Sleep Deprivation Essays (Examples)

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Sleep All Human Beings Need Sleep in

Words: 1168 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58405535

Sleep

All human beings need sleep in order for their bodies and minds to function properly. However, more and more people are staying up later than they should and then getting up without having slept the amount of time that they physically need in order to recover and ready themselves for the next day. Sleep debt refers to the deficit between the amount of sleep that a person gets and the amount that they need to function. The official definition, according to Scientific American states: "Sleep debt is the difference between the amount of sleep you should be getting and the amount you actually get. It's a deficit that grows every time we skim some extra minutes off our nightly slumber" (ebster 1). Every night it seems that for a large percentage of the population, the sleep debt seems to increase. There are many individuals who never get enough sleep…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Danner, Fred and Phillips, Barbara. "Adolescent Sleep, School Start Times, and Teen Motor

Vehicle Crashes." Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. (Dec. 2008): n. pag. Rpt. In Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Ed. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. 11th ed. Boston: Longman, 2011. 522-28. Print.

Lambert, Craig. "Deep Into Sleep." Harvard Magazine. Boston, MA: Harvard Magazine, Inc.

2005. Print.
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Sleep Questionnaire Rcsq Instrument Analysis Research to

Words: 850 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54168766

Sleep Questionnaire (CSQ) Instrument Analysis

esearch to evaluate interventions to promote sleep in critically ill patients has been restricted by the lack of brief, inexpensive outcome measures (ichards, O'Sullivan, & Phillips, 2000). Usually the critically ill are given different medications that help them sleep. However, in many cases this is insufficient to achieve enough rest and sleep periods are generally fragmented and with decreased restrictiveness. Most researchers believe that a few days of partial sleep or even complete sleep deprivation in a healthy adult for brief periods is completely benign. However, for patients in critical care settings the effects of sleep deprivation can contribute to major complications.

Sleep is divided into two distinctive states, rapid eye movement (EM) and nonEM states. The former is defined by periods of episodic burst of rapid eye movements and the later (NEM) has a set of sub-stages that include for separate phases that can…… [Read More]

References

Richards, K., O'Sullivan, P., & Phillips, R. (2000). Measurements of Sleep in Critically Ill Patients. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 8(2), 131-140.
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Sleep in the Media Sleep Media as

Words: 1038 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38423091

Sleep in the Media

Sleep Media

As interest in improving the quality of life increases, significant amount of research is being conducted in areas that can help improve the physical, mental and emotional well-being of human beings in an environment where there is constant distraction and a high level of stress. Sleep is an important area that has attracted a lot of attention. It is for this reason that the media has been particularly interested in the research on sleep and has portrayed it in a number of accurate and inaccurate ways for the consumption of the public. This ranges from getting adequate sleep to the best time for sleep in order to maintain productivity throughout the day. A number of remedies to cure sleep problems like insomnia and snoring are also popular occurrences in the media.

Michelson (2011) identifies one such myth that circulates frequently in the mass media.…… [Read More]

References

Gardner, A. (2012, May 01). Sleep curbs influence of obesity genes. Retrieved from  http://www.cnn.com/2012/05/01/health/sleep-curbs-obesity-genes/index.html 

Jones, K.E., Johnson, R.K., & Harvey-Bernio, J.R. (2008). Is losing sleep making us obese?. Nutrition bulletin, 33(4), 272-278. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-3010.2008.00727.x

Merrell, W. (2008, 10). How to sleep better and have more energy. O, The Oprah Magazine, Retrieved from  http://www.oprah.com/health/How-to-Sleep-Better-and-Have-More-Energy 

Michelson, W. (2011). Sleep time: Media hype vs. diary data. Social indicators research, 101(2), 275-280. doi: 10.1007/s11205-010-9647-y
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Sleep on Life Satisfaction and Cognitive Function

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29051179

Sleep on Life Satisfaction and ognitive Function

Popular literature is replete with articles presenting evidence of the many harmful effects of sleep deprivation and the general consensus is that modern society works too much and sleeps too little. To be accurate, many empirical studies do exist that demonstrate the ill effects of insufficient sleep (Shekleton, 2010). Where these studies once predominantly emanated from the field of applied psychology -- in other words, from animal studies -- today the literature contains many juried articles from reputable laboratories and sleep clinics whose research is carried out with human beings ("National Sleep Foundation," 2005). The case for the physiological importance of sleep deprivation has been made, but as Groeger, et al. (2004) argues "actual data that show that society is sleep deprived do not exist." And what sleep data there is about the impact of sleep quality and amount on perceptions about life…… [Read More]

Certainly, subjects in the Groeger, et al. (2004) study could be expected to recall the approximate times of going to bed and arising, particularly if they reliably kept to the same hours every day, and the maintained the same patterns across the workday and weekends. However, as the literature demonstrates, the ability of people to accurately recall less meaningful, qualitative nuance is susceptible to disruption and attentional bias. Gilbert, et al. (1988) suggest that cognitive "busyness" impacts perception about constraining factors in the behavior of others.

In summary, absent the recording of daily impressions regarding fatigue, energy, enjoyment, satisfaction, accomplishment, and mood, the reliability of the data is suspect.

Data from the Groeger, et al. (2004) was based on self-reports of sleep adequacy and included information about perceived satisfaction with energy levels, life experiences, and sense of being successful. Of considerable interest is the data that indicate that nine or more hours of sleep are not associated with higher levels of satisfaction with regard to energy, life experiences, and a sense of being successful. The popular notion is that people who sleep nine hours or more each day -- not including teen-agers -- are less energetic, less satisfied with life, and feel less successful overall, and may, in fact, be clinically depressed. Here, too, it would appear that future research would do well to investigate the actual reported and observed daytime moods of those subjects who report sleeping substantively more or less than typical subjects who tend to sleep, on average, about 7.5 hours per day. Given the inadequacy of accurate reporting of mood in the Groeger, et al. (2004) study, and the potentially important role that affect can have on recollection and reporting -- acting to mediate obtained responses -- research designed to accurately measure daytime effects of various levels of sleep and to precisely record mood in a repeated measures fashion is proposed. Further, instrumentation in the proposed study would be designed to obtain more refined measures of perceived levels of satisfaction and enjoyment in the three life areas targeted by Groeger, et al. (2004): Work, Home / Family Life, and Leisure Time. In
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Sleep Has an Affect on Memory and

Words: 1457 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49119600

sleep has an affect on memory, and how narcolepsy can affect memory. Finally, it will discuss how to avoid sleep deprivation.

SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND MEMORY

Sleep. e cannot live without it, but sometimes, it seems like we would like to. Sleep deprivation has become much more common in our hectic and demanding society. "Like the religious ascetics of medieval times, many people today regard sleep as 'time lost.' They regret that the day is only twenty-four hours long and that they do not have time to do all the things they should do or would like to do" (Borbaely 158). One report notes that most people would rather sleep an hour more than they usually do, and in another study, people who slept less that six hours a night displayed the tendency to fall asleep during the day, or complain of being tired during the day. In addition, most people…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arnold, Magda B. Memory and the Brain. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1984.

Borbaely, Alexander. Secrets of Sleep. Trans. Deborah Schneider. New York: Basic Books, 1986.

DeNoon, Daniel J. "Lack of Sleep Takes Toll on Brain Power." WebMD. 9 Feb. 2000. 26 July 2002. http://my.webmd.com/content/article/1728.54980

Editors. "Getting Enough Shut-Eye." ABCNews.com. 2 April 2002. 26 July 2002.  http://abcnews.go.com/sections/living/DailyNews/sleep_poll020402.html
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Sleep Behavior and Habits Scientists Have Known

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68391039

Sleep Behavior and Habits

Scientists have known for decades that the human sleep and wakefulness are controlled by complex factors that influence the circadian rhythm that regulate sleep in all mammalians and in most other forms of so-called higher biological life. More recently, physiologists have identified very important direct connections between sleep cycles, and sleep deprivation in particular, and human health. Specifically, sleep deprivation and the disruption of regular sleep-wake cycles have been implicated as factors that contribute to loss of mental focus, intellectual productivity, human error, emotional stability, resistance to bacterial infection, depression, and even healthful weight maintenance. In addition to the importance of sufficient sleep and the regularity of sleep cycles, there is even empirical evidence indicating that the quality of sleep is significantly affected by very small amounts of ambient light during sleep.

The Physiological and Psychological Importance of Sleep

Human studies on sleep and on sleep…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lamond, N., Dorrian, J., Roach, G.D., McCulloch, K., Holmes, A.L., Burgess, H.J.,

Fletcher, A., and Dawson, D. "The Impact of a Week of Simulated

Night Work on Sleep, Circadian Phase, and Performance." Occupational Environment, (September 2003): 13-21.

Pauley, S. "Lighting for the Human Circadian Clock: Recent Research Indicates that
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How Does Wakefulness Influence Sleep

Words: 3101 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17748726

Sleep and Wakefulness

How Does Wakefulness Influence Sleep

Sleep is one of the most important components of good health, and successful night's sleep can be robbed in many ways. Because the sleep state is a fragile undertaking, events that happen during the day, issues during the night, and physiological actors all play a role. This paper discusses all of the factors related to how wakefulness affects sleep, and therapies that can be used to receive good sleep.

Sleep deprivation

Of course the main way that wakefulness affects sleep is that fact that the person is awake. Sleep deprivation can come through many agencies such as what a person ate or drank right before bed, how agitated they were, what type of work the person did during the day, and the atmosphere they are sleeping in (atcliff & Dingen, 2009). However, this section is more about how sleep deprivation affects the…… [Read More]

References

Bokken, I. (2005). Dreams and Neuroholography: An interdisciplinary interpretation of development of homeotherm state in evolution. Sleep & Hypnosis, 7(2), 47-57.

Borbely, A.A., & Tontoni, G. (1998). The quest for the essence of sleep. Daedalus, 127(2), 167-182.

Botzen, D., & Rusu, A.S. (2010). Subjective sleep quality in relation to the type of living environment (rural vs. urban) an evolutionary psychological analysis of a Romanian non-clinical sample. Cognition, Brain, Behavior, 14(2), 141-149.

Broomfield, N.M., Gumley, A.I., & Espie, C.A. (2005). Candidate cognitive processes in psychophysiologic insomnia. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 19(1), 5-14.
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Psychology States of Consciousness Sleep

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11630376

I find that I could fall asleep almost anywhere, but especially after eating or when trying to relax. I am usually asleep within minutes of going to bed, but struggle mightily to get up in the morning. On a daily basis I find myself stressed to get through the day without felling tired, irritable and drowsy.

According to the Mayo Clinic's Sleep tips: 7 steps to better sleep (2012) there are 7 steps that one can use to achieve better sleep. These include:

Sticking to a regular sleep timetable -- going to bed and getting up at the same time every day, even on weekends, holidays and days off strengthens ones sleep-wake sequence and helps encourage better sleep at night.

Paying attention to what one eats and drinks -- one should never go to bed either hungry or stuffed as the discomfort might keep them up.

