Sleep Deprivation Essays (Examples)

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Rationale for Sleep Improvement Program for Students

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18481469

Identification of the Problem
Among college students, only 30% report getting sufficient sleep to maintain optimal physical and cognitive functioning, and half of all college students report regular daytime sleepiness (Hershner & Chervin, 2014). The causes of sleep deprivation include stress and work overload, which may begin as early as high school. One study of almost 2000 adolescents revealed persistent health problems and sleep insufficiency, linked to overly early start times for school (Ming, Koransky, Kang, et al, 2011). Therefore, the overall prevalence of sleep deprivation is alarmingly high among adolescents and young adults.
Problem Statement
The consequences of sleep deprivation are dire. Poor academic performance and even academic failure are commonly reported consequences of sleep deprivation among both high school and college students (Hershner & Chervin, 2014; Ming, Koransky, Kang, et al, 2011). Lower grade point averages and poorer performance in school can cause long-term consequences for young adult…… [Read More]

The Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard Medical School (n.d.). Consequences of insufficient sleep.
Hershner, S.D. & Chervin, R.D. (2014). Causes and consequences of sleepnessness among college students. Nature and Science of Sleep 2014(6): 73-84.
McKnight-Elly, L.R., Eaton, D.K., Lowry, R., et al. (2011). Relationships between hours of sleep and health-risk behaviors in US adolescent students. Preventative Medicine 53(4-5): 271-273.
Ming, X., Koransky, R., Kang, V. et al (2011). Sleep insufficiency, sleep health problems and performance in high school students. Clinical Medicine Insights 2011(5): 71-79.
National Health Services (2018). Why lack of sleep is bad for your health.
Owens, J. (2014). Insufficient sleep in adolescents and young adults. Pediatrics 134(3):
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Psychology States of Consciousness Sleep

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11630376

I find that I could fall asleep almost anywhere, but especially after eating or when trying to relax. I am usually asleep within minutes of going to bed, but struggle mightily to get up in the morning. On a daily basis I find myself stressed to get through the day without felling tired, irritable and drowsy.

According to the Mayo Clinic's Sleep tips: 7 steps to better sleep (2012) there are 7 steps that one can use to achieve better sleep. These include:

Sticking to a regular sleep timetable -- going to bed and getting up at the same time every day, even on weekends, holidays and days off strengthens ones sleep-wake sequence and helps encourage better sleep at night.

Paying attention to what one eats and drinks -- one should never go to bed either hungry or stuffed as the discomfort might keep them up.

Creating a bedtime ritual…… [Read More]


Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep. (2007). Retrieved from 

Carpenter, S. & Huffman, K. (2009). Visualizing Psychology (2nd ed.), John Wiley & Sons.

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders. (2008). Retrieved from

Sleep tips: 7 steps to better sleep. (2012). Retrieved from
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Safe Sleep and Sleep Patterns for Children Under 18 Months

Words: 2311 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79125388

Infant Sleep Patterns

People sleep nearly one third of their lives and infants sleep significantly more than adults (Franken, Kopp, Landolt, & Luthi, 2009). The function of sleep has hypothesized by different researchers; however, surprisingly there is no general consensus as to what the function and purpose of sleep actually is. It is known that sleep deprivation can have some serious consequences, especially in infants. The reason for this is that growth cycles as well as other developmental and functional processes occur in both the brain and body during sleep (Franken et al., 2009). Since getting adequate sleep is vital in infants it is important to understand their sleeping needs and patterns. In order to understand how to establish safe sleep patterns for children less than 18 months of age is important to understand the stages of sleep, the hypothetical functions of sleep, and the needs of infants regarding sleep…… [Read More]


Carpenter, R., McGarvey, C., Mitchell, E.A., Tappin, D.M., Vennemann, M.M., Smuk, M.,

Carpenter, J.R. (2013). Bedsharing when parents do not smoke: Is there a risk of SIDS?

An individual level analysis of five major case-control studies. British Medical Journal Open, BMJ Open 2013;3:e002299. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002299

Franken, P., Kopp, C., Landolt, H.P., & Luthi, A. (2009). The functions of sleep. European Journal of Neuroscience, 29(9), 1739-1740.
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Human Factors in Aviation Safety Focusing on Fatigue Body Rhythms and Sleep

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70753327

Comair Flight 5191: Case Study in Fatigue

Aviation Safety: Fatigue

Comair Flight 5191: A Case Study in Fatigue

Comair Flight 5191: A Case Study in Fatigue

Comair Flight 5191 came to a disastrous end in 2006 when the flight crew attempted to take off from a runway much shorter than required for the aircraft they were piloting, resulting in the deaths of 49 of the 50 people on board (Pruchnicki, Wu, and Belenky, 2011). The Comair Captain, First Officer, and air traffic controller failed to perform the necessary checks to ensure the plane was lined up on the proper runway before takeoff. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigated the accident and could not definitively determine the cause. Years later at a sleep conference, the NTSB chairman Deborah Hersman mentioned the Comair Flight 5191 tragedy and noted that establishing fatigue as a significant contributing factor is often so difficult that…… [Read More]


Caldwell, John A. (2012). Crew schedules, sleep deprivation, and aviation performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(2), 85-89.

Hersman, Deborah A.P. (2010). Remarks of the Honorable Deborah A.P. Hersman, Chairman National Transportation Safety Board before the National Sleep Foundation in Washington, D.C. Retrieved 14 Feb. 2013 from  / speeches/hersman/daph100305.html.

Jackson, Craig A. And Earl, Laurie. (2006). Prevalence of fatigue among commercial pilots. Occupational Medicine, 56, 263-268.

Pruchnicki, Shawn A., Wu, Lora J., and Belenky, Gregory. (2011). An exploration of the utility of mathematical modeling predicting fatigue from sleep/wake history and circadian phase applied in accident analysis and prevention: The crash of Comair Flight 5191. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 43, 1056-1061.
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Relationship Between Hours of Sleep and Both of Satisfaction With Life and Cognitive Functioning

Words: 1129 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61908318

Hours of Sleep, Life Satisfaction & Cognitive Functioning

Cognitive Functioning


elationship between Hours of Sleep and Both of Satisfaction with Life and Cognitive Functioning

Proper sleeping hours are very important for our body's functioning. When a person is sleeping, his body is in the process of repair; thus allowing his brain to have some rest and the needed down time. There are many negative effects of less sleeping hours on the cognitive function as well as life satisfaction of a person.

Just like a proper diet, sleep plays a very essential role in the maintenance of overall health of an individual. Unfortunately, Americans are facing some serious cognitive and life satisfaction problems due to lack of sleeping hours. According to an estimate from U.S. Center for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), approximately 25% of U.S. citizens have less sleeping…… [Read More]


National Sleep Foundation, 2005. Summary of Findings, retrieved on June 17, 2011 from

Siri Carpenter, 2001. Sleep Deprivation May Be Undermining Teen Health. Monitor Staff, Vol 32, No. 9, pp.42.

Julia A. Shekleton, Naomi L. Rogers and Shantha M.W. Rajaratnam, 2009. Searching For The Daytime Impairments Of Primary Insomnia. Clinical Review, Brain & Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales

William E. Kelly, 2010. Sleep-Length And Life Satisfaction In A College Student Sample. Retrieved on June 17, 2011 from
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Neonatal Sleep

Words: 1720 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 360679

Neonatal Sleep

Neonatal nurseries are the only alternative environment to a human womb that is offered to a preterm infant . The development of these nurseries and its accessories has now opened a new era in the management of these preterm infants .These nurseries by virtue of their sophisticated machines and experienced care givers are now offering a better chance of survival to these fragile infants .These preterm infants are now not only surviving this initial complicated period of their lives but also leading a healthy life comparable to a normal term infant .

