Sleep Disorder Essays (Examples)

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Pharmacological and Non Pharmacological Options in a Sleep Therapy Program

Words: 1031 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28772944

Sleep Hygiene Plan for a 65-Year Old Client
For most adults, seven to eight hours of sleep is sufficient for a good rest. This also applies to older adults aged 65 years or more. As one gets older, a change in sleeping patterns could emerge. These changes could result in insomnia whereby a person experiences trouble sleeping. Moreover, a 65-year-old could experience other changes that include waking up early in the morning, difficulties in sleeping after waking up in the middle of the night, and early tiredness in the evening. Other psychiatric and medical issues could affect nighttime sleep for adults aged 65. Nonetheless, individuals without major illnesses could enjoy a better sleep. Designing a sleep hygiene plan remains critical in addressing the changing sleep patterns in a 65-year-old person that consequently promotes overall body wellness.
Sleep Hygiene Plan
A study among adults aged 65 years and over established that…… [Read More]

References

Field, T., Diego, M., Delgado, J., & Medina, L. (2013). Tai chi/yoga reduces prenatal depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. Complementary therapies in clinical practice, 19(1), 6-10.

Ho, F. Y. Y., Chan, C. S., & Tang, K. N. S. (2016). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for sleep disturbances in treating posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical psychology review, 43, 90-102.

Ralevski, E., Olivera-Figueroa, L. A., & Petrakis, I. (2014). PTSD and comorbid AUD: a review of pharmacological and alternative treatment options. Substance abuse and rehabilitation, 5, 25.

Yaffe, K., Falvey, C. M., & Hoang, T. (2014). Connections between sleep and cognition in older adults. The Lancet Neurology, 13(10), 1017-1028.








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Sleep Study and Electronics Usage

Words: 1884 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35274344

Introduction
The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) it aimed to identify relationships between sleep and other aspects of human functioning/performance; and 2) it sought to understand how sleep-wake patterns impact daytime functioning. The subject of this research was the researcher himself. The researcher kept a 4 week sleep diary with which to record information pertaining to sleep habits and daily life habits in order to test the conclusions of Bower, Bylsma, Morris and Rottenberg (2010) regarding their findings that poor reported sleep quality is predictive of low positive affects in daily life among persons of both healthy and disordered mindsets. Having a healthy mind, the researcher aimed to evaluate the extent to which sleep quality impacted his overall quality of life.
This topic is important because as Monk, Petrie, Hayes and Kupfer (1994) show, regularity in one’s daily life bears some relation to the development of the personality,…… [Read More]

References

Bower, B., Bylsma, L. M., Morris, B. H., & Rottenberg, J. (2010). Poor reported sleep quality predicts low positive affect in daily life among healthy and mood?disordered persons. Journal of Sleep Research, 19(2), 323-332.

Fossum, I. N., Nordnes, L. T., Storemark, S. S., Bjorvatn, B., & Pallesen, S. (2014). The association between use of electronic media in bed before going to sleep and insomnia symptoms, daytime sleepiness, morningness, and chronotype. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 12(5), 343-357.

Monk, T. H., Petrie, S. R., Hayes, A. J., & Kupfer, D. J. (1994). Regularity of daily life in relation to personality, age, gender, sleep quality and circadian rhythms. Journal of Sleep Research, 3(4), 196-205.


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Proposal for a Sleep Lab

Words: 1393 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81228630

business plan for a unique business opportunity- a sleep lab. This paper investigates the unique business needs of this business as well as the challenges of engaging the surrounding community, its employees as well as clients on the health benefits of sleep as well as the necessity for the identification as well as treatment of various sleep disorders. The safety needs of the participant are also taken into consideration and well as the setup and running costs.

A sleep disorder is noted by Al Ghamdi (2009) to be a medical disorder of a person's sleep patterns and is a serious condition that affects an individual's normal mental, physical as well as emotional functions. Most sleep disorders can effectively be diagnosed and treated in a sleep lab or center via a common test referred to as polysomnogram (Patil,2010).

Sleeps disorders as a source of public health concern

Sleep is also being…… [Read More]

References

Al Ghamdi, M (2009). Business Plan for Sleep Center. Boise State University ScholarWorks

CDC (2011). Unhealthy Sleep-Related Behaviors -- 12 States, 2009.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Weekly Vol. 60(8).

Ibis World (2012).Sleep Disorder Clinics in the U.S.: Market Research Report. Sleep Disorder Clinics Market Research Report. Available online at  http://www.ibisworld.com/industry/sleep-disorder-clinics.html 

Jonson, D. (May-June, 2008). Are you really managing your sleep lab. Focus Journal,
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Business Plan for a Sleep

Words: 8375 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84888867

Offered under the same roof are "consultative, diagnostic, and treatment services" which are stated to be provided "by board-certified practitioners in the fields of pulmonary medicine, otolarngology, family medicine and more." (2006)

Smith reports that the laboratories experiencing the most dramatic growth are two which are located the "farthest from the Hillsboro flagship" as they are located in two areas that were "formerly underserved." (2006) Smith additionally reports that the demand is stronger in the areas where the two fastest growing centers are located which supplies "plenty of fuel for expansion."

Smith states that the Sleep Health & Wellness NW is attempting to "fill a gap so that patients who previously were overlooked or not being reached or who fell through the cracks no longer are," she says. "We have no plans to open centers in areas where there are already quality sleep services programs. We only want to go…… [Read More]

References

Inspiration! Sleep Study Results & Analysis (2006) Q&a with Ron Richard, senior vice president of strategic marketing initiatives at ResMed HME Business April 2006. Online at http://www.hme-business.com/articles/55305/

Johnson, Duane, PhD (2008) Are you Really Managing Your Sleep Lab? The Business of Sleep. Focus Journal May/June 2008. Online at  http://www.foocus.com/pdfs/Articles/MayJune08/Duane.pdf 

Kay DC, Pickworth WB, Neider GL. Morphine-like insomnia from heroin in nondependent human addicts. Br J. Clin Pharmacol. 1981;11(2):159-169

MacFarlene, James (2009) the Painful Pursuit of Sleep. Sleep Review Journal Jan/Feb 2009. Online available at http://www.sleepreviewmag.com/issues/articles/2009-01_07.asp
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Psychology States of Consciousness Sleep

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11630376

I find that I could fall asleep almost anywhere, but especially after eating or when trying to relax. I am usually asleep within minutes of going to bed, but struggle mightily to get up in the morning. On a daily basis I find myself stressed to get through the day without felling tired, irritable and drowsy.