Creating a bedtime ritual…… [Read More]

References

Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep. (2007). Retrieved from    http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brain_basics/understanding_sleep.htm   

Carpenter, S. & Huffman, K. (2009). Visualizing Psychology (2nd ed.), John Wiley & Sons.

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.aasment.org/resources/factsheets/crsd.pdf

Sleep tips: 7 steps to better sleep. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sleep/HQ01387
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Safe Sleep and Sleep Patterns for Children Under 18 Months

Words: 2311 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79125388

Infant Sleep Patterns

People sleep nearly one third of their lives and infants sleep significantly more than adults (Franken, Kopp, Landolt, & Luthi, 2009). The function of sleep has hypothesized by different researchers; however, surprisingly there is no general consensus as to what the function and purpose of sleep actually is. It is known that sleep deprivation can have some serious consequences, especially in infants. The reason for this is that growth cycles as well as other developmental and functional processes occur in both the brain and body during sleep (Franken et al., 2009). Since getting adequate sleep is vital in infants it is important to understand their sleeping needs and patterns. In order to understand how to establish safe sleep patterns for children less than 18 months of age is important to understand the stages of sleep, the hypothetical functions of sleep, and the needs of infants regarding sleep…… [Read More]

References

Carpenter, R., McGarvey, C., Mitchell, E.A., Tappin, D.M., Vennemann, M.M., Smuk, M.,

Carpenter, J.R. (2013). Bedsharing when parents do not smoke: Is there a risk of SIDS?

An individual level analysis of five major case-control studies. British Medical Journal Open, BMJ Open 2013;3:e002299. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002299

Franken, P., Kopp, C., Landolt, H.P., & Luthi, A. (2009). The functions of sleep. European Journal of Neuroscience, 29(9), 1739-1740.
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Human Factors in Aviation Safety Focusing on Fatigue Body Rhythms and Sleep

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70753327

Comair Flight 5191: Case Study in Fatigue

Aviation Safety: Fatigue

Comair Flight 5191: A Case Study in Fatigue

Comair Flight 5191: A Case Study in Fatigue

Comair Flight 5191 came to a disastrous end in 2006 when the flight crew attempted to take off from a runway much shorter than required for the aircraft they were piloting, resulting in the deaths of 49 of the 50 people on board (Pruchnicki, Wu, and Belenky, 2011). The Comair Captain, First Officer, and air traffic controller failed to perform the necessary checks to ensure the plane was lined up on the proper runway before takeoff. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigated the accident and could not definitively determine the cause. Years later at a sleep conference, the NTSB chairman Deborah Hersman mentioned the Comair Flight 5191 tragedy and noted that establishing fatigue as a significant contributing factor is often so difficult that…… [Read More]

References

Caldwell, John A. (2012). Crew schedules, sleep deprivation, and aviation performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(2), 85-89.

Hersman, Deborah A.P. (2010). Remarks of the Honorable Deborah A.P. Hersman, Chairman National Transportation Safety Board before the National Sleep Foundation in Washington, D.C. NTSB.gov. Retrieved 14 Feb. 2013 from http://www.ntsb.gov/news / speeches/hersman/daph100305.html.

Jackson, Craig A. And Earl, Laurie. (2006). Prevalence of fatigue among commercial pilots. Occupational Medicine, 56, 263-268.

Pruchnicki, Shawn A., Wu, Lora J., and Belenky, Gregory. (2011). An exploration of the utility of mathematical modeling predicting fatigue from sleep/wake history and circadian phase applied in accident analysis and prevention: The crash of Comair Flight 5191. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43, 1056-1061.
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Relationship Between Hours of Sleep and Both of Satisfaction With Life and Cognitive Functioning

Words: 1129 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61908318

Hours of Sleep, Life Satisfaction & Cognitive Functioning

Cognitive Functioning

ELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOUS OF SLEEP, SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING

elationship between Hours of Sleep and Both of Satisfaction with Life and Cognitive Functioning

Proper sleeping hours are very important for our body's functioning. When a person is sleeping, his body is in the process of repair; thus allowing his brain to have some rest and the needed down time. There are many negative effects of less sleeping hours on the cognitive function as well as life satisfaction of a person.

Just like a proper diet, sleep plays a very essential role in the maintenance of overall health of an individual. Unfortunately, Americans are facing some serious cognitive and life satisfaction problems due to lack of sleeping hours. According to an estimate from U.S. Center for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), approximately 25% of U.S. citizens have less sleeping…… [Read More]

References

National Sleep Foundation, 2005. Summary of Findings, retrieved on June 17, 2011 from www.sleepfoundation.org

Siri Carpenter, 2001. Sleep Deprivation May Be Undermining Teen Health. Monitor Staff, Vol 32, No. 9, pp.42.

Julia A. Shekleton, Naomi L. Rogers and Shantha M.W. Rajaratnam, 2009. Searching For The Daytime Impairments Of Primary Insomnia. Clinical Review, Brain & Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales

William E. Kelly, 2010. Sleep-Length And Life Satisfaction In A College Student Sample. Retrieved on June 17, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCR/is_3_38/ai_n6249228/
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Neonatal Sleep

Words: 1720 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 360679

Neonatal Sleep

Neonatal nurseries are the only alternative environment to a human womb that is offered to a preterm infant . The development of these nurseries and its accessories has now opened a new era in the management of these preterm infants .These nurseries by virtue of their sophisticated machines and experienced care givers are now offering a better chance of survival to these fragile infants .These preterm infants are now not only surviving this initial complicated period of their lives but also leading a healthy life comparable to a normal term infant .

Although the preterm infants are profoundly benefited by these nurseries, these infants are also exposed to the various elements of a typical nursery environment .Among these physical elements, the constant lighting, noise, and nursing interventionsare the pertinent ones that may have negative influence on the development and well-being of a preterm infant .These physical elements may…… [Read More]

References

Dahl, R.E. (1996). The impact of inadequate sleep on children's daytime cognitive function.

Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 3, pp. 44-50.

21, 265-268.

Holditch-Davis, D., Barham, L., O'Hale, A., & Tucker, B. (1995). Effect of standard rest periods on convalescent preterm infants. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing,
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Psychology and Sleep Discussion Question

Words: 472 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22466694

Similarly, regular exposure to certain types of artificial lighting can have a negative effect on the quality of sleep as well. Research into the comparative health of daytime and nighttime workers has helped establish some of the more specific ways that sleep is important to human health. For example, certain forms of cancer such as breast cancer and colorectal cancer) have been documented at higher rates among nighttime workers Pauley, 2004). As it happens, those forms of cancer are known to be moderated by Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland during specific phases of sleep and known to vary in relation to exposure to light Pauley, 2004).

Research on mice revealed that melatonin-related cancers increased when the subjects were exposed to very small levels of light during sleep and also that completely blind human beings have a lower incidence of colorectal cancers than blind people who can perceive…… [Read More]

(2004): 588-596.

Recent research into sleep and the way sleep patterns are affected by light suggest that sleeping in complete darkness is much more beneficial than sleeping in less than complete darkness (Pauley, 2004). Similarly, regular exposure to certain types of artificial lighting can have a negative effect on the quality of sleep as well. Research into the comparative health of daytime and nighttime workers has helped establish some of the more specific ways that sleep is important to human health. For example, certain forms of cancer (such as breast cancer and colorectal cancer) have been documented at higher rates among nighttime workers (Pauley, 2004). As it happens, those forms of cancer are known to be moderated by Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland during specific phases of sleep and known to vary in relation to exposure to light (Pauley, 2004).

Research on mice revealed that melatonin-related cancers increased when the subjects were exposed to very small levels of light during sleep and also that completely blind human beings have a lower incidence of colorectal cancers than blind people who can perceive some light (Pauley, 2004). The researchers eventually determined that nighttime work is detrimental to human health partly because night workers are much less likely to sleep in absolute darkness since they sleep during daylight hours. Compounding the problem is the fact that the wavelengths common to blue television light and electronic equipment status lights are particularly bad in that regard. The research suggests that it is essential for night workers to sleep in entirely blacked-out rooms.
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Effects of Psychoactive Drugs on the Brain Stress and Sleep

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9262158

Psychoactive Drugs

The drug chosen is Cocaine, and it is listed to be "… a psychomotor stimulant, this class of drug produces their effect on the brain by simulating the actions of certain neurotransmitters, such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin." (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010) These effects would be known as the "pleasure" aspect of the drug, but there is also a second aspect to the drug's effects that are responsible for the addiction, called "plasticity" (Amaro et al.). A drug-induced plasticity is "tolerance, sensitization and physical dependence" on the drug cocaine (Amaro et al.). The part of the brain that cocaine targets is the amygdala, specifically the reward pathways found in the brain. Cocaine effects the reward pathways by inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine into nerve terminals (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010). Specifically cocaine reacts with dopamine, and would be considered an antagonist because it is similar enough to occupy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Emery, R.E., & Oltmanns, T.F. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Huffman, K. (2007). Psychology in action (8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (n.d.). Drug Abuse Among Hispanics: A brief evidence-based guide for providers (1.4 ed.) [Brochure]. Amaro, H., Cortes, D.E., Castro, F.G., Lopez, B., & Molina, P.E., et al. Retrieved March 17, 2011, from http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA07- 4288/SMA07-4288.pdf

Weiten, W. (2005). Psychology themes & variations: briefer edition (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
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Alternative Interrogation Method With the

Words: 1064 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13797741

.. information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him (qtd. "United Nations").

The effects of the Abu Gharib scandal, and the other interrogation concerns coming from Guantanamo Bay, led to the recently passed Military Commissions Act, which further clarifies the United States' position on the use of alternative interrogation methods and what is and is not acceptable, including the discontinuance of the use of waterboarding.

Again, although the use of alternative interrogation techniques, such as sleep deprivation or long time standing have the same goals of information retrieval, their similarities end there. Standard interrogation does not involve coercive methods. Prisoners or sources may be mentally intimidated, but they do not suffer physical or mental harm. Even the information garnered can be vastly different. Information received by standard interrogation methods is typically considered more reliable than…… [Read More]

References

Horton, S. When Lawyers are War Criminals. 12 Oct 2006. Pace Law School. November 25, 2006 http://library.law.pace.edu/blogs/jib/2006/10/when_lawyers_are_war_criminals.html.

Interrogation. 15 Nov 2006. Wikipedia.com. November 25, 2006 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interrogation.

Scelfo, J. & Nordland, R. "Beneath the Hoods." Newsweek (2006). November 25, 2006 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5412316/site/newsweek/.

Sullivan, A. "Torture by Any Other Name is Just as Vile." The Sunday Times (24 Sept 2006).
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Managing Risks Associated With Stress Describe How

Words: 979 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34927360

Managing Risks Associated With Stress

Describe how to maintain life balance and manage risks associated with stress

Maintaining life balance requires happiness. Even during stress, an individual should not allow all the stressors to take a toll on him/her. Avoiding stressors is the most appropriate way of managing stress. Developing new habits could help remove and distract an individual from stressful situations, pressures and stressors, which is essential in managing stress permanently. In this modern world, individuals must learn to change and minimize their exposure to stressful situations. While this technique does not change the situations causing stress, it enables an individual to change his/her relationship and reaction to the stressful situations hence maintaining a life balance.

