Sleep Deprivation Essays Examples

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Sleep All Human Beings Need Sleep in

Words: 1168 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58405535


All human beings need sleep in order for their bodies and minds to function properly. However, more and more people are staying up later than they should and then getting up without having slept the amount of time that they physically need in order to recover and ready themselves for the next day. Sleep debt refers to the deficit between the amount of sleep that a person gets and the amount that they need to function. The official definition, according to Scientific American states: "Sleep debt is the difference between the amount of sleep you should be getting and the amount you actually get. It's a deficit that grows every time we skim some extra minutes off our nightly slumber" (Webster 1). Every night it seems that for a large percentage of the population, the sleep debt seems to increase. There are many individuals who never get enough sleep and so their sleep debt is insurmountable. Young people are particularly at risk for accumulating sleep debt which can make a resoundingly negative impression on their lives. For young people, sleep debt leads to personality change and trouble in relationships, can lead to car accidents, and makes it difficult for…… [Read More]

Danner, Fred and Phillips, Barbara. "Adolescent Sleep, School Start Times, and Teen Motor

Vehicle Crashes." Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. (Dec. 2008): n. pag. Rpt. In Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. Ed. Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. 11th ed. Boston: Longman, 2011. 522-28. Print.
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Sleep Questionnaire Rcsq Instrument Analysis Research to

Words: 850 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54168766

Sleep Questionnaire (RCSQ) Instrument Analysis

Research to evaluate interventions to promote sleep in critically ill patients has been restricted by the lack of brief, inexpensive outcome measures (Richards, O'Sullivan, & Phillips, 2000). Usually the critically ill are given different medications that help them sleep. However, in many cases this is insufficient to achieve enough rest and sleep periods are generally fragmented and with decreased restrictiveness. Most researchers believe that a few days of partial sleep or even complete sleep deprivation in a healthy adult for brief periods is completely benign. However, for patients in critical care settings the effects of sleep deprivation can contribute to major complications.

Sleep is divided into two distinctive states, rapid eye movement (REM) and nonREM states. The former is defined by periods of episodic burst of rapid eye movements and the later (NREM) has a set of sub-stages that include for separate phases that can be identified through EEG activation. As an individual progress through the NREM cycles, each cycle last approximately eighty minutes each. Currently available techniques for measuring sleep include polysomnography (PSG), actigraphy, observation, and patient perception. PSG is the best tool for measurement and data collection on sleep, yet this requires expensive…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Richards, K., O'Sullivan, P., & Phillips, R. (2000). Measurements of Sleep in Critically Ill Patients. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 8(2), 131-140.
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Sleep in the Media Sleep Media as

Words: 1038 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38423091

Sleep in the Media

Sleep Media

As interest in improving the quality of life increases, significant amount of research is being conducted in areas that can help improve the physical, mental and emotional well-being of human beings in an environment where there is constant distraction and a high level of stress. Sleep is an important area that has attracted a lot of attention. It is for this reason that the media has been particularly interested in the research on sleep and has portrayed it in a number of accurate and inaccurate ways for the consumption of the public. This ranges from getting adequate sleep to the best time for sleep in order to maintain productivity throughout the day. A number of remedies to cure sleep problems like insomnia and snoring are also popular occurrences in the media.

Michelson (2011) identifies one such myth that circulates frequently in the mass media. In his research, he tests the claims made in the media that people are sleeping fewer hours than in earlier years. Daylight saving time is usually cited as the reason for this change because the loss of one hour during the day negatively affects sleep patterns. However, the longitudinal research…… [Read More]

Gardner, A. (2012, May 01). Sleep curbs influence of obesity genes. Retrieved from 

Jones, K.E., Johnson, R.K., & Harvey-Bernio, J.R. (2008). Is losing sleep making us obese?. Nutrition bulletin, 33(4), 272-278. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-3010.2008.00727.x
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Sleep on Life Satisfaction and Cognitive Function

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29051179

Sleep on Life Satisfaction and Cognitive Function

Popular literature is replete with articles presenting evidence of the many harmful effects of sleep deprivation and the general consensus is that modern society works too much and sleeps too little. To be accurate, many empirical studies do exist that demonstrate the ill effects of insufficient sleep (Shekleton, 2010). Where these studies once predominantly emanated from the field of applied psychology -- in other words, from animal studies -- today the literature contains many juried articles from reputable laboratories and sleep clinics whose research is carried out with human beings ("National Sleep Foundation," 2005). The case for the physiological importance of sleep deprivation has been made, but as Groeger, et al. (2004) argues "actual data that show that society is sleep deprived do not exist." And what sleep data there is about the impact of sleep quality and amount on perceptions about life quality is based on samples too small and too particular to be representative of the population as a whole (Groeger, et al. (2004). In the conclusions of their cross-sectional study, Groeger, et al. (2004) were strongly supportive of the impact of sleep on subjects' perceptions of the quality of their…… [Read More]

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Sleep Has an Affect on Memory and

Words: 1457 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49119600

sleep has an affect on memory, and how narcolepsy can affect memory. Finally, it will discuss how to avoid sleep deprivation.


Sleep. We cannot live without it, but sometimes, it seems like we would like to. Sleep deprivation has become much more common in our hectic and demanding society. "Like the religious ascetics of medieval times, many people today regard sleep as 'time lost.' They regret that the day is only twenty-four hours long and that they do not have time to do all the things they should do or would like to do" (Borbaely 158). One report notes that most people would rather sleep an hour more than they usually do, and in another study, people who slept less that six hours a night displayed the tendency to fall asleep during the day, or complain of being tired during the day. In addition, most people admit to sleeping longer on weekends than they do during the week (Borbaely 159-160).