Although the preterm infants are profoundly benefited by these nurseries, these infants are also exposed to the various elements of a typical nursery environment .Among these physical elements, the constant lighting, noise, and nursing interventionsare the pertinent ones that may have negative influence on the development and well-being of a preterm infant .These physical elements may…… [Read More]


Dahl, R.E. (1996). The impact of inadequate sleep on children's daytime cognitive function.

Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 3, pp. 44-50.

21, 265-268.

Holditch-Davis, D., Barham, L., O'Hale, A., & Tucker, B. (1995). Effect of standard rest periods on convalescent preterm infants. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing,
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Psychology and Sleep Discussion Question

Words: 472 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22466694

Similarly, regular exposure to certain types of artificial lighting can have a negative effect on the quality of sleep as well. Research into the comparative health of daytime and nighttime workers has helped establish some of the more specific ways that sleep is important to human health. For example, certain forms of cancer such as breast cancer and colorectal cancer) have been documented at higher rates among nighttime workers Pauley, 2004). As it happens, those forms of cancer are known to be moderated by Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland during specific phases of sleep and known to vary in relation to exposure to light Pauley, 2004).

Research on mice revealed that melatonin-related cancers increased when the subjects were exposed to very small levels of light during sleep and also that completely blind human beings have a lower incidence of colorectal cancers than blind people who can perceive…… [Read More]

(2004): 588-596.

Recent research into sleep and the way sleep patterns are affected by light suggest that sleeping in complete darkness is much more beneficial than sleeping in less than complete darkness (Pauley, 2004). Similarly, regular exposure to certain types of artificial lighting can have a negative effect on the quality of sleep as well. Research into the comparative health of daytime and nighttime workers has helped establish some of the more specific ways that sleep is important to human health. For example, certain forms of cancer (such as breast cancer and colorectal cancer) have been documented at higher rates among nighttime workers (Pauley, 2004). As it happens, those forms of cancer are known to be moderated by Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland during specific phases of sleep and known to vary in relation to exposure to light (Pauley, 2004).

Research on mice revealed that melatonin-related cancers increased when the subjects were exposed to very small levels of light during sleep and also that completely blind human beings have a lower incidence of colorectal cancers than blind people who can perceive some light (Pauley, 2004). The researchers eventually determined that nighttime work is detrimental to human health partly because night workers are much less likely to sleep in absolute darkness since they sleep during daylight hours. Compounding the problem is the fact that the wavelengths common to blue television light and electronic equipment status lights are particularly bad in that regard. The research suggests that it is essential for night workers to sleep in entirely blacked-out rooms.
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Effects of Psychoactive Drugs on the Brain Stress and Sleep

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9262158

Psychoactive Drugs

The drug chosen is Cocaine, and it is listed to be "… a psychomotor stimulant, this class of drug produces their effect on the brain by simulating the actions of certain neurotransmitters, such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin." (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010) These effects would be known as the "pleasure" aspect of the drug, but there is also a second aspect to the drug's effects that are responsible for the addiction, called "plasticity" (Amaro et al.). A drug-induced plasticity is "tolerance, sensitization and physical dependence" on the drug cocaine (Amaro et al.). The part of the brain that cocaine targets is the amygdala, specifically the reward pathways found in the brain. Cocaine effects the reward pathways by inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine into nerve terminals (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010). Specifically cocaine reacts with dopamine, and would be considered an antagonist because it is similar enough to occupy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Emery, R.E., & Oltmanns, T.F. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Huffman, K. (2007). Psychology in action (8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (n.d.). Drug Abuse Among Hispanics: A brief evidence-based guide for providers (1.4 ed.) [Brochure]. Amaro, H., Cortes, D.E., Castro, F.G., Lopez, B., & Molina, P.E., et al. Retrieved March 17, 2011, from - 4288/SMA07-4288.pdf

Weiten, W. (2005). Psychology themes & variations: briefer edition (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
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Managing Risks Associated With Stress Describe How

Words: 979 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34927360

Managing Risks Associated With Stress

Describe how to maintain life balance and manage risks associated with stress

Maintaining life balance requires happiness. Even during stress, an individual should not allow all the stressors to take a toll on him/her. Avoiding stressors is the most appropriate way of managing stress. Developing new habits could help remove and distract an individual from stressful situations, pressures and stressors, which is essential in managing stress permanently. In this modern world, individuals must learn to change and minimize their exposure to stressful situations. While this technique does not change the situations causing stress, it enables an individual to change his/her relationship and reaction to the stressful situations hence maintaining a life balance.

Early Warning Systems are often used to identify officers at risks of family violence. Describe how to use an early warning system to identify officers at risk of using excessive force.

Officers with…… [Read More]

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Lewis Maltby's Proposition That Employers Should Not

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17949092

Lewis Maltby's proposition that employers should not do drug testing (or other testing related to off-work conduct) but should instead focus on impairment testing when an employee is entering the workplace. Instead of using drug testing in a punitive and time-consuming manner, Lewis Maltby holds that the technology exists to see if any safety or impairment issues are present in certain occupations in a way that is non-invasive and far more relevant. For instance, a train engineer, bus driver or airline pilot might be impaired due to stress, illness, sleep deprivation, etc. They could be tested using something akin to a video game, which captures their baseline performance and then compares it to the values at a certain test-time. If the individual is not able to perform the duties, then they are simply bumped for that shift.

Discuss privacy in social media websites. What sort of policies should exist? Does…… [Read More]

5. The Supreme Court has defined sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to include sexual harassment (both opposite-gender and same-gender). The Court has defined quid pro quo and hostile environment harassment. The Court has not defined it to protect someone against discrimination or harassment based on sexual orientation or preference, or transgender status. Discuss whether Title VII should be expanded to include those issues. Society and culture have evolved considerably in the last two decades. It was not all that long ago that many viewed ethnic minorities as different and not having the same rights as Whites. That, today, seems abhorrent. In a similar manner, the idea of Civil Rights was an evolutionary step to guarantee all people protection; therefore a person's sexual orientation or affiliations should also be protected under the Civil Rights acts in a similar manner as that of gender, age and ethnicity.

6. When Nike faced public criticism for its affiliation with sweatshops, it started a public relations campaign to counter its negative image. Some detractors sued Nike to stop the campaign, alleging that it was misleading and false. Discuss why you, as a judge, would either allow Nike to continue its campaign, or would make Nike stop the campaign. The very core of this argument is much larger than Nike and advertisement, it goes to the heart of censorship -- and who has the right to limit and censor advertising, printing, or dissemination of ideas. In a democratic society, adults have the right and responsibility to critically review the information presented to them. Product X could advertise that it has the cure for Male Pattern Baldness, but it is up to the consumer, not the Courts, to decide with their wallet what they will or will not purchase or provide. The government would have a responsibility if Product X hurt people, but in the case of Nike, the advertising and public relations campaign is little different than any political or other advertisement that presents only one side to the argument. We may not agree with the argument- indeed we may detest the argument, but in order to maintain a free and just society in which ideas are strong commodities we must take the notion that an educated populace is an informed populace. Our focus should be on educating children and youth so that, when appropriate, they can make decisions about what is right, wrong -- how to vet source material, and above all, what ideas they might want to accept and which to reject

7. Discuss how global warming unites national security issues and religion. The concept of globalization in economic and cultural development is a reality for the 21st century. The Internet and advances in telecommunication has made it easy to do business with any country in the world, to increase cultural and social contact, and to extend more timely communication between individuals. Global
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Behrens and Rosens 2002 Have an Entire

Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48345369

Behrens and Rosens (2002) have an entire discussion pertaining to the effects of sleep deprivation on adolescents. College students, actually, routinely deprive themselves of sleep as does the American nation in general (Weiten, 184) mainly in the hope and mistaken belief that they can achieve more in their life this way. According to Dumer and Dinges (2005), in fact, approximately 20% of adults are routinely sleep deprived.

cientific research on sleep, actually, presents something of a paradox since, whilst on the one hand, it indicates that sleep deprivation is not as detrimental as one might expect, on the other hand, evidence seems to indicate that sleep deprivation may be a major social problem, undermining efficacy in school and academic achievement, contributing to countless accidents, and negatively impacting an adolescent's life in various aspects.