Early Warning Systems are often used to identify officers at risks of family violence. Describe how to use an early warning system to identify officers at risk of using excessive force.

Officers with…… [Read More]

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Lewis Maltby's Proposition That Employers Should Not

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17949092

Lewis Maltby's proposition that employers should not do drug testing (or other testing related to off-work conduct) but should instead focus on impairment testing when an employee is entering the workplace. Instead of using drug testing in a punitive and time-consuming manner, Lewis Maltby holds that the technology exists to see if any safety or impairment issues are present in certain occupations in a way that is non-invasive and far more relevant. For instance, a train engineer, bus driver or airline pilot might be impaired due to stress, illness, sleep deprivation, etc. They could be tested using something akin to a video game, which captures their baseline performance and then compares it to the values at a certain test-time. If the individual is not able to perform the duties, then they are simply bumped for that shift.

Discuss privacy in social media websites. What sort of policies should exist? Does…… [Read More]

5. The Supreme Court has defined sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to include sexual harassment (both opposite-gender and same-gender). The Court has defined quid pro quo and hostile environment harassment. The Court has not defined it to protect someone against discrimination or harassment based on sexual orientation or preference, or transgender status. Discuss whether Title VII should be expanded to include those issues. Society and culture have evolved considerably in the last two decades. It was not all that long ago that many viewed ethnic minorities as different and not having the same rights as Whites. That, today, seems abhorrent. In a similar manner, the idea of Civil Rights was an evolutionary step to guarantee all people protection; therefore a person's sexual orientation or affiliations should also be protected under the Civil Rights acts in a similar manner as that of gender, age and ethnicity.

6. When Nike faced public criticism for its affiliation with sweatshops, it started a public relations campaign to counter its negative image. Some detractors sued Nike to stop the campaign, alleging that it was misleading and false. Discuss why you, as a judge, would either allow Nike to continue its campaign, or would make Nike stop the campaign. The very core of this argument is much larger than Nike and advertisement, it goes to the heart of censorship -- and who has the right to limit and censor advertising, printing, or dissemination of ideas. In a democratic society, adults have the right and responsibility to critically review the information presented to them. Product X could advertise that it has the cure for Male Pattern Baldness, but it is up to the consumer, not the Courts, to decide with their wallet what they will or will not purchase or provide. The government would have a responsibility if Product X hurt people, but in the case of Nike, the advertising and public relations campaign is little different than any political or other advertisement that presents only one side to the argument. We may not agree with the argument- indeed we may detest the argument, but in order to maintain a free and just society in which ideas are strong commodities we must take the notion that an educated populace is an informed populace. Our focus should be on educating children and youth so that, when appropriate, they can make decisions about what is right, wrong -- how to vet source material, and above all, what ideas they might want to accept and which to reject

7. Discuss how global warming unites national security issues and religion. The concept of globalization in economic and cultural development is a reality for the 21st century. The Internet and advances in telecommunication has made it easy to do business with any country in the world, to increase cultural and social contact, and to extend more timely communication between individuals. Global
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Behrens and Rosens 2002 Have an Entire

Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48345369

Behrens and Rosens (2002) have an entire discussion pertaining to the effects of sleep deprivation on adolescents. College students, actually, routinely deprive themselves of sleep as does the American nation in general (Weiten, 184) mainly in the hope and mistaken belief that they can achieve more in their life this way. According to Dumer and Dinges (2005), in fact, approximately 20% of adults are routinely sleep deprived.

cientific research on sleep, actually, presents something of a paradox since, whilst on the one hand, it indicates that sleep deprivation is not as detrimental as one might expect, on the other hand, evidence seems to indicate that sleep deprivation may be a major social problem, undermining efficacy in school and academic achievement, contributing to countless accidents, and negatively impacting an adolescent's life in various aspects.

The level of seriousness of the effects of partial sleep deprivation depends on the amount of sleep…… [Read More]

Sources

Behrens, L. & Rosens, L.J. Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. NY: Longman Pub., 2002.

Dumer, J., & Dinges, D.F. "Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation," Seminars in Neurology, 25 (2005): 117-129.

Weiten, W. Psychology: Themes and Variations. NY: Thomson & Wadsworth, 2007.
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Fine Line Walked by Interrogators

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9366671

This last category includes the infamous waterboarding technique, which has -- in subsequent evaluations -- been labeled illegal torture. An important consideration in the evaluation of these techniques has been the additive impact of combining techniques to achieve an enabling condition or objective. In other words, in its 2002 memo to John izzo, the Acting General Counsel of the C.I.A., the U.S. Justice Department specifically prohibited some combinations of techniques and specifically permitted other combinations. In the period following 9/11 through 2005, revolving officials in the Office of Legal Counsel of the U.S. Justice Department issued radical memos supporting or opposing the standard imposed by Congress for identifying torture. The harsh interpretation in 2005 asserted that the techniques used by the C.I.A. were not "cruel, inhuman or degrading," and so could not be considered to be torture.

How would you validate the information received from a suspect that was deprived…… [Read More]

References

Greene, C.H. And Banks, L.M. (2009). Ethical guideline evolution in psychological support to interrogations operations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 61(1), 25-32.

Mazzetti, M. And Shane, S. (2009, April 17). Interrogation memos detail harsh tactics by the C.I.A. The New York Times. Retrieved http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/17/us/politics/17detain.html?hp [Type text]
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There Are Three Places Where

Words: 2658 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34810199

Since both individuals were seeking to improve
the circumstances, the question that begs to be asked is why did the male
win?

"Male leaders received lower effectiveness ratings when expressing
sadness compared to neutrality, while female leaders received lower ratings
when expressing either sadness or anger" (Lewis, 2000, p. 221). Since
females are perceived in a different light, their emotions are also viewed
as being different as well. A response such as this does not make
cognitive sense, nor is it needs based, but it could be a fixed or a
learned behavior that would coincide with the fixed action theory.
Appealing to the audience from a needs basis might assist the young female
in achieving her goal, or she could benefit by taking a more dispassionate
approach in addressing the crowd. She could benefit from arousing the
students with application of a fixed action response especially from the
males…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bandura, A. (1989) Human Agency in Social Cognitive Theory, American
Psychologist, Vol 44, No 9, pp. 1175 - 1184
Chance, P. (1994) Learning and Behavior, Pacific Grove, California:
Brooks/Cole Publishing Company
Gawel, J.E. (1997). Herzberg's theory of motivation and Maslow's hierarchy
of needs. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and
Evaluation, [ED421486], accessed October 25, 2007
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Meta Analysis of Fibromyalgia Treatment From Traditional to Complimentary

Words: 4639 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57345204

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a complex medical condition that affects about 5 million American people. The condition is characterized by "chronic widespread pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, stiffness, impaired memory and concentration, anxiety and depression." (Facts of Life, 2001). Sleep disturbance and an increased sensitivity to pain follow a cyclic pattern in individuals having FMS, the result of which is a positive feedback loop. (Etiology of Fibromyalgia, 2003).

Typically, fibromyalgia affects women, especially those between the ages of 20 and 55. (Who gets fibromyalgia? 2003). Women in this age group, as also people with rheumatologic or endocrine problems (such as thyroid disease), are at greatest risk for developing fibromyalgia syndrome. Fibromyalgia can also manifest at the time of menopause, and the malaise has also been seen to exist among members of the same family in successive generations. This syndrome also sometimes affects men and children.

The cause of fibromyalgia is yet…… [Read More]

References

Boon, R. (n.d.). Fibromyalgia. Retrieved May 10, 2003, at http://home.iprimus.com.au/rboon/Fibromyalgia.htm

Brignall, M. (2000,October). Exercise Spells Relief For Fibromyalgia Sufferers. Retrieved May 10, 2003 at http://www.enerchihealth.com/healthnotes/20001026_exercise_spells_relief.htm

Barclay, L. (2003, February) SAMe Benefits Depression, Osteoarthritis, Liver Disease. Retrieved May 10, 2003 at http://www.fibromyalgiasupport.com/library/showarticle.cfm/ID/4317/

Chaitow, L. (2003, April). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & Fibromyalgia: The Brain-Sleep Connection. Retrieved May 10, 2003 at http://www.fibromyalgiasupport.com/library/showarticle.cfm/id/4516
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Sleeping and Insomnia

Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56526180

Sleeping and Insomnia

Introduction have been observing my roommate's sleeping patterns. He has insomnia and takes sleeping pills every night, sometimes with alcohol. My hypothesis is that his dependence on sleeping pills and his mixing with alcohol are hindering his condition, rather than helping it. I think that there are many other, more natural things he could do to ease his insomnia.

General understanding of sleeping

We spend about one third of our life sleeping. Sleep is defined as the suspension of consciousness during which the powers of the body are restored (ThinkQuest, 2003). The brain is not at rest during sleep as popularly thought, but is extremely active and it is the brain that tells us when it is time to sleep. Sensations of light taken in from the retina are transferred through the nerves to an area of the brain determines the amount of light exposure and adjusts…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ThinkQuest Online Library. (2003). "Sleep From A To Zzz." Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.thinkquest.org/

Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. (2003). "Sleep." MSN. Retrieved from the Internet at http://encarta.msn.com/

Coren, Stanley. (1996). "Sleep Thieves: an Eye-Opening Exploration into the Science & Mysteries of Sleep." New York: The Free Press, 1996.

Cardinal, Florence. (2003). "Insomnia- What Is Insomnia?." Retrieved on the Internet at http://sleepdisorders.about.com/cs/whatisinsomnia
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Self-Change Project- Bedtime Prior to

Words: 1380 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92199437

An alarm was set each night signaling the self-agreed upon time for bed. I explained to friends and family that this was an important behavioral change in my life, as well as an academic exercise, and asked for their support. The process of self-change by using consciousness raising and reevaluation of goals and behavior were also an important part of the motivation for this study. I followed the prescribed agreement for a three-week period, realizing that I would need a few days at several levels in order to be successful (See Appendix B). At the end of three weeks my quality sleep averaged above 7.5 hours, thus increasing the basal measurement by 50% (from 5.0 hours to 7.5 hours).

Discussion- the intervention was a success and there was a clear set of lifestyle and behavioral changes that were made. General feelings of self-worth, sense of direction, and contentment/happiness with the…… [Read More]

Cited in:

http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2007-09-16-sleep-deprivation_N.htm
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Fatigue Management in Aviation Many Documented Incidents

Words: 1604 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48656662

Fatigue Management in Aviation

Many documented incidents can be linked to pilot fatigue. A case in kind occurred on August 18, 1993, where a Connie Kalitta DC-8 crashed whilst completing its 1/4-mile base leg. The flight crew had flown for 9 hours and been on duty for 18 hours, accordingly disrupting their circadian rhythm and experiencing sleep loss (National Transportation Safety Board, 1993).