Many studies have pointed to short-term memory loss, and mental impairment because of sleep deprivation. However, in a study done on mice, scientists taught them to run a maze, then deprived them of sleep, to see…… [Read More]

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Sleep Behavior and Habits Scientists Have Known

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68391039

Sleep Behavior and Habits

Scientists have known for decades that the human sleep and wakefulness are controlled by complex factors that influence the circadian rhythm that regulate sleep in all mammalians and in most other forms of so-called higher biological life. More recently, physiologists have identified very important direct connections between sleep cycles, and sleep deprivation in particular, and human health. Specifically, sleep deprivation and the disruption of regular sleep-wake cycles have been implicated as factors that contribute to loss of mental focus, intellectual productivity, human error, emotional stability, resistance to bacterial infection, depression, and even healthful weight maintenance. In addition to the importance of sufficient sleep and the regularity of sleep cycles, there is even empirical evidence indicating that the quality of sleep is significantly affected by very small amounts of ambient light during sleep.

The Physiological and Psychological Importance of Sleep

Human studies on sleep and on sleep deprivation have demonstrated that human beings cannot function without sufficient sleep (Siegel, 2005). After only one night of inadequate sleep, mental acuity, memory, operational efficiency, and mood deteriorate substantially. For this reason, regulatory agencies impose strict requirements and limitations on the amount of time in between the shifts scheduled for…… [Read More]

Lamond, N., Dorrian, J., Roach, G.D., McCulloch, K., Holmes, A.L., Burgess, H.J.,

Fletcher, A., and Dawson, D. "The Impact of a Week of Simulated
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How Does Wakefulness Influence Sleep

Words: 3101 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17748726

Sleep and Wakefulness

How Does Wakefulness Influence Sleep

Sleep is one of the most important components of good health, and successful night's sleep can be robbed in many ways. Because the sleep state is a fragile undertaking, events that happen during the day, issues during the night, and physiological actors all play a role. This paper discusses all of the factors related to how wakefulness affects sleep, and therapies that can be used to receive good sleep.

Sleep deprivation

Of course the main way that wakefulness affects sleep is that fact that the person is awake. Sleep deprivation can come through many agencies such as what a person ate or drank right before bed, how agitated they were, what type of work the person did during the day, and the atmosphere they are sleeping in (Ratcliff & Dingen, 2009). However, this section is more about how sleep deprivation affects the sleeper than the causes. Those will be discussed in the following sections.

Sleep deprivation is a major health risk because the body needs a specific amount of time to recharge before starting another day. People who are deprived of sleep are less attentive to their day, they are not as…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bokken, I. (2005). Dreams and Neuroholography: An interdisciplinary interpretation of development of homeotherm state in evolution. Sleep & Hypnosis, 7(2), 47-57.

Borbely, A.A., & Tontoni, G. (1998). The quest for the essence of sleep. Daedalus, 127(2), 167-182.
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Safe Sleep and Sleep Patterns for Children Under 18 Months

Words: 2311 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79125388

Infant Sleep Patterns

People sleep nearly one third of their lives and infants sleep significantly more than adults (Franken, Kopp, Landolt, & Luthi, 2009). The function of sleep has hypothesized by different researchers; however, surprisingly there is no general consensus as to what the function and purpose of sleep actually is. It is known that sleep deprivation can have some serious consequences, especially in infants. The reason for this is that growth cycles as well as other developmental and functional processes occur in both the brain and body during sleep (Franken et al., 2009). Since getting adequate sleep is vital in infants it is important to understand their sleeping needs and patterns. In order to understand how to establish safe sleep patterns for children less than 18 months of age is important to understand the stages of sleep, the hypothetical functions of sleep, and the needs of infants regarding sleep at this stage of development.

Stages of Sleep

Normal sleep moving through cycles of rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) and non-REM sleep (e.g., slow brain wave sleep). During REM sleep infants will breathe more irregularly, experience twitches in their limbs, display rapid eye movements under closed eyes, and display…… [Read More]

Carpenter, R., McGarvey, C., Mitchell, E.A., Tappin, D.M., Vennemann, M.M., Smuk, M.,

Carpenter, J.R. (2013). Bedsharing when parents do not smoke: Is there a risk of SIDS?
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Human Factors in Aviation Safety Focusing on Fatigue Body Rhythms and Sleep

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70753327

Comair Flight 5191: Case Study in Fatigue

Aviation Safety: Fatigue

Comair Flight 5191: A Case Study in Fatigue

Comair Flight 5191: A Case Study in Fatigue

Comair Flight 5191 came to a disastrous end in 2006 when the flight crew attempted to take off from a runway much shorter than required for the aircraft they were piloting, resulting in the deaths of 49 of the 50 people on board (Pruchnicki, Wu, and Belenky, 2011). The Comair Captain, First Officer, and air traffic controller failed to perform the necessary checks to ensure the plane was lined up on the proper runway before takeoff. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) investigated the accident and could not definitively determine the cause. Years later at a sleep conference, the NTSB chairman Deborah Hersman mentioned the Comair Flight 5191 tragedy and noted that establishing fatigue as a significant contributing factor is often so difficult that it is only offered as a last resort.

A survey of reported fatigue levels was published the same year that the Comair tragedy occurred and based on the replies of 162 short-haul pilots, close to 75% were suffering from severe fatigue (Jackson and Earl, 2006). Given this data, it should…… [Read More]

Caldwell, John A. (2012). Crew schedules, sleep deprivation, and aviation performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(2), 85-89.

Hersman, Deborah A.P. (2010). Remarks of the Honorable Deborah A.P. Hersman, Chairman National Transportation Safety Board before the National Sleep Foundation in Washington, D.C. Retrieved 14 Feb. 2013 from / speeches/hersman/daph100305.html.
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Relationship Between Hours of Sleep and Both of Satisfaction With Life and Cognitive Functioning

Words: 1129 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61908318

Hours of Sleep, Life Satisfaction & Cognitive Functioning

Cognitive Functioning


Relationship between Hours of Sleep and Both of Satisfaction with Life and Cognitive Functioning

Proper sleeping hours are very important for our body's functioning. When a person is sleeping, his body is in the process of repair; thus allowing his brain to have some rest and the needed down time. There are many negative effects of less sleeping hours on the cognitive function as well as life satisfaction of a person.