According to the Mayo Clinic's Sleep tips: 7 steps to better sleep (2012) there are 7 steps that one can use to achieve better sleep. These include:

Sticking to a regular sleep timetable -- going to bed and getting up at the same time every day, even on weekends, holidays and days off strengthens ones sleep-wake sequence and helps encourage better sleep at night.

Paying attention to what one eats and drinks -- one should never go to bed either hungry or stuffed as the discomfort might keep them up.

Creating a bedtime ritual…… [Read More]

References

Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep. (2007). Retrieved from  http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brain_basics/understanding_sleep.htm 

Carpenter, S. & Huffman, K. (2009). Visualizing Psychology (2nd ed.), John Wiley & Sons.

Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.aasment.org/resources/factsheets/crsd.pdf

Sleep tips: 7 steps to better sleep. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/sleep/HQ01387
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Bipolar I Disorder

Words: 4472 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47788968

Bipolar I disorder is an axis 1 clinical disorder in the DSM-IV and is a serious mental illness that can lead to suicidal ideation or action. The history of bipolar disorder research is a long one, and understanding of the disease has deepened considerably over the last several generations. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder 1 is complicated by its resemblance to other mood disorders, mainly major depression but also psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. esearch is revealing new treatment interventions that are targeted to the biological needs of bipolar patients, as antidepressants are often or usually contraindicated. A Christian worldview suggests that individualized treatment plans take into account the family history and patient's lifestyle when recommending a treatment plan.

History

Bipolar I disorder is a serious mental illness that affects between 1 and 2.5% of the general population in the United States (Ghaznavi & Deckersbach, 2012). The more conservative estimate, 1%, is…… [Read More]

References

"A Brief History of Bipolar Disorder," (2012). Today's Caregiver. Retrieved online:  http://www.caregiver.com/channels/bipolar/articles/brief_history.htm 

Angst, J. & Marneros, A. (2001). Bipolarity from ancient to modern times: Conception, birth, and rebirth. Journal of Affective Disorders 67(1-3): 3-19.

Angst, J. & Sellaro, R. (2000). Historical perspectives and natural history of bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 48(6): 445-457.

Baethge, C. Salvatore, P. & Baldessarini, R.J. (2003). Cyclothymia, a circular mood disorder. Historical Psychiatry 2003/14: 377-399
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Etiology and Treatment of a Psychological Disorder

Words: 2917 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83230922

Individual Programmatic Assessment

TEATMENTS OPTIONS FO IEGULA SLEEP-WAKE SYNDOME

Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome is a form of a psychological disorder also called Irregular Sleep-Wake hythm. People with Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome have non-aligned sleep times. These people have sleeping patterns that do not adhere to the "normal" times of sleeping at night. The sleeping patterns are disorganized to a magnitude that one cannot tell the presence of a clear sleep or wake pattern. Such people have a tendency to sleep off on some naps over a 24-hour period. The sleep patterns have been split into pieces. They behave like infants who sleep for a few hours, wake up for some other few hours, and also sleep off for some few hours, with the cycle repeating with no clear sequence. During the day, the number of sleep times may be high since they like napping a lot. During the night, they seem to…… [Read More]

References

American, P. A. (2015). Sleep-Wake Disorders: DSM-5 Selections. New York: American Psychiatric Pub

Flamez, B., & Sheperis, C. (2015). Diagnosing and Treating Children and Adolescents: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals. New York: John Wiley & Sons

Fontaine, K. L. & LeFontaine (2014). Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Pearson

Kerkhof, G. A., & Dongen, H. P. A. (2011). Human Sleep and Cognition: Part II. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder What

Words: 1426 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83333850

17% of men and 13% of women have experienced more than three traumatic events in their lives, and the onset of PTSD is generally based on the degree and the extent of the trauma, and the duration, and the type. For example, when there is a rape, then there is a 49% chance that the women will experience PTSD, and when there is a physical assault, it would be 31.9%. For sexual assault, the percentage would be 23.7 and when the person has been in an accident, and then the percentage would be 16.8%. (What is PTSD?)

Other traumatic events may be a child's life threatening illness, or a natural disaster, or a witness or a victim of a shooting or a stabbing, and so on. (What is PTSD?) These people may also experience of several kinds of physical symptoms related to their traumatic experience, and some of them are:…… [Read More]

References

Gore, Allen. T; Richards, Georgeianna. (27 April, 2005) "Post Traumatic Stress

Disorder" Retrieved at http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic1900.htm. Accessed 6 November, 2005

Managing Traumatic Stress" American Psychological Association. Retrieved at http://www.apa.org/practice/traumaticstress.html. Accessed 6 November, 2005

What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?" A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet.
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Research on Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder

Words: 2145 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58591927

Attention-Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

According to the American Psychiatric Association Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) is now referred to as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD. However, most lay people and some professionals will still refer to the condition as ADD, which are the names given to the condition in 1980. ADHD has been around for a longer period than most people actually recall or realize. Hippocrates, who lived from 460 to 370 BC, described a condition similar to ADHD. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder where there are substantial problems with executive functions that cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, or impulsiveness, which is inappropriate for the person's age. In order for a diagnosis to be made for the condition, the symptoms of ADHD must persist for six months or more. According to (McGoey et al., 2014), they define ADHD as a condition that causes a person to have trouble focusing…… [Read More]

References

Antshel, K. M., Faraone, S. V., & Gordon, M. (2012). Cognitive behavioral treatment outcomes in adolescent ADHD. FOCUS.

Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & O'Connor, B. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Clinical psychology review, 29(2), 129-140.

Gudjonsson, G. H., Sigurdsson, J. F., Sigfusdottir, I. D., & Young, S. (2012). An epidemiological study of ADHD symptoms among young persons and the relationship with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(3), 304-312.

Harold, G. T., Leve, L. D., Barrett, D., Elam, K., Neiderhiser, J. M., Natsuaki, M. N., . . . Thapar, A. (2013). Biological and rearing mother influences on child ADHD symptoms: revisiting the developmental interface between nature and nurture. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(10), 1038-1046.
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GAD and Anxiety Disorders

Words: 3244 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84131793

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Background/Definition/Epidemiology

Humans have a natural response to survival, stress and fear. Such responses enable an individual to pursue pertinent objectives and respond accordingly to the presence of danger. The 'flight or fight' response in a healthy individual is provoked via a real challenge or threat and is utilized as a means of acting appropriately to the situation. However, when an anxiety disorder manifests in someone, then an inappropriate/excessive state of arousal develops. People then feel symptoms of fear, apprehension, or uncertainty. These feelings or reactions may surface even when no real threat exists.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), is a common anxiety disorder that affects roughly 5% of the United States general population. "GAD is commonly associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities and is often chronic. GAD is associated with extensive psychiatric and medical utilization and, if left untreated, can cause impairment as severe as major depressive disorder…… [Read More]

References

Asmundson, G. J., Fetzner, M. G., DeBoer, L. B., Powers, M. B., Otto, M. W., & Smits, J. A. (2013). LET'S GET PHYSICAL: A CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THE ANXIOLYTIC EFFECTS OF EXERCISE FOR ANXIETY AND ITS DISORDERS. Depression and Anxiety, 30(4), 362-373. doi:10.1002/da.22043

Butnoriene, J., Bunevicius, A., Saudargiene, A., Nemeroff, C. B., Norkus, A., Ciceniene, V., & Bunevicius, R. (2015). Metabolic syndrome, major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and ten-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in middle aged and elderly patients. International Journal of Cardiology, 190, 360-366. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.04.122

Chokroverty, S. (2013). Sleep Disorders Medicine: Basic Science, Technical Considerations, and Clinical Aspects. Elsevier Science.

Dodhia, S., Hosanagar, A., Fitzgerald, D. A., Labuschagne, I., Wood, A. G., Nathan, P. J., & Phan, K. L. (2014). Modulation of Resting-State Amygdala-Frontal Functional Connectivity by Oxytocin in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(9), 2061-2069. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.53
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Treating Sedative Hypnotic or Anxiolytic Use Disorder

Words: 2845 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65911971

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Techniques

For Treating Sedative, Hypnotic or Anxiolytic use disorder

Sedative-Hypnotic are a Class of Medications that Includes Barbiturates.

Sedative hypnotic refers to the medication such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates and nonbenzodiazepine. All these are medications used to treat insomnia. They are referred to as Z drugs because the members consist of zaleplon, the eszopiclone and zolpiden all of which contain letter Z. Benzodiazepines are the most prescribed drugs across the globe. They are used to treat anxiety, disorder, insomnia and panic disorders. The drugs are used to treat disorders even though they are hazardous, and expose the user to other conditions such as physical dependence misuse, overdose as well as abuse (Levounis, Herron & American Psychiatric Association, 2014). When the individuals become dependent, they suffer from anxiolytic, hypnotic or sedative; a condition where one becomes dependent on the substances that cause a calming effect. They may also suffer…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed. 5. Arlington, VA, APA Press.

Barlow, DH, Gorman, J. M., Shear, M. K., & Woods, S. W. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Jama, 283(19), 2529-2536.

Doweiko, H. (2014). Concepts of chemical dependency. Nelson Education.

GonAalves, D. C., & Byrne, G. J. (2012). Interventions for generalized anxiety disorder in older adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of anxiety disorders, 26(1), 1-11.
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Sensorimotor Disorder

Words: 1582 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75381045

Sensorimotor Disorder

estless legs syndrome, also known as Ekbom syndrome, is the most commonly experienced sensorimotor disorder among the general population (Bassetti et al., 2011). The disorder afflicts approximately 2 to 10% of the general population and it is experienced as periodic limb movements in 80% of individuals with restless legs syndrome (Bassetti et al., 2011). The most prominent symptoms of the disorder are urges to move the legs as well as unpleasant sensations in the legs (Lee et al., 2011). The symptoms generally commence or become worse during inactivity and individuals with the disorder generally feel relief from symptoms after movement (Lee et al., 2011). Also, symptoms of the disorder are generally worse during the evening hours in comparison to the daytime. Furthermore, restless leg syndrome often results in sleep disturbances such as delayed sleep onset, multiple awakenings, and reduced sleep efficiency (Lee et al., 2011). The disorder is…… [Read More]

References

Bassetti, C.L., Bornatico, F., Fuhr, P., Schwander, J., Kallweit, U., Mathis, J. (2011). Pramipexole vs. dual release levodopa in restless leg syndrome: a double blind, randomized, cross-over trial. Swiss Medical Weekly, 141, w13274.

Bayard, M., Bailey, B., Acharya, D., Ambreen, F., Duggal, S., Kaur, T., Rahman, Z.U., Tudiver, F. (2011). Bupropian and restless leg syndrome: a randomized control trial. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 24(4), 422-8.

Lee, D.O., Ziman, R.B., Perkins, A.T., Poceta, J.S., Walters, A.S., Barrett, R.W. (2011). A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin enacabil in subjects with restless legs syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(3), 282-92.

