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Singapore Airlines (SIA) is the flagship airline for Singapore, based out of hangi Airport. It has a strong presence in most of Asia, and the so-called "Kangaroo Routes" from the West to Australia and New Zealand. It is an innovative company, operating two of the world's longest non-stop commercial flights (Singapore to Los Angeles and Newark). It was the launch customer of the Airbus A380 Superjumbo, but also has diversified airline-related organizations; aircraft handling, Silk Air, and Singapore Airlines argo. SIA also has a 49% share in Virgin Atlantic. As of December 2010, it was the second largest airline in the world, with a net worth of $14 billion dollars. In 2009-2010, SIA posted almost $11 billion (U.S.) in revenues, with a net income of $227 million.
As one of the most admired airlines in the industry, SIA's strategy to deliver continuous quality includes six major points: democratic organization, small…
Singapore Airline is one of leading airlines companies in the industry for several decades. Its dual strategy of providing excellent services and keeping cost-effective has helped it to earn substantially profitability and enlarge its market continuously. This essay will firstly discuss the external and internal environment of Singapore Airlines through several aspects, such as company description, social economics data, strength, weakness, opportunities, and threats, product and services etc. Following this, it will explain market target and channel relations of the organization, such as the target customers, branding, channel relationships, relation building, market growth and strategies, etc.
External and Internal Environment
Company description, structure, reputation and history
Singapore Airlines Limited (SIA), which is emerged from 1972, is the national airline company of Singapore that operates major routes globally, with a strong market at Southeast Asia, South Asia, East Asia, and "Kangaroo oute." The history of SIA could be dated…
Alamdari., F. (2002). Regional development in airlines and travel agents relationship. Journal of Air Transport Management. Vol. 8,p:339-348.
Chan, D. (2000a).The story of Singapore Airlines and the Singapore Girl. The journal of Management Development. Vol. 19, No. 6; page: 456-472.
Chan, D. (2000b). Beyond Singapore girl: Grand and product/service differentiation strategies in the new millennium. The journal of Management Development. Vol. 19, No. 6, p: 515-542.
Doganis, R. (2006). The Airline Business. Second ed. Routledge: Abingdon.
In the second week, we decided to carry out a marketing audit assignment for Singapore Airlines. The members were requested to carry out a research on the basic information as well as background on the company and the airlines industry in general.
The Areas to look at: competitors; services; suppliers; new product offerings; market process; how the company get its new customers as well as maintain the existing ones;the relationship management system;; integrated approach or separate; fulfillment management; does the company's mission statement reflects any element; such as product; customer oriented or market oriented as well as business links.
Websites, Journals, Newspapers
Wirtz, J & Heracleous (2009)Strategy and organization at Singapore Airlines: Achieving sustainable advantage through dual strategy
Source: Journal of Air Transport Management 15 (2009) 274 -- 279
This article describes the dual marketing strategy used by Singapore Airlines. It describes the reason as to why the…
Clow, KE.; Baack, D. (2007). Integrated Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing Communications 3rd edition. Pearson Education. pp. 9 -- 10. ISBN 9780131866225.
O'Guinn, T, Allen, C and Semenik, R (2008).Advertising and Integrated Brand Promotion. Cengage Learning, 2008 - Business & Economics
Shimp, TA (2008)Advertising, promotion, and other aspects of integrated marketing communications. Cengage Learning, 2008 - Business & Economics
Learning Journal Weekly esearch Journal Meeting ecords
Week 1 Overview & Introduction
Our group decided to analyze Singapore Airlines Limited. One of the aspects of Singapore Airlines that we found interesting and that first attracted members of our team was their green initiative. The airlines industry is highly competitive and green, sustainable operations are usually not the least expensive alternatives for a thriving airline. Singapore Airlines is an early adopter of fuel-efficient technology. They were the first airline to fly the Airbus 380 and have placed orders for the latest planes of the fuel-efficient generation: Boeing 787 and Airbus A350. The passenger fleet maintained by Singapore Airlines is young, with an average age of 6 years and 4 months (as of September 1, 2011). The passenger fleet numbers in excess of 175 aircraft in 2009. Singapore Airlines operates in East Asia, Europe, the Americas, West Asia, Africa, and the South…
Kottler, P. And Keller, K (2006), Marketing Management, 12e, New Jersey: PearsonEducation, Inc.
Loizos, H. (2006). Flying high in a competitive industry: Cost-effective service excellence at Singapore Airlines. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Leong, W.K. (2007). Open books to open skies. Today Online. Retrieved http://web.archive.org/web/20080107025949/http://www.todayonline.com/articles/216291.asp
Singapore Airlines -- flying tiger. (2006). Singapore Airlines Retrieved http://www.Brandchannel.com
Service Quality of Singapore Airline
The focus of this work in writing is the examination of the SERVQUAL model as it applies to a case study of Singapore Airlines in regards to service quality and the application of a conceptual model of service quality. This study will additionally explain the gap in service quality between firm and customer.
The work of Prayag and Dookhony-Ramphul (2010) report that the SERVQUAL model "is still the most widely used scale for measuring service quality. The SERVQUAL scale has been applied to airlines, hotels, financial services, health care, and the public sector." (p.3) uttle (1995) reports that SERVQUAL makes provision of a technology "for measuring and managing service quality (SQ). Since 1985, when the technology was first published, its innovators Parasuraman, Zeithaml and erry, have further developed, promulgated and promoted the technology through a series of publications." (p.8) It is reported that the AI/Inform…
Buttle, F. (1995) SERVQUAL: Review, Critique, Research Agenda. European Journal of Marketing 30,1. Oct 1994.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. And Berry, L.L. (1985), "A conceptual model of service quality and its implication," Journal of Marketing, Vol. 49, Fall, pp. 41-50.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. And Berry, L.L. (1986), "SERVQUAL: a multiple-item scale for measuring customer perceptions of service quality," Report No. 86-108, Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge, MA.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. And Berry, L.L. (1988), "SERVQUAL: a multi-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of the service quality," Journal of Retailing, Vol. 64, No. 1, pp. 12-40.
Services Marketing Strategy eport
The airline business is among the most competitive sectors in the economy. The business requires the investors to invest huge amounts of capital to sustain the operations of the business. The difference in the capital available has resulted into emergence of superior airline companies that have dominated the global market. The airline companies are mainly a service delivery oriented offering transport for passengers and language.
The airline company under evaluation is Singapore Airlines. The company was incorporated in 1947 originally as Malayan Airways Limited. With the help from British Commonwealth airlines, the company increased its fleet size to become among the major players in the airline industry. The company has a strong presence in Asia, which is the major market. The company operates trans-Pacific flights, which increase revenue. The company also diversifies its operations to provide services like as aircraft managing and engineering services (Lee &…
Beiske, B. (2007). Loyalty management in the airline industry. Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag GmbH.
Capon, N., & Hulbert, J.M. (2007). Managing marketing in the 21st century: Developing and implementing the market strategy. Bronxville, N.Y: Wessex Inc.
Chary, S.N. (2009). Production and operations management. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
De, L.C. (2003). The Rough guide to Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei. New York: Rough Guides.
PRODUCT, PRICE, PROMOTION, PLACE ) OF INGAPORE AIRLINE & #8230;focus on Product ( brand, service quality, service excellence ) .Why product ( brand, service quality, service excellence) price, promotion, place of ingapore Airlines is important ?
ingapore Airlines is a full-fledged carrier service that combines a high-level product with excellent flight service. As of 2011, IA possessed 108 modern passenger planes (mostly Boeing 777 (PREWIRE, 2005) whose average age was six years and three months (ingapore Airline, 2012). IA has, accordingly, achieved the reputation of possessing one of the world youngest fleet of aircraft (PREWIRE, 2005). IA is a member of tar Alliance. he is also the first airline company to internationally operate the world's largest passenger aircraft called Airbus A380 that is comfortably equipped to cater to its passengers' needs.
IA has also diversified into aircraft handling and engineering .Meanwhile, her subsidiary, ilkAir, operates local flights with smaller…
Chan, Daniel. (2000). The Story of Singapore Airlines and the Singapore Girl. The Journal of Management Development. Bradford: Vol. 19 (6):456-473.
Mutzabaugh, Ben (14 December 2010). "U.S., European airlines no longer world's biggest, IATA says." USA Today
PRESSWIRE. (May, 6, 2005).Singapore Airlines: world's largest operator of Boeing 777M2 ( http://proquest.umi.com /pqdweb?did=849692561&sid=5&Fmt=3&clientId=63584&RQT=309&VName=PQD)
Singapore Airline. (2012).
Banner Health is a non-profit health care company, operating in 23 states. Its facilities provide a number of different types of care. Banner is based in Phoenix, and Arizona is home to a large portion of the company's operations. Over the course of the next decade, the baby boom generation will continue to enter its senior years something that will challenge the health care industry nationwide. The challenge will especially be felt in a state like Arizona, where many people go to retire. Banner's strategic objectives include lowering costs, providing high quality care and an excellent patient experience ("About Us," 2015). Banner has more than 3000 providers and the network has over 400,000 members.