Just like a proper diet, sleep plays a very essential role in the maintenance of overall health of an individual. Unfortunately, Americans are facing some serious cognitive and life satisfaction problems due to lack of sleeping hours. According to an estimate from U.S. Center for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), approximately 25% of U.S. citizens have less sleeping hours, while only 10% are subject to insomnia. (National Sleep Foundation, 2005) Additionally, the sleeping hours of an average U.S. citizen has declined from 8-9 hours to 6-7 hours per 24 hours. This lack of sleeping hours in American citizens has resulted in increased mental and physical health problems. Changes…… [Read More]

National Sleep Foundation, 2005. Summary of Findings, retrieved on June 17, 2011 from

Siri Carpenter, 2001. Sleep Deprivation May Be Undermining Teen Health. Monitor Staff, Vol 32, No. 9, pp.42.
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Neonatal Sleep

Words: 1720 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 360679

Neonatal Sleep

Neonatal nurseries are the only alternative environment to a human womb that is offered to a preterm infant . The development of these nurseries and its accessories has now opened a new era in the management of these preterm infants .These nurseries by virtue of their sophisticated machines and experienced care givers are now offering a better chance of survival to these fragile infants .These preterm infants are now not only surviving this initial complicated period of their lives but also leading a healthy life comparable to a normal term infant .

Although the preterm infants are profoundly benefited by these nurseries, these infants are also exposed to the various elements of a typical nursery environment .Among these physical elements, the constant lighting, noise, and nursing interventionsare the pertinent ones that may have negative influence on the development and well-being of a preterm infant .These physical elements may cause various negative physiological changes in these infants .Among many, the sleep of a neonate is an essential component that is adversely affected by these environmental factors.

Sleep plays a significant role in growth and functioning of a human . It is essential for repair and healing of body tissues…… [Read More]

Dahl, R.E. (1996). The impact of inadequate sleep on children's daytime cognitive function.

Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 3, pp. 44-50.
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Psychology and Sleep Discussion Question

Words: 472 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22466694

Similarly, regular exposure to certain types of artificial lighting can have a negative effect on the quality of sleep as well. Research into the comparative health of daytime and nighttime workers has helped establish some of the more specific ways that sleep is important to human health. For example, certain forms of cancer (such as breast cancer and colorectal cancer) have been documented at higher rates among nighttime workers (Pauley, 2004). As it happens, those forms of cancer are known to be moderated by Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland during specific phases of sleep and known to vary in relation to exposure to light (Pauley, 2004).

Research on mice revealed that melatonin-related cancers increased when the subjects were exposed to very small levels of light during sleep and also that completely blind human beings have a lower incidence of colorectal cancers than blind people who can perceive some light (Pauley, 2004). The researchers eventually determined that nighttime work is detrimental to human health partly because night workers are much less likely to sleep in absolute darkness since they sleep during daylight hours. Compounding the problem is the fact that the wavelengths common to blue television light and…… [Read More]

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Effects of Psychoactive Drugs on the Brain Stress and Sleep

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9262158

Psychoactive Drugs

The drug chosen is Cocaine, and it is listed to be "… a psychomotor stimulant, this class of drug produces their effect on the brain by simulating the actions of certain neurotransmitters, such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin." (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010) These effects would be known as the "pleasure" aspect of the drug, but there is also a second aspect to the drug's effects that are responsible for the addiction, called "plasticity" (Amaro et al.). A drug-induced plasticity is "tolerance, sensitization and physical dependence" on the drug cocaine (Amaro et al.). The part of the brain that cocaine targets is the amygdala, specifically the reward pathways found in the brain. Cocaine effects the reward pathways by inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine into nerve terminals (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010). Specifically cocaine reacts with dopamine, and would be considered an antagonist because it is similar enough to occupy the same site as dopamine, but will not allow it to be received in the transmitter (Huffman, 2007).

In this way, cocaine and other stimulants are known for causing psychosis in people who abuse them for long-term, or use doses that are too high -- even in those people who…… [Read More]

Emery, R.E., & Oltmanns, T.F. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Huffman, K. (2007). Psychology in action (8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Alternative Interrogation Method With the

Words: 1064 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13797741

.. information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him (qtd. "United Nations").

The effects of the Abu Gharib scandal, and the other interrogation concerns coming from Guantanamo Bay, led to the recently passed Military Commissions Act, which further clarifies the United States' position on the use of alternative interrogation methods and what is and is not acceptable, including the discontinuance of the use of waterboarding.

Again, although the use of alternative interrogation techniques, such as sleep deprivation or long time standing have the same goals of information retrieval, their similarities end there. Standard interrogation does not involve coercive methods. Prisoners or sources may be mentally intimidated, but they do not suffer physical or mental harm. Even the information garnered can be vastly different. Information received by standard interrogation methods is typically considered more reliable than that of alternative methods, given the coercive nature. When subjected to the physical and mental anguish of alternative interrogation techniques it is possible that prisoners would admit to anything or even make up information simply to end the interrogation process.

Other forms of interrogation that are less cruel than that…… [Read More]

Horton, S. When Lawyers are War Criminals. 12 Oct 2006. Pace Law School. November 25, 2006

Interrogation. 15 Nov 2006. November 25, 2006
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Managing Risks Associated With Stress Describe How

Words: 979 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34927360

Managing Risks Associated With Stress

Describe how to maintain life balance and manage risks associated with stress

Maintaining life balance requires happiness. Even during stress, an individual should not allow all the stressors to take a toll on him/her. Avoiding stressors is the most appropriate way of managing stress. Developing new habits could help remove and distract an individual from stressful situations, pressures and stressors, which is essential in managing stress permanently. In this modern world, individuals must learn to change and minimize their exposure to stressful situations. While this technique does not change the situations causing stress, it enables an individual to change his/her relationship and reaction to the stressful situations hence maintaining a life balance.

Early Warning Systems are often used to identify officers at risks of family violence. Describe how to use an early warning system to identify officers at risk of using excessive force.