Mitchell, U.H. (2011). Nondrug-related aspect of treating Ekbom disease, formerly known as restless leg syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 7, 251-7.
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Depressive Disorder According to the DSM --

Words: 3173 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69443539

Depressive Disorder

According to the DSM -- IV -- T (2000), Major Depressive Disorder is classified by the number of Major Depressive Episodes -- although only one is needed in order to diagnose Major Depressive Disorder -- and according to the severity, ranging from mild, moderate, severe without psychotic features, or severe with psychotic features (347). This means that, in practice, the signs or symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder are those of a Major Depressive Episode: the clinician is required to diagnose the Episode before the larger diagnosis of the Disorder is indicated. In order to diagnose a Major Depressive Episode, there must be present a mood which is obviously depressed, which can also be observed as simply the loss of interest in nearly all activities, or the absence of accustomed pleasure -- sometimes known by the more clinical term "anhedonia" -- in familiar activities (349). However, the DSM-IV-T specifies…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
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Neurological Disorder Epilepsy Neurological Disorder Epilepsy --

Words: 2610 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35563773

Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy -- a Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which causes frequent seizures due to abnormal electricity activity within the brain. Epilepsy is considered a brain disorder disturbing the brain function which ultimately affects behaviour and cognition. This paper highlights some common symptoms of epilepsy. It also explains different treatments deployed for reducing seizure activity in epilepsy. Each treatment portrays a different way of taking control over the seizures and points out a path towards leading a balanced life.

Epilepsy -- A Neurological Disorder

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterised by repeated spontaneous seizures of any type which cause problems with speech, vision, movement, awareness and muscle control. Epilepsy cannot be considered as an intellectual disability or mental illness. This paper explains the common symptoms associated with epilepsy. It highlights three different types of treatments for epilepsy and presents a comparative analysis…… [Read More]

References

Huffman, J. & Kosoff, E.,H. (2006). State of the Ketogenic Diet(s) in Epilepsy. Epilepsy. Pp.

332-340. Retrieved March 2, 2013, from http://www.matthewsfriends.org/jh/CurrentNNKossoff.pdf

Macrodimitris, S., Wershler, J., Hat-elda, M., Hamiltone, K., Backs-Dermott, B., Mothersill, K.,

Baxter, C. & Wiebe, S. (2011). Group Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Patients with Epilepsy and Comorbid Depression and Anxiety. Epilepsy and Behaviour. 20. Pp. 83-88. Retrieved March 4, 2013, from  http://old.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsyusa/yebeh/upload/Group_Therapy.pdf
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Has

Words: 1152 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66220254

The unstated biases are that each person has some kind of social problems and were forced to go through added amounts of therapy to address them. A large segment was selected from different gender groups, ethnic and racial backgrounds. In general, the study results are concentrating on understanding specific factors impacting the population sample. It is based upon the challenges impacting everyone and the way they are adjusting with them. (Dorrepaal, 2012) (Goodard, 2004) (Litwin, 1995)

The design of the study was clearly articulated. A randomized controlled sample was used. This achieved through concentrating on a number of factors in each module. The most notable are demonstrated in the below diagram:

Safe sleep

Disassociation

The correct recognition of emotions Skills

Crisis management

Anger management Assertiveness Distrust Guilt

This is strong design for the research. It improves internal validity by illustrating how these factors are related to one another. The potential…… [Read More]

References

Dorrepaal, E. (2012). Stabilizing Group Treatment. Psychotherapy, 81, pp. 217 -- 225.

Goddard, W. (2004). Research Methodology. Lansdowne: Juta.

Litwin, M. (1995). How to Measure Survey Reliability and Validity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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REM Sleep and Dreaming Last

Words: 1525 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72929698

However, things have advanced. ith better technology, we can monitor the brain's activity while in REM. Certainly, one thing is certain: with out sleep there is no life. ithout sleep, body temperature, eating, infection prevention, and basic brain functioning suffer.

In terms of survival, where do dreams fit in? Researchers argue that the continuation of a complex brain process such as REM sleep indicates serves an important function for the survival of mammalian and avian species. Certainly, it was a very valuable step along the evolutionary ladder and led to survival. As the brain grew more complex, it needed downtime to process new information. Like any computer, especially a complex one, the human brain requires maintenance. Besides simple "down time," it also requires reprogramming every 24 hours. Just like our network computers take necessary updates and downloads, the brain needs a reprogramming session every 24 hours to recharge itself and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Animals have complex dreams, mit researcher proves. (2001, January 21). Retrieved

from http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2001/dreaming.html

Aserinsky, E; Kleitman, N. (September 1953). "Regularly occurring periods of eye motility and concomitant phenomena, during sleep." Science 118 (3062): 273 -- 274.

Gokce, Gokalp. (1999). Sleep and dreams. Retrieved from  http://www.csun.edu/~vcpsy00h/students/dreams.htm
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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy CBT Techniques for Combat Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder PTSD

Words: 5327 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85865281

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Combat Veterans With Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Although not limited to veterans, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may be the single most significant mental health risk to veterans, particularly to those veterans that have seen combat. PTSD is an anxiety disorder, which occurs after a person has seen or experienced a traumatic event including, but not limited to: assault, domestic abuse, prison stay, rape, terrorism, war, or natural disaster (Vorvick et al., 2011). In fact, PTSD is unique among psychiatric diagnosis in that it "requires a specific type of event to occur from which the person affected does not recover" (esick et al., 2008). Veterans are at high risk of PTSD because they experience war, but they also experience many of the other traumatic events that can trigger PTSD in the course of the war. PTSD can have serious lifelong effects for veterans. It can impair…… [Read More]

References

Byers, M.G., Allison, K.M., Wendel, C.S., & Lee, J.K. (2010). Pra-zosin vs. quetiapine for nighttime posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in veterans: An assessment of long-term comparative effectiveness and safety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 30, 225-229.

Chard, K., Schumm, J., Owens, G., & Cottingham, S. (2010). A comparison of OEF and OIF

veterans and Vietnam veterans receiving cognitive processing therapy. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(1), 25-32.

Hassija, C.M., & Gray, M.J. (2010). Are cognitive techniques and interventions necessary? A
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Supervisor Name Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD Following

Words: 1303 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47916799

Supervisor Name]

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Following an unusual and an unexpected event, that is stressful, such as being diagnosed with cancer, one may develop characteristic symptoms that may differ slightly from person to person. This normal human response has been classified into two broad categories; adjustment disorder and post traumatic stress disorder. (Nicholas A., Nicki ., Brian ., and John A.A.)