Banner's vision incorporates the need to handle the growing population of elderly, with their many health needs. Banner has, for example, built out a large facility in Boulder, CO, as a means of not…
"About Us" (2015). Banner Health Network. Retrieved November 17, 2015 from https://www.bannerhealthnetwork.com/about/who
Armbrister, M. (2012). Just what is Banner Health planning? Biz West. Retrieved November 17, 2015 from http://bizwest.com/just-what-is-banner-health-planning/
Banner Health (2012). Five community organizations will share $4.9 million grant to enhance Arizona's health care workforce PR News Wire. Retrieved November 17, 2015 from http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/five-community-organizations-will-share-49-million-grant-to-enhance-arizonas-health-care-workforce-159027625.html
Monegain, B. (2015). Banner Health, Cerner tackle big change. Health Care IT News Retrieved November 17, 2015 from http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/banner-health-cerner-take-big-change
Emirate Airline Analysis
What follows in this report is a review and summary of the customer services aspect of Emirates Airline. The firm in question has most certainly established a name for themselves and there is the common refrain about how adept they are. Even so, there are opportunities for them to get better and all firms should commit to a culture and mindset of continuous improvement, fettering out what problems what do exist and finding common sense solutions for dealing with the same. Regardless of what problems are found, there need to be evidence-based and realistic solutions put forth, and that shall be the goal of this report. While Emirates Airlines does a lot of things well when it comes to their customer services, they could do even better and strive to do so whenever possible.
Before getting into the minutia of what should change and why,…
Low Cost Airline in Thailand
The Study on Improvement of Low Cost Airline in Thailand
Geography of Thailand
Nature of Airlines
Variables under Study
The Profitability of Low Cost Airlines in Thailand
Operating esults, Selected Airlines, Financial Year 1999
The Economies of Scale Attained By Airline Industry
Human esource Practices
The future of low cost Thailand Airlines
Contrasting Qualities of State Owned and Non-State Owned Airlines
The Study on Improvement of Low Cost Airline in Thailand
Thailand is a global source for customers seeking cheap labor or material inputs. The country is rich in natural resources -- tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, and timber being a few examples. The country is a major source for agricultural products1a.
Thailand also has an abundant supply of low-skilled labor with high participation rates in the workforce 86% for males and 67% for females in 1995. At the same time, the country…
Aharoni, Y. & Nachum, L. (Eds.). (2000). Globalization of Services: Some Implications for Theory and Practice. London: Routledge. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102764448
Alagappa, M. (Ed.). (1998). Material and Ideational Influences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=35541491
Asia Top Companies by Sales. (2000, June). Business Asia, 8, 38. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001764374
Beirman, D. (2003). Restoring Tourism Destinations in Crisis: A Strategic Marketing Approach / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102031189
suitable airline performance data, provide a discussion rivals North American Airline industry found hard match southwest airlines. 2)Discuss dynamic capabilities, distinct capabilities generally, a source competitive advantage fast-paced highly uncertain environments.
The airline industry has generated unprecedented development within the society. Supported by technologic innovation, the airline industry has shifted balances in wars and fights and it has supported the advancement of the societies and economies. Due to the airline industry, people became able to travel to places once considered remote and as such to expand their cultural horizons, but also the business operations.
At its inception, the airline industry would be mostly owned and operated by the government, and this situation still applies in some of the countries in the globe. In the United States however, the airline industry has been subjected to deregulation and privatization and it is now characterized by high levels of competition. The…
2012, The Global Competitiveness Index 2011-2012 rankings, World Economic Forum, http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GCR_CompetitivenessIndexRanking_2011-12.pdflast accessed on August 1, 2012
2012, The world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos last accessed on August 1, 2012
2012, Website of the World Economic Forum, http://www.weforum.orglast accessed on August 1, 2012
The airline industry is a service industry, but one where several firms have been able to innovate their service offering. Such innovations have been to create viable low-cost carriers (RyanAir, EasyJet, Air Asia) while other innovations have led to the creation of high-service airlines (Emirates, Qatar, Singapore). In either case the process of innovation has been roughly the same for all of these companies. The first component of the map is searching. All of these companies searched for niches that were either not being served at all (such as price-focused customers in Europe and Asia) or were not being served effectively (passengers traveling on routes between Europe and Asia).
Of the six airlines mentioned above, only Singapore is a legacy carrier. The others have entered their markets in the few couple of decades, and brought with them a number of critical service innovations. After identifying a core market whose…
Phong, G. (2011). Building on strong. IATA -- Airlines International. Retrieved November 5, 2012 from http://www.iata.org/pressroom/airlines-international/april-2011/pages/ceo-singapore.aspx
Tidd, J. And Bessant, J. (2009). Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological, Market and Organizational Change 4th Ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.
Why does GE finance poorly-rated airlines with its aircraft financing? GE benefits in three ways: (1) its lower cost of capital than the airlines means that it can charge a risk premium, and make more money on the airline debt, (2) it sells aircraft engines and, more critically, spare parts, which are the biggest long-term source of revenue for the company, and (3) the loans are well-collateralized. Even in a bankruptcy procedure, the airlines have relatively little recourse to the assets, and GE would be free to sell or lease the airlines to others. Other leasing companies, while they don't have GE's aircraft engine business, are able to lure tax-advantaged investors (offshore, those receiving tax credits, others) who also give them a lower cost of capital; their expertise in leasing and selling planes, as well as their leverage in pricing negotiations with the major airframe manufacturers gives them an advantage…
Business Week. "Why GE Is Keeping Loser Airlines Aloft." Business Week 7 February 2005: n.p.
Francisco, Federal Reserve Bank of San. Competition and Regulation in the Airline Industry. Economic Report. San Francisco: Federal Reserve, 2002.
Gittell, JH, Cameron, K, Lim, S and Rivas, V. "Relationships, Layoffs and Organizational REsiliance." The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science (2006): 300-329.
Mackinac. Price Elasticity of Demand. Economic. Mackinac: Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 1997.
Strategic Analysis of Qantas Group
Qantas Group Overview
Key Problems and Strategic Issues
Diagnosis: Analysis and Evaluation
Porter 5 Analysis
Power of Suppliers: Low-to-Medium
Industry ivalry: High
Power of Buyer: Medium
Barrier of Entry: High
Availability of Substitutes: Low
The study carries out the strategic analysis of Qantas Group to identify the problems that the company is facing in the contemporary business environments and provide the recommendations that will assist Qantas overcoming its problems and record high profitability. The Porter 5 analysis reveals Qantas is facing the intense competitions at domestic and international routes leading to a decline in the profit margins. Moreover, Qantas has not been able to overcome the problems associated with the high costs of operations from the constant increase in the fuel costs. The paper suggests that Qantas should consider both vertical and horizontal mergers to enjoy economies of scales, which will assist in enjoying a…
Belobaba, P., Odoni, A., & Barnhart, C. (2009). The global airline industry (Vol. 23). Wiley. Com. 12-89.
CFA Institute (2010). Merger and Acquisitions. CFA Institute. USA.
Cowper-Smith, A., & de Grosbois, D. (2011). The adoption of corporate social responsibility practices in the airline industry. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19 (1), 59-77.
Dallas, H. Michael, A.H. & Ireland, R.D. (2012). Strategic Management: Competitive Globalization. Victoria. Cengage.
Whee Google elies on seach tems to tigge the display of a given
AdWods advetisement, it can be seen how Facebook wanted to ceate the
equivalent advetising business model though the use of social netwoking
and inteactions tiggeing which ad was shown. The ethics howeve of
tacking visits and activities on affiliate sites of cuent and pevious
Facebook membes, in addition to monitoing those visitos who have neve
opted in to Facebook yet ae being monitoed based on affiliate site click-
though taffic, is toubling. The lack of tanspaency about the entie
pogamme and the use of Beacons to become the foundation of a social
netwoking equivalent of Google AdWods is also toubling. In shot, all
these factos detact fom tust that Facebook visitos and uses have of
the site and thei futhe lack of communication on the issue just adds to
the deteioating tust visitos and paticipants on the…
references due to perceived
superiority combine to create a major roadblock in Nokia's efforts to re-
enter the market. When these factors are taken into account the key
obstacles Nokia needs to overcome in order to gain entry into the North
American market are made all the more difficult to overcome.