Officers with personality disorders are at high risk of family violence. These officers have enduring and pervasive personality traits, manifested in paranoid, abusive, and antisocial tendencies. These conditions are likely to interfere with judgment and interaction with others especially when they perceive threats or challenges to their authority. As a result, they…… [Read More]

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Nursing Wellness Nursing Assessment After Interviewing the

Words: 1270 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82358259



Nursing Assessment

After interviewing the Finkelstein family, I found there were issues in the physical areas such as in Values, health perception, Nutrition, Activity/Exercise and Sleep/Rest with the exception of Elimination. However, the psychological areas such as Cognitive, Sensory-Perception, Self-Perception, Role Relationship, Sexuality, and Coping were extremely functional among three people excluding the father. I feel that that health issues or the physical state of this family is due to a lack of focus and coming together as a family. The ages in this family range between 39 to 5 months, leaving the father at 39, the mother at 36, the son at 5, and the daughter 5 months old. Individually, they are aware of themselves but they do not pay attention to one another as a group. Among a family of four, they are close but they lack quality time together with exception of watching television. Therefore, my assessment of this family is that they need help when it comes to their physical health, which needs professional counseling.

From there, the Finkelstein family consists of a mother and father along with two children; a daughter and a son. Their health perception is extremely poor especially when it…… [Read More]

Ackley, B.J., & Ladwig, G.B. (2008). Nursing Diagnoses handbook: An evidence-based guide to planning care (8th ed.). St. Louis, MI: Mosby Elsevier

Huff, C.. "A Risky Decision" (2010). Current Health eb. ProQuest Education Journals.
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Lewis Maltby's Proposition That Employers Should Not

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17949092

Lewis Maltby's proposition that employers should not do drug testing (or other testing related to off-work conduct) but should instead focus on impairment testing when an employee is entering the workplace. Instead of using drug testing in a punitive and time-consuming manner, Lewis Maltby holds that the technology exists to see if any safety or impairment issues are present in certain occupations in a way that is non-invasive and far more relevant. For instance, a train engineer, bus driver or airline pilot might be impaired due to stress, illness, sleep deprivation, etc. They could be tested using something akin to a video game, which captures their baseline performance and then compares it to the values at a certain test-time. If the individual is not able to perform the duties, then they are simply bumped for that shift.

Discuss privacy in social media websites. What sort of policies should exist? Does it matter that the user doesn't have to be honest (to the extent of using false names? There are a number of different types of social networks -- personal, location, content, shared interest, etc. Within these networks there are two types of information that can be gathered: information from the…… [Read More]

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Behrens and Rosens 2002 Have an Entire

Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48345369

Behrens and Rosens (2002) have an entire discussion pertaining to the effects of sleep deprivation on adolescents. College students, actually, routinely deprive themselves of sleep as does the American nation in general (Weiten, 184) mainly in the hope and mistaken belief that they can achieve more in their life this way. According to Dumer and Dinges (2005), in fact, approximately 20% of adults are routinely sleep deprived.

Scientific research on sleep, actually, presents something of a paradox since, whilst on the one hand, it indicates that sleep deprivation is not as detrimental as one might expect, on the other hand, evidence seems to indicate that sleep deprivation may be a major social problem, undermining efficacy in school and academic achievement, contributing to countless accidents, and negatively impacting an adolescent's life in various aspects.

The level of seriousness of the effects of partial sleep deprivation depends on the amount of sleep lost and on other aspects of the adolescent's (or individual's) life (Weiten, 184) that necessitate that he or she possess as much energy as possible in order to deal with these aspects of her life effectively. Negative effects of lack of sleep are most likely to occur when the individual…… [Read More]

Behrens, L. & Rosens, L.J. Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. NY: Longman Pub., 2002.

Dumer, J., & Dinges, D.F. "Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation," Seminars in Neurology, 25 (2005): 117-129.
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Dreams -- Are They Psychologically Significant Psychologically

Words: 1388 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34178090

Dreams -- Are They Psychologically Significant

psychologically insignificant, or something in between?

The phenomenon of dreaming during sleep has long been a topic of interest to those interested in understanding the human mind. On one hand, there may be reason to believe that dream content and visual imagery in dreams provide clues to the unconscious mind as famously postulated by the psychological theorist who introduced the psychodynamic approach to understanding human psychology. On the other hand, there may be equally good anecdotal evidence that dreaming in humans is not particularly significant, particularly since non-human animals also apparently dream. It may be that human dreams are psychologically significant, but any such conclusion would have to be established by further research distinguishing dream sleep from non-dream sleep in the same manner as previous studies distinguishing REM sleep from non-REM sleep.


Sleep is a phenomenon that appears to be universal among all known higher organisms and it is quite clear that it serves a crucial physiological function, largely by virtue of the consequences of any prolonged sleep deprivation. Human beings and other animals alike become extremely stressed when deprived us sleep and humans in particular can suffer psychological breakdown, even death, when…… [Read More]

Brody, J. "At Every Age, Feeling the Effects of Too Little Sleep" The New York Times.

(October 23, 2007). Accessed 22 June 2012 from:
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Fine Line Walked by Interrogators

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9366671

This last category includes the infamous waterboarding technique, which has -- in subsequent evaluations -- been labeled illegal torture. An important consideration in the evaluation of these techniques has been the additive impact of combining techniques to achieve an enabling condition or objective. In other words, in its 2002 memo to John Rizzo, the Acting General Counsel of the C.I.A., the U.S. Justice Department specifically prohibited some combinations of techniques and specifically permitted other combinations. In the period following 9/11 through 2005, revolving officials in the Office of Legal Counsel of the U.S. Justice Department issued radical memos supporting or opposing the standard imposed by Congress for identifying torture. The harsh interpretation in 2005 asserted that the techniques used by the C.I.A. were not "cruel, inhuman or degrading," and so could not be considered to be torture.

How would you validate the information received from a suspect that was deprived of sleep for a prolonged period of time?

It would be important to seek corroborating evidence on any information disclosed by someone who had been deprived of sleep. The presenting problems are that a person deprived of sleep for a prolonged period of time can suffer hallucinations and severe disruption…… [Read More]

Greene, C.H. And Banks, L.M. (2009). Ethical guideline evolution in psychological support to interrogations operations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 61(1), 25-32.