The level of seriousness of the effects of partial sleep deprivation depends on the amount of sleep…… [Read More]


Behrens, L. & Rosens, L.J. Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. NY: Longman Pub., 2002.

Dumer, J., & Dinges, D.F. "Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation," Seminars in Neurology, 25 (2005): 117-129.

Weiten, W. Psychology: Themes and Variations. NY: Thomson & Wadsworth, 2007.
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Fine Line Walked by Interrogators

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9366671

This last category includes the infamous waterboarding technique, which has -- in subsequent evaluations -- been labeled illegal torture. An important consideration in the evaluation of these techniques has been the additive impact of combining techniques to achieve an enabling condition or objective. In other words, in its 2002 memo to John izzo, the Acting General Counsel of the C.I.A., the U.S. Justice Department specifically prohibited some combinations of techniques and specifically permitted other combinations. In the period following 9/11 through 2005, revolving officials in the Office of Legal Counsel of the U.S. Justice Department issued radical memos supporting or opposing the standard imposed by Congress for identifying torture. The harsh interpretation in 2005 asserted that the techniques used by the C.I.A. were not "cruel, inhuman or degrading," and so could not be considered to be torture.

How would you validate the information received from a suspect that was deprived…… [Read More]


Greene, C.H. And Banks, L.M. (2009). Ethical guideline evolution in psychological support to interrogations operations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 61(1), 25-32.

Mazzetti, M. And Shane, S. (2009, April 17). Interrogation memos detail harsh tactics by the C.I.A. The New York Times. Retrieved  [Type text]
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There Are Three Places Where

Words: 2658 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34810199

Since both individuals were seeking to improve
the circumstances, the question that begs to be asked is why did the male

"Male leaders received lower effectiveness ratings when expressing
sadness compared to neutrality, while female leaders received lower ratings
when expressing either sadness or anger" (Lewis, 2000, p. 221). Since
females are perceived in a different light, their emotions are also viewed
as being different as well. A response such as this does not make
cognitive sense, nor is it needs based, but it could be a fixed or a
learned behavior that would coincide with the fixed action theory.
Appealing to the audience from a needs basis might assist the young female
in achieving her goal, or she could benefit by taking a more dispassionate
approach in addressing the crowd. She could benefit from arousing the
students with application of a fixed action response especially from the
males…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bandura, A. (1989) Human Agency in Social Cognitive Theory, American
Psychologist, Vol 44, No 9, pp. 1175 - 1184
Chance, P. (1994) Learning and Behavior, Pacific Grove, California:
Brooks/Cole Publishing Company
Gawel, J.E. (1997). Herzberg's theory of motivation and Maslow's hierarchy
of needs. Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and
Evaluation, [ED421486], accessed October 25, 2007
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Sleeping and Insomnia

Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56526180

Sleeping and Insomnia

Introduction have been observing my roommate's sleeping patterns. He has insomnia and takes sleeping pills every night, sometimes with alcohol. My hypothesis is that his dependence on sleeping pills and his mixing with alcohol are hindering his condition, rather than helping it. I think that there are many other, more natural things he could do to ease his insomnia.

General understanding of sleeping

We spend about one third of our life sleeping. Sleep is defined as the suspension of consciousness during which the powers of the body are restored (ThinkQuest, 2003). The brain is not at rest during sleep as popularly thought, but is extremely active and it is the brain that tells us when it is time to sleep. Sensations of light taken in from the retina are transferred through the nerves to an area of the brain determines the amount of light exposure and adjusts…… [Read More]


ThinkQuest Online Library. (2003). "Sleep From A To Zzz." Retrieved from the Internet at

Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. (2003). "Sleep." MSN. Retrieved from the Internet at

Coren, Stanley. (1996). "Sleep Thieves: an Eye-Opening Exploration into the Science & Mysteries of Sleep." New York: The Free Press, 1996.

Cardinal, Florence. (2003). "Insomnia- What Is Insomnia?." Retrieved on the Internet at
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Self-Change Project- Bedtime Prior to

Words: 1380 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92199437

An alarm was set each night signaling the self-agreed upon time for bed. I explained to friends and family that this was an important behavioral change in my life, as well as an academic exercise, and asked for their support. The process of self-change by using consciousness raising and reevaluation of goals and behavior were also an important part of the motivation for this study. I followed the prescribed agreement for a three-week period, realizing that I would need a few days at several levels in order to be successful (See Appendix B). At the end of three weeks my quality sleep averaged above 7.5 hours, thus increasing the basal measurement by 50% (from 5.0 hours to 7.5 hours).

Discussion- the intervention was a success and there was a clear set of lifestyle and behavioral changes that were made. General feelings of self-worth, sense of direction, and contentment/happiness with the…… [Read More]

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Fatigue Management in Aviation Many Documented Incidents

Words: 1604 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48656662

Fatigue Management in Aviation

Many documented incidents can be linked to pilot fatigue. A case in kind occurred on August 18, 1993, where a Connie Kalitta DC-8 crashed whilst completing its 1/4-mile base leg. The flight crew had flown for 9 hours and been on duty for 18 hours, accordingly disrupting their circadian rhythm and experiencing sleep loss (National Transportation Safety Board, 1993).

Showing how fatigue was determined to be a contributing safety factor in the event

That the accident was, to a great extent, contributory to sleep loss was confirmed by Jim Danaher, chief of the NTSB's Operational Factors Division at the November 1995 Fatigue Symposium near Washington, D.C.:

The company had intended for the crew to ferry the airplane back to Atlanta after the airplane was offloaded in Guantanamo Bay. This would have resulted in a total duty time of 24 hours and 12 hours of flight time…."(National…… [Read More]


Brandon Printup, M. 2000. "The effects of fatigue on performance and safety"

Duke, T. 1997 "Battling Fatigue -- the Challenge is to Manage It." NATCA Voice. Editorial pp.49-52

Dumer, J., & Dinges, D.F., 2005, "Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation," Seminars in Neurology, 25, pp. 117-129.

National Transportation Safety Board, Aircraft Accident Report, 1993, In Flight Loss of Control and Subsequent Collision with Terrain, DC-8-61, N814CK, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, Washington, DC.
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Dreaming Is Just One of the Natural

Words: 3258 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44098530

Dreaming is just one of the natural phenomenons that human beings do during the process of sleeping. Indeed, this natural process is not constrained to any particular characteristic and people with cultural diversity, all age groups and different social backgrounds dream throughout their entire lives. Since dreaming is linked to the mind and soul, thus it is considered that people will continue to dream until they are living (Hobson 2004).

Dreaming is an entire chain and cycle of metaphors, feelings, sensation and insight that forms a story while a person is asleep. Since the dreams people see are not in one shape, hence it can be peaceful, thrilling, practical, scary, chaotic, or implausible. This means that during the entire phenomenon of dreaming, a person can hallucinate about humans, houses, places such as cities, hills, rivers and various other things that the individual have not even seen in real life (Hobson…… [Read More]


Coon, D & Mitterer, J.O. (2008). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior, 12th Edition, Cengage Learning, Canada.