These key obstacles Nokia has to overcome in order to successfully enter
the North American market include addressing their weakness at successfully
partnering with service providers in general and content providers
specifically; the need for speeding up new product development and
39 It was against this background that ASEAN Foreign Ministers during their retreat at Cebu in the Philippines in April 2005 decided to lay down three main criteria for the membership of the EAS: 1. Substantive relations with ASEAN; 2. Full Dialogue Partner status; and 3. Accession to the ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Co-operation. The Foreign Minister of Singapore had stated that, India obviously qualifies on all three counts and it will be included in the first EAS. e hope that Australia and New Zealand which have not acceded to the TAC, will agree to the TAC in the coming months (Battese & Coelli, 1992-page 18). If so, we would welcome them to the EAS in Kuala Lumpur. The Minister further added that ASEAN alone will decide the future members of all subsequent summits and ?this is to ensure that ASEAN remains in the driver's seat of the EAS…
Anderson, Kym; Bernard Hoekman; and Anna Strutt. 1999. "Agriculture and the WTO: Next Steps." Revised version of a paper presented at the Second Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis, Avernaes Conference Centre, Helnaes, Denmark, June 20-22, 1999.
Barshefsky, Charlene. 1999. Press briefing at the WTO Ministerial Conference, Seattle, WA.
Bhagwati, Jagdish. 1999. "Globalization: The Question of Appropriate Governance." Sang-don Suh prize-acceptance speech, Taegu. Republic of Korea, October 7, 1999
Birdsall, Nancy, and Robert Z. Lawrence. 1999. "Deep Integration and Trade Agreements: Good for Developing Countries?" In Kaul, Grunberg, and Stern, ed., Global Public Goods, 128-51.
Instead of designing businesses through much analysis and interpretation, Seth Godin describes how the long-term effects of stories can revolutionize the culture of businesses for the better. When an entire business can get galvanized on the core values of their stories, they are capable of becoming much more cohesive, operate much more efficiently and concentrate on the core values of customers (Kim, Morris, Swait, 2008). This is all possible because the story core values and concepts attract only those prospects and customers who have comparable values that align. Mr. Godin alludes to how this strategy is responsible for how fan bases are created and sustain themselves over time, and shows how a brand can become multigenerational as well.
The book also convincingly shows how trust and credibility are the new currency in customer relationships. This is prescient to the exponential growth of social networking and the rise of Facebook, Twitter…
Baek, T., Kim, J., & Yu, J.. (2010). The differential roles of brand credibility and brand prestige in consumer brand choice. Psychology & Marketing: 23915, 27(7), 662.
Enrique Bigne-Alcaniz, Rafael Curras-Perez, & Isabel Sanchez-Garcia. (2009). Brand credibility in cause-related marketing: the moderating role of consumer values. The Journal of Product and Brand Management, 18(6), 437-447.
Blackshaw, P.. (2008). The Six Drivers of Brand Credibility. Marketing Management, 17(3), 51.
Tulin Erdem, & Joffre Swait. (2004). Brand Credibility, Brand Consideration, and Choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(1), 191-198.
The color ad chosen from People Magazine advertises Thai Airways Southeast Asia Silk Express, the "fastest service from New York to Bangkok." The headline reads, "Less time flying, More time exploring Asia." What catches the attention is the very strange, actually laughable, juxtaposition between the photograph of the ancient spires of what appears to be the Grand Palace on the left frame and an attractive Caucasian woman with her palms pressed together in Asian form and a gold headdress on the right. Whether or not the marketing department wanted this to appear straight or humorous, it draws the viewer. There is very little white space, with the photographs and copy covering most of the page. The signature THAI: Smooth as silk, runs at the end of the page.
The 30-year-old People magazine claims 9.8 readers for every issue printed. Circulation is over 3,600,000, and readership is…
ice and rain affect normal operations-Emphasis on Icing
There is a clear inter-relation between safe and satisfactory travel by air and weather. Most of the accidents in airplanes occur due to adverse weather, and it is one among the different causes improving towards the occurrence of the accident. It can be blamed as the reason for most of the flight delays also. All flight operations are affected by unfavorable weather. This may prevent the handling of flight totally or sometimes partially. The expenses incurred due to delays and change in route due to such weather conditions is very high. oth the passenger and the aviation industry has to bear the brunt of these situations, due to the loss of time for the passenger, the hefty hotel charges, increase in fuel consumption, and additional spending on servicing, equipment and change in crew, as also they make flying more expensive beyond plans…
Bernstein, B.C., Omeron, T.A. McDonough, F. And Politovich, M.K. 1997: The relationship between aircraft icing and synoptic-scale weather conditions. Weather & Forecasting, 12, 742-762.
Lankford, T.T., 2000: Aircraft Icing: A pilot's guide to supercooled drizzle droplets, icing accident case studies and cold weather techniques. Practical Flying Series, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., pp.336 pp.
Rasmussen, R., M. Politovich, J. Marwitz, W.R. Sand, J. McGinley, J. Smart, R. Pielke, S. Rutledge, D. Wesley, G. Stossmeister, B. Bernstein, K. Elmore, N. Powell, E. Westwater, B. Boba Stankov, and Burrows, D. 1992: Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 73, 951-974.
Sand, W.R., Cooper, W.A. Politovich, M. K and Veal, D.L. 1984: Icing conditions encountered by a research aircraft. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 23, 1427-1440.
Practicing Ethnographic Methods
JFK (John F. Kennedy) International Airport is one of the busiest international airports in the United States and serves as a gateway for the New York City and other Tri-State within the metropolitan regions. Apart from enjoying services from the Jet Blue, and Virgin America, the JFK airport is the major destination for visitors from various continents such as Europe, South America, Asia, Middle East and Africa. The JFK airport receives over 41 million visitors yearly making the airport the busiest international gateway in the New York. However, airports are the social-based organization where the visitors and employees come from various social and cultural backgrounds, which influence the airport decision making.
Objective of this paper is to carry out the ethnographic research by presenting the results of the observation of the social and cultural settings at the John F. Kenney International Airport.
I use the ethnographic…
Kusenbach, M. (2003). Street Phenomenology the Go-Along as Ethnographic Research Tool. Ethnography, 4: 455-485.
Administration which relates to issues such as security, rules during work, holidays and vacations, office layout and services and personal record. Lastly human resources section is shouldered with the responsibility of industrial and labour relations which looks in to issues such as collective bargaining, grievance procedures and presentation of elections.
2.2 Challenges facing Human esources
According to Duncan (2005), "The identification close to eight areas which pose great challenge to the hotel industry including the five star hotels"; these are employment which includes increase in minimum wage, increasing flexibility of working hours, over dependence of foreign expatriates, employee training. As mentioned by Kim and Oh (2994), the issue of taxation that is in some cases high increases the rates of value added tax on the industry thus discouraging tourism. Environmental factors do also pose a challenge in the hotel sector for instance the banning of smoking in public places as…
Chauhan, J. 2009. Introduction to Hotel Industry. Internet.
innovation is a group of steps and activities visualized for translating ideas into actual products / services / processes. The innovation process commences with identifying and defining the source problem (Sva?, 2012).The building blocks of an innovative culture are as follows:
These aforementioned building blocks are linked. For instance, the values of an enterprise affect the employee's behavior, workplace climate, and how success is perceived and quantified.
An innovative culture inherits ideas from research conducted by multiple authors. For promoting innovation, most enterprises generously invest time in resources, processes, and quantifying success. However, most companies have neglected to evaluate the more difficult to identify and/or measure factors of innovative culture with respect to people - including climate, behavior, and values.
To date, apparently, most companies have quantified innovative culture in terms of processes, management of resources, and measuring success of innovation rather than measuring building…
Curtis, S. (2013, October 15). The Innovations That Took Amazon from Online Bookseller to Dominant Global Marketplace. Retrieved from www.businessinsider.com: http://www.businessinsider.com/the-innovations-that-took-amazon-from-online-bookseller-to-dominant-global-marketplace-2013-10
Eaton, K. (2013, Febuary 05). Fast Feed. Retrieved from www.fastcompany.com: http://www.fastcompany.com/3005481/samsung-bets-billion-innovation-and-investment
He, L. (2013, March 29). Google's Secrets Of Innovation: Empowering Its Employees. Retrieved from www.forbes.com: http://www.forbes.com/sites/laurahe/2013/03/29/googles-secrets-of-innovation-empowering-its-employees/
IBM. (2006). Five barriers to innovation: Key questions and answers. IBM Global Business Services.
At the same time, it will help to identify what issues will shape the future of air passenger transportation in Asia.
he introduction of LCCs in the North American and European markets started a trend that is beginning to unfold in Asia (with the birth of Asian-based LCCs). Part of this is in response to the increases in passenger traffic and the effects of globalization. However, there have been similar airlines in the past, which have tried and failed using the same kinds of business models. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than, Oasis Hong Kong. his was a low cost carrier that attempted to enter the medium to long haul leisure / business travel market between Hong Kong and London Gatwick. he problem was that they were no match for the FSCs, which offered: more flights and greater flexibility. his is…
This information is useful, because it can highlight some of the different challenges facing the industry. Where, these different factors could affect the profitability of many carriers and the fares / services that they are providing to consumers. This can be used in conjunction with the results of the surveys; to see how the overall cost structure is having an impact upon both Thai Asia Air and Thai Airways. Once this takes place, it could provide a more complete picture, as to how these different challenges are affecting the industry and what could be the possible impact in the future.