Mazzetti, M. And Shane, S. (2009, April 17). Interrogation memos detail harsh tactics by the C.I.A. The New York Times. Retrieved [Type text]
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There Are Three Places Where

Words: 2658 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34810199

Since both individuals were seeking to improve
the circumstances, the question that begs to be asked is why did the male

"Male leaders received lower effectiveness ratings when expressing
sadness compared to neutrality, while female leaders received lower ratings
when expressing either sadness or anger" (Lewis, 2000, p. 221). Since
females are perceived in a different light, their emotions are also viewed
as being different as well. A response such as this does not make
cognitive sense, nor is it needs based, but it could be a fixed or a
learned behavior that would coincide with the fixed action theory.
Appealing to the audience from a needs basis might assist the young female
in achieving her goal, or she could benefit by taking a more dispassionate
approach in addressing the crowd. She could benefit from arousing the
students with application of a fixed action response especially from the
males who would view her in a much better light if she would not show anger
in her speech.

4. Considering the fact that "sleep loss reduces performance" (text book)
and that it would seem that most individuals probably wish to be at their
peak performance while at work, it would…… [Read More]

Bandura, A. (1989) Human Agency in Social Cognitive Theory, American
Psychologist, Vol 44, No 9, pp. 1175 - 1184
Chance, P. (1994) Learning and Behavior, Pacific Grove, California:
Brooks/Cole Publishing Company
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Meta Analysis of Fibromyalgia Treatment From Traditional to Complimentary

Words: 4639 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57345204

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a complex medical condition that affects about 5 million American people. The condition is characterized by "chronic widespread pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, stiffness, impaired memory and concentration, anxiety and depression." (Facts of Life, 2001). Sleep disturbance and an increased sensitivity to pain follow a cyclic pattern in individuals having FMS, the result of which is a positive feedback loop. (Etiology of Fibromyalgia, 2003).

Typically, fibromyalgia affects women, especially those between the ages of 20 and 55. (Who gets fibromyalgia? 2003). Women in this age group, as also people with rheumatologic or endocrine problems (such as thyroid disease), are at greatest risk for developing fibromyalgia syndrome. Fibromyalgia can also manifest at the time of menopause, and the malaise has also been seen to exist among members of the same family in successive generations. This syndrome also sometimes affects men and children.

The cause of fibromyalgia is yet unknown, and many researchers believe that abnormalities in the central nervous system or in the functioning of the neuro-endocrine systems may be causative factors. Research is underway as to the possible triggers and the concurrent occurrence between fibromyalgia and other medical conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome and irritable bowel…… [Read More]

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Self-Change Project- Bedtime Prior to

Words: 1380 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92199437

An alarm was set each night signaling the self-agreed upon time for bed. I explained to friends and family that this was an important behavioral change in my life, as well as an academic exercise, and asked for their support. The process of self-change by using consciousness raising and reevaluation of goals and behavior were also an important part of the motivation for this study. I followed the prescribed agreement for a three-week period, realizing that I would need a few days at several levels in order to be successful (See Appendix B). At the end of three weeks my quality sleep averaged above 7.5 hours, thus increasing the basal measurement by 50% (from 5.0 hours to 7.5 hours).

Discussion- the intervention was a success and there was a clear set of lifestyle and behavioral changes that were made. General feelings of self-worth, sense of direction, and contentment/happiness with the world increased; friends and colleagues reported a noticeable mood shift towards the positive; quiz scores improved, as did short- and long-term memory indicators. I was more efficient at work, and with the addition of some meditative exercises and outdoor activity am now able to awaken and feel refreshed and productive.…… [Read More]

Lack of Sleep." USA Today. Cited in:
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Sleeping and Insomnia

Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56526180

Sleeping and Insomnia

Introduction have been observing my roommate's sleeping patterns. He has insomnia and takes sleeping pills every night, sometimes with alcohol. My hypothesis is that his dependence on sleeping pills and his mixing with alcohol are hindering his condition, rather than helping it. I think that there are many other, more natural things he could do to ease his insomnia.

General understanding of sleeping

We spend about one third of our life sleeping. Sleep is defined as the suspension of consciousness during which the powers of the body are restored (ThinkQuest, 2003). The brain is not at rest during sleep as popularly thought, but is extremely active and it is the brain that tells us when it is time to sleep. Sensations of light taken in from the retina are transferred through the nerves to an area of the brain determines the amount of light exposure and adjusts the body accordingly. The exact purpose of sleep remains a mystery, but researchers speculate that during certain stages of sleep, the brain is testing, strengthening, or somehow improving our neurons.

The brain follows cycles of between 90 and 100 minutes each during sleep repeating 4 or 5 times in a…… [Read More]

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Fatigue Management in Aviation Many Documented Incidents

Words: 1604 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48656662

Fatigue Management in Aviation

Many documented incidents can be linked to pilot fatigue. A case in kind occurred on August 18, 1993, where a Connie Kalitta DC-8 crashed whilst completing its 1/4-mile base leg. The flight crew had flown for 9 hours and been on duty for 18 hours, accordingly disrupting their circadian rhythm and experiencing sleep loss (National Transportation Safety Board, 1993).

Showing how fatigue was determined to be a contributing safety factor in the event

That the accident was, to a great extent, contributory to sleep loss was confirmed by Jim Danaher, chief of the NTSB's Operational Factors Division at the November 1995 Fatigue Symposium near Washington, D.C.:

The company had intended for the crew to ferry the airplane back to Atlanta after the airplane was offloaded in Guantanamo Bay. This would have resulted in a total duty time of 24 hours and 12 hours of flight time…."(National Transportation Safety Board, 1993).

The NTSB accident report also noted the cause of the accident as likely attributable to "The impaired judgment, decision-making, and flying abilities of the captain and flight crew due to the affects of fatigue" (ibid).

The report proceeds to list other causes, but fatigue is indicated…… [Read More]

National Transportation Safety Board, Aircraft Accident Report, 1993, In Flight Loss of Control and Subsequent Collision with Terrain, DC-8-61, N814CK, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, Washington, DC.

US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. 1998, Biological Rhythms: Implications for the Worker. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office

Weiten, W. 2007, Psychology: Themes and Variations. NY, Thomson & Wadsworth.
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Dreaming Is Just One of the Natural

Words: 3258 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44098530

Dreaming is just one of the natural phenomenons that human beings do during the process of sleeping. Indeed, this natural process is not constrained to any particular characteristic and people with cultural diversity, all age groups and different social backgrounds dream throughout their entire lives. Since dreaming is linked to the mind and soul, thus it is considered that people will continue to dream until they are living (Hobson 2004).