Showing how fatigue was determined to be a contributing safety factor in the event

That the accident was, to a great extent, contributory to sleep loss was confirmed by Jim Danaher, chief of the NTSB's Operational Factors Division at the November 1995 Fatigue Symposium near Washington, D.C.:

The company had intended for the crew to ferry the airplane back to Atlanta after the airplane was offloaded in Guantanamo Bay. This would have resulted in a total duty time of 24 hours and 12 hours of flight time…."(National…… [Read More]

Reference

Brandon Printup, M. 2000. "The effects of fatigue on performance and safety" Airlinesafety.com   http://www.airlinesafety.com/editorials/PilotFatigue.htm  

Duke, T. 1997 "Battling Fatigue -- the Challenge is to Manage It." NATCA Voice. Editorial pp.49-52

Dumer, J., & Dinges, D.F., 2005, "Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation," Seminars in Neurology, 25, pp. 117-129.

National Transportation Safety Board, Aircraft Accident Report, 1993, In Flight Loss of Control and Subsequent Collision with Terrain, DC-8-61, N814CK, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, Washington, DC.
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Dreaming Is Just One of the Natural

Words: 3258 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44098530

Dreaming is just one of the natural phenomenons that human beings do during the process of sleeping. Indeed, this natural process is not constrained to any particular characteristic and people with cultural diversity, all age groups and different social backgrounds dream throughout their entire lives. Since dreaming is linked to the mind and soul, thus it is considered that people will continue to dream until they are living (Hobson 2004).

Dreaming is an entire chain and cycle of metaphors, feelings, sensation and insight that forms a story while a person is asleep. Since the dreams people see are not in one shape, hence it can be peaceful, thrilling, practical, scary, chaotic, or implausible. This means that during the entire phenomenon of dreaming, a person can hallucinate about humans, houses, places such as cities, hills, rivers and various other things that the individual have not even seen in real life (Hobson…… [Read More]

References

Coon, D & Mitterer, J.O. (2008). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior, 12th Edition, Cengage Learning, Canada.

Harvard Health Publications (2012). 'Understanding Sleep: Body Clock and Sleep Cycles', HELPGUIDE.ORG -- A Trusted Non-Profit Resource, Viewed September 24, 2012: http://www.helpguide.org/harvard/sleep_cycles_body_clock.htm

Harvard Medical School (2007). 'Sleep, Learning, and Memory', Healthy Sleep, Viewed September 24, 2012:  http://healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/healthy/matters/benefits-of-sleep/learning-memory 

Hobson, A.J. (2004). Dreaming: An Introduction to the Science of Sleep, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, Great Britain.
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Chronic Fatigue

Words: 5257 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64165288

Chronic Fatigue in the Aviation Industry

Chronic Fatigue

Fatigue is the mental and/or physical state of being weak and tired. Mental and physical fatigue is different, but the two will often exist together. A person becomes mentally tired if they are physically exhausted for a long period. A person being unable to function physically at their normal levels manifests physical fatigue Jackson & Earl, 2006.

Mental fatigue will manifest itself by a sleepy feeling and inability to concentrate properly. In medical terminologies, fatigue is not a sign, but rather a symptom. This means that a person suffering from fatigue is able to feel and describe the condition. Experts have indicated that around 10% of people globally suffer from persistent tiredness at any one time. Females are more prone to persistent tiredness than males. It is not easy to define fatigue in humans because of its large variability of causes. The…… [Read More]

References

Avers, K., & Johnson, W.B. (2011). A review of Federal Aviation Administration fatigue research: Transitioning scientific results to the aviation industry. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 1(2), 87.

Bennett, S.A. (2003). Flight crew stress and fatigue in low-cost commercial air operations -- an appraisal. International journal of risk assessment and management, 4(2), 207-231.

Caldwell, J.A. (2003). Fatigue in aviation: A guide to staying awake at the stick. 110 Cherry Street: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Caldwell, J.A. (2005). Fatigue in aviation. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 3(2), 85-96.
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121 Airlines vs 135 Charters Pilot Rest Requisites

Words: 4488 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72539932

FAA Pilot Rest Requirements

On January 15, 2009, Captain Chesley Sullenberger successfully landed U.S. Airways Flight 1549, a scheduled commercial passenger flight from LaGuardia Airport in New York City to Charlotte/Douglas International Airport, Charlotte, North Carolina, onto the waters of the Hudson River after the plane, an Airbus A320-214, had been struck by a flock of birds which caused an immediate and complete loss of thrust in both engines. Had Capt. Sullenberger, and the crew of Flight 1549, not responded as they did, in a uniformly calm and cool manner while adhering to the tenets FAA safety regulations, there's a decent chance that all of the 155 occupants aboard the Airbus 320 would not be with us today, and that this story of heroism, in the face of looming tragedy, would have a different ending (Sturcke, 2009).

On February 12, 2009, in the wake of the glee and excitement that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bowles, H. (2010, Feb. 8). Colgan Pilot Fatigue & NTSB. Better Job Safety. Retrieved from  http://safetests.blogspot.com/2010/02/colgan-pilot-fatigue-ntsb.html 

Brandon, M. (2000, Sept). The Effects of Fatigue On Performance And Safety. Airline Safety.Com. Retrieved from   http://www.airlinesafety.com/editorials/PilotFatigue.htm  

Dorr, L., Duquette, A. (2010, Sept. 16). Fact Sheet -- Pilot Fatigue. Federal Aviation

Administration. Retrieved from  http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=11857
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Human Factors in Aviation Safety

Words: 3015 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3783283

They just assume that the autopilot will take care of flying the plane, and their skills get rusty with lack of use. Then, if something goes wrong with the autopilot system the pilot and his or her crew members may not know what to do and they may not react as quickly as they need to in order to protect the passengers and the rest of the crew members from serious harm (Human, 2009).

The majority of people need to sleep approximately eight hours each night. If they do not get that level of sleep, they can be overly tired and that can cause them to make more mistakes than they otherwise would (Human, 2009). However, someone who has gotten eight hours of sleep is not necessarily caught up on his or her sleep. The quality of sleep the person has gotten and how tired he or she was before…… [Read More]

References

Berliner, D. (1996). Aviation: Reaching for the sky. New York, NY: The Oliver Press, Inc.

Dirty dozen - errors - human factors. (2011). Aviation Glossary. Retrieved from http://aviationglossary.com/aviation-safety-terms/dirty-dozen-errors-human-factors/

Harris, D. & Muir, H.C. (2005). Contemporary issues in human factors and aviation safety. New York, NY: Ashgate.

Human factors in aviation maintenance. (2011). Southern California Safety Institute. Retrieved from  http://www.scsi-inc.com/HFAM.php
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Clinical Psychology

Words: 60005 Length: 200 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12402637

Deam Content as a Theapeutic Appoach: Ego Gatification vs. Repessed Feelings

An Abstact of a Dissetation

This study sets out to detemine how deams can be used in a theapeutic envionment to discuss feelings fom a deam, and how the theapist should engage the patient to discuss them to eveal the elevance of those feelings, in thei pesent, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of epetitious deams, how medication affects the content of a deame's deams, and if theapists actually "guide" thei clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the theapist "suggesting" to thei clients that they had suffeed some type of ealy childhood tauma, when in fact, thee wee no taumas in thei ealy childhoods. The oigin of psychiaty is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, theapy o any othe even faintly scientific endeavo. Its oiginal pupose was not even to cue mental affliction.…… [Read More]

references. This may be related to the large decrease in familiar settings in the post-medication dreams. Although Domhoff (1996) does not list a high percentage of elements from the past as an indicator of psychopathology, he does mention that people suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a type of anxiety disorder, tend to have dreams in which distressing events are relived again and again. It may be that other anxiety disorders invoke a similar response in which the dreamer has a tendency to dwell on past events, which merits further research.

A final observation is that the results of this study provide support for Hartmann's (1984) biological model of the effects of drugs on dreams. An early study which focused mainly on long-term sleep patterns found little change in dream content associated with psychotropic drug administration (Hartmann & Cravens, 1974), but a later study conducted in Hartmann's laboratory indicated that increased levels of dopamine resulted in more vivid, nightmarish dreams (Hartmann, Russ, Oldfield, Falke, & Skoff, 1980). Based on his own research and the literature on drugs and nightmares, Hartmann (1984) proposed that drugs that increase the neurotransmitters dopamine or acetylcholine, or decrease norepinephrine or serotonin, produce nightmares and more vivid and bizarre dreams.

Drugs that have the opposite effects would decrease the incidence of disturbing dreams. The dreamer in this study was taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which served to increase the effects of serotonin. According to the biological model, with the onset of medication the dreamer should have experienced a decrease in nightmares, or, in Hall and Van de Castle's terms, lower aggression, negative emotions, and other unpleasant factors. This was, in fact, the case.

The emphasis on statistically significant differences without regard to effect sizes slowed progress in the study of dream content by creating unnecessary polarities and focusing energy on methodological arguments. The introduction of effect sizes into the study of dream content makes it possible to suggest that the controversy over home and laboratory collected dream reports never should have happened. The emphasis in dream content studies henceforth should be on effect sizes and large samples. Then future dream researchers could focus on testing new ideas using dream reports collected either at home or in the sleep laboratory.

Summary
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Noise-Abatement Strategies for Tertiary Healthcare Facilities

Words: 4568 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14964406

educing Length of Stays on Critical Care Wards in a Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Today, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) operates the nation's largest healthcare system and provides training for more than half of all of the physicians that practice in the United States today. Based on its mission, taken from President Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address, to "care for him who has borne the battle, his widow and his orphans," the VA Medical Center in Oklahoma City is committed to providing the best quality medical care possible for its veteran patients. One issue that has emerged in recent months that has been shown to adversely affect the quality of this patient care is sleep disruption on critical care wards due to the high levels of noise that are generated in these healthcare environments. In fact, the noise levels on many critical care wards as the same as…… [Read More]

References

Bijwadia, J.S. & Ejaz, M.S. (2009). Sleep and critical care. Current Opinion in Critical Care,

15, 25 -- 29.

Brindley, M. (2009, December 29). Silent bins bring peace to patients; changes made to help intensive care. South Wales Echo, 9.

Freedman, N.S., Kotzer, N., & Schwab, R.J. (1999). Patient perception of sleep quality and etiology of sleep disruption in the intensive care unit. American Journal of Respiratory
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Neuropharmacology and the Army

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98992023

Neuropharmacology and the Military

Modafinil is particularly promising for its ability to improve cognitive function and combat sleep deprivation. When one's circadian rhythm is at a low ebb, this challenges cognitive function, and cognitive performance can decline significantly during these periods. The military has not just researched this on its own, but has been able to borrow from other research on the subject. The medical profession, for example, has examined modafinil, and managing the sleep patterns of shift workers is one of the drug's approved uses. Military personnel can be shift workers, but more often they experience sleep disruptions, especially during combat situations, and modafinil essentially stabilizes cognitive function during these times (Westcott, 2005).