Harvard Health Publications (2012). 'Understanding Sleep: Body Clock and Sleep Cycles', HELPGUIDE.ORG -- A Trusted Non-Profit Resource, Viewed September 24, 2012: 

Harvard Medical School (2007). 'Sleep, Learning, and Memory', Healthy Sleep, Viewed September 24, 2012: 

Hobson, A.J. (2004). Dreaming: An Introduction to the Science of Sleep, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, Great Britain.
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Chronic Fatigue

Words: 5257 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64165288

Chronic Fatigue in the Aviation Industry

Chronic Fatigue

Fatigue is the mental and/or physical state of being weak and tired. Mental and physical fatigue is different, but the two will often exist together. A person becomes mentally tired if they are physically exhausted for a long period. A person being unable to function physically at their normal levels manifests physical fatigue Jackson & Earl, 2006.

Mental fatigue will manifest itself by a sleepy feeling and inability to concentrate properly. In medical terminologies, fatigue is not a sign, but rather a symptom. This means that a person suffering from fatigue is able to feel and describe the condition. Experts have indicated that around 10% of people globally suffer from persistent tiredness at any one time. Females are more prone to persistent tiredness than males. It is not easy to define fatigue in humans because of its large variability of causes. The…… [Read More]


Avers, K., & Johnson, W.B. (2011). A review of Federal Aviation Administration fatigue research: Transitioning scientific results to the aviation industry. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 1(2), 87.

Bennett, S.A. (2003). Flight crew stress and fatigue in low-cost commercial air operations -- an appraisal. International journal of risk assessment and management, 4(2), 207-231.

Caldwell, J.A. (2003). Fatigue in aviation: A guide to staying awake at the stick. 110 Cherry Street: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Caldwell, J.A. (2005). Fatigue in aviation. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 3(2), 85-96.
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121 Airlines vs 135 Charters Pilot Rest Requisites

Words: 4488 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72539932

FAA Pilot Rest Requirements

On January 15, 2009, Captain Chesley Sullenberger successfully landed U.S. Airways Flight 1549, a scheduled commercial passenger flight from LaGuardia Airport in New York City to Charlotte/Douglas International Airport, Charlotte, North Carolina, onto the waters of the Hudson River after the plane, an Airbus A320-214, had been struck by a flock of birds which caused an immediate and complete loss of thrust in both engines. Had Capt. Sullenberger, and the crew of Flight 1549, not responded as they did, in a uniformly calm and cool manner while adhering to the tenets FAA safety regulations, there's a decent chance that all of the 155 occupants aboard the Airbus 320 would not be with us today, and that this story of heroism, in the face of looming tragedy, would have a different ending (Sturcke, 2009).

On February 12, 2009, in the wake of the glee and excitement that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bowles, H. (2010, Feb. 8). Colgan Pilot Fatigue & NTSB. Better Job Safety. Retrieved from 

Brandon, M. (2000, Sept). The Effects of Fatigue On Performance And Safety. Airline Safety.Com. Retrieved from

Dorr, L., Duquette, A. (2010, Sept. 16). Fact Sheet -- Pilot Fatigue. Federal Aviation

Administration. Retrieved from
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Human Factors in Aviation Safety

Words: 3015 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3783283

They just assume that the autopilot will take care of flying the plane, and their skills get rusty with lack of use. Then, if something goes wrong with the autopilot system the pilot and his or her crew members may not know what to do and they may not react as quickly as they need to in order to protect the passengers and the rest of the crew members from serious harm (Human, 2009).

The majority of people need to sleep approximately eight hours each night. If they do not get that level of sleep, they can be overly tired and that can cause them to make more mistakes than they otherwise would (Human, 2009). However, someone who has gotten eight hours of sleep is not necessarily caught up on his or her sleep. The quality of sleep the person has gotten and how tired he or she was before…… [Read More]


Berliner, D. (1996). Aviation: Reaching for the sky. New York, NY: The Oliver Press, Inc.

Dirty dozen - errors - human factors. (2011). Aviation Glossary. Retrieved from 

Harris, D. & Muir, H.C. (2005). Contemporary issues in human factors and aviation safety. New York, NY: Ashgate.

Human factors in aviation maintenance. (2011). Southern California Safety Institute. Retrieved from
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Torture and Interrogation Essay

Words: 6804 Length: Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99691431

The Rationale for and the Efficacy of Torture during Interrogation

Although information from interrogational torture is unreliable, it is likely to be used frequently and harshly. ==John W. Schiemann, 2012


The epigraph above is indicative of the growing consensus concerning the lack of efficacy of torture in providing interrogators with reliable concealed information Concealed information is the foundation of the majority of security issues. In most cases, concealed information is a situation wherein one individual knows something that someone else does not know. Consequently, the majority of security issues could be resolved if there was a dependable method of determining those cases in which an individual was concealing information and extracting that information effectively. To date, though, there has not been a dependable method developed.1 For instance, polygraph research has been unable to achieve an accuracy level that would make the results acceptable in courtrooms in the United States…… [Read More]

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Neuropharmacology and the Army

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98992023

Neuropharmacology and the Military

Modafinil is particularly promising for its ability to improve cognitive function and combat sleep deprivation. When one's circadian rhythm is at a low ebb, this challenges cognitive function, and cognitive performance can decline significantly during these periods. The military has not just researched this on its own, but has been able to borrow from other research on the subject. The medical profession, for example, has examined modafinil, and managing the sleep patterns of shift workers is one of the drug's approved uses. Military personnel can be shift workers, but more often they experience sleep disruptions, especially during combat situations, and modafinil essentially stabilizes cognitive function during these times (Westcott, 2005).

One of the caveats to the use of modafinil is that some cognitive performance tests are subjective -- self-reported results from users with respect to their cognitive function. Modafinil in particular was found to have a…… [Read More]


Baranski, J. & Pigeau, R. (1997). Self-monitoring for cognitive performance during sleep deprivation: Effects of modafinil, d-amphetamine and placebo. Journal of Sleep Research. Vol. 6 (1997) 84-91.

Cain, C., Maynard, G. & Kehne, J. (2012). Targeting memory processes with drugs to prevent or cure PTSD. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. Vol. 21 (9) 1323-1350.

Raskind, M. (2013). A placebo-controlled augmentation trial of prazosin for combat trauma PTSD. Seattle Institute for Biomedical and clinical research.

Raskind, M., Peterson, K., Williams, T., Hoff, D., Hart, K., Holmes, H., Homas, D., Hill, J., Daniels, C., Calohan, J., Millard, S., Rohde, K., O'Connell, J., Pritzl, D., Feiszli, K. (2013). A trial of prazosin for combat trauma PTSD with nightmares in active-duty soldiers returned from Iraq and Afghanistan. American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 170 (2013) 1003-1010.
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Fibromyalgia One Might Consider Fibromyalgia to Be

Words: 6457 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37868620


One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.

Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…… [Read More]


Adiguzel, O., Kaptanoglu, E., Turgut, B., & Nacitarhan, V. (2004). The possible effect of clinical recovery on regional cerebral blood flow deficits in fibromyalgia: a prospective study with semiquantitative SPECT. South Med J, 97, 7, 651-655

Baldry, P. (1993). Complementary medicine. The practice of acupuncture needs tighter safeguards. Bmj, 307, 6899, 326

Baumgartner, E., Finckh, A., Cedraschi, C., & Vischer, T.L. (2002). A six-year prospective study of a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis, 61, 7, 644-645

Bennet, Robert. (2000). The Scientific Basis for Understanding Pain in Fibromyalgia. Retrieved August 21, 2004, from the World Wide Web:
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Noise-Abatement Strategies for Tertiary Healthcare Facilities

Words: 4568 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14964406

educing Length of Stays on Critical Care Wards in a Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Today, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) operates the nation's largest healthcare system and provides training for more than half of all of the physicians that practice in the United States today. Based on its mission, taken from President Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address, to "care for him who has borne the battle, his widow and his orphans," the VA Medical Center in Oklahoma City is committed to providing the best quality medical care possible for its veteran patients. One issue that has emerged in recent months that has been shown to adversely affect the quality of this patient care is sleep disruption on critical care wards due to the high levels of noise that are generated in these healthcare environments. In fact, the noise levels on many critical care wards as the same as…… [Read More]


Bijwadia, J.S. & Ejaz, M.S. (2009). Sleep and critical care. Current Opinion in Critical Care,

15, 25 -- 29.

Brindley, M. (2009, December 29). Silent bins bring peace to patients; changes made to help intensive care. South Wales Echo, 9.

Freedman, N.S., Kotzer, N., & Schwab, R.J. (1999). Patient perception of sleep quality and etiology of sleep disruption in the intensive care unit. American Journal of Respiratory
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States of Consciousness

Words: 952 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11736261

consciousness has been studied actively since the 1960s. Interestingly, Taylor (2003) notes, "Consciousness is a subtle phenomenon, which has so far resisted all attempts to understand it." Taylor's statement may be an exaggeration, as the author of this assigned reading goes on to discuss a number of facets of consciousness that have been well studied. These include biological rhythms, facets of waking consciousness, automatic vs. controlled processing, shifts in self-awareness, sleep, and drugs that alter consciousness.

This article notes that circadian rhythms can be either short-term or longer term, and are simply biological rhythms that occur as regular changes in our bodily functions and processes. The pineal gland plays an important role in long-term biological rhythms like hibernation through its production of melatonin. Human differences between day and night people is a common example of biological rhythms in humans.

The author then moves on to examine common disturbances in circadian…… [Read More]


Morin, Alain. 2002. Self-awareness review part 1: Do you 'self-reflect' or 'self-ruminate'? SCR, December, No. 1. 26 August 2004. 

Chapter: States of Consciousness. p. 121 -154.

Revonsuo, Antti and Valli, Katja. 2000. Dreaming and Consciousness: Testing the Threat Simulation Theory of the Function of Dreaming. PSYCHE, 6(8), October 2000. 26 August 2004.

Tart, Charles T. 1975. States of Consciousness. First published by E.P. Dutton & Co., New York, in 1975. ISBN 0-525-20970-0. August 26, 2004.
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Restless Leg Syndrome

Words: 1477 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94280149

estless Leg Syndrome

A simple way to define estless legs syndrome (LS) is an overpowering urge to move limbs, especially the legs that mostly take place when relaxing or during bedtime. This neural disorder is a major causative factor of nighttime blood pressure spikes and its associated circulatory consequences which reduces sleep quality and in some cases even eliminates the possibility of sleep. This sleep deprivation causes adverse effects such as nervousness, perpetual sadness and reduced comfort of living. Patients initially suffering from hemodialysis that develops LS have a much higher death rate. In most cases, they suffer from disorders that are difficult to explain. This paper's objective is to educate medical personnel on the need to understand and make deductions from the patient's signs, which are the factors considered and from which a conclusion is made if a patient has LS or some other disorder (Einollahi & Izadianmehr, 2014).…… [Read More]


Allen, R., Chen, C., & Garcia-Borreguero, D. (2014). Comparison of pregabalin with pramipexole for restless legs syndrome. N Engl J. Med, 370(7), 621-31.

Comella, C. L. (2014). Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome. Neurotherapeutics, 11(1), 177-87.

Einollahi, B., & Izadianmehr, N. (2014). Restless Leg Syndrome: A Neglected Diagnosis. Nephrourol Mon, 6(5).

Gangadharan, S., Perkins, L., Sauerbier, A., & Chaudhuri, K. R. (2016). The treatment challenges of restless legs syndrome. Prescribing In Practice.
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Shift Work

Words: 2288 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14447471

Shift Work and Scheduling in Aviation Industry

Shift work and Fatigue in the Aviation Industry

There is a circadian rhythm in every human being (refer to Figure 1). It basically acts like the body's biological alarm clock and it tells your body the time it needs to rest, to eat or even when to get active. The circadian rhythm can be interrupted by modifications in daily schedule. Disturbance in the circadian rhythm can have strong consequences like the onset of exhaustion. Typically grownups need good 8 hours of sleep in a 24-hour phase (WSH Council, 2010). A recurrent sleep of less than that vital will sustain a sleep deprivation that cannot be improved within one day. Improvement typically requires a few days of sufficient sleep (WSH Council, 2010).

Fatigue or tiredness is basically when a person feels low and weak both mentally and physically, there are many different types of…… [Read More]


Alertness Solution. (2009). The Moebus Aviation Report on "Scientific and Medical Evaluation of Flight Time Limitations": Invalid, Insufficient, and Risky. Rebuttal to the EASA Report. Accessed: 

Bouma, G.D. (2004). The research process. 5th ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Caldwell, J.A., Mallism M.M., Caldwell, J.L., Paul, M.A., Miller, J.C. And Neri, D.F. (2010). Fatigue Countermeasures in Aviation. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 80, No. 1.

Federal Aviation Administrtaion (FAA) (2008). Aviation Fatigue Management Symposium: Partnerships For Solutions. FAA Fatigue Conference Proceedings. Accessed:
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Health My Definition of Health

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12188327

Since being healthy includes a sound mind, less worrying over financial problems leads to a stronger, sounder mind.

Drinking a lot of water throughout the day is another health-promoting behavior. Drinking a lot of water adds natural moisture to your skin, giving a fresh glow today and helping the aging process tomorrow. It also helps when I exercise to drink more water because being properly hydrated during exercise allows me to have a better, more productive workout. Drinking water also improves my energy and increases both my mental and physical performance. Additionally it allows for proper digestion and relieves headaches and dizziness. For those reasons I believe that not smoking and drinking water regularly are two of my important health-promoting behaviors.

My Detrimental Health ehaviors

As improvements in health become more necessary and evident, the medical industry will continue to work to improve the overall health of all individuals. However,…… [Read More]


The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. (2005).
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World Culture History of Middle East Civilization

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65898404

Uns-El-Wujood and El-Ward Fi-L-Akmam is a tale of love, separation, and reunion. Set in legendary kingdoms in times of yore, Chapter 18 of Arabian Nights is a quintessential romance. The daughter of the king's Weezer falls in love with one of the king's soldiers. Both become completely smitten with one another, but when their affair is discovered, the Weezer fears that the Sultan will not approve. The Weezer, Ibraheem, consults his wife, who prays for guidance. The parents of El-Ward Fi-L-Akmam decide that their only recourse is to send their daughter to a land far away, in "the midst of the Sea of the Kunooz...on the Mountain of the Bereft Mother," (p. 200). There, they will build an "impregnable palace" in which she will spend the rest of her days in isolation (p. 200). The lovers, who have been exchanging verses of love poetry since they first fell for each…… [Read More]