Dreaming is an entire chain and cycle of metaphors, feelings, sensation and insight that forms a story while a person is asleep. Since the dreams people see are not in one shape, hence it can be peaceful, thrilling, practical, scary, chaotic, or implausible. This means that during the entire phenomenon of dreaming, a person can hallucinate about humans, houses, places such as cities, hills, rivers and various other things that the individual have not even seen in real life (Hobson 2004).

This course of dreaming can last from few seconds and can go up to several minutes. Additionally, it has been observed that a person can dream up to ten times or even more in just a single night. In fact, more than eighty-five percent of the dreams are not…… [Read More]

Coon, D & Mitterer, J.O. (2008). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior, 12th Edition, Cengage Learning, Canada.

Harvard Health Publications (2012). 'Understanding Sleep: Body Clock and Sleep Cycles', HELPGUIDE.ORG -- A Trusted Non-Profit Resource, Viewed September 24, 2012:
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Chronic Fatigue

Words: 5257 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64165288

Chronic Fatigue in the Aviation Industry

Chronic Fatigue

Fatigue is the mental and/or physical state of being weak and tired. Mental and physical fatigue is different, but the two will often exist together. A person becomes mentally tired if they are physically exhausted for a long period. A person being unable to function physically at their normal levels manifests physical fatigue Jackson & Earl, 2006.

Mental fatigue will manifest itself by a sleepy feeling and inability to concentrate properly. In medical terminologies, fatigue is not a sign, but rather a symptom. This means that a person suffering from fatigue is able to feel and describe the condition. Experts have indicated that around 10% of people globally suffer from persistent tiredness at any one time. Females are more prone to persistent tiredness than males. It is not easy to define fatigue in humans because of its large variability of causes. The causes of fatigue range from circadian rhythm disruption to boredom to heavy physical exertion John A Caldwell, 2005.

In nonprofessional terms, fatigue is defined as weariness. For a more accurate definition fatigue is a condition that is characterized by increased discomfort that leads to loss of power, a lessened capacity…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Avers, K., & Johnson, W.B. (2011). A review of Federal Aviation Administration fatigue research: Transitioning scientific results to the aviation industry. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 1(2), 87.

Bennett, S.A. (2003). Flight crew stress and fatigue in low-cost commercial air operations -- an appraisal. International journal of risk assessment and management, 4(2), 207-231.
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121 Airlines vs 135 Charters Pilot Rest Requisites

Words: 4488 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72539932

FAA Pilot Rest Requirements

On January 15, 2009, Captain Chesley Sullenberger successfully landed U.S. Airways Flight 1549, a scheduled commercial passenger flight from LaGuardia Airport in New York City to Charlotte/Douglas International Airport, Charlotte, North Carolina, onto the waters of the Hudson River after the plane, an Airbus A320-214, had been struck by a flock of birds which caused an immediate and complete loss of thrust in both engines. Had Capt. Sullenberger, and the crew of Flight 1549, not responded as they did, in a uniformly calm and cool manner while adhering to the tenets FAA safety regulations, there's a decent chance that all of the 155 occupants aboard the Airbus 320 would not be with us today, and that this story of heroism, in the face of looming tragedy, would have a different ending (Sturcke, 2009).

On February 12, 2009, in the wake of the glee and excitement that followed Sullenberger's heroic controlled ditch in the Hudson River, a small crew on Colgan Air Flight 3407, a flight from Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey to Buffalo Niagara International Airport in Buffalo, NY, faced a similarly perilous situation. Their plane - a 74-seat Bombardier DHC8-402 Q400 - started…… [Read More]

Bowles, H. (2010, Feb. 8). Colgan Pilot Fatigue & NTSB. Better Job Safety. Retrieved from 

Brandon, M. (2000, Sept). The Effects of Fatigue On Performance And Safety. Airline Safety.Com. Retrieved from
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Human Factors in Aviation Safety

Words: 3015 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3783283

They just assume that the autopilot will take care of flying the plane, and their skills get rusty with lack of use. Then, if something goes wrong with the autopilot system the pilot and his or her crew members may not know what to do and they may not react as quickly as they need to in order to protect the passengers and the rest of the crew members from serious harm (Human, 2009).

The majority of people need to sleep approximately eight hours each night. If they do not get that level of sleep, they can be overly tired and that can cause them to make more mistakes than they otherwise would (Human, 2009). However, someone who has gotten eight hours of sleep is not necessarily caught up on his or her sleep. The quality of sleep the person has gotten and how tired he or she was before the sleep cycle occurred can also affect whether a person is rested after eight hours of sleep (Human, 2009). Some people need a little bit more sleep, and other people can function just fine on a bit less, but if a person is getting under six or seven hours of…… [Read More]

Berliner, D. (1996). Aviation: Reaching for the sky. New York, NY: The Oliver Press, Inc.

Dirty dozen - errors - human factors. (2011). Aviation Glossary. Retrieved from
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Clinical Psychology

Words: 60005 Length: 200 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12402637

Dream Content as a Therapeutic Approach: Ego Gratification vs. Repressed Feelings

An Abstract of a Dissertation

This study sets out to determine how dreams can be used in a therapeutic environment to discuss feelings from a dream, and how the therapist should engage the patient to discuss them to reveal the relevance of those feelings, in their present, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of repetitious dreams, how medication affects the content of a dreamer's dreams, and if therapists actually "guide" their clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the therapist "suggesting" to their clients that they had suffered some type of early childhood trauma, when in fact, there were no traumas in their early childhoods. The origin of psychiatry is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, therapy or any other even faintly scientific endeavor. Its original purpose was not even to cure mental affliction.