One of the caveats to the use of modafinil is that some cognitive performance tests are subjective -- self-reported results from users with respect to their cognitive function. Modafinil in particular was found to have a…… [Read More]

References

Baranski, J. & Pigeau, R. (1997). Self-monitoring for cognitive performance during sleep deprivation: Effects of modafinil, d-amphetamine and placebo. Journal of Sleep Research. Vol. 6 (1997) 84-91.

Cain, C., Maynard, G. & Kehne, J. (2012). Targeting memory processes with drugs to prevent or cure PTSD. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. Vol. 21 (9) 1323-1350.

Raskind, M. (2013). A placebo-controlled augmentation trial of prazosin for combat trauma PTSD. Seattle Institute for Biomedical and clinical research.

Raskind, M., Peterson, K., Williams, T., Hoff, D., Hart, K., Holmes, H., Homas, D., Hill, J., Daniels, C., Calohan, J., Millard, S., Rohde, K., O'Connell, J., Pritzl, D., Feiszli, K. (2013). A trial of prazosin for combat trauma PTSD with nightmares in active-duty soldiers returned from Iraq and Afghanistan. American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 170 (2013) 1003-1010.
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Fibromyalgia One Might Consider Fibromyalgia to Be

Words: 6457 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37868620

Fibromyalgia

One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.

Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adiguzel, O., Kaptanoglu, E., Turgut, B., & Nacitarhan, V. (2004). The possible effect of clinical recovery on regional cerebral blood flow deficits in fibromyalgia: a prospective study with semiquantitative SPECT. South Med J, 97, 7, 651-655

Baldry, P. (1993). Complementary medicine. The practice of acupuncture needs tighter safeguards. Bmj, 307, 6899, 326

Baumgartner, E., Finckh, A., Cedraschi, C., & Vischer, T.L. (2002). A six-year prospective study of a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis, 61, 7, 644-645

Bennet, Robert. (2000). The Scientific Basis for Understanding Pain in Fibromyalgia. Myalgia.com. Retrieved August 21, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.myalgia.com/Scientific%20basis.htm
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States of Consciousness

Words: 952 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11736261

consciousness has been studied actively since the 1960s. Interestingly, Taylor (2003) notes, "Consciousness is a subtle phenomenon, which has so far resisted all attempts to understand it." Taylor's statement may be an exaggeration, as the author of this assigned reading goes on to discuss a number of facets of consciousness that have been well studied. These include biological rhythms, facets of waking consciousness, automatic vs. controlled processing, shifts in self-awareness, sleep, and drugs that alter consciousness.

This article notes that circadian rhythms can be either short-term or longer term, and are simply biological rhythms that occur as regular changes in our bodily functions and processes. The pineal gland plays an important role in long-term biological rhythms like hibernation through its production of melatonin. Human differences between day and night people is a common example of biological rhythms in humans.

The author then moves on to examine common disturbances in circadian…… [Read More]

References

Morin, Alain. 2002. Self-awareness review part 1: Do you 'self-reflect' or 'self-ruminate'? SCR, December, No. 1. 26 August 2004.  http://www2.mtroyal.ab.ca/~amorin/Rumination.pdf 

Chapter: States of Consciousness. p. 121 -154.

Revonsuo, Antti and Valli, Katja. 2000. Dreaming and Consciousness: Testing the Threat Simulation Theory of the Function of Dreaming. PSYCHE, 6(8), October 2000. 26 August 2004. http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v6/psyche-6-08-revonsuo.html

Tart, Charles T. 1975. States of Consciousness. First published by E.P. Dutton & Co., New York, in 1975. ISBN 0-525-20970-0. August 26, 2004. http://www.druglibrary.org/special/tart/soccont.htm
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Restless Leg Syndrome

Words: 1477 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94280149

estless Leg Syndrome

A simple way to define estless legs syndrome (LS) is an overpowering urge to move limbs, especially the legs that mostly take place when relaxing or during bedtime. This neural disorder is a major causative factor of nighttime blood pressure spikes and its associated circulatory consequences which reduces sleep quality and in some cases even eliminates the possibility of sleep. This sleep deprivation causes adverse effects such as nervousness, perpetual sadness and reduced comfort of living. Patients initially suffering from hemodialysis that develops LS have a much higher death rate. In most cases, they suffer from disorders that are difficult to explain. This paper's objective is to educate medical personnel on the need to understand and make deductions from the patient's signs, which are the factors considered and from which a conclusion is made if a patient has LS or some other disorder (Einollahi & Izadianmehr, 2014).…… [Read More]

References

Allen, R., Chen, C., & Garcia-Borreguero, D. (2014). Comparison of pregabalin with pramipexole for restless legs syndrome. N Engl J. Med, 370(7), 621-31.

Comella, C. L. (2014). Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome. Neurotherapeutics, 11(1), 177-87.

Einollahi, B., & Izadianmehr, N. (2014). Restless Leg Syndrome: A Neglected Diagnosis. Nephrourol Mon, 6(5).

Gangadharan, S., Perkins, L., Sauerbier, A., & Chaudhuri, K. R. (2016). The treatment challenges of restless legs syndrome. Prescribing In Practice.
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Shift Work

Words: 2288 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14447471

Shift Work and Scheduling in Aviation Industry

Shift work and Fatigue in the Aviation Industry

There is a circadian rhythm in every human being (refer to Figure 1). It basically acts like the body's biological alarm clock and it tells your body the time it needs to rest, to eat or even when to get active. The circadian rhythm can be interrupted by modifications in daily schedule. Disturbance in the circadian rhythm can have strong consequences like the onset of exhaustion. Typically grownups need good 8 hours of sleep in a 24-hour phase (WSH Council, 2010). A recurrent sleep of less than that vital will sustain a sleep deprivation that cannot be improved within one day. Improvement typically requires a few days of sufficient sleep (WSH Council, 2010).

Fatigue or tiredness is basically when a person feels low and weak both mentally and physically, there are many different types of…… [Read More]

References

Alertness Solution. (2009). The Moebus Aviation Report on "Scientific and Medical Evaluation of Flight Time Limitations": Invalid, Insufficient, and Risky. Rebuttal to the EASA Report. Accessed: http://www.ryanair.com/doc/news/2009/mar090607.pdf

Bouma, G.D. (2004). The research process. 5th ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Caldwell, J.A., Mallism M.M., Caldwell, J.L., Paul, M.A., Miller, J.C. And Neri, D.F. (2010). Fatigue Countermeasures in Aviation. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 80, No. 1.

Federal Aviation Administrtaion (FAA) (2008). Aviation Fatigue Management Symposium: Partnerships For Solutions. FAA Fatigue Conference Proceedings. Accessed:  http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs200/media/aviation_fatigue_symposium/aviation_fatigue_symposium.pdf
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Video Game Violence During the

Words: 4289 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76476903

, 2000). Specifically, the fact that video games portray extremely violent actions without a human cost can lessen a person's natural response (including empathy) in addition to promoting reckless conduct in real life.

It is not necessarily that teenagers consciously believe they can "do" what they see in the games the way children sometimes come to believe that they can fly. But they may absorb unconscious images that inhibit their ability to anticipate real-life consequences of certain choices and behaviors (ilson, Smith, Potter, et al., 2002). According to the Joint Statement on the Impact of Entertainment Violence on Children presented to the Congressional Public Health Summit July 26, 2000 by several very prominent pediatricians and child psychologists:

"At this time, well over 1000 studies - including reports from the Surgeon

General's office, the National Institute of Mental Health, and numerous studies conducted by leading figures within our medical and public…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) "Media Violence" Pediatrics 108.5: 1222(5)

(2001).

Buchanan, Alice M., Gentile, Douglas A., Nelson, Daniel A., Walsh, David A., Hensel,

James, A. "What Goes In Must Come Out: Children's Media Violence
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Health My Definition of Health

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12188327

Since being healthy includes a sound mind, less worrying over financial problems leads to a stronger, sounder mind.

Drinking a lot of water throughout the day is another health-promoting behavior. Drinking a lot of water adds natural moisture to your skin, giving a fresh glow today and helping the aging process tomorrow. It also helps when I exercise to drink more water because being properly hydrated during exercise allows me to have a better, more productive workout. Drinking water also improves my energy and increases both my mental and physical performance. Additionally it allows for proper digestion and relieves headaches and dizziness. For those reasons I believe that not smoking and drinking water regularly are two of my important health-promoting behaviors.

My Detrimental Health ehaviors

As improvements in health become more necessary and evident, the medical industry will continue to work to improve the overall health of all individuals. However,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. (2005).
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World Culture History of Middle East Civilization

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65898404

Uns-El-Wujood and El-Ward Fi-L-Akmam is a tale of love, separation, and reunion. Set in legendary kingdoms in times of yore, Chapter 18 of Arabian Nights is a quintessential romance. The daughter of the king's Weezer falls in love with one of the king's soldiers. Both become completely smitten with one another, but when their affair is discovered, the Weezer fears that the Sultan will not approve. The Weezer, Ibraheem, consults his wife, who prays for guidance. The parents of El-Ward Fi-L-Akmam decide that their only recourse is to send their daughter to a land far away, in "the midst of the Sea of the Kunooz...on the Mountain of the Bereft Mother," (p. 200). There, they will build an "impregnable palace" in which she will spend the rest of her days in isolation (p. 200). The lovers, who have been exchanging verses of love poetry since they first fell for each…… [Read More]

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Domestic Violence Related to Alternating Shifts in Policing

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92966959

Domestic violence is a multifaceted idea but can roughly be referred to as exhibition of abusive behaviors towards a mate in an intimate relationship such as family setting, dating instances, marriage, cohabitation and even friendship. These abuses are usually used to control the other partner in a relationship (Domesticviolence.org, 2009). This paper therefore sets out to look at the possibility of the work schedule being a contributing factor to the ever rising domestic violence among the policing families. It also seeks to expand on the responses that have been made to mitigate the effects of the shift working system on the violence in homes.

Depending on the context and region of use, domestic violence can be called domestic abuse, intimate partner violence, spousal abuse or even family violence. However, all these manifest themselves in various forms including but not limited to: Physical violence/attack (like shoving, kicking, slapping, hitting, restraining etc.),…… [Read More]

References

Beverly J.A., (2002). The Echoes of Violence in the Police Family. Retrieved September 4, 2011

from  http://www.giftfromwithin.org/html/Police-Stress-Management.html 

CBS Interactive. (2010). The Effects of Sleep Deprivation. Retrieved September 4, 2011

from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_7_70/ai_77417463/
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Industrial Revolution Most People Worked

Words: 1174 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67588900

As a result of these experiments, researchers realized that this is the mechanism by which nighttime lighting increased cancers in nighttime shift workers.

Nighttime shift work disrupts the normal rhythm of the circadian clock, which suppresses melatonin production; suppressed melatonin levels correspond to decreased resistance to cancers in tissues with melatonin receptor sites and to increased growth rates in tumors with melatonin receptor sites. Colorectal cancer is probably the type of cancer affected most by melatonin levels, because the same modern lifestyle that causes exposure to nighttime lighting also includes a high-fat, low fiber diet that is a known factor in rectal cancers.