Post traumatic stress disorder is a type of response, which has a delayed onset and is of a prolonged nature, to events that are particularly threatening in quality, for example, being part of, or witnessing an earthquake. Slightly differing from the novel definition, this disorder can also occur with events that may not be life threatening. According to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, PTSD can occur due to an actual or even a threatened death or injury to oneself or to others. Needless to say,…… [Read More]

References:

Nicholas A. Boon, Nicki R. Colledge, Brian R. Walker, John A.A. Hunter. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine (2006). India, Elsevier.

Kirtland C., Peterson, Prout Maurice F., and Schwarz Robert A. Post Traumatic Disorder - A Clinician's Guide. 5th. New York: Plenum Press, 2006. 11-35

Paul B, Jacobson, Widows Michelle R., Hann Danette M., and Andrykowsi Michael A. "Post Traumatic Disorder symptoms after bone marrow transplantation for breast cancer." Psychosomatic Medicine 60. (1998): 366-367. Web. 13 May 2011.
John P. Wilson, Matthew J. Friedman, and Jacob D. Lindy, eds., Treating Psychological Trauma and Ptsd (New York: Guilford Press, 2001) iii, Questia, Web, 14 May 2011.
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Relationship Between Hours of Sleep and Both of Satisfaction With Life and Cognitive Functioning

Words: 1129 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61908318

Hours of Sleep, Life Satisfaction & Cognitive Functioning

Cognitive Functioning

ELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOUS OF SLEEP, SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING

elationship between Hours of Sleep and Both of Satisfaction with Life and Cognitive Functioning

Proper sleeping hours are very important for our body's functioning. When a person is sleeping, his body is in the process of repair; thus allowing his brain to have some rest and the needed down time. There are many negative effects of less sleeping hours on the cognitive function as well as life satisfaction of a person.

Just like a proper diet, sleep plays a very essential role in the maintenance of overall health of an individual. Unfortunately, Americans are facing some serious cognitive and life satisfaction problems due to lack of sleeping hours. According to an estimate from U.S. Center for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), approximately 25% of U.S. citizens have less sleeping…… [Read More]

References

National Sleep Foundation, 2005. Summary of Findings, retrieved on June 17, 2011 from www.sleepfoundation.org

Siri Carpenter, 2001. Sleep Deprivation May Be Undermining Teen Health. Monitor Staff, Vol 32, No. 9, pp.42.

Julia A. Shekleton, Naomi L. Rogers and Shantha M.W. Rajaratnam, 2009. Searching For The Daytime Impairments Of Primary Insomnia. Clinical Review, Brain & Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales

William E. Kelly, 2010. Sleep-Length And Life Satisfaction In A College Student Sample. Retrieved on June 17, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FCR/is_3_38/ai_n6249228/
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Psychology and Sleep Discussion Question

Words: 472 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22466694

Similarly, regular exposure to certain types of artificial lighting can have a negative effect on the quality of sleep as well. Research into the comparative health of daytime and nighttime workers has helped establish some of the more specific ways that sleep is important to human health. For example, certain forms of cancer such as breast cancer and colorectal cancer) have been documented at higher rates among nighttime workers Pauley, 2004). As it happens, those forms of cancer are known to be moderated by Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland during specific phases of sleep and known to vary in relation to exposure to light Pauley, 2004).

Research on mice revealed that melatonin-related cancers increased when the subjects were exposed to very small levels of light during sleep and also that completely blind human beings have a lower incidence of colorectal cancers than blind people who can perceive…… [Read More]

(2004): 588-596.

Recent research into sleep and the way sleep patterns are affected by light suggest that sleeping in complete darkness is much more beneficial than sleeping in less than complete darkness (Pauley, 2004). Similarly, regular exposure to certain types of artificial lighting can have a negative effect on the quality of sleep as well. Research into the comparative health of daytime and nighttime workers has helped establish some of the more specific ways that sleep is important to human health. For example, certain forms of cancer (such as breast cancer and colorectal cancer) have been documented at higher rates among nighttime workers (Pauley, 2004). As it happens, those forms of cancer are known to be moderated by Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland during specific phases of sleep and known to vary in relation to exposure to light (Pauley, 2004).

Research on mice revealed that melatonin-related cancers increased when the subjects were exposed to very small levels of light during sleep and also that completely blind human beings have a lower incidence of colorectal cancers than blind people who can perceive some light (Pauley, 2004). The researchers eventually determined that nighttime work is detrimental to human health partly because night workers are much less likely to sleep in absolute darkness since they sleep during daylight hours. Compounding the problem is the fact that the wavelengths common to blue television light and electronic equipment status lights are particularly bad in that regard. The research suggests that it is essential for night workers to sleep in entirely blacked-out rooms.
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Processing Effects of Cognitive and Emotional Psychotherapy on Bipolar Disorder

Words: 6099 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3470826

BP Disorder

Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.

Bipolar Disorder

Description and differentiation

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…… [Read More]

References

Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.

Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31
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Sotos Syndrome Is a Disorder

Words: 2205 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6935295

For instance a patient suffering from hypotonia may receive physical therapy to assist them in gain more control over bodily movements. Likewise an individual with Sotos syndrome that has been diagnosed with ADD may be treated with behavioral counseling and medications. Behavioral therapies may also be needed to combat aggressiveness, develop social skills, combat tantrums and some personality disorders that may be present. The mental retardation that can occur as a result of Sotos may be treated with learning therapies and through special education. Also language delay may be treated with speech therapy.