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The Things They Carried

Words: 2153 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58721104

Tim O’Brien is the author of the collection of short stories, The Things They Carried. A renowned American writer, William Timothy O’Brien became famous for writing Vietnam War centered novels. Aside from The Things They Carried, many recognize O’Brien for Going after Cacciato. (Herzog 10) Born in Austin, Minnesota on October 1, 1946, O’Brien spent most of his childhood in Worthington. Being there provided him with a chance at developing both his imagination and artistic sensibility. (Herzog 10) Furthermore, the location became a model for some of the stories in The Things They Carried. One of the main reasons he wrote this collection of short stories was due to the ignorance he considered existed among the general public about the Vietnam War. With most of the characters being semi-autobiographical, O’Brien provides some basis for understanding of what the Vietnam War was really like and thus demonstrating the sense of uncertainty…… [Read More]

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Domestic Violence Related to Alternating Shifts in Policing

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92966959

Domestic violence is a multifaceted idea but can roughly be referred to as exhibition of abusive behaviors towards a mate in an intimate relationship such as family setting, dating instances, marriage, cohabitation and even friendship. These abuses are usually used to control the other partner in a relationship (, 2009). This paper therefore sets out to look at the possibility of the work schedule being a contributing factor to the ever rising domestic violence among the policing families. It also seeks to expand on the responses that have been made to mitigate the effects of the shift working system on the violence in homes.

Depending on the context and region of use, domestic violence can be called domestic abuse, intimate partner violence, spousal abuse or even family violence. However, all these manifest themselves in various forms including but not limited to: Physical violence/attack (like shoving, kicking, slapping, hitting, restraining etc.),…… [Read More]


Beverly J.A., (2002). The Echoes of Violence in the Police Family. Retrieved September 4, 2011


CBS Interactive. (2010). The Effects of Sleep Deprivation. Retrieved September 4, 2011

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Industrial Revolution Most People Worked

Words: 1174 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67588900

As a result of these experiments, researchers realized that this is the mechanism by which nighttime lighting increased cancers in nighttime shift workers.

Nighttime shift work disrupts the normal rhythm of the circadian clock, which suppresses melatonin production; suppressed melatonin levels correspond to decreased resistance to cancers in tissues with melatonin receptor sites and to increased growth rates in tumors with melatonin receptor sites. Colorectal cancer is probably the type of cancer affected most by melatonin levels, because the same modern lifestyle that causes exposure to nighttime lighting also includes a high-fat, low fiber diet that is a known factor in rectal cancers.

The two final piece of the puzzle fell into place when researchers also determined that: (1) mice exposed to very low levels of light, even during nighttime sleep, also had higher cancer growth rates; and (2) people who are completely blind have lower rates of the same…… [Read More]


Pauley, S. (2004) Lighting for the Human Circadian Clock: Recent Research Indicates that Lighting Has Become a Public Health Issue.

Medical Hypotheses 63, 588-596.
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Health Benefits of Coffee Numerous

Words: 2432 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57378029

The amount of caffeine being consumed is apparently of great importance, as approximately 200 mg can increase one's chances to get better results on an attentiveness performance test while an approximate of 400 mg can do the opposite. Caffeine abuse can lead to serious problems in the case of people who need to be alert. Caffeine was tested in a series of other cognitive-related experiments but none of them produced satisfying results (Snel, Lorist, and Tieges 58).

Coffee contains numerous chemicals, each of them adding to its flavor and to the effects it produces on the body, with the most notable of them being caffeine. The aroma coffee releases is surely seductive, as there is nothing else like it. From the very first moment one opens the coffee recipient numerous microscopic particles are inhaled, stimulating the olfactory nerve, this sensation getting even more intense when the brew is actually ready…… [Read More]


1. Greene, Lindsey A. "New Grounds for Drinking Coffee," Environmental Health Perspectives 108.7 (2000).

2. Halweil, Brian. "Why Your Daily Fix Can Fix More Than Your Head: Coffee, If Grown Right, Can Be One of the Rare Human Industries That Actually Restore the Earth's Health," World Watch May 2002.

3. Pendergrast, Mark Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World (New York: Basic Books, 1999).

4. Snel, Jan. Lorist, Monicque M. And Tieges, Zoe. "4 Coffee, Caffeine, and Cognitive Performance," Coffee, Tea, Chocolate, and the Brain, ed. Astrid Nehlig (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2004)
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Fibromyalgia More Than 50 of

Words: 5095 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36644521

(Busch, Barber, Overend, Peloso, and Schachter, 2007, p. 8)

esults from this study relate a moderate quality evidence that aerobic-only exercise training at recommended intensity levels produces positive effects "global well-being (SMD 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.13 to 0.75) and physical function (SMD 0.68, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.95) and possibly on pain (SMD 0.94, 95% CI -0.15 to 2.03) and tender points (SMD 0.26, 95% CI -0.28 to 0.79)." esults noted that flexibility and strength and flexibility remain under assessed. (Busch, Barber, Overend, Peloso, and Schachter, 2007, pp. 11-13)

According to criteria Melnyk Fineout-Overholt (2005) present, this study is a Level II study. From the Cochrane review, the following relates what research notes regarding the effect of exercise for FMS:

moderate intensity aerobic training for 12 weeks may improve overall well-being slightly and physical function.; moderate intensity aerobic exercise probably leads to little or no difference in pain…… [Read More]


Antai-Otong, Deborah, MS, APRN, BC, FAAN. (2005). "Depression and Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS): Pharmacologic Considerations." Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. Volume: 4, Issue 3, 146+. Retrieved April 29, 2008, at Syndrome%20(FMS)%3a%20Pharmacologic%20Considerations

Busch AJ, Barber KAR, Overend TJ, Peloso PMJ, Schachter CL. Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003786. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003786.pub2.

Burckhardt, Carol S. Mannerkorpi, Hedenberg, Kaisa, Lars and Bjelle, Anders. (1994). A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Education and Physical Training for Women with Fibromyalgia. The Journal of Rheumatology; 11:4, 714-719

Costa1, D. Da., Abrahamowicz, M., Lowensteyn, I., Bernatsky, S., Dritsa1, M., Fitzcharles, a., and Dobki, P.L.. Advance Access Rheumatology; 19 July 2005, 44:1422
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Flight Attendant Fatigue and Working

Words: 3969 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8062076

The "fatigue summit " was held in 2005 and hosted by the Association of Professional Flight Attendants, representing flight attendants at American Airlines, and Transport Workers Union Local 556, representing flight attendants at Southwest Airlines. The meeting was held at American Association of Flight Attendants-CWA headquarters outside Dallas. (Flight Attendants Hold Summit on Job Fatigue, Hours)

One of the central issues on the table was a critique of the Federal Aviation Administration regulations promulgated in 1996, which required flight attendants to have eight to nine hour rest periods. However, as has already been referred to, these 'rest periods' included time taken for transportation to and from airports as well as the time taken for meals etc. Therefore, this FAA regulation was seen as being insufficient to deal with the very real problem of fatigue. (Flight Attendants Hold Summit on Job Fatigue, Hours) at this meeting, the AFA-CWA President, Patricia Friend,…… [Read More]


AFA-CWA Wins Action on Fatigue Study. (2006) Retrieved January 29, 2008, at 

Congress Takes Up Safety Issues for Airline Passengers, First Responders.