The two final piece of the puzzle fell into place when researchers also determined that: (1) mice exposed to very low levels of light, even during nighttime sleep, also had higher cancer growth rates; and (2) people who are completely blind have lower rates of the same…… [Read More]

References

Pauley, S. (2004) Lighting for the Human Circadian Clock: Recent Research Indicates that Lighting Has Become a Public Health Issue.

Medical Hypotheses 63, 588-596.
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Health Benefits of Coffee Numerous

Words: 2432 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57378029



The amount of caffeine being consumed is apparently of great importance, as approximately 200 mg can increase one's chances to get better results on an attentiveness performance test while an approximate of 400 mg can do the opposite. Caffeine abuse can lead to serious problems in the case of people who need to be alert. Caffeine was tested in a series of other cognitive-related experiments but none of them produced satisfying results (Snel, Lorist, and Tieges 58).

Coffee contains numerous chemicals, each of them adding to its flavor and to the effects it produces on the body, with the most notable of them being caffeine. The aroma coffee releases is surely seductive, as there is nothing else like it. From the very first moment one opens the coffee recipient numerous microscopic particles are inhaled, stimulating the olfactory nerve, this sensation getting even more intense when the brew is actually ready…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

1. Greene, Lindsey A. "New Grounds for Drinking Coffee," Environmental Health Perspectives 108.7 (2000).

2. Halweil, Brian. "Why Your Daily Fix Can Fix More Than Your Head: Coffee, If Grown Right, Can Be One of the Rare Human Industries That Actually Restore the Earth's Health," World Watch May 2002.

3. Pendergrast, Mark Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World (New York: Basic Books, 1999).

4. Snel, Jan. Lorist, Monicque M. And Tieges, Zoe. "4 Coffee, Caffeine, and Cognitive Performance," Coffee, Tea, Chocolate, and the Brain, ed. Astrid Nehlig (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2004)
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Fibromyalgia More Than 50 of

Words: 5095 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36644521

(Busch, Barber, Overend, Peloso, and Schachter, 2007, p. 8)

esults from this study relate a moderate quality evidence that aerobic-only exercise training at recommended intensity levels produces positive effects "global well-being (SMD 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.13 to 0.75) and physical function (SMD 0.68, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.95) and possibly on pain (SMD 0.94, 95% CI -0.15 to 2.03) and tender points (SMD 0.26, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.79)." esults noted that flexibility and strength and flexibility remain under assessed. (Busch, Barber, Overend, Peloso, and Schachter, 2007, pp. 11-13)

According to criteria Melnyk Fineout-Overholt (2005) present, this study is a Level II study. From the Cochrane review, the following relates what research notes regarding the effect of exercise for FMS:

moderate intensity aerobic training for 12 weeks may improve overall well-being slightly and physical function.; moderate intensity aerobic exercise probably leads to little or no difference in pain…… [Read More]

References

Antai-Otong, Deborah, MS, APRN, BC, FAAN. (2005). "Depression and Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS): Pharmacologic Considerations." Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. Volume: 4, Issue 3, 146+. Retrieved April 29, 2008, at http://www.questia.com/read/5011211783?title=Depression%20and%20Fibromyalgia%Syndrome%20(FMS)%3a%20Pharmacologic%20Considerations

Busch AJ, Barber KAR, Overend TJ, Peloso PMJ, Schachter CL. Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003786. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003786.pub2.

Burckhardt, Carol S. Mannerkorpi, Hedenberg, Kaisa, Lars and Bjelle, Anders. (1994). A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Education and Physical Training for Women with Fibromyalgia. The Journal of Rheumatology; 11:4, 714-719

Costa1, D. Da., Abrahamowicz, M., Lowensteyn, I., Bernatsky, S., Dritsa1, M., Fitzcharles, a., and Dobki, P.L.. Advance Access Rheumatology; 19 July 2005, 44:1422
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Flight Attendant Fatigue and Working

Words: 3969 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8062076



The "fatigue summit " was held in 2005 and hosted by the Association of Professional Flight Attendants, representing flight attendants at American Airlines, and Transport Workers Union Local 556, representing flight attendants at Southwest Airlines. The meeting was held at American Association of Flight Attendants-CWA headquarters outside Dallas. (Flight Attendants Hold Summit on Job Fatigue, Hours)

One of the central issues on the table was a critique of the Federal Aviation Administration regulations promulgated in 1996, which required flight attendants to have eight to nine hour rest periods. However, as has already been referred to, these 'rest periods' included time taken for transportation to and from airports as well as the time taken for meals etc. Therefore, this FAA regulation was seen as being insufficient to deal with the very real problem of fatigue. (Flight Attendants Hold Summit on Job Fatigue, Hours) at this meeting, the AFA-CWA President, Patricia Friend,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AFA-CWA Wins Action on Fatigue Study. (2006) Retrieved January 29, 2008, at  http://www.cwa-union.org/news/page.jsp?itemID=27802406 

Congress Takes Up Safety Issues for Airline Passengers, First Responders.

2007) Retrieved January 29, 2008, at http://blog.aflcio.org/2007/06/07/congress-takes-up-safety-issues-for-airline-passengers-first-responders/

Crew Fatigue. (2005) Retrieved January 29, 2008, at  http://www.aviationtoday.com/asw/categories/commercial/3223.html
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Nurse Self-Care Nurses as Primary

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6712258

739, p=0.009, e?=0.727). This study clearly highlighted that sleep shortage and work fatigue poses a threat to patient safety and that nurse self-care is warranted.[Dorrian et.al, (2006)]

Nurse Support Services

An earlier Australian study by Moore KA (2001) which observed 201 nurses working in three different hospitals had concluded that organizational restructuring policies and the consequent work overload was a high stressor for nurses and this was made worse by the poor communication style (top -- down approach instead of consultative style) that only contributed more to nurse burnout. [Moore KA, (2001)]. Given the high levels of occupational stress and burnout among nurses, it is important that nurse self-care interventions are prioritized. A recent literature review on the subject of work stress and coping methods among Australian nurses revealed that 'work load ', 'role conflict' and 'expression of aggression' were the three main stressors. The literature study also revealed 'seeking…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Linda H. Aiken, 'Image of Nursing Global Trends', retrieved Sep 4th 2010, from,  http://www.fpnl.co.za/downloads/Presentations/Presentations/Prof%20Linda%20Aiken%20-%20Image%20of%20Nursing%20-%20Global%20Trends.pdf 

2) Jillian Dorrian, Nicole Lamond & Cameron Van del Heuvel et.al (Oct 2006), 'A Pilot study of the Safety Implications of Australian Nurses' Sleep and Working Hours', Chronobiology International, Vol 23, Issue 6, pg 1149-1163

3) Lim J, BOGOSSIAN F. & AHERN K. (2010), ' Stress and coping in Australian nurses: a systematic review. International Nursing Review 57, 22-31

4) Moore KA, (2001), 'Hospital restructuring: impact on nurses mediated by social
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Improving Truck Driving Safety the

Words: 1418 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51654055

Not having upheld such responsibility has made them liable and hence the payouts in both cases.

Concomitantly with a lack of sleep, company responsibilities regarding the above-mentioned truck maintenance also appear to not always be up to standard, if the facts of the cases are investigated. According to Baker's report, drivers for the company have taken responsibility by reporting truck problems, which were simply ignored by their companies. Further investigation found the truck unroadworthy to an extent where this was at least partly responsible for the crash. In addition, factors beyond the truck drivers' control, such as bad weather and road conditions, can also contribute to accidents. When these are compounded with the problems associated with lack of sleep, crashes are generally more than likely.

Baker (2006) substantiates the above-mentioned 2003 regulation, according to which no driver is allowed more than 11 cumulative hours on the roads, which should be…… [Read More]

References

Baker, Max. (2006). Recent court cases raise questions about trucking safety. Truck Safety Coalition. http://www.trucksafety.org/Recent_court_cases_raise_questions.php

Munley, Munley & Cartwright (2009). Truck Driver Fatigue & Tractor Trailer Accidents. http://www.truckinjuries.com/truck-driver-fatigue.html

Roetting, M., Huang Y.H., McDevitt, J.R. & Melton, J.R. (2004). Truck drivers' attitudes and opinions towards feedback by in-vehicle technology. Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, USA.  http://www.psychology.nottingham.ac.uk/IAAPdiv13/ICTTP2004papers2/ITS/Roetting.pdf 

Sabbagh-Ehrlich, S., Friedman, L., Richter E.D. (2005). Working conditions and fatigue in professional truck drivers at Israeli ports. Injury Prevention, Vol. 11. http://injuryprevention.bmj.com/cgi/reprint/11/2/110
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Obesity Proposal There Is a

Words: 4332 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96777051

The key to this program's success is changing the way the citizens approach their daily lives, without changing the traditions and practices that are unique to the community.

Teaching children how to cope with this unique conundrum will be difficult but could be the most successful approach in the long run. If the program is successful in slowing down the rate of obesity found in the younger citizens, then it could have longer lasting effects than the same program instituted with older citizens. One study showed that obese children are much more susceptible to diseases, especially diabetes than adults are with the same body mass index.

The study concluded that, "After stratification age and body mass index (BMI) the risk ratio for diabetes in Anti-HCV+ participants increased when age decreased and body mass index levels increased" (ang, ang, Yao, Chang, Chou, 2007, p. 202). Diabetes is currently a non-curable disease…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bell, a., (2006) the kids are not OK, National Underwriter (Life & Health/Financial Services Edition), Vol. 110, no. 36, p. 41

Callaway, L.K., McIntyre, H.D., O'Callaghan, M., Williams, G.M., Najman, J.M., Lawlor, D.A., (2007) the association of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with weight gain over the subsequent 21 years: Findings from a prospective cohort study, American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 166, Number 4, pp. 421-428

Confessore, N., Farmer, a., (2006) "In Borough Park, the unusual taste of fear." The New York Post, May 10, 2006, pg. B.3

Cooke, R., (2006) When normal is not necessarily good, New Statesman, Vol. 135, Number 9, p. 135
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Environmental Psychology

Words: 1405 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76019211

psychology and human behavior. Specifically it will discuss the effects of population density on individuals, including noise and territoriality. Population density has a dramatic affect on the population, and it can even lead to major health concerns. Studies show that residents of high-noise areas suffer a variety of ailments, from loss of attention span to hearing loss and stress. The denser the population, the more noise, stress, and lack of personal space all come together to make living conditions far less bearable than any other living situation.

Noise is one of the biggest problems facing the residents of high-density population centers. Noise can affect just about every aspect of life, and it can make sleeping, learning, conversing, and every aspect of life nearly unbearable. Noise is a part of life, but high noise levels are often most prevalent in inner cities and areas of high population density, meaning that more…… [Read More]

References

Editors. (2009). The San Francisco noise model. Retrieved 23 Dec. 2009 from the San Francisco Department of Public Heath Web site: http://www.sfphes.org/HIA_Tools_Noise.htm.