Individuals that develop tumors and cancer as a result of the disorder may be treated with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. Likewise those with heart defects or kidney problems may need surgery or dialysis. Medical treatments may also be necessary as it relates to any skeletal malformations that may persist into adulthood as some researchers have reported that…… [Read More]

References

Finegan, J.K.,Cole, Trevor R.P.;Kingwell, E.,Smith, M. Lou;Smith, M.,;Sitarenios, G. (November 1994) Language and behavior in children with Sotos syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Hglund, P., Kurotaki N., Kytl S., Miyake N., Somer M., Matsumoto N. (2003)

Familial Sotos syndrome is caused by a novel 1 bp deletion of the NSD1 gene. J Med Genet 2003; 40:51-54

NINDS Cephalic Disorders Information Page. Retrieved August 11, 2007 from;
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Acid Base Disorder Regulation of

Words: 1183 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36289296

If left untreated it may lead to tetany, seizures and decreased mental status. It also decreases coronary blood flow and predisposes persons to refractory arrhythmias. This condition may also cause hypoventilation, leading to hypoxemia and impair weaning from mechanical ventilation. This is also associated with hypokalemia and may precipitate hepatic encephalopathy in susceptible patients.

Third simple acid-base disorder is respiratory acidosis. This is a clinical disturbance due to alveolar hypoventilation. The production of carbon dioxide increases and there is a failure of ventilation, which increases the partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide. This in turn decreases the HCO3-/PaCO2 and decreases pH. This condition can either be acute or chronic. Acute respiratory acidosis occurs when an abrupt failure of ventilation occurs, whereas, chronic respiratory acidosis may be secondary to many disorders, including COPD. This disorder can be manifested depending on the severity and on the rate of development of hypercapnia. Patients…… [Read More]

Jackie a Hayes, MD, FCCP, Respiratory Acidosis. E-medicine. 2005. (http://www.emedicine.com/med/TOPIC2008.htm)

Sameer Yaseen, MD, Metabolic Alkalosis. E-medicine. 2007. (http://www.emedicine.com/med/TOPIC1459.htm)

Karen L. Stavile, MD, Metabolic Acidosis. E-medicine. 2005. (http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic312.htm)
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Words: 2469 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18384016

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder is a behavioral disorder that is mostly found in children. According to one research almost 7.5% of school-aged children are suffering from some kind of ADHD related behavioral problem in the United States. In some cases, untreated symptoms can persist in the adulthood too, which can create numerous problems in the patient's social and emotional life. ADHD is rarely found in isolation as the child may also develop some other behavioral problems. The existence of more than one behavioral disorder is known as co-morbidity, which usually complicates the case because the child cannot be treated for one specific condition. It was once believed that ADHD patients outgrow the symptoms with age but this theory is no longer supported by latest research, which indicates that without treatment, ADHD's symptoms can easily persist in one's adult life. A newspaper article, which appeared in St. Louis Post-Dispatch (1994), author…… [Read More]

References:

1) CLAUDIA WALLIS, With Hannah Bloch/New York, Wendy Cole/Chicago and James Willwerth/Irvine, LIFE IN OVERDRIVE Doctors say huge numbers of kids and adults have attention deficit disorder. Is it for real?, Time, 07-18-1994, pp 42

2) Robin Seaton Jefferson; MODERN STRESSES WORSEN ATTENTION DEFICIT PROBLEMS, DOCTOR SAYS., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 06-19-2002, pp 2.

3) Arthur Allen, The Trouble With ADHD; As growing numbers of children are being medicated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, some doctors and parents wonder whether the drugs have become a too-convenient w., The Washington Post, 03-18-2001, pp W08

4) Marianne Szegedy-Maszak;; Marianne Szegedy-Maszak, The Mind Maze., U.S. News & World Report, 05-06-2002, pp 52.
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Discovery This Neurological Disorder or Disease Discovered

Words: 509 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72475267

Discovery

This neurological disorder or disease discovered and first described in 1966 by an Austrian physician, Dr. Andreas Rett

A paper published on the disorder in an English medical journal in 1983 by Dr. engst Hagberg and associates. Global awareness established and thengrew. First diagnoses of unidentified cases made.

Disorder initially observed to affect only girls of different races worldwide

Detailed Cause/s

Mutations in an X chromosome gene called MeCP2.

First discovered at the laboratory by Dr. Huda Zoghbi, a neurogeneticist, in October 1999

Primarily affects girls but recently found to affect boys as well

Condition between 6 to 18 months and progresses in stages

A developmental, not a genetic or nutritional, disorder

Affects 1 in 10,000 to 23,000 females worldwide

Apparently normal pregnancy and delivery for the mother and normal development of voluntary movements to the affected person

Symptoms

Deceleration of head growth between 6 and 18 months

Unexplained…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Baker, O (1999). Faculty Control Gene Underlines Retardation (Rett Syndrome).

Science News, Science Service, Inc.

Gene Today ... Gone Tomorrow (October 1999). Nature Genetics

Lewis, Jackie and Debbie Wilson (1998). Pathways to Learning in Rett Syndrome.
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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder on War

Words: 970 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6765310

PTSD

Post=traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychiatric disorder caused by extreme stress under dangerous or potentially dangerous situations. People with PTSD may have been raped, or abused, sexually or otherwise in childhood, have witnessed or experienced some disaster, such as earthquake, fire or flood, or it may be acquired from wartime experiences. Although PTSD was first entered into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1980 (Harbert, 2002), its effects on soldiers returning from war have been noted for many centuries before, often called "battle fatigue" or "shell shock." (Roswell, 2004)

Any traumatic event (wartime experience, a natural disaster, an accident, a life-threatening illness -- or an act of terrorism) can present a clear threat to the existing conceptual framework one relies on to understand the world. While the condition is a psychiatric one, often the person with PTSD responds with physical signs. They can include increased or irregular…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Elias, Marilyn. 2004. "Many Iraq veterans fighting an enemy within; Nearly 20% face mental disorders." USA Today, July 1.

Harbert, Kenneth. 2002. "Acute Traumatic Stress: Helping patients regain control." Clinician Reviews, January.

Roswell, Robert H., M.D. 2004. "V. A. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Programs." Congressional Testimony, March 11.