Moreover, Gluckman (2007) discussed on the impact that Air Asia has had upon the industry. Where, their low costs and no frills have helped the company to be able to redefine the sector. The reason why is because Air Asia has a very low labor cost structure in comparison with the traditional airlines. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the fact that their labor costs typically account for 17% of the total operating expenses for the company. While the industry average is 30% to 40%, of the total operating expenses that normal airlines must pay. At the same time, the company will fly to airports that are less congested (which have lower landing fees) and they fly reconditioned aircraft. The results of these actions were that Air Asia would redefine the industry by showing how low cost structures, could allow an airline to be competitive. The problem is that the labor costs of Air Asia are some of the lowest in the world. When you compare this to other low costs carriers in markets such as North America or Europe, this is just of fraction of what the LCCs are paying. Over the course of time, as incomes continue to increase, the cost of labour will rise towards the industry average. This is significant, because it shows how Air Asia has identified ways that it can compete over the short to medium term. However, over the long-term is when the airline will face the possibility of having it business model go through severe challenges, as it will not be able to maintain these low costs indefinably.
This information is important, because it shows how Air Asia and many of the other LCCs are able to remain competitive. As their overall labour costs, are significantly lower than any
Ultimately, the airline has been able to extract concessions from its other unions and can expect to do the same with the AMU. Qantas should deal with the issue of worker unhappiness through non-financial means, such as fostering an organizational culture change.
The airline industry is facing a difficult operating environment. Qantas must find new ways to cut costs in order to remain competitive. The recent mechanical failures are not likely related to the acrimonious relationship that has developed between Qantas and the union representing its mechanics. Given that the Labor government has taken an anti-union stance, Qantas should move towards outsourcing maintenance. This will upset the union, but it is unlikely that quality will suffer as a result.
Robbins, Liz. (2008). " Qantas Involved in Another Incident" New York Times. Retrieved online December 14, 2008 at http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/10/07/qantas-involved-in-another-air-incident/
Qantas financials retrieved from Reuters, online, December 14, 2008 at…
Robbins, Liz. (2008). " Qantas Involved in Another Incident" New York Times. Retrieved online December 14, 2008 at http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/10/07/qantas-involved-in-another-air-incident/
Qantas financials retrieved from Reuters, online, December 14, 2008 at http://www.reuters.com/finance/stocks/incomeStatement?symbol=QAN.AX
Foley, Meraiah. (2008). "Safety and Labor Concerns Tarnish the Qantas Image" International Herald Tribune. Retrieved online December 14, 2008 at http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/10/17/business/qantas.php
No author. (2007). PEST Analysis. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved online December 15, 2008 at http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/pest/
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
S. domestic carriers are at period in the industry's history when these factors are already beleaguered by downturns in the global economy, increasing competition from international carriers, and the aforementioned high costs of energy.
Chapter 2: The Impact of Open Skies Agreements on Domestic and International Carriers
Under an open skies agreement, both signatories to the agreement enjoy open access to international airline routes between the two countries as well as eliminating virtually all domestic restrictions on international carriers (Lick, 1998). In an effort to develop more closely integrated pricing and route schedules, signatories to these agreements typically also seek to gain immunity from national antitrust laws (Commercial aviation: Legacy airlines must further reduce costs to restore profitability, 2004). The U.S. Department of Transportation reviews these types of airline alliances from an antitrust perspective and refuses to approval an alliance without a reciprocal open skies agreement with the foreign airline's…
Baker, C. (2004, March 1). Air France-KLM approved; competition regulators in Brussels have approved Air France's takeover of KLM, deciding the consumer comes out of the deal as a net winner. Washington also says it will not oppose the deal. Airline Business, 9.
Bilotkach, V. (2002). Asymmetric regulation and airport dominance in international aviation:
Evidence from the London-New York market. Southern Economic Journal, 74(2), 505-
Doganis, R. (2002). Flying off course: The economics of international airlines. London:
Quantity = 3000 X 10% = 3,600
SP = 50 x 110% = 55
Quantity x SP = 198,000
Less: Returned Sales = (6%x198,000)
Sales Projection = $186,10
Beginning Inventory $1 X 400 = 8400
Production $4 X 800 = 1900
Cost of Goods Sold 700 units
FIFO (1 X 400) + (4 X 300) = $15,600
Beginning Inventory $10 X 75 = 8400
Production $14 X 650 = 1900
Cost of Goods Sold 700 units
LIFO (14 X 650) + (10 X 350) = $1,600
Sales and Cash Collections Budget
Quarter Ending Dec 31st, 011
Total cash sales (40%)
Total credit sales (60%)
Current month cash sales
Collection of credit sales
Total cash collections
Quarter end receivables
23. you are the vice-president of finance for Exploratory resources, headquartered in Houston, Texas. In January 2010, the firm's Canadian subsidiary obtained a six -- "month loan of 100,000 Canadian dollars from a bank in Houston to finance the acquisition of a titanium mine in Quebec province. The loan, the spot exchange rate was U.S..$0.8990/Canadian dollars and the Canadian currency was selling at discount in the forward market. The June 2010 contract (face value= $100,000 per contract) was quoted at U.S.. $0.8920/Canadian dollar.
A. explain how the Houston bank could lose on this transaction assuming no hedging.
B. If the bank does hedge with the forward contract, what is the maximum amount it can lose?
According to these airlines, the public can help by contacting their Congress people.
According to the airlines in question, there are in fact (or have been) regulations in place in order to discourage the phenomenon of uncontrolled speculation and manipulation in world markets. These have however been weakened or removed, resulting in the rapid rise of fuel prices today. The claim is in fact that rising demand and diminishing supply cannot account for the rise in oil prices that have been experienced over the last year.
Alexandra Marks (2008) also addresses the role of the Government in encouraging higher fuel prices. According to airline industry experts and analysts, Congress is not doing enough to curb speculation. If this is not done very soon, according to these experts, the aviation industry could face a collapse in the not very far future, that is in danger of crippling the economy of the…
AOPA ePublishing staff. AOPA working on future avgas. http://www.aopa.org/aircraft/articles/2008/080319avgas.html
Credeur, Mary Jane. (2008, July 9). Northwest Air to Cut 2,500 jobs to Blunt Fuel Costs. Bloomberg Press. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=aQSwxib7vM3s&refer=us
Hegeman, Roxana. (2008, July 8). Soaring aviation fuel cots ground many pilots. Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2008/07/08/ap5194342.html
Lynch, Kerry. (2008, Mar. 24). AOPA, Greens Battle Over Lead in AvGas. Aviation Week. http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story_channel.jsp?channel=busav&id=news/LEAD03248.xml
A fourth foundational element is the strength of the Starbucks brand itself and is ubiquity globally. As a result of rapid and well-defined strategies for opening up retail stores, Starbucks is now considered one of the most preeminent and strongest brands globally.
Starbucks has generated the strength of their brand through combining high-quality coffee and tea beverages with the third-place concept to generate customer loyalty and world-of-mouth among customers and their friends. It is common to hear students mention they will have a team meeting at the local Starbucks, for studying or completing projects.
In summary the Starbucks model is strengthened by the company's coffee expertise, impressive new product development record, and the development of Starbucks locations as "third places" where friends can meet and enjoy coffee and pastries. Underscoring all these points is the strength of the Starbucks brand.
What were the key issues and the decision by Starbucks…
Patrick Burnson (2002, December). Amsterdam's key role in Starbucks' global strategy. World Trade, 15(12), 40-41. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 241805271).
Deutsche Bank (2006) - Starbucks Overview. Deutsche Bank Securities Research. New York, NY. 10 July 2006.
Geoffrey a. Fowler (2003, July 14). Starbucks' Road to China; Prime Locations Are the Key, but So Is Using Snob Appeal to Lure Nation of Tea Drinkers. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. B.1. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 369860271).
Jeffrey S. Harrison, Eun-Young Chang, Carina Gauthier, Todd Joerchel, et al. (2005). Exporting a North American Concept to Asia: Starbucks in China. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 46(2), 275-283. Retrieved December 7, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 832085141).
This answers the question of "what do we have to offer?' For example, Macau has a unique culinary culture that blends Chinese and Portuguese influences. These competencies can be identified by their presence as a minority of responses to the initial research, or through an internal analysis of the area's offerings.
The question of to whom something should be promoted can be answered through an examination of market segments. If Macau wishes to promote culinary tourism, for example, it can do research into the demographics and lifestyle factors of culinary travelers by examining their magazines and media, by examining the profile of current culinary travelers to Macau and by examining such travelers to more established culinary destinations, such as Singapore or Tokyo.
Michman, R., Mazze, E., & Greco, A. (2003). Lifestyle marketing: Reaching the new American consumer. estport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Turner, C. (2008). How Etihad's marketing set…
Michman, R., Mazze, E., & Greco, A. (2003). Lifestyle marketing: Reaching the new American consumer. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Turner, C. (2008). How Etihad's marketing set new global airline standards. U Talk Marketing. Retrieved February 8, 2010 from http://www.utalkmarketing.com/Pages/Article.aspx?ArticleID=11214&Title=How_Etihad%27s_marketing_set_new_global_airline_standards
Feinstein, A. & Stefanelli, J. (2007). Purchasing: Selection and procurement in the hospitality industry. Wiley.