Working hard behind this scene is the psychiatrist, dispensing everything from his pernicious "insanity defense" in the courts -- thereby helping dangerous criminals escape justice -- to his mind-numbing drugs within the prisons. Of course, with high rates of inmate illiteracy and drug abuse, it is reasonable to assume that…… [Read More]

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Noise-Abatement Strategies for Tertiary Healthcare Facilities

Words: 4568 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14964406

Reducing Length of Stays on Critical Care Wards in a Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Today, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) operates the nation's largest healthcare system and provides training for more than half of all of the physicians that practice in the United States today. Based on its mission, taken from President Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address, to "care for him who has borne the battle, his widow and his orphans," the VA Medical Center in Oklahoma City is committed to providing the best quality medical care possible for its veteran patients. One issue that has emerged in recent months that has been shown to adversely affect the quality of this patient care is sleep disruption on critical care wards due to the high levels of noise that are generated in these healthcare environments. In fact, the noise levels on many critical care wards as the same as a lawnmower or blender, and many patients report difficulties getting enough sleep while they are trying to recover from a surgical procedure or medical intervention. In response to this problem, this medical center, along with a growing number of other hospitals across the country, has implemented a noise-reduction initiative designed…… [Read More]

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Neuropharmacology and the Army

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98992023

Neuropharmacology and the Military

Modafinil is particularly promising for its ability to improve cognitive function and combat sleep deprivation. When one's circadian rhythm is at a low ebb, this challenges cognitive function, and cognitive performance can decline significantly during these periods. The military has not just researched this on its own, but has been able to borrow from other research on the subject. The medical profession, for example, has examined modafinil, and managing the sleep patterns of shift workers is one of the drug's approved uses. Military personnel can be shift workers, but more often they experience sleep disruptions, especially during combat situations, and modafinil essentially stabilizes cognitive function during these times (Westcott, 2005).

One of the caveats to the use of modafinil is that some cognitive performance tests are subjective -- self-reported results from users with respect to their cognitive function. Modafinil in particular was found to have a disruptive effect on self-monitoring, meaning that users experienced an overconfidence effect, reporting higher cognitive outcomes than were actually experienced (Baranski & Pigeau, 1997). This factor, and the reality that there is a lot still unknown about the mechanics of nootropics in general. While the effects of modafinil might have been…… [Read More]

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Nurses Working the Late Shift 3-11 or

Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89972039

Nurses working the late shift (3-11, or overnight, 11-7) are subject to negative impacts due to physical and mental health issues. This paper delves into those issues for nurses and provides scholarly reference information detailing those health matters.

Nursing and Shift Work

Sarah Bills explains that about 4.6% of American employees work the 3:00 P.M. To 11:00 P.M. shift and 3.5% of workers are at work from 11:00 P.M. To 7:00 A.M. Meanwhile healthcare services require specific skills, including "human cognition and executive functions" including logic, judgment, decision-making that is often complex, vigilance, memory, detection, good communication and the careful management of technical information (Bills, 2008). But because the circadian rhythm is "disturbed" by working at night and sleeping during the day, and hence when the body's natural circadian rhythm is disturbed, it presents hardships like "…fatigue and a decreased ability to concentrate…increased levels of stress" along with a lessening of positive social interaction (Bills, 3). Also, colorectal cancers are known to result from sleep deprivation, Bills adds.

Meanwhile, peptic ulcers were "…twice as frequent among former shift workers as day workers," according to research of former night shift nurses that was published in the Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and…… [Read More]

Bills, Sarah F. (2008). Sleep Deprivation and Fatigue: Are Nights Shift Nurses at Risk for Complications? Highland Heights, KY: Northern Kentucky University / Nursing.

Croskerry, Pat, and Cosby, Karen S. (2009). Patient Safety in Emergency Medicine. Philadelphia PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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Fibromyalgia One Might Consider Fibromyalgia to Be

Words: 6457 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37868620


One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.

Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap with other conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), myofacial pain syndrome (MPS) and multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome (MCS). Some researchers have averred that FMS, CMS, MPS and MCS are part of a larger meta-syndrome called dysregulation spectrum syndrome (DSS). While there is no large concerted effort to identify DSS,…… [Read More]

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Shift Work

Words: 2288 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14447471

Shift Work and Scheduling in Aviation Industry

Shift work and Fatigue in the Aviation Industry

There is a circadian rhythm in every human being (refer to Figure 1). It basically acts like the body's biological alarm clock and it tells your body the time it needs to rest, to eat or even when to get active. The circadian rhythm can be interrupted by modifications in daily schedule. Disturbance in the circadian rhythm can have strong consequences like the onset of exhaustion. Typically grownups need good 8 hours of sleep in a 24-hour phase (WSH Council, 2010). A recurrent sleep of less than that vital will sustain a sleep deprivation that cannot be improved within one day. Improvement typically requires a few days of sufficient sleep (WSH Council, 2010).

Fatigue or tiredness is basically when a person feels low and weak both mentally and physically, there are many different types of fatigue and they are as follows:

The very first type includes physical fatigue and it is normally the inability to perform manual work.

The second type is the mental fatigue which includes the reduced level of attention and alertness.

There are a number of reasons due to which fatigue can…… [Read More]

Alertness Solution. (2009). The Moebus Aviation Report on "Scientific and Medical Evaluation of Flight Time Limitations": Invalid, Insufficient, and Risky. Rebuttal to the EASA Report. Accessed:

Bouma, G.D. (2004). The research process. 5th ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
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Entertainment Industry Report A Entertainment Industry Structure

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95538639

Entertainment Industry

Report a: Entertainment Industry Structure and Relationships.

The entertainment industry in general is a complicated and often violent beast. It crushes most of the hopes and dreams it cultivates. For the handful of successful industry employees today, thousands, or even millions, have shattered dreams. At the same time, the structure of the industry is such that often even those with some success do not always achieve this long-term. This is true on both sides of the camera, microphone, stage, and other tools of the trade. Entertainment industry structures, relationships, and operations are all subject to rapid and unexpected change. Rapid technology developments have further complicated the management of this stormy industry.