Focus of Paper:
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Bipolar II Disorder

Words: 2688 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79340844

Bipolar II

In the United States alone, a staggering number of people suffer from some sort of mental illness and many more are at high risk of developing a mental condition. Worldwide, the number is even greater, especially in countries without the resources to provide the care needed by such people. Some mental conditions are more prevalent and easier to develop than others. Whereas a serious disease that manifests various forms of psychosis like schizophrenia is mostly prevalent in those who inherit it from family members, those who have abused drugs long-term and consistently, or those with brain injuries, milder conditions like bipolar disorder can be developed by virtually anyone. In the United States, about 2.5% of the population has some form of bipolar disorder (WedMD, 2014). This translate to about 6 million people.

Because of this high number of sufferers, increasing research attention in the psychiatric and medical fields…… [Read More]

References

Cusin, C., Hilton, G.Q., Nierenberg, A.A., and Fava M. (2012). Long-Term Maintenance With Intramuscular Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Bipolar II Depression. American Journal of Psychiatry. Retrieved from: http://journals.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=1268250

Mayo Clinic. (2014). Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bipolar-disorder/basics/symptoms/con-20027544

PsychCentral (2014). The Two Types of Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/the-two-types-of-bipolar-disorder/000612?all=1

Sole, B., Martinez-Aran, A., Torrent, C., Bonnin, C.M., Reinares, M., Popovic, D., Sanchez-Moreno, J., and Vieta, E. (2011). Are bipolar II patients cognitively impaired? A systematic review. Psychological Medicine. Retrieved from:  http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/bitstream/2445/52283/1/587142.pdf
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Bipolar Also Known as Manic-Depressive Disorder Bipolar

Words: 2333 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58661457

Bipolar

Also known as manic-depressive disorder, bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness that can be treated with a combination of medication and regular therapy. Bipolar disorder is classified as a mood disorder, and is qualified by abnormal intensity of moods and mood swings, leading to dysfunctional, erratic, or self-destructive behaviors. When left untreated or unrecognized, bipolar disorder can disrupt daily functioning and human relationships. Therefore, chemical and non-chemical treatment interventions are critical for maintaining healthy functioning.

Bipolar disorder is referred to as having a cyclic pattern, because the symptoms are episodic. In other words, the person may be severely depressed, then normal, then fully manic, and then back to being depressed. Mania and depression are the two poles from which the person swings back and forth. Prevalence is equally common in men and women ("Bipolar Disorder," n.d.). First signs of onset are usually in the teens or early twenties;…… [Read More]

References

Barnett, et al. (2011). Personality and bipolar disorder: dissecting state and trait associations between mood and personality. Psychological Medicine 41(8), 1593-1604.

"Bipolar Disorder," (n.d.). Retrieved online:  http://www.brown.edu/Courses/BI_278/Other/Clerkship/Didactics/Readings/Bipolar%20Disorder.pdf 

Blechert, J. & Meyer, T.D. (2010). Are measures of hypomanic personality, impulsive nonconformity and rigidity predictors of bipolar symptoms? British Journal of Clinical Psychology 44(1), 15-27.

Ettinger, et al. (2005). Prevalence of bipolar symptoms in epilepsy vs. other chronic health disorders. Neurology 65(4), 535-540
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Questions About Pts Disorder

Words: 1559 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28425807

DSM-5 Diagnostic Case Studies

Case Studies

Tom is a 30-year-old male who was near the orld Trade Center during the 9/11 attack. He witnessed horrific scenes, including people jumping from the orld Trade Center. Since that day, he has had nightmares. henever a plane flies overhead, he has the feeling that he needs to run to a secure place. He has thought of moving out of New York City because he finds himself reliving the event every time he is down in the area of the 9/11 attack.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) although a very complex disorder, is a well-known psychiatric consequence of trauma, which is likely what Tom is experiencing (Iribarren, Prolo, Neagos, & Chiappelli, 2005). The event that is responsible for the PTSD must be directly experienced as a threat to one's own integrity and associated with intense fear, helplessness, or horror; the patient also persistently re-experiences the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Arlington: American Psychiatric Association.

Gillespie, B. (2016). Substance or Medication Induced Psychotic Disorder DSM-5 (Alcohol-292.1, Drugs-292.9). Retrieved from Theravive: http://www.theravive.com/therapedia/Substance-or-Medication-Induced-Psychotic-Disorder-DSM--5-(Alcohol--292.1,-Drugs -- 292.9)

Hruska, B., Sledjeski, E., Fallon, W., Spponster, E., & Delahanty, D. (2011). Alcohol Use Disorder History Moderates the Relationship Between Avoidance Coping and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 405-411. doi:10.1037/a0022439

Iribarren, I., Prolo, P., Neagos, N., & Chiappelli, F. (2005). Post-traumatic stress disorder: Evidence-based research for the third millennium. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
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Bi-Polar Disorder in Medical Terms

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90377436



Since bipolar disorder has been shown to be a major cause of suicide, a number of U.S. studies have concluded that a person affected by this condition often shows signs and symptoms that may accompany suicidal feelings, such as talking or discussing suicide, having the feeling that "nothing will ever change or get better," that "nothing one does makes any difference" and feelings that the person is "a burden to family and friends." Also, the suicidal person may begin to abuse alcohol or illegal drugs like marijuana, cocaine and even heroin and proceed to put his/her affairs in order like "organizing finances or giving away possessions to prepare for one's death." Not surprisingly, such as person may also put him/herself in "harm's way or in situations where there is a danger of being killed" (2007, "Bipolar Disorder," Internet).

Clearly, a person with bipolar disorder will exhibit outward signs and indications…… [Read More]

References

2007). "Bipolar Disorder." National Institute of Mental Health. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/bipolar-disorder/complete-publication.shtml.

Glanze, Walter D., Ed. (2002). Mosby's Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary.

St. Louis: C.V. Mosby Company.
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Treatment of Bipolar Disorder Grade the Article

Words: 1058 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38471522

Treatment of Bipolar Disorder?

