half of the twentieth century. However, assuming this is correct is an error. The aim of this paper is to look at the concept of feminism, first defining what it is, and then looking at how it is developed and how it may be seen today.
Feminism refers to an ideology in which the position of women is advanced with the aim of gaining equality; meaning that they are able to gain the same rights as men (Offen, 1988). The concept of equality refers to political, economic, and legal rights (Offen, 1988). The underlying concept is that women also need to have equal access to resources, such as education and health care, as well as equal opportunities in the workplace (Freedman, 2003; Offen, 1988).
While the movement and progress of the ideas may be…
Baruch, Elaine Hoffman, (1988), "Women in Men's Utopias" Rohrlich, Ruby, Baruch Elaine Hoffman, (eds.), Women in Search of Utopia, New York, Oxford University Press
Brody, Miriam (1983), "Mary Wollstonecraft: Sexuality and Women's Rights (1759-1797)." In Spender, Dale,(1983), Feminist Theorists: Three Centuries of Key Women Thinkers, Pantheon Books
Crawford, Elizabeth, (2006), The women's suffrage movement in Britain and Ireland: a regional survey, Taylor & Francis
de Beauvoir, Simone, English translation 1953 (1989). The Second Sex. Vintage Books
Gender in Post-Communist Society
Consider the differences between gendered behavior in the Czech Republic and the U.S.A.… which socio-historical factors affect the Czechs' present-day gender identity and gender issues?
Men are respected as the stronger sex and this determines the way they relate women. A Czech has a striking mixture of firm attachment to the labor market and strong family values, considerable independence and personal efficiency. The women are homemakers and breadwinners. They are also able to command attention. Another interesting part of the Czech gender roles is that love outweighs work. For example, more women devote their time to care for their children at home unlike before and make considerable efforts in finding husbands (Delphy & Leonard, 175).
I noticed that Czech women are nicely dressed in order for them to find husbands while the men act chivalrously in order for them to find wives. Many women abandon their…
Nanette Funk and Magda Mueller, "Feminism East and West," Gender Politics and Post-Communism. Reflections from Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union,(1993) New York and London, Routledge, pp. 318-330.
Berger, John. "Ways of Seeing. London": BBC Penguin Books. pp. 129-154. 1977
Beauvoir, Simone de, "The Psychoanalytical Point-of-View," pp. 49-61. (2010). In the second sex New. York: Vintage Books
Delphy, Ch. And Leonard, D. "The Variety of Work Done by Wives," in (eds.) Jackson, S. And Scott, S. G Gender: A Sociological Reader. New York: Routledge. pp. 170-179.2002
role of Islam as a unifying force
Perhaps more than any other religion in the world, Islam has put to work its less obvious sense in order to unify the peoples sharing the same belief. Through its art, its common language and its judicial system that has the Koran teachings at its base, Islam was a unifying force among the Arabic peoples of the Arabic Peninsula, Northern Africa and the Middle East.
There is a short discussion I would like to address here and that is to identify the differences between culture and civilization. This will help us see how religion LO is included in this set of concepts. From my point-of-view, religion LO can be considered an element of civilization through its cultural component. If we exclude Marxist ideology that argue that civilization is but a certain level that culture has attained and make no distinction between the two,…
" (Iraq Body Count). To begin to understand the extent of the problem, the media needs to address the following questions about civilian deaths: "ho is killing them? How are they being killed? ho is being killed? How do current patterns compare to earlier periods?" (Iraq Body Count). hile these questions can be answered for some of the civilian deaths, many of the murdered are targeted in anonymous killings, like bombings, while others are kidnapped and executed, making it virtually impossible to assign blame for the deaths. The highest numbers of deaths are linked to Coalition and anti-Coalition violence, but the underlying causes of those deaths are too complex to attribute to Coalition involvement in Iraq. The more insurmountable these problems became, the less press coverage they got, despite the fact that actual conditions were not improving. In fact, press coverage became so biased against Iraqis who complained about life…
Damon, Arwa. "Signs of Torture' You Can't Imagine." CNN.com. 2008. Turner
Broadcasting System, Inc. 25 Jan. 2009 http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/meast/03/12/iraq.women/index.html .