Goines, L. And Hagler, L. (2007). Noise pollution: A modern plague. Southern Medical Journal, Volume 100: p. 287-294.

Harris, A.S., Fleming, G.G., Lang, W.W. And Schomer, P.D. (2004). Reducing the impact of environmental noise on quality of life requires an effective national noise policy. Retrieved 23 Dec. 2009 from the Volpe.dot.gov Web site: http://www.volpe.dot.gov/acoustics/docs/2000/dts-34-03_2.pdf.
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Capsule Stress Management Techniques Outline

Words: 1026 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80281983

Prioritize. Try not to schedule too many things at once. In the words of one article by the health center at Colorado University entitled "10 Great Stress Reducers," learn to say 'no.' Also, learn to live within your budget. In other words, don't sweat the small stuff, and don't make yourself crazy by overcommitting yourself and leaving everything to the last minute. Ask yourself, do I need this? Do I have to do this?

Of course, no one can completely avoid stress in their life, and in fact, some forms of stress can be good. Lots of people like the positive, controlled stress of exercise or performing. There is a different 'perfect' balance of stress and relaxation for every person. But everyone can benefit from learning some ways to counteract the physical strains of being under stress. Stretching -- and stretching often, even simply rolling down your spine, touching your…… [Read More]

Works Cited

10 Great Stress Reducers." (2008). Colorado University. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/wellness/NewSite/StressHelpfulTips10Great.htm

How to survive finals with less stress. (2008). Colorado University. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/wellness/NewSite/StressHelpfulTipsFinals.html

Stressed Out?" (Jan 2007). The National Institute of Health. NIH. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/pdf/NIHNiH%20January07.pdf

Stretch Often." (2008). Colorado University. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/wellness/NewSite/StressHelpfulTipsStretch.html
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Articles That I Faxed Over

Words: 714 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35639625

Accordingly, operational definitions have become a psychological standard by which psychological research has been-based for nearly a century; they enable a clear path of communication between psychologists and psychological researchers.

2- Do you have any hypotheses (2-tailed) related to any of these variables? List 3 possible hypotheses.

Definitions:

One-tailed hypothesis: predicts the direction in which the results will go.

hypothesis regulates or controls the course of experimentation.

Two-tailed hypothesis: hypothesis states that one factor affects another rather than state a direction, or that there will be a difference between the scores without stating the direction of the difference.

Hypotheses

Definition: A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. A hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study. For example, a study designed to look at the relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance might have a hypothesis…… [Read More]

Bibliography):

Lane, David. "Variables." Connexions. July 21, 2003. http://cnx.org /content/m10802/2.5/.

Chicago Manual of Style (Note):

David Lane, "Variables," Connexions, July 21, 2003,
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Addictive Use of the Internet

Words: 4339 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38308237

" Another strongly associated physical symptom is the persistence of migraine. Wieland observes that 40% of severe IAD youth take medication for migraine. The physical detriment of migraine develops into lifelong problems that are many times hard to cure or incurable.

The physical health of youth internet addicts are hard to dissect, partly this is because physical health often results from psychological addiction, and as a result, are attributed to traditional addict like symptoms and affects. The negligence of addicts in relations to their health causes indirect health problems, that may not be directly linked to IAD, but internet use lies at the heart of how such problems will occur and are dissected.

Research Question/Hypothesis:

The problem of internet addiction among youth has been carefully dissected through both social and scientific constructs. However, prevailing research into the actual physical and mental health of youth as a direct result of internet…… [Read More]

Young, K.S. (1998). Caught in the net. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Simon, M. (1997). How internet has an effect on the social skills of children. The Vocal Point [Online]. Available: http://bvsd.k12.co.us/cent/Newspaper/dec97/p7/stories/simon.html

Suler, J. (1996). Review of the internet aggression by Norman Holland. The Psychology of Cyberspace [Online]. Available: l
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Disruptive Physician Behavior the Objective

Words: 2502 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90053016

(Singh, 2007)

E. Conflict Resolution

Conflict resolution is inclusive of several specific steps which are stated to include:

(1) Fact finding: Identify all individuals who are affected by the behavior and get complete history about the patterns of physician's behavior, preferably in writing (assuring the complainant about confidentiality). Identify probable risk to all affected individuals including patients and the organization itself. Make sure and document this step.

(2) Meetings: meeting comes when manager has got the most complete knowledge about the issue and its consequences. It is advised to plan for the meeting beforehand. Set the agenda for the meeting, communicate about the issues and how it is affecting staff and the workflow, and what is expected or desired. listen, listen, listen to the physician (sometimes just listening itself resolves the issue or gives you an idea about what to do). Stay focused on the issue, don't send mixed messages…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bartholomew K. Ending Nurse-to-nurse Hostility. Marblehead, MA: HealthPro, 2006.

Brown D. At med schools, a new degree of diversity. Washington Post; June 1, 2007:A1.

Early P, Soon C, Soon a. Cultural Intelligence: Individual Interactions Across Cultures. Stanford University Press, 2003.

Ford, John (2010) Contextualizing Disruptive Behavior in Health Care as a Conflict Management Challenge (nd) Conflict Management Practice Notes. Online available at:  http://johnford.blogs.com/jfa/2009/03/contextualizing-disruptive-behavior-in-health-care-as-a-conflict-management-challenge.html
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Health Care Financing Issue Analysis

Words: 2286 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89271788

While the study had a number of scientific limitations; the two most significant were: 1) although the response rate of interns that volunteered to participate was 80%, those that did participate may not have been representative; and 2) the case-crossover analysis cannot account for the contribution of within-person factors that may have been co-variables with exposure status.

Evaluation

As a result of the related research, hospitals will be using medical resident interns as a means of making up for the lack of doctors caused by financing concerns. The redistribution of medical interns was expected to be completed before the next residency training year starts July 1, 2005, however, it remains currently underway. The Association of American Medical Colleges has stated that the health care system would be better off if the cap were lifted so hospitals could respond to the needs of their communities, such as adding a new cardiology…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barger, L., Cade, E., Ayas, N., Cronin, J., Rosner, B., Speizer, F. & Czeisler, C. (2005).

Extended Work Shifts and the Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes among Interns. NEJM

Cauchon, D. (2004). Medical Miscalculation Creates Doctor Shortage. USA Today,

Croasdale, M. (2004). Residency Slots Reallocated to Relieve Doctor Shortages.
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Visitation in the Intensive Care

Words: 1611 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27406487

The experience of Fumagalli et al.(2006) was similar: when open and flexible visiting hours were permitted, patients and visitors seemed more content (Fumagalli et al., 2006).

ICU staff, on the other hand, insist on maintaining restrictive visiting policies on the grounds that liberal visiting hours may distract caregivers, whilst increasing the patient's stress and risk of septic complications.

The issue remains an agonizing and constantly debated point of contention amongst physicians, nurses, visitors, and patients. Some practitioners insist that the decision to restrict visiting hours is neither caring nor compassionate (Fumagalli et al.,2006). On the other hand, as they themselves say their trial was small and larger randomized trials need to occur before conclusions are drawn. In the meantime, open and flexible visitation hours are constantly demanded, and permission, as constantly, withheld.

eferences

Berti, P., Ferdinando, D. & Moons, P. (2007). Beliefs and attitudes of intensive care nurses toward visits…… [Read More]

References

Berti, P., Ferdinando, D. & Moons, P. (2007). Beliefs and attitudes of intensive care nurses toward visits and open visiting policy Intensive Care Medicine, 33, 1060-1065,

Brannon, L. & Fesist, J. (207). Health Psychology. Thomson / Wadsworth, USA.

Fumagalli, S. Boncinelli, L., Lo Nostro, P. et al. (2006) Reduced Cardiocirculatory Complications With Unrestrictive Visiting Policy in an Intensive Care Unit

Circulation, 113, 946-952
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Geneva Conventions Enacted After the Horrors of

Words: 5201 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48124855

Geneva Conventions

Enacted after the horrors of World War II demonstrated the limitations of earlier treaties, the Geneva Convention of 1949 have become one of the preeminent international standards dictating the behavior of combatants and the treatment of individuals in the context of international and other conflicts, to the point that it has become a part of generally accepted customary international law. Building upon three earlier treaties signed in Geneva, the Convention of 1949 outlined rigorous standards defining and governing the treatment of civilian and military prisoners, the wounded, and civilians found in and around the war zone. Over the course of the last decade, the centrality of the Geneva Convention to international war and politics has come to the fore as a result of debates surrounding the relevance of the Convention to the United States execution of the War on Terror, especially in regards to the treatment and detainment…… [Read More]

References

(2008). Senior u.s. officials acknowledge waterboarding of three suspected terrorists; administration defends practice. The American Journal of International Law, 102 (2),

359-361.

Bellamhy, A. (2008). Security and the war on terror. New York: Routledge.

Bugnion, F. (2000). The geneva conventions of 12 august 1949: From the 1949 diplomatic conference to the dawn of the new millennium. International Affairs, 76 (1), 41-50.
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Appellate Brief to Be Submitted By Mark

Words: 1255 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21132744

Appellate Brief

To be submitted by: Mark Maker

Supreme Court of the State of New York

Appellate Division: Second Judicial Department

Breezy Hollow Apartments,

Plaintiff-Respondent

Appellate Division Docket No.:

-against-

Sam Most,

Defendant, Appellant.

APPELLANT'S BRIEF

Mark Maker

Attorney for Defendant

999 Legislation Way

STATEMENT PURSUANT TO CPLR RULE 5531

The Docket Number in the Court below is: 123456.

The full names of the original parties were:

Breezy Hollow Apartment- Plaintiff v Sam Most- Defendant.

This appeal is on behalf of Sam Most, Defendant.

The action was commenced in the Supreme Court of the State of New York, 2nd Judicial Department, County of Metropolis.

4.

The action was commenced by the filing of a Petition in the Office of the Clerk of the Supreme Court on October 1, 2004.

5.

This action is against Sam Most and is a petition pursuant to ____ to collect back rent.

6.

This is…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Forensics Undercover Is a

Words: 11198 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97252031

However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).

y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.

Definition of Terms

Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.

Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html

Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.

Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.

Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
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Prophet Muhammed

Words: 1659 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48664255

Life of Prophet Muhammed

There is an inherent degree of difficulty incurred in the life of a prophet. This fact is documented in a number of different texts, one of the most revealing of which is The Life of Muhammad. This book is valuable because it illustrates a multitude of events in the progression of Muhammad's life from his birth to his journey as a man. However, it does so by revealing the fact that during all stages of his life, he was favored by God -- rendering him worthy as a prophet of Allah. Furthermore, this book illustrates the fact that despite a plethora of burdensome situations, Muhammad always retained God's favor and acted in accordance with his role as a divine prophet. A close examination of the textual evidence in this manuscript reveals that as a prophet, Muhammad encountered a significant amount of austere trials, the results of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ishaq. The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1955.
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Opium in China With That

Words: 3088 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84650441

mericas Coalition Puts Marijuana Legalization Up for Discussion. Retrieved from the New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/18/world/americas/nations-in-americas-urged-to-consider-legalizing-pot.html?_r=0

Bakalar, N. (2006). Marijuana as Medicine: Consider the Pros and Cons,. The Mayo Clinic .