2007) Retrieved January 29, 2008, at

Crew Fatigue. (2005) Retrieved January 29, 2008, at
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Nurse Self-Care Nurses as Primary

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6712258

739, p=0.009, e?=0.727). This study clearly highlighted that sleep shortage and work fatigue poses a threat to patient safety and that nurse self-care is warranted.[Dorrian, (2006)]

Nurse Support Services

An earlier Australian study by Moore KA (2001) which observed 201 nurses working in three different hospitals had concluded that organizational restructuring policies and the consequent work overload was a high stressor for nurses and this was made worse by the poor communication style (top -- down approach instead of consultative style) that only contributed more to nurse burnout. [Moore KA, (2001)]. Given the high levels of occupational stress and burnout among nurses, it is important that nurse self-care interventions are prioritized. A recent literature review on the subject of work stress and coping methods among Australian nurses revealed that 'work load ', 'role conflict' and 'expression of aggression' were the three main stressors. The literature study also revealed 'seeking…… [Read More]


1) Linda H. Aiken, 'Image of Nursing Global Trends', retrieved Sep 4th 2010, from, 

2) Jillian Dorrian, Nicole Lamond & Cameron Van del Heuvel (Oct 2006), 'A Pilot study of the Safety Implications of Australian Nurses' Sleep and Working Hours', Chronobiology International, Vol 23, Issue 6, pg 1149-1163

3) Lim J, BOGOSSIAN F. & AHERN K. (2010), ' Stress and coping in Australian nurses: a systematic review. International Nursing Review 57, 22-31

4) Moore KA, (2001), 'Hospital restructuring: impact on nurses mediated by social
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Improving Truck Driving Safety the

Words: 1418 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51654055

Not having upheld such responsibility has made them liable and hence the payouts in both cases.

Concomitantly with a lack of sleep, company responsibilities regarding the above-mentioned truck maintenance also appear to not always be up to standard, if the facts of the cases are investigated. According to Baker's report, drivers for the company have taken responsibility by reporting truck problems, which were simply ignored by their companies. Further investigation found the truck unroadworthy to an extent where this was at least partly responsible for the crash. In addition, factors beyond the truck drivers' control, such as bad weather and road conditions, can also contribute to accidents. When these are compounded with the problems associated with lack of sleep, crashes are generally more than likely.

Baker (2006) substantiates the above-mentioned 2003 regulation, according to which no driver is allowed more than 11 cumulative hours on the roads, which should be…… [Read More]


Baker, Max. (2006). Recent court cases raise questions about trucking safety. Truck Safety Coalition. 

Munley, Munley & Cartwright (2009). Truck Driver Fatigue & Tractor Trailer Accidents. 

Roetting, M., Huang Y.H., McDevitt, J.R. & Melton, J.R. (2004). Truck drivers' attitudes and opinions towards feedback by in-vehicle technology. Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, USA. 

Sabbagh-Ehrlich, S., Friedman, L., Richter E.D. (2005). Working conditions and fatigue in professional truck drivers at Israeli ports. Injury Prevention, Vol. 11.
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Obesity Proposal There Is a

Words: 4332 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96777051

The key to this program's success is changing the way the citizens approach their daily lives, without changing the traditions and practices that are unique to the community.

Teaching children how to cope with this unique conundrum will be difficult but could be the most successful approach in the long run. If the program is successful in slowing down the rate of obesity found in the younger citizens, then it could have longer lasting effects than the same program instituted with older citizens. One study showed that obese children are much more susceptible to diseases, especially diabetes than adults are with the same body mass index.

The study concluded that, "After stratification age and body mass index (BMI) the risk ratio for diabetes in Anti-HCV+ participants increased when age decreased and body mass index levels increased" (ang, ang, Yao, Chang, Chou, 2007, p. 202). Diabetes is currently a non-curable disease…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bell, a., (2006) the kids are not OK, National Underwriter (Life & Health/Financial Services Edition), Vol. 110, no. 36, p. 41

Callaway, L.K., McIntyre, H.D., O'Callaghan, M., Williams, G.M., Najman, J.M., Lawlor, D.A., (2007) the association of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with weight gain over the subsequent 21 years: Findings from a prospective cohort study, American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 166, Number 4, pp. 421-428

Confessore, N., Farmer, a., (2006) "In Borough Park, the unusual taste of fear." The New York Post, May 10, 2006, pg. B.3

Cooke, R., (2006) When normal is not necessarily good, New Statesman, Vol. 135, Number 9, p. 135
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Environmental Psychology

Words: 1405 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76019211

psychology and human behavior. Specifically it will discuss the effects of population density on individuals, including noise and territoriality. Population density has a dramatic affect on the population, and it can even lead to major health concerns. Studies show that residents of high-noise areas suffer a variety of ailments, from loss of attention span to hearing loss and stress. The denser the population, the more noise, stress, and lack of personal space all come together to make living conditions far less bearable than any other living situation.

Noise is one of the biggest problems facing the residents of high-density population centers. Noise can affect just about every aspect of life, and it can make sleeping, learning, conversing, and every aspect of life nearly unbearable. Noise is a part of life, but high noise levels are often most prevalent in inner cities and areas of high population density, meaning that more…… [Read More]


Editors. (2009). The San Francisco noise model. Retrieved 23 Dec. 2009 from the San Francisco Department of Public Heath Web site: .

Goines, L. And Hagler, L. (2007). Noise pollution: A modern plague. Southern Medical Journal, Volume 100: p. 287-294.

Harris, A.S., Fleming, G.G., Lang, W.W. And Schomer, P.D. (2004). Reducing the impact of environmental noise on quality of life requires an effective national noise policy. Retrieved 23 Dec. 2009 from the Web site: .
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Capsule Stress Management Techniques Outline

Words: 1026 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80281983

Prioritize. Try not to schedule too many things at once. In the words of one article by the health center at Colorado University entitled "10 Great Stress Reducers," learn to say 'no.' Also, learn to live within your budget. In other words, don't sweat the small stuff, and don't make yourself crazy by overcommitting yourself and leaving everything to the last minute. Ask yourself, do I need this? Do I have to do this?

Of course, no one can completely avoid stress in their life, and in fact, some forms of stress can be good. Lots of people like the positive, controlled stress of exercise or performing. There is a different 'perfect' balance of stress and relaxation for every person. But everyone can benefit from learning some ways to counteract the physical strains of being under stress. Stretching -- and stretching often, even simply rolling down your spine, touching your…… [Read More]

Works Cited

10 Great Stress Reducers." (2008). Colorado University. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at 

How to survive finals with less stress. (2008). Colorado University. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at 

Stressed Out?" (Jan 2007). The National Institute of Health. NIH. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at 

Stretch Often." (2008). Colorado University. Retrieved 24 Feb 2008 at
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Articles That I Faxed Over

Words: 714 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35639625

Accordingly, operational definitions have become a psychological standard by which psychological research has been-based for nearly a century; they enable a clear path of communication between psychologists and psychological researchers.

2- Do you have any hypotheses (2-tailed) related to any of these variables? List 3 possible hypotheses.


One-tailed hypothesis: predicts the direction in which the results will go.

hypothesis regulates or controls the course of experimentation.

Two-tailed hypothesis: hypothesis states that one factor affects another rather than state a direction, or that there will be a difference between the scores without stating the direction of the difference.


Definition: A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. A hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction about what you expect to happen in your study. For example, a study designed to look at the relationship between sleep deprivation and test performance might have a hypothesis…… [Read More]


Lane, David. "Variables." Connexions. July 21, 2003. /content/m10802/2.5/.

Chicago Manual of Style (Note):

David Lane, "Variables," Connexions, July 21, 2003,
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Addictive Use of the Internet

Words: 4339 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38308237

" Another strongly associated physical symptom is the persistence of migraine. Wieland observes that 40% of severe IAD youth take medication for migraine. The physical detriment of migraine develops into lifelong problems that are many times hard to cure or incurable.