Stettner, M. (2009) How to establish a promotional mix. eSmallOffice.com. Retrieved February 8, 2010 from http://www.esmalloffice.com/SBR_template.cfm?DocNumber=PL12_3600.htm
Travel and Tourism
Tourism in Malaysia: A Comprehensive Overview
Malaysia like the United States of America is often referred to as a "melting pot" of people from many different countries, including Chinese an many other Asian cultures as well as other ethnicities, living together happily. While Malaysia is often cited for its multiculturalism, there are many also reasons this country is often known as a utopian paradise for tourism and travel. There are dozens of reasons to travel and tour Malaysian, including the people who are warm and lovely, eager to welcome and delight the millions of people that come exploring each year. Malaysia encompasses 13 states which are also home to 3 federally held territories. These are separated by the South China Sea, where 11 states lay and the territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya rest in Peninsular Malaysia and the one remaining federal territory Labuan in East Malaysia…
Chon, K.S. (2000). Tourism in Southeast Asia: A New Direction. New York, London, and Oxford: The
Haworth Hospitality Press.
Cochrane, Janet. (2008). Asian Tourism: Growth and Change. Oxford and Amsterdam, Elsevier Ltd.
Datz, Giselle. (2008). "Governments as Market Players: State Innovation in the Global Economy."
Communications of future development
Factors regarding future developments can be effectively structured with the creation of scenarios. Potential recipients of such information would be, government decision making organs including department of defense, department of commerce and even institutional managers of organizations (Hammond 1998).
Stimulation of strategic thinking
The process of creating scenarios would make strategic organs in the government to think objectively about the future. Scenario building would therefore act as a catalyst for future thinking (Hammond 1998)
Creation of orientation knowledge
Creation of future scenario blocks acts as a knowledge base for future governments. This usually does not always equate to instant decisions for successive governments regarding certain national issues, but the body of knowledge is always availed to decision making organs when the real need arises. Scenario forecast can there fore be termed as a way of piling stocks of knowledge for future considerations (Hammond 1998)
Bolt, P 2005, American defense policy, New York, JHU Press.
Hammond, a 1998, Which world?: scenarios for the 21st century: global destinies, regional choices, Illinois, Earthscan.
Henderson, H 1996, Building a win-win world: life beyond global economic warfare, Berrett-
U.S. statistics indicate that 80% of aviation accidents are due to human errors with 50% due to maintenance human factor problems. Current human factor management programs have not succeeded to the degree desired. Many industries today use performance excellence frameworks such as the Baldrige National Quality Award framework to improve over-all organizational effectiveness, organizational culture and personal learning and growth. A survey administered to a sample population of senior aviation maintainers in 18 countries revealed a consistent problem with aviation human factors and the need for a more integrated framework to manage human factor problems in aviation maintenance.
Human Factors History
Current Human Factor programs in Aircraft Maintenance
Performance Excellence Framework
esearcher's Work Setting and ole
Statement of the Problem
EVIEW OF ELEVANT LITEATUE AND ESEACH
Human Factor Errors in Aircraft Maintenance Statistics
Current Human Factor Programs in Aircraft Maintenance 13
Aviation Performance Excellence Framework 12
Statement of esearch Question…
Boeing. (1993). Accident Prevention Strategies. Commercial Jet Aircraft Accidents
World Wide Operations 1982-1991. Retrieved 11 Nov, 2004 from http://www.hf.faa.gov / Portal/HFTimeline.aspx
Boeing. (1994). Field test of the MEDA process. Retrieved 17 Dec, 2004 from William L.
The 2007 BCB survey averaged out to 7.5 out of a possible 10 "with regard to the perception of the services it offers." In the section dedicated to Barcelona's "worldwide image" the 2007 survey reached 8 out of ten from those visitors participating in the survey.
Spain isn't the only attractive meetings tourism destination by any means. There are countries all over the world seeking to attract business travelers that are part of conventions, conferences, seminars and other business-related gatherings. China is also an appealing destination for meetings tourism. The Jiangsu Tourism Company spells out some "useful tips for Meeting Planning in China" (http://tastejiangsu.com).
The old Japanese saying, "The protruding nail gets hammered down" is linked by the travel service to the possibility that some business travelers that are part of a meetings tourism group may commit a "major faux pas" during the business sessions. Hence, the ebsite explains, one…
About.com. "What is Adventure Travel." Retrieved Nov. 16, 2010, from http://www.adventuretravel.about.com . (2010).
Bawaba, Al. "Malaysia Still Has Room to Grow in Health Tourism, Says Liow." Malaysian
Government News. Retrieved Nov. 16, 2010, from GaleGroup.
Berger, Karen. "Types of Adventure Travel Tours: Challenges, Features of Soft, Medium, and Hard-Core Adventure Trips." Suite101.com. Retrieved Nov. 16, 2010, from http://www.suite101.com (2009).
" (Qantas Airways Limited and Controlled Entities - Preliminary Final Report, 2008)
In July, 2008 Qantas reported that it intends to "eliminate 1,500 jobs world-wide and it shed plans to increase flying capacity as it continues to battle high jet-fuel costs." (the Wall Street Journal, 2008) in addition, the plans to hire 1,200 people have been canceled. Qantas will also be retiring 22 aircraft from its fleet and call centers in Arizona and London will be closed as well. (Thurlow and McFarland, 2008)
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
Quantas Airways, Ltd. is the number one domestic airline industry in Australia and is a leader in the Asia-Pacific region. In fact, Quantas is among the ten largest airlines in the world and connects Australia in approximately 81 destinations and forty countries throughout the world. The company operates several regional airlines in the country of Australia and carries in excess of thirty million passengers…
Thurlow, R. And McFarland, L. (2008) Corporate News Qantas Plans to Cut Jobs, Scraps Capacity Increase. Wall Street Journal. 18 Jul 2008.
Qantas Airways Limited and Controlled Entities (2008) Preliminary Final Report. 20 June 2008. Online available at:
Qantas Airways Ltd. (2008) Financial Times. Online available at http://markets.ft.com/tearsheets/businessProfile.asp?s=QAN%3AASX
2.0 Strategic Situation Analysis
In order to understand the nature of aircraft manufacture at Boeing, it is important to have a clear vision of how outsourcing plays into the manufacture of aircraft. Let us use the example of Boeing's Dreamliner. The following illustration explains how outsourcing plays a key role in Boeing's business strategy. These represent TIER 1 suppliers.
From here, the parts go to the plant in Everett and are assembled by TIER 2 suppliers as follows:
These two illustrations clearly help to develop an understanding of the relationship between TIER 1 and TIER 2 suppliers at Boeing.
2.1 SOT Analysis:
SOT analysis is a planning method used to evaluate a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. In a business analysis, all of these factors are analyzed for the company under study and their competitors. This analysis allows the researcher to see both…
Airbus. "Welcome to the world of Airbus." 2011. < http://www.airbus.com/company / ..
Accessed February 17, 2011.
BA. "Boeings Outsourcing for the 787 "Dreamliner",." September, 28, 2006 <
The accomplishments of Fred Olsen
The shipping business constitutes one of the most lucrative undertakings in the different regions of the globe. It has been associated with some of the most influential names in the history of this world. Norway, like other great nations of the world has been privileged to enjoy the possession a massive number of renowned shipping industries with one of them being the Olsen Group (Lorange, 2005). Whenever Olsen Group of Companies is mention, the name of its chairperson Fred Olsen has to crop up. The entrepreneur, whose family has engaged in the shipping business for at least five generations, has had a number of accomplishments, not only in relation to the organization, but also in other establishments in the industries and other aspects of life.
Fred Olsen, born Thomas Fredrik Olsen is a renowned business mogul, synonymous with shipping companies in…
Cooke, A. (2012). Cruise ships of the Solent past and present. Ramsey: Ferry.
Fred. Olsen & Co. (1965). Fred. Olsen Lines, Oslo, Norway: The Company
Hephaestus Books, (2011), Articles on Shipping Companies, Including: Fred. Olsen & Co., List of Ship Companies, Carnival Cruise Lines, Pacific Forum Line, Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Glovis, Neptune Orient Lines, Norwegian Cruise Line, K Line, Hanjin, Hephaestus Books
Hephaestus Books, (2011), Articles on Fred. Olsen, Including: Fred. Olsen & Co., Seawise Giant, First Olsen Tankers, Petter Olsen, Fred. Olsen Cruise Lines, Fred, Olsen Energy, Bonheur, Ganger Rolf ASA, Fred. Olsen Express, Fredrik Olsen, Norwegian Air, Hephaestus Books, 2011
disrupting America's economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists
Even as the world continues to struggle with the terrible shock from the September 11 attacks in New York and Washington, one principle lesson has already become clear: disrupting our economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists.