Industry Structure and Industry Bodies

The entertainment industry contains many components, of which the two largest are probably film and music. In addition, television, radio, and theater also make up large sectors of the industry. In addition, there are many industry bodies, many of which have reached a very large size and scope within the industry. AOL Time Warner, for example, includes HBO as one of its component parts. The sheer size of these industry bodies make manage a complicated affair (The Economist, 2003). As suggested by…… [Read More]

Deloitte Consulting (2009). Competing for Talent: How media and entertainment companies can maximize their workforce during challenging economic times. Retrieved from:,%20media%20and%20telecommunications/cn_tmt_competingfortalent_220709.pdf

Ontario Ministry of Labour. (2013). Introduction to Safety Guidelines for the Live Performance Industry in Ontario. Retrieved from:
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Health My Definition of Health

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12188327

Since being healthy includes a sound mind, less worrying over financial problems leads to a stronger, sounder mind.

Drinking a lot of water throughout the day is another health-promoting behavior. Drinking a lot of water adds natural moisture to your skin, giving a fresh glow today and helping the aging process tomorrow. It also helps when I exercise to drink more water because being properly hydrated during exercise allows me to have a better, more productive workout. Drinking water also improves my energy and increases both my mental and physical performance. Additionally it allows for proper digestion and relieves headaches and dizziness. For those reasons I believe that not smoking and drinking water regularly are two of my important health-promoting behaviors.

My Detrimental Health Behaviors

As improvements in health become more necessary and evident, the medical industry will continue to work to improve the overall health of all individuals. However, I have two behaviors that are detrimental to my health, worrying often and poor sleeping habits. Worrying too much is a behavior that is detrimental to my health because it affects my mental health. Worrying does not have any benefits; it does not do you any good, and it may…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. (2005).
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World Culture History of Middle East Civilization

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65898404

Uns-El-Wujood and El-Ward Fi-L-Akmam is a tale of love, separation, and reunion. Set in legendary kingdoms in times of yore, Chapter 18 of Arabian Nights is a quintessential romance. The daughter of the king's Weezer falls in love with one of the king's soldiers. Both become completely smitten with one another, but when their affair is discovered, the Weezer fears that the Sultan will not approve. The Weezer, Ibraheem, consults his wife, who prays for guidance. The parents of El-Ward Fi-L-Akmam decide that their only recourse is to send their daughter to a land far away, in "the midst of the Sea of the Kunooz...on the Mountain of the Bereft Mother," (p. 200). There, they will build an "impregnable palace" in which she will spend the rest of her days in isolation (p. 200). The lovers, who have been exchanging verses of love poetry since they first fell for each other, suffer the pangs of separation in their minds, hearts, and even in their bodies. Throughout the narrative, both Uns-El-Wujood and El-Ward Fi-L-Akmam describe their anguish and desire in both mental and physical terms. Love, loneliness, and estrangement are felt as acutely in the body as in the soul. Both…… [Read More]

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Guantanamo Bay

Words: 16801 Length: 61 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99766477

Guantanamo Bay and the United States

History of Guantanamo Bay, and the U.S. Involvement with Guantanamo Bay

The Legality of the U.S. Occupation of Guantanamo Bay

Why Do the U.S. Hold Guantanamo Bay?

The Legal Position Regarding the U.S. Being in Guantanamo Bay

Recent Events at Guantanamo Bay: Camp X-Ray and Camp Delta

The Legal Position Regarding Events at U.S. Camps in Guantanamo Bay

The Geneva Convention and Guantanamo Bay

In the last two years the U.S. naval base at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba has regularly been seen in the news due to the imprisonment of hundreds of Muslims held there by the United States without trial (CSC, 2003).

It is well documented that the prisoners are held in terrible conditions and they have included minors (CSC, 2003). Cuba has surprisingly come under fire from some quarters for allowing this behaviour on their land, but it is important to explain that Cuba has no power over this area of their own soil, as for the last 100 years it has been occupied by the United States and is separated from the rest of Cuba by one of the world's most intense minefields (CSC, 2003).

This paper looks at the history…… [Read More]

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Domestic Violence Related to Alternating Shifts in Policing

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92966959

Domestic violence is a multifaceted idea but can roughly be referred to as exhibition of abusive behaviors towards a mate in an intimate relationship such as family setting, dating instances, marriage, cohabitation and even friendship. These abuses are usually used to control the other partner in a relationship (, 2009). This paper therefore sets out to look at the possibility of the work schedule being a contributing factor to the ever rising domestic violence among the policing families. It also seeks to expand on the responses that have been made to mitigate the effects of the shift working system on the violence in homes.

Depending on the context and region of use, domestic violence can be called domestic abuse, intimate partner violence, spousal abuse or even family violence. However, all these manifest themselves in various forms including but not limited to: Physical violence/attack (like shoving, kicking, slapping, hitting, restraining etc.), passive/covert abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, stalking, intimidation, economic deprivation and controlling or domineering.

It is estimated that a third of the abuses are the ones that are reported in the U.S.A. And UK. Among these reported, the majority are women. This begs the understanding of what women really go…… [Read More]

Beverly J.A., (2002). The Echoes of Violence in the Police Family. Retrieved September 4, 2011

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Industrial Revolution Most People Worked

Words: 1174 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67588900

As a result of these experiments, researchers realized that this is the mechanism by which nighttime lighting increased cancers in nighttime shift workers.

Nighttime shift work disrupts the normal rhythm of the circadian clock, which suppresses melatonin production; suppressed melatonin levels correspond to decreased resistance to cancers in tissues with melatonin receptor sites and to increased growth rates in tumors with melatonin receptor sites. Colorectal cancer is probably the type of cancer affected most by melatonin levels, because the same modern lifestyle that causes exposure to nighttime lighting also includes a high-fat, low fiber diet that is a known factor in rectal cancers.

The two final piece of the puzzle fell into place when researchers also determined that: (1) mice exposed to very low levels of light, even during nighttime sleep, also had higher cancer growth rates; and (2) people who are completely blind have lower rates of the same cancers studied than people who are legally blind but able to see small amounts of light.. All of this finally explained why people who sleep just as many hours during the days as people who sleep at night still suffer from more cancer, simply because their sleep is during the…… [Read More]

Pauley, S. (2004) Lighting for the Human Circadian Clock: Recent Research Indicates that Lighting Has Become a Public Health Issue.

Medical Hypotheses 63, 588-596.