Lawrence Genen, M.M. (2012). Cannabis Compound buse. Medscape Reference .

National Instritute of Health. (2012, December). DrugFacts: Marijuana. Retrieved from National Institute on Drug buse: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana

Considering the magnitude of the worldwide illicit drug trade and its impact on the United States, take a position on merican enforcement policy in the world. nalyze the impact that merican drug enforcement has had on the international drug trade. Has it been effective?

bstract

The countries in which drug plants such as poppy (for opium and heroin) and cannabis (for marijuana), such drugs are smuggled into them. International drug trafficking is a billion-dollar business that grows each year.

Review

Drugs trafficked on an international scale include heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine etc. It has been…… [Read More]

Abuse, N.I. (2009, September). DrugFacts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction. Retrieved from National Institute on Drug Abuse: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction ic, T.M. (2011, August 23). Intervention: Help a loved one overcome addiction. Retrieved from the Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/intervention/MH00127/METHOD=print

Preidt, R. (2013, May 16). Adult Children of Substance Abusers More Prone to Depression. Retrieved from Mediline Plus- U.S. National Library for Medicine: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_136922.html

Services, U.D. (n.d.). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. Retrieved from SAMHSA:  http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA07-4292/SMA07-4292.pdf
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Health Administration

Words: 16307 Length: 59 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95887639

Health Administration

The purpose of this study is to show that there are many reasons why nurses leave their profession, but that financial reasons often rank very high on their list of concerns. Managed care issues and job dissatisfaction also play large roles in the minds of nurses when they decide to seek employment elsewhere. A review of current and pertinent literature indicates that most nurses are leaving because they are unhappy with pay and working conditions. These same reasons are cited by many of those who have considered being nurses and then changed their minds.

An analysis of the relevant data indicates that this trend is continuing and that nurses are much more put upon and underpaid than they used to be. This is not because they are being paid less, but because their salaries have not risen through the years like the salaries of other professions, and because…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aiken, L., et al. (2002, October). Hospital Nurse Staffing and Patient Mortality, Nurse Burnout, and Job Dissatisfaction. JAMA. 288(16): 1987-1993.

Aiken L., et al. (2001, May/June). Nurses' Reports on Hospital Care in Five Countries. Health Affairs. 20(3):43-53.

Beu, Burke. (2002). Nursing Issues. The Association of Perioperative Registered Nurses. Retrieved October 14, 2003, at http://www.aorn.org/journal/2002/novhpi.htm

Hofmann, M.A. (2001). Patient rights bill gains momentum; Senate set to begin debate this week. Business Insurance, 35, 1.
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Nthe Effectiveness of Human Rights

Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48702959

Also, the death penalty still in use in a great deal of countries might provide another subject for debate from the point-of-view of human rights.

A minimalist set of human rights, meant only to keep people safe from humiliation and pain cannot be effective. This is mainly because while certain human rights seem to be of little necessity, they are actually indispensable. Economic, civil, and political rights are of great importance because they assist society's interests.

Human rights are not likely to have any decisive effect in international relationships, and they are also not expected to be of any use when it comes to the stopping perpetrators from breaking the law. The best thing to do in order to make the world a better place would be to promote the concept of good, so as to influence the masses into contributing to preserve human rights.

orks cited:

1. Forsythe D.P.…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Forsythe D.P. (2004). 3 U.S. Foreign Policy and Human Rights in an Era of Insecurity," Wars on Terrorism and Iraq: Human Rights, Unilateralism, and U.S. Foreign Policy, ed. Thomas G. Weiss, Margaret E. Crahan, and John Goering. New York: Routledge.

2. Ignatieff M. Appiah K.A. Gutmann a. (2003). Human rights as politics and idolatry. Princeton University Press.

3. Ramcharan B. (2005). A UN High Commissioner in Defence of Human Rights: "No License to Kill or Torture." Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.
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Top Al-Qai'da Leaders Living or

Words: 2514 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19576481



Richard Reid

Richard Reid, better known as the "shoe bomber" has nearly eight charges held against him. He was arrested as a result of his efforts to demolish a commercial flight using bombs concealed in his shoes. Richard was born in London in 1973. He had a Jamaican father who was in prison for a majority of his childhood. The early separation of his parents reflects family dysfunctionality. Even though he had been educated in one of UK's better schools, the lack of proper family support subjected him to getting involved in several crimes. An interracial background might have resulted in adjustment problems in an environment dominated by whites. He was imprisoned several times, and accepted Islam while at Feltham young offender's institution. On his release Reid became a part in the London based, Brixton Mosque. He made an effort to get involved in mosque proceedings but ended up getting…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bajoria, Jayshree. "al-Qaeda (a.k.a. al-Qaida, al-Qa'ida)," cfr.org Web. 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.

Gillespie, Thomas W. "Finding Osama bin Laden:an Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery." MIT International Review. 17 Feb. 2009

Laden, Omar Bin."Chapter 4: Born the Son of Osama Bin Laden"

"Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri: Idol of the National Unity." The NEFA FOundation. Dec 14, 2009
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Substance Abuse Among Police Officers

Words: 1704 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36719883

Research has shown that people who experience high stress remain more at risk for alcohol abuse (Violanti, Choir Practice:..., n.d.).

A prevention approach has the long-range potential to reduce alcohol abuse. Police departments should note that proactive prevention strategies designed to prevent alcohol abuse are more economical and practical than curing those who abuse alcohol.

ibliography

Jared. (2008, October 28). Substance abuse among public safety officers. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from Treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com: http://www.treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com/blog/index.php/2008/10/28/substance-abuse-among-public-safety-officers/

Law enforcement wellness association. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2009, from cophealth.com: http://www.cophealth.com/index.html

National Crime Prevention Council. (n.d.). Workplace substance abuse. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Philadelphia police department: http://www.ppdonline.org/prev/prev_work_abuse.php

Page, D. (2005, September). Drug screening of police: on the high road. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from officer.com: http://www.officer.com/print/Law-Enforcement-Technology/Drug-Screening-of-Police -- on-the-High-Road/1$26,232

Violanti, J. (n.d.). Choir Practice: Alcohol abuse in policing:. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Central Florida: Police stress unit: http://www.policestress.org/choir.htm

Violanti, J. (n.d.). Dying from the job:…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jared. (2008, October 28). Substance abuse among public safety officers. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from Treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com: http://www.treatmentsolutionsnetwork.com/blog/index.php/2008/10/28/substance-abuse-among-public-safety-officers/

Law enforcement wellness association. (n.d.). Retrieved April 4, 2009, from cophealth.com: http://www.cophealth.com/index.html

National Crime Prevention Council. (n.d.). Workplace substance abuse. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from Philadelphia police department: http://www.ppdonline.org/prev/prev_work_abuse.php

Page, D. (2005, September). Drug screening of police: on the high road. Retrieved April 5, 2009, from officer.com: http://www.officer.com/print/Law-Enforcement-Technology/Drug-Screening-of-Police -- on-the-High-Road/1$26,232
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Jim Jones & Jonestown -

Words: 1857 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80467810

247). Further, Jones began preaching about "revolutionary suicide" which was a kind of "collective suicide" as an "outcome of being attacked by forces" against Jonestown.

These facts that are generally supported by other sources can easily lead an alert reader to assume that Jones started with an idealistic spiritual movement and gradually he apparently became obsessed with power - and paranoid that some group would try to wipe him out - and turned his church into a cult. The PBS research claims that prior to the mass deaths Jones "confiscated medicines from every resident" and kept himself "medicated" on barbiturates and amphetamines. It doesn't take a doctor or psychiatrist to project that being on amphetamines (speed) and barbiturates (downers) could induce wild highs and lows, radical mood shifts which could certainly lead to paranoia, fear, hostility, and violence. "Hard physical labor" was forced on members six days a week -…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Metcalf, Bill. "David Chidester. Salvation and Suicide: Jim Jones, The People's Temple,

And Jonestown." Utopian Studies 16.2 (2005): 335-338.

Public Broadcasting Service. "Race and the Peoples Temple." Retrieved March 2, 2009, at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/jonestown/peopleevents/e_guyana.html.

Richardson, James T. "People's Temple and Jonestown: A Corrective Comparison and Critique." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 19.3 (2001): 239-255.
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Outwitting the Outlaws by John

Words: 1706 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82089256

It also points out the importance of private security in cases such as these, which could have prevented the situation from occurring in the first place. It is well written and researched, and the interviews all add depth and understanding to the article and its purpose.

In conclusion, the article makes it clear there are things anyone can do to avoid becoming a victim of kidnapping and most of them are common sense approaches. Hiring a private security firm will not guarantee an individual will not be kidnapped, but it does add another layer of protection around the family, and that is never a bad thing. It is also interesting that few foreigners are kidnapped, and Mexico could develop no-negotiation policies that might result in fewer kidnappings, even if they are so commonplace that they are accepted. Ultimately, it is up to the government to control crime, and when there…… [Read More]

References

Barham, J. (2008). Outwitting the outlaws. Retrieved 24 Jan. 2009 from the Security Management Web site: http://www.securitymanagement.com/article/outwitting-outlaws-004896.

J. Barham. (2008). Outwitting the outlaws. Retrieved 24 Jan. 2009 from the Security Management Web site: http://www.securitymanagement.com/article/outwitting-outlaws-004896.
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Coping Mediates the Relationship Between

Words: 4919 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3377734

" (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2)

According to Giovachinni research into the psychodynamics of individuals in their experience of current adjustments and symptom formation is "much more interesting and fulfilling than monitoring surface behavior. processes are innately fascinating and their study creates dimensions and viewpoints that expand our appreciation of the versatility of the psyche as our in-depth understanding is increased, in itself, an aesthetic experience." (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2) Unconscious motivation is the "essence of the intrapsychic focus..." which serves to transform patients into "interesting human beings rather than the passive recipients of pharmacological ministrations. How the treatment procedures fits into the therapeutic relationship is taken into account, enabling patients to pursue autonomy and mastery of their emotions." (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2)

The work of Halil entitled: "Personality and Coping: A Multidimensional Research on Situation and Dispositional Coping" (2004) states that coping is defined "as a constantly changing cognitive and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Intrapsychic (2008) Definition - Biology Online available at  http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Intrapsychic 

Intrapsychic (2008) Definition - the Free Library. Online available at  http://www.thefreedictionary.com/intrapsychic 

Giovachinni, Peter L. (1996) Intrapsychic Focus Can Have Lasting Benefits for Patients. 1996, December 1, Psychiatric Times, Vol. 13, No. 12. Online available at http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/display/article/10168/49006?pageNumber=2

Halil, EKSI (2004) Personality and Coping: A Multidimensional Research on Situational and Dispositional Coping. 2004 Egitim Danishmanligi ve Arastirmalari Iletisim Hizmetleri Tic. Ltd. Sti. (EDAM)