Prior to September 11, our economic environment was certainly not immune to terror, in comparison to many other nations; we lived relatively terror-free. Now, however, the aftermath of the terrorist attacks serves as a grim reminder that international relations and security developments can dramatically affect economic performance.
US History is replete with countless examples when macro fundamentals are overtaken by what economists refer to as, exogenous shocks -- surprise events that can profoundly and often unpredictably shift political and economic resources, and send even the most accurate forecasts astray. Commodity shocks, such as the two OPEC jolts in the 1970s, are classic…
Bagehot, Walter. 1927. Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market, John Murray, London.
Balbach, Anatol B. 1981. "How Controllable is Money Growth?" Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, vol 63, no 4, April, p. 5.
Becker, Gary S, Steven N. Kaplan, Kevin M. Murphy and Edward A Snyder. (2002 / winter). "The Economic Effects of September 11," GSB Magazine, University of Chicago's Graduate School of Business.
Bell, Stephanie. 2000. "Do Taxes and Bonds Finance Government Spending?." Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 603-620.
Because the home country is not required to reimburse foreign depositors for losses, there is no corresponding financial penalty for lax supervision; there is, though, a benefit to the country with lenient regulatory policies because of increased revenues generated and the employment opportunities these services provide (Edwards 1999). Furthermore, banks seeking to conduct multinational business are attracted to countries where incorporation laws and the regulatory framework offer less regulatory oversight (Edwards 1999). The quid pro quo nature of offshore financial services is clearly indicated by Edwards's observation that, "Multinational banks provide the offshore financial centre with increased tax revenue and employment for its citizens. Because the benefits outweigh the costs, offshore financial centres have a powerful incentive to maintain lenient regulatory policies. As a result, multinational banks incorporated in an offshore financial center successfully avoid supervision by an effective home country regulator" (1999, p. 1267). Given the scope of the…
Black's Law Dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Boise, C.M. & Morriss, a.P. (2009). 'Change, Dependency, and Regime Plasticity in Offshore Financial
Intermediation: the Saga of the Netherlands Antilles.' Texas International Law Journal, vol. 45,
no. 2, pp. 377-379.
political scenario illustrated that governments all over the globe are making their immigration rules more stringent because of the rise in terrorism; the implication of this phenomenon is a decrease in international traveling, which endangers continuance of a number of airlines, including Nigeria's Arik Air (Eze, 2010). Hofstede's power distance dimension denotes the degree to which unequal distribution of power is anticipated and accepted by the lower ranking members (in terms of authority), of organizations and institutions in the nation under consideration. UA's score on this dimension is relatively low (40). Power distance deals with members of a society not being on an equal footing with one another; the dimension conveys a particular culture's outlook towards power imbalances among countries, as well. Furthermore, the inequality that prevails in a given society is equally approved of by its leaders and followers. Nigeria demonstrates a high power distance score (80), signifying its…
Shih, S. C. (2010). Network Process Model for Group Choice of a Multinational Enterprises' Entry Mode. Contemporary Management Research, 6(3).
Stewart, M. R., & Maughn, R. D. (2011). International joint ventures, a practical approach. Davis Wright Tremaine LLP, Available at http://www. dwt. com/files/Publication/Article_Stewart.pdf
Venkateswaran, N. (2012). Chapter 8. Country evaluation and selection. International Business Management. New Age International. Daryaganj, IND. [Ebrary]
Currency fluctuations tend to create instability and disrupt the planning activities of tourists. In times of an economic recession, there is normally a lot of fluctuation in the currencies. In the previous year, many currencies appreciated in value while some depreciated. The appreciation of Great ritain Pound and U.S. Dollar against currencies of other countries, such as third world countries, while the depreciation of the Pakistani Rupee, Indian Rupee and the Sri Lankan Rupee against the U.S. Dollar (REPORTER, Staff, 2012) made it less likely for the travelers located in such places to plan to visit countries, as expenditure on goods and services will be incurred in the appreciated currency of the destination country and will have to be supported by the depreciated home currency. This increased expenditure, especially in the times of an economic recession, is considered to be a luxury that needs to be overlooked, at least until…
ALI, Shazad. 2010. The Rise of Terrorism: Examining Terrorism in the Middle East from a Pakistani Perspective. Duke Journal of Public Affairs. 5(2), pp.6-21.
Bangkok's new airport opens to first commercial flights. 2006. [online]. Available from World Wide Web:
BRANCATELLI, Joe. 2013. Where have all the business travelers gone? [online]. Available from World Wide Web:
CNBC. 2011. Egypt's tourism which adds 11% to GDP plunges amidst chaos. [online]. Available from World Wide Web:
ELIANT ON TECHNOLOGY?
Importance of Technology
Now-a-days, technology has revolutionized everything that is happening around the world and most of the people are heavily dependent on modern technology. Since people are relying more on technological gadgets, it has been observed that there has been decline in various skills especially writing, communication and critical thinking skills. However, some argue that technology has brought positive implications in people's lives and unlimited benefits outclass the drawbacks associated with technology (May & Marsden, 2010). As technological gadgets such as laptops, computers, iPads, iPhones and tablets have become a vital part of everyone's life, people are making less use of their ideas and relying on suggestions made by these technological software.
There is no denial of the fact that technology in various cases has made lives simpler for people but there are numerous consequences associated with each technological development which becomes evident after years of…
Antonio, E. (2010). Comparative analysis of cultural dimension in the management of Japan and Romania. Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://fse.tibiscus.ro/anale/Lucrari2010/039.%20Antoniu%20Eliza.pdf
Baxter, J. (2009). The Good and the Bad Things About Technology: Technology Pros and Cons. Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://voices.yahoo.com/the-good-bad-things-technology-4584097.html
Ghemawat, P., & Reiche, S. (2010). National Cultural Differences and Multinational Business. Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://www.aacsb.edu/resources/globalization/globecourse/contents/readings/national-cultural-differences-and-multinational-business.pdf
Kobayashi, J., & Viswat, L. (2010). Cultural Expectations in Expressing Disagreement: Differences between Japan and the United States. Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/PTA/Nov_2010_Kobayashi.pdf
online retailing operates, what kind of problems they face and the kind of environment they operate in. The author has also focused on Asian online retailing and special focus on Hong Kong online retailing. It has 22 sources.
Access of basic necessities of life has followed the conventional method of buying and selling. This pattern changed in the last decade with the emergence of information technology age. When consumers have the ability to access information instantly, technologists thought why not access to products has as well. Thus emerged the concept of retailing online.
Online market had initiated with selling of information but today one can interact on the internet and buy physical products without any fear, atleast in some parts of the world. The main concern for consumers today is not whether their regions have access to the internet or not but rather focused on how fast and how online…
Author not available, Poor Customer Service Kills Online Shoppers' Holiday Spirit, and Online Retailers' Bottom-Line, Says Jupiter., Business Wire, 12-19-2000.
Author not available, E-COMMERCE LEARNS FROM 1999 SEASON., United Press International, 12-26-2000.
Author not available, EXECUTIVE Business BRIEFING., United Press International, 05-02-2001.
Ricadela, Aaron & Mitchell, Gabrielle C. News: Electronic retailing proves tricky -- Allure of Internet sales leads to revenue-sharing ventures, partnerships with hosts., Computer Retail Week, 10-20-1997, pp 02.
It is difficult to understand or explain why throughout history some negative investor philosophies continually repeat themselves. Far too often investors miss blatant signs that lead to major collapses in the free markets. The purpose of this report is to discuss derivative securities in detail and how they affect those investor philosophies. Even unsophisticated investors understand that the stock and commodities markets are supposed to fluctuate on a daily basis. A key in the minds of investors is to avoid overly large swings in either direction and to also take advantage of those market swings that are heading in the right direction. To solve this ageless dilemma, investment bankers and individual investors themselves have historically created new and unique systems, methods and processes that help avoid those big swings. But what happens when the new and unique systems, methods and processes…
Black Tuesday.(n.d.) lowrisk.com. Retrieved on October 23, 2009, from .
Forbes Digital. (2009.). Investapedia. Retrieved on October 23, 2009, from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/
Goatzmann, William. (n.d.). An Introduction to Investment Theory. Retrieved on October 23, 2009, from http://viking.som.yale.edu/will/finman540/classnotes/notes.html
Hoadly Training and Investment Tools. (2009). Option Pricing Models and the "Greeks." Retrieved on October 23, 2009, from http://www.hoadley.net/options/bs.htm
popularity of foreign restaurant: consumer attitude and behavior toward foreign cuisines in Bangkok
Thailand as a tourist destination
Thailand has become a tourist destination hotspot for its scenic beauty, the humble nature of their people, and the relative value of foreign currencies relative to the baht. According to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Growth in the tourism industry in recent years was the result of the depreciation of the baht against non-Asian currencies (which improved competitiveness relative to destinations outside the region), aggressive marketing campaigns and an increase in the number of airlines offering flights to Thailand." (EIU ViewsWire, 2003)
Additionally, according to EIU ViewsWire (2003), "Tourist arrivals rose by 5.8% to just over 10m in 2001, despote the global economic downturn and the September 11 terrorist attacks in the U.S., bringing in Bt 295bn (U.S. $6.6 bn) in revenue. Thailand benefited from its reputation as a safe and stable society and…
"A century of certification," 2003, Health and Hygiene, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 12-12-13.