Iraq Body Count. "Post-Surge Violence: Its Extent and Nature." Iraq Body Count. 2008. Iraq
Body Count. 25 Jan. 2009 http://www.iraqbodycount.org/analysis/numbers/surge -
"The Sleeping Beauty" by Lord Alfred Tennyson uses several narrative techniques. The first of which can be seen in the second line of the first stanza. "She lying on her couch alone" (). The phrase uses incorrect English to change the tone of the poem. Although the poem does not try to establish a rhyming pattern in the BC in the first stanza with "grown" and "form," the two words sound well together as though they rhyme. The pattern however is ABABCDCD with BC sounding like they should rhyme. All the "slumberous light" uses personification to describe light.
Many of the lines within the first stanza are filled with imagery of this woman: "A braid of pearl" and "rounded curl." She is so beautiful and magnificent that even the smallest things she does are explained or described on a grand scale. She is the epitome of beauty and wears the…
All without distinction were branded as fanatics and phantasts; not only those, whose wild and exorbitant imaginations had actually engendered only extravagant and grotesque phantasms, and whose productions were, for the most part, poor copies and gross caricatures of genuine inspiration; but the truly inspired likewise, the originals themselves. And this for no other reason, but because they were the unlearned, men of humble and obscure occupations. (Coleridge iographia IX)
To a certain extent, Coleridge's polemical point here is consistent with his early radical politics, and his emergence from the lively intellectual community of London's "dissenting academies" at a time when religious non-conformists (like the Unitarian Coleridge) were not permitted to attend Oxford or Cambridge: he is correct that science and philosophy were more active among "humble and obscure" persons, like Joseph Priestley or Anna Letitia arbauld, who had emerged from the dissenting academies because barred (by religion or gender)…
By mid-century, however, these forces in the use of grotesque in prose were fully integrated as a matter of style. We can contrast two convenient examples from mid-century England, in Dickens's 1850 novel David Copperfield, compared with Carlyle's notorious essay originally published in 1849 under the title "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question." Dickens is, of course, the great master of the grotesque in the Victorian novel. Most of Dickens' villains -- the villainous dwarf Quilp in The Old Curiosity Shop, the hunchback Flintwinch in Little Dorrit, the junkshop-proprietor Krook who perishes of spontaneous combustion in Bleak House -- have names and physical characteristics that signpost them as near-perfect examples of the grotesque. The notion that this grotesquerie is, in some way, related to the streak of social criticism in Dickens' fiction is somewhat attractive, because even the social problems in these novels are configured in ways that recall the grotesque, like the Circumlocution Office in Little Dorrit, Boffin's mammoth dust-heap in Our Mutual Friend, or the philanthropist and negligent mother Mrs. Jellaby in Bleak House who proves Dickens' polemical point about charity beginning at home by being rather grotesquely eaten by the cannibals of Borrioboola-Gha. We can see Dickens' grotesque in a less outlandish form, but still recognizable as grotesque, in the introduction of the villainous Uriah Heep in Chapter 15 of David Copperfield:
When the pony-chaise stopped at the door, and my eyes were intent upon the house, I saw a cadaverous face appear at a small window on the ground floor (in a little round tower that formed one side of the house), and quickly disappear. The low arched door then opened, and the face came out. It was quite as cadaverous as it had looked in the window, though in the grain of it there was that tinge of red which is sometimes to be observed in the skins of red-haired people. It belonged to a red-haired person -- a youth of fifteen, as I take it now, but looking much older -- whose hair was cropped as close as the closest stubble; who had hardly any eyebrows, and no eyelashes, and eyes of a red-brown, so unsheltered and unshaded, that I remember wondering how he went to sleep. He was high-shouldered and bony; dressed in decent black, with a white wisp of a neckcloth; buttoned up to the throat; and had a long, lank, skeleton hand, which particularly attracted my attention, as he stood at the pony's head, rubbing his chin with it, and looking up at us in the chaise. (Dickens, Chapter 15)
We may note the classic elements of