The physical health of youth internet addicts are hard to dissect, partly this is because physical health often results from psychological addiction, and as a result, are attributed to traditional addict like symptoms and affects. The negligence of addicts in relations to their health causes indirect health problems, that may not be directly linked to IAD, but internet use lies at the heart of how such problems will occur and are dissected.

Research Question/Hypothesis:

The problem of internet addiction among youth has been carefully dissected through both social and scientific constructs. However, prevailing research into the actual physical and mental health of youth as a direct result of internet…… [Read More]

Young, K.S. (1998). Caught in the net. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Simon, M. (1997). How internet has an effect on the social skills of children. The Vocal Point [Online]. Available:

Suler, J. (1996). Review of the internet aggression by Norman Holland. The Psychology of Cyberspace [Online]. Available: l
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Disruptive Physician Behavior the Objective

Words: 2502 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90053016

(Singh, 2007)

E. Conflict Resolution

Conflict resolution is inclusive of several specific steps which are stated to include:

(1) Fact finding: Identify all individuals who are affected by the behavior and get complete history about the patterns of physician's behavior, preferably in writing (assuring the complainant about confidentiality). Identify probable risk to all affected individuals including patients and the organization itself. Make sure and document this step.

(2) Meetings: meeting comes when manager has got the most complete knowledge about the issue and its consequences. It is advised to plan for the meeting beforehand. Set the agenda for the meeting, communicate about the issues and how it is affecting staff and the workflow, and what is expected or desired. listen, listen, listen to the physician (sometimes just listening itself resolves the issue or gives you an idea about what to do). Stay focused on the issue, don't send mixed messages…… [Read More]


Bartholomew K. Ending Nurse-to-nurse Hostility. Marblehead, MA: HealthPro, 2006.

Brown D. At med schools, a new degree of diversity. Washington Post; June 1, 2007:A1.

Early P, Soon C, Soon a. Cultural Intelligence: Individual Interactions Across Cultures. Stanford University Press, 2003.

Ford, John (2010) Contextualizing Disruptive Behavior in Health Care as a Conflict Management Challenge (nd) Conflict Management Practice Notes. Online available at:
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Health Care Financing Issue Analysis

Words: 2286 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89271788

While the study had a number of scientific limitations; the two most significant were: 1) although the response rate of interns that volunteered to participate was 80%, those that did participate may not have been representative; and 2) the case-crossover analysis cannot account for the contribution of within-person factors that may have been co-variables with exposure status.


As a result of the related research, hospitals will be using medical resident interns as a means of making up for the lack of doctors caused by financing concerns. The redistribution of medical interns was expected to be completed before the next residency training year starts July 1, 2005, however, it remains currently underway. The Association of American Medical Colleges has stated that the health care system would be better off if the cap were lifted so hospitals could respond to the needs of their communities, such as adding a new cardiology…… [Read More]


Barger, L., Cade, E., Ayas, N., Cronin, J., Rosner, B., Speizer, F. & Czeisler, C. (2005).

Extended Work Shifts and the Risk of Motor Vehicle Crashes among Interns. NEJM

Cauchon, D. (2004). Medical Miscalculation Creates Doctor Shortage. USA Today,

Croasdale, M. (2004). Residency Slots Reallocated to Relieve Doctor Shortages.
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Visitation in the Intensive Care

Words: 1611 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27406487

The experience of Fumagalli et al.(2006) was similar: when open and flexible visiting hours were permitted, patients and visitors seemed more content (Fumagalli et al., 2006).

ICU staff, on the other hand, insist on maintaining restrictive visiting policies on the grounds that liberal visiting hours may distract caregivers, whilst increasing the patient's stress and risk of septic complications.

The issue remains an agonizing and constantly debated point of contention amongst physicians, nurses, visitors, and patients. Some practitioners insist that the decision to restrict visiting hours is neither caring nor compassionate (Fumagalli et al.,2006). On the other hand, as they themselves say their trial was small and larger randomized trials need to occur before conclusions are drawn. In the meantime, open and flexible visitation hours are constantly demanded, and permission, as constantly, withheld.


Berti, P., Ferdinando, D. & Moons, P. (2007). Beliefs and attitudes of intensive care nurses toward visits…… [Read More]


Berti, P., Ferdinando, D. & Moons, P. (2007). Beliefs and attitudes of intensive care nurses toward visits and open visiting policy Intensive Care Medicine, 33, 1060-1065,

Brannon, L. & Fesist, J. (207). Health Psychology. Thomson / Wadsworth, USA.

Fumagalli, S. Boncinelli, L., Lo Nostro, P. et al. (2006) Reduced Cardiocirculatory Complications With Unrestrictive Visiting Policy in an Intensive Care Unit

Circulation, 113, 946-952
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Geneva Conventions Enacted After the Horrors of

Words: 5201 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48124855

Geneva Conventions

Enacted after the horrors of World War II demonstrated the limitations of earlier treaties, the Geneva Convention of 1949 have become one of the preeminent international standards dictating the behavior of combatants and the treatment of individuals in the context of international and other conflicts, to the point that it has become a part of generally accepted customary international law. Building upon three earlier treaties signed in Geneva, the Convention of 1949 outlined rigorous standards defining and governing the treatment of civilian and military prisoners, the wounded, and civilians found in and around the war zone. Over the course of the last decade, the centrality of the Geneva Convention to international war and politics has come to the fore as a result of debates surrounding the relevance of the Convention to the United States execution of the War on Terror, especially in regards to the treatment and detainment…… [Read More]


(2008). Senior u.s. officials acknowledge waterboarding of three suspected terrorists; administration defends practice. The American Journal of International Law, 102 (2),


Bellamhy, A. (2008). Security and the war on terror. New York: Routledge.

Bugnion, F. (2000). The geneva conventions of 12 august 1949: From the 1949 diplomatic conference to the dawn of the new millennium. International Affairs, 76 (1), 41-50.
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Appellate Brief to Be Submitted By Mark

Words: 1255 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21132744

Appellate Brief

To be submitted by: Mark Maker

Supreme Court of the State of New York

Appellate Division: Second Judicial Department

Breezy Hollow Apartments,


Appellate Division Docket No.:


Sam Most,

Defendant, Appellant.


Mark Maker

Attorney for Defendant

999 Legislation Way


The Docket Number in the Court below is: 123456.

The full names of the original parties were:

Breezy Hollow Apartment- Plaintiff v Sam Most- Defendant.

This appeal is on behalf of Sam Most, Defendant.

The action was commenced in the Supreme Court of the State of New York, 2nd Judicial Department, County of Metropolis.


The action was commenced by the filing of a Petition in the Office of the Clerk of the Supreme Court on October 1, 2004.


This action is against Sam Most and is a petition pursuant to ____ to collect back rent.


This is…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Forensics Undercover Is a

Words: 11198 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97252031

However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).

y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.

Definition of Terms

Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.

Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…… [Read More]


Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site:

Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.

Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.

Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
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Prophet Muhammed

Words: 1659 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48664255

Life of Prophet Muhammed

There is an inherent degree of difficulty incurred in the life of a prophet. This fact is documented in a number of different texts, one of the most revealing of which is The Life of Muhammad. This book is valuable because it illustrates a multitude of events in the progression of Muhammad's life from his birth to his journey as a man. However, it does so by revealing the fact that during all stages of his life, he was favored by God -- rendering him worthy as a prophet of Allah. Furthermore, this book illustrates the fact that despite a plethora of burdensome situations, Muhammad always retained God's favor and acted in accordance with his role as a divine prophet. A close examination of the textual evidence in this manuscript reveals that as a prophet, Muhammad encountered a significant amount of austere trials, the results of…… [Read More]


Ishaq. The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1955.