Anne-Mette Hjalager & Magda, A.C. 2000, "Food for tourists -- determinants of an image," The International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 281-281.
Asia's Biggest Sourcing Event for Foods and Beverages Ever Kicks Off This Week 2011,, PR Newswire Association LLC, United States, New York.
Chen, M. 2009, "Attitude toward organic foods among Taiwanese as related to health consciousness, environmental attitudes, and the mediating effects of a healthy lifestyle," British Food Journal, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 165-165-178.
The aircraft collided with power lines. The flight was being operated without a flight plan being filed under the required rules. Visual conditions prevailed at the time of the accident and due to the accident; the commercial pilot and passenger received fatal injuries. The helicopter was destroyed. The flight had started at 1835 and according to the operator the pilot had a standard pattern of usage which included delivery of cargo to a facility and the carriage of a passenger was not authorized. A witness on the ground said that the helicopter was flying at a low altitude in a terrain of a pasture with many trees. This was about 4 nautical miles south of the airport from where the pilot took off. Then the witness saw the helicopter run directly at the power lines that crossed the valley and the witness ran to avoid what he though was to…
Accident and Incident Reports- Detail: Air Safety Occurrence Report" Retrieved at http://www.atsb.gov.au/aviation/occurs/occurs_detail.cfm?ID=315. Accessed on 31 July, 2005
Accident and Incident Reports- Detail: Occurrence Brief" Retrieved at http://www.atsb.gov.au/aviation/occurs/occurs_detail.cfm?ID=593. Accessed on 31 July, 2005
ATL02FA003" Retrieved at http://www.ntsb.gov/ntsb/brief2.asp?ev_id=20011030X02163&ntsbno=ATL02FA003&akey=1Accessed on 31 July, 2005
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Shopping Tourism in Hong Kong
Item Page Number
Tourism in Hong Kong
Shopping Tourism in Hong Kong
Shopping Tourism in Hong Kong
Shopping tourism is a major aspect of the global tourism trade and as such is an area of tourism that is and should be promoted by destination countries and locations. This is true for Hong Kong as well as in other locations throughout the world. Ashworth (1989) writes that urban regeneration and tourism have become critically important activities beginning in the 1980's. Ashworth specifically notes two elements that link the ideas of the city and tourism and which show the complex relationship that exists between the features of a city and the functions of tourism that serve to result in shopping tourism in the city. The first element is comprised by the specific characteristics of a city and how this…
Cheung, Sidney (nd) Cultural Tourism and Hong Kong Identity. Department of Anthropology. The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Retrieved from: http://cuhk.orientalecom7.com/en/publish/workingpaper4.pdf
Discover Hong Kong by Rail (2012) Hong Kong Tourism Board. Retrieved from: http://www.discoverhongkong.com/eng/things-to-do/discover-hongkong-rail.html
Experience Unique Hong Kong (2012) Hong Kong Tourism Board. Retrieved from: http://www.discoverhongkong.com/eng/things-to-do/cultural-tours.html
Hong Kong Culture (2012) Tourism Asia Network. Retrieved from: http://hong-kong.tourism-asia.net/index.html
Shopping Touism Hong Kong
A study of shopping touism: Is Hong Kong a good place fo shopping?
Backgound to the eseach Issue 2
Discussion of elevant liteatue
Poposed eseach Methodology and analysis
Analysis of the esults fom Suvey
Suvey Question 7- Who ae the main companions fo visit in HongKong?
Backgound to the eseach Issue
Within the past thee decades shopping touism at intenational level has been inceased hugely the eason being advancement in the ailine industy as well as lessening in taveling expenses. This is evident fom the latest data which shows that in 2008 intenational aival was 922 million which is an incease of 4.47% since in 2005 it was 800 million (UNWTO, 2009, p.4). Although wold economy faced economic ecession in 2008, yet it did not impact on the touism ate which inceased by 1.99% in the peiod of 2007-2008.
Touism now has…
references and expenditure behaviors: the case of the Taiwanese outbound market. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(4), 320-332.
McCabe, S. 2009. Who is a tourist? Conceptual and theoretical developments. In J. Tribe (Ed.), Philosophical issues in tourism. (pp. 25-42). Buffalo, NY: Channel View Publications.
Mok, C. & Iverson, T.J. 2000. Expenditure-based segmentation: Taiwanese tourists to Guam, Tourism Management, 21(3), 299-305.
Oh, J.Y., Cheng, C.K, Lehto, X.Y. & O'Leary, J.T. 2004. Predictors of tourists' shopping behavior: examination of socio-demographic characteristics and trip typologies. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(4), 308-319.
Timothy, Dallen J., and Richard W. Butler 1995, "Cross-Border Shopping a North American Perspective." Annals of Tourism Research 22, 1 (1995): 16-34.
Cell Phone as an Electronic Wallet
apid advances in technology in recent decades have brought about a dramatic change in the way people work, transact and communicate. Yet, it is widely believed that there is still ample scope for technology to make life even more convenient and efficient. For instance, the cell phone is already showing the promise of functioning as an electronic wallet. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate that using the cell phone, as an electronic wallet, will in fact add a great deal to convenience and safety, especially in the area of replacing plastic credit, debit and smart cards.
paid card; convenience; efficiency; safety; security; electronic; identification; business; bank; credit card company; consumer; transaction; identity theft; fraud; charge back; commissions.
Advances in Information Technology and Communication in recent decades have brought about a dramatic change in the way people live, work and play.…
Batista, E. (2002, Nov. 25). Shopping by cell phone? No thanks. Wired News.
Retrieved Aug. 29, 2004: http://www.wired.com/news/business/0,1367,56511,00.html?tw=wn_story_page_prev2
Beaudette, M. (2002, Aug. 5). Firms offer cell phone users services to dial for; devices not just for talking anymore. The Washington Times. Retrieved Aug. 27, 2004 from the Cellbucks Web site: http://www.cellbucks.com/en_US/news/080502WT.html
Bhatnagar, P. (2004, Feb.3). New cards: Flash but don't swipe. CNN Money.
As these preferences are determined, the algorithm then determines the best invitations to treat to present to the consumers. Today, these processes are powerful and can drive business at these websites, but they do not yet constitute bona fide interaction between the travel provider, the agent (website) and the consumer. Rather, the algorithms merely produce smarter sales pitches. At such a point when algorithms can literally cater to consumers' needs based upon the consumers' interactions the travel industry will be on the cusp of experiencing genuine co-creation. Co-creation at this point, however, is not an automated process. It must be conducted by humans. Given that more people are purchasing travel online than ever before, this would point to a decline in co-creation. It may be, however, that this technology will emerge in the next few years and truly transform the travel industry into one where co-creation is the norm.
Binkhorst, E. (no date). The co-creation tourism experience. Unpublished. In possession of the author.
Prahalad, C. & Ramaswamy, V. (2004). Co-creation experiences: The next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing. Vol. 18 (3) 5-14.
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The value of this case study is demonstrative. It demonstrates how contingency planning can be used, but it says nothing of the results.
A quasi-experimental design was used by Chermack & Kim (2008) to explore the effect of scenario planning on decision-making styles. It was found hat participants in scenario planning have a tendency to make a mental shift towards intuitive-based decision-making styles after their participation in the scenario planning process. This study used a limited sample from a single company. However, the study demonstrates that this might be an area of interest for future studies. It examined the effect of the scenario planning process on individuals, rather than on the firm as a whole. This study was unique in its approach to scenario planning. A majority of the studies found in this literature review approached scenario planning from the standpoint of the entire organization and its affects on the…
Barker, V. & Duhaime, I. (1997). Strategic Changes in the Turnaround Process: Theory and Empirical Evidence. Strategic Management Journal. 18 (1): 13-38.
Caress, J. & Miskel, J. (2007). Take Your Third Move First. Harvard Business Review. 85 (3): 20-21.
Caughron, J., & Mumford, M. (2008). Project Planning: The Effects of Using Formal Planning Techniques on Creative Problem-Solving. Creativity and Innovation Management. 17 (3): 204-215.
Chermack, T. & Kim, N. (2008). The Effects of Scenario Planning on Participant Decision-Making Style. Human Resource Development Quarterly (1044-8004). 19 (4): 351-372.
eing a leader also means constantly provoking competitors, as is the case here.
Finally, as previously mentioned, innovation is essential to supporting the company's approach and policies on the market. From this perspective, a pioneers approach is obviously indicated. As pioneers, Z-Wing will be able to ensure that its innovations are first on the market and that new customers are attracted to the new products and services that the company is putting out on the market. At the same time, as pioneers, Z-Wing will lead the market from this perspective.