Grade

The article what is the treatment for Bipolar Disorder by G. ayel revolves around the treatment options for Bipolar Disorder. The article lacks a proper introduction which otherwise would have begun with the explanation of bipolar disorder giving a brief overview about the maniac and depressive episodes along with the need to treat the disorder before proceeding onto the treatment procedures. Despite this, the author presents a coherent logical progression and sequence in his article by clearly describing the role of medicines such as antidepressants and antipsychotics. Although several terms such as mood stabilizers and psychotherapy are not elucidated, the order of ideas presented by ayel Michael in his article is vital in understanding the treatment strategies of bipolar disorder.

The main point of the writer is to explain the ways in which Bipolar Disorder can be treated. Since the writer has not explained the…… [Read More]

References

Hurston Z. The Gilded Six-Bits. Redpath Press. Minneapolis. 1993. 26th December, 2011.
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Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Developmental Delays

Words: 4060 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97756280



Other Medical Issues

While neurological issues delays are primarily responsible for the functional developmental delays in children other complications can also affect the development of a preterm child. These problems include: cardiovascular complications; respiratory problems such as respiratory distress syndrome or chronic lung disease; a number of severe metabolic and gastrointestinal problems that can result in delayed growth and other problems; immune system problems, such as susceptibility to infections or diseases like pneumonia; and hematologic complications (Saigal & Doyle, 2008).

Neurodevelopmental Sequelae

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy is a heterogeneous group of neurologically-related disorders that can involve central nervous system functions as well as other functions such as leaning, movement, vision, hearing, and cognitive speed (Saigal & Doyle, 2008). As a result there are several variations of cerebral palsy including dyskinetic (mixed tone in the muscles that leads to difficulties with posture and movement), spastic (increased muscle tone leading to stiff…… [Read More]

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Depressive Disorder Mdd Is a Condition Distinguished

Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79049209

depressive disorder (MDD) is a condition distinguished by the presence of at least one major depressive episode (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). MDD occurs in adolescents with an estimated annual prevalence of four to eight percent and with a lifetime prevalence of 20% by age 18 (APA, 2000). In addition, the data indicates that the prevalence of depression rates among adolescents is increasing with the greatest surge in rates of depression occurring in adolescents between the ages of 15-18 years-old (Costello, Erkanli, & Angold, 2006).

Previous research has suggested that when MDD occurs in adolescents and children an untreated episode can last from seven to nine months (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Adolescent depression shares many clinical features similar to depression in adults. Depressed adolescents are sad, they can lose interest in activities that used to be of importance to them, and they are very critical of themselves and believe that…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.

Costello, E.J., Erkanli, A., & Angold, A. (2006). Is there an epidemic of child or adolescent depression? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 1263-1271.

Giedd, J.N., Clasen, L.S., Lenroot, R., Greenstein, D.,Wallace, G.L., Ordaz, S., Molloy, E.A.,
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Essay

Words: 2730 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Traumatic events can shape a persons life and cause untold stress and pain for long periods of time. Natural disasters occur and can affect a persons life in terms of losing their home, causing long-term injuries, and creating a sense of instability. Betty has experienced a powerful tornado that ravaged her home and led to her husband breaking his leg. This essay will focus on post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment and treatment options for someone like Betty to enable her stabilize herself and find ways to positively cope with such trauma.

1.

The first thing to understand is the difference between screening and assessment. Screening involves a typical yes or no answer and evaluation for possible existence of a specific problem. An assessment on the other hand is a process used to define the nature of an issue, determination of diagnosis, and development of specific treatment recommendations to help…… [Read More]

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Study of Autism Disorder

Words: 1077 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22882417

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Ben Johnson

Age --

Gender -- Male

Ben is currently being raised by a single mother who has two additional children. The mother has worked full time for a number of years while the biological father is absent and rarely offers support or sees his children. The mother currently reports high levels of stress that are in part due to Ben's ASD symptoms and his behavior at home. These symptoms include requiring considerable amounts of attention, difficulties with communication, mood swings and frequent outbursts, and trouble with school and homework.

Ben has had many problematic behaviors since birth including poor sleeping habits. Currently, Ben has entered the first grade and is experiencing tremendous difficulties in school which has prompted the school to moving Ben to an individualized educational program (IEP). Although there are many problematic behaviors that have been reported at school, the primary problem that the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, A., & Elder, J. (2014). Communication in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Guide for Pediatric Nurses. Pediatric Nursing, 219-225.

Davis, N., & Carter, A. (2008). Parenting Stress in Mothers and Fathers of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Associations with Child Characteristics. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1278-1291.

Diehl, S., Wegner, J., & Rubin, E. (2010, January). Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Three Case Studies. Retrieved from ASHA Leader: http://leader.pubs.asha.org/article.aspx?articleid=2289534

Sappok, T., Gual, I., Bergmann, T., Dziobek, I., Bolte, S., Diefenbacher, A., & Heinrich, M. (2014). The Diagnostic Behavioral Assessment for autism spectrum disorder -- Revised: A screening instrument for adults with intellectual disability suspected of autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 362-375.
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and

Words: 3764 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56744836

The right medication stimulates these under-operating chemicals to make added neurotransmitters, thereby enhancing the child's potential to concentrate, have a check on the impulses, and lessen hyperactivity. Medication required to attain this usually needs a number of doses in the course of the day, since a single dose of medication remains effective for a short interval up to 4 hours. but, slow or timed-release types of medication for instance, Concerta would let a child having ADHD to go on to take the advantage of medication in an extended stretch of period. (Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A esource for School and Home)

Psycho-stimulant medications like MPH are considered to trigger auto-regulatory or control procedures, thus improving the basic restraint shortfall in children having ADHD. Documented experiments on stimulants have exhibited experimental favor for this hypothesis. For instance, the influences of MPH on reaction restraint employing the fundamental stop-signal…… [Read More]

References

Arcus, Doreen. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. 2002. pp: 14-23

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. December 2001. Retrieved at http://www.reutershealth.com/wellconnected/doc30.html. Accessed on 8 December, 2004

Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity, Disorder: Neurological Basis and Treatment Alternatives. Journal of Neurotherapy. Volume: 1; No: 1; p: 1. Retrieved at (http