In terms of price, the cost leadership strategy that has been identified here means that the company will be able to sell its planes at a price level lower than that of its competitors, obviously making it more viable on the market. With a lower price, the company can still act as a market leader, but without necessarily reducing its…
1. Aviation industry in Asia Pacific region to recover by 2009: IATA. September 2008. China Economic. On the Internet at http://www.chinaeconomicreview.com/airtravel/2008/09/19/aviation-industry-in-asia-pacific-region-to-recover-by-2009-iata.html.Last retrieved on January 13, 2009
Aviation industry in Asia Pacific region to recover by 2009: IATA. September 2008. China Economic. On the Internet at
Business Environment in Taiwan
Taiwan is an island situated approximately 180 kilometers (Eastern Asia) away from southeastern coast of mainland China. Having a geographical area of 35,883 Km2, Taiwan is officially part of the Peoples epublic of China (PC) although there is much tension between Taiwan and China regarding statehood of Taiwan. The U.S. however does not acknowledge Taiwan as a separate state. Taiwan has a population of 23 million (consisting three main ethnic groups i.e. Taiwanese, Mainland Chinese, and indigenous people) and Taipei is the capital city of Taiwan. Of late, relations between Taipei and Beijing have been cordial. Taiwan follows a civil law system and has a multiparty democracy as governance system (Department of Investment Services, 2013). Being a thriving economy based on hi-tech industrial base and trade relations with most of the developed world, the country is deemed an important destination by multinational corporations (MNCs) for the…
Chow, G., & Lin, A.L. (2002). Accounting for economic growth in Taiwan and Mainland China: a comparative analysis. Journal of Comparative Economics,30(3), 507-530.
Council for Economic Planning and Development & MOTC. (2013). Taiwan lowers Threshold for establishment of international airlines. CEPD. Retrieved from: http://www.cepd.gov.tw/encontent/m1.aspx?sNo=0019595
Council for Economic Planning and Development. (2013). Removal of items from negative list increase choices for foreign investors. CEPD. Retrieved from: http://www.cepd.gov.tw/encontent/m1.aspx?sNo=0019594
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This is an attempt to study the history and development of one of the great institutions of United States and a part of the images of the country that has spread in the whole world. As is well-known, the dominance of the world by United States came after the Second World War when the traditional leaders of United Kingdom and Germany lost their predominant positions due to the destructions of the war, and the impact of change in economic order due to the freedom of many countries. This was the freedom of the colonies and United States had been one of the first colonies to be free, and the former colony became the leader, along with Russia which was the pathfinder of the failed social and economic structure of communism. It was a contest between the two to prove the relative superiority of the two systems, and the…
McDonald's Marketing Strategies. [Internet]
Available from http://www.marketingtops.com/marketing/marketing55.html [Accessed 24 April 2004]
McDonald's keep thinking up good deals for their customers nowadays due to the drop in sales and reduction of margins that the company is facing, and one of that is to provide extra benefits to their customers, and this is often achieved by increasing the quantity served by just adding item quantities at a very low price.
Fascinating Mcfacts about McDonald's International. The Times November 11, 1996
Issues and Key Issue
In my opinion, there are several issues, the most important ones having been emphasized at the end of the case study. First of all, the creation, with the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992, of the common market in Europe, corroborated with the fact that Switzerland is not member of the EU, would be leading to the renegotiation of the Aviation Service Agreements (ASA) to which Swissair is part. Additionally, the common market would mean a much larger market than the Swiss: 350 million compared to 7 million and we may assume that the support from the European Commission and Council of Europe, coordinating bodies of the EU would have been much stronger.
A second issues that needed to worry Swissair is obviously related to deregulation, but not only on the European level, but globally. Global deregulation affects Swissair especially in terms of prices. Until…
The reliance on this location on the Persian gulf for both air and ship freight is expected to experience a 50% growth rate in the coming three years (Yoders, 2010). This will be reflected in an increase in investment for warehousing systems, supply chain management centers and the development of more efficient airline terminals specifically designed for the needs of air freight companies (Yoders, 2010). This will also translate into the need for greater services across the value chains of many of the world's most advanced and quickly changing industries, including the automotive industry (Sa Joe, 2006). A second example is that of professional services in construction and development (Donahue, 2007). Many American manufacturers have production centers in China and India, and need a more efficient route to European markets. The investments in supply chain infrastructure on the part of the UAE government are deliberately aimed at the needs of…
Frederik Balfour. (2006, December). Emerging Markets: Dipping a Toe In the Risk Pool. Business Week,(4015), 84.
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Donahue, J.. (2007). Halliburton: Comfort in Dubai. Multinational Monitor, 28(2), 8-9.
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other intangible assets such as patents and management strength. Finally, those future earnings are discounted to arrive at a net present value. Interbrand discounts against current interest rates and also against the brand's overall risk profile to factor in brand strength. Considerations include market leadership, stability, and global reach -- or the ability to cross both geographic and cultural borders. The final result values the brand as a financial asset. BusinessWeek and Interbrand believe this figure comes closest to representing a brand's true economic worth. (Business Week, Aug, 2007 (http://www.businessweek.com/pdfs/2007/0732_globalbrands.pdf)
Among the top 100 brands the U.S. has the largest representation with a full 52 brands on the list. This is comparable to no other nation. The U.S. also boast the highest rankings in high tech brands, producing electronic support systems, like software and PCs and/or support functions for them, as well as food and beverage provider brands, while Japan…
BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 2008, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:
Business Week, Aug, 2007, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:
It may come back tenfold, as corporations suggest, in overall income from exports, higher salaries in poor countries whose recipients will become consumers of American goods, and higher profits for American corporations in the meanwhile because of lower overhead. Still, as Hira and Hira suggest, it would not hurt to take precautions that American jobs are protected by first of all admitting that a problem exists, by gathering data as to its effect, by taking a good look at U.S. Visa policies and by making sure that corporations are not acting to the detriment of U.S. jobs (Hira 175).
They offer a series of solutions that will benefit workers in the future: adopt more pragmatic approaches to government procurement, overhaul assistance programs for displaced workers, establish better protections for these workers, make sure training for the next generation includes lifelong marketable skills, form institutions that represent the interests of workers,…
Campion, Michael A., et al., "Work Redesign: Eight Obstacles and Opportunities." Human Resources Management, Vol 44. Wiley Periodicals, Winter 2005: 367-399.
Cappelli, Peter and Crocker-Hefter, Anne. "Distinctive Human Resources are Firms' Core Competencies." Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. [
City of Publication: Publisher
Frauenheim, Ed and Yamamoto, Mike "Reforms, not rhetoric, needed to keep jobs on U.S. soil." CNET News.com. 4 May 2004. http://news.com.com/Offshoring+U.S.+needs+ reforms%2C+not+rhetoric/2009-1070_3-5198156.html?tag=nl#off1
Used car sales
Increasing trend of car sharing
Weakened U.S. tourism industry ("Enterprise")
The sale of used cars by other organizations is a significant threat to Enterprise. Many of the world's largest car manufacturers, like Daimler Chrysler, General Motors, and Ford, are offering large incentives and low interest financing through their dealers on new vehicle purchases. For this reason, it makes owning a new vehicle more affordable for more consumers and conversely weakens used car pricing industry wide. This could be devastating for Enterprise with their traditional procedure of acquiring new vehicles and then disposing of them through their used car outlets. To date, Enterprise has enjoyed higher resale values on their vehicles, when compared to standard residual value, due to their consistent level of maintenance service. However, in recent years this margin between the vehicle sale price and the residual value has narrowed considerably, especially as used…
1957. 2006. Enterprise Rent-A-Car. November 13, 2006 http://aboutus.enterprise.com/who_we_are/milestones.html.
1962. 2006. Enterprise Rent-A-Car. November 13, 2006 http://aboutus.enterprise.com/who_we_are/milestones.html.
1969. 2006. Enterprise Rent-A-Car. November 13, 2006 http://aboutus.enterprise.com/who_we_are/milestones.html.
1970. 2006. Enterprise Rent-A-Car. November 13, 2006 http://aboutus.enterprise.com/who_we_are/milestones.html.
S. markets are listed as being:
Also is concern in the presence of the government in the telecommunications market sector. U.S. exporters need to know that shipping of foods and agricultural products must be done to meet Italian requirements whether sealed and bonded or not. Italy has also banned the commercialization of four corn varieties approved by the EU. The biotech corn ban may be in violation of EU regulations. The United States and the European Union are the two regions with the largest amounts of imports in Textile and Clothing as well as in terms of their GDP and power of purchase. There are also investment barriers in place making it a lengthy process and investors are prohibited from the airlines and aircraft manufacturing markets. Government procurement is also a problem as it is fragmented in Italy and there are problems with Conclusion:
Italy: Economy [Online] located at http://www.geographyiq.com/countries/it/Italy_economy_summary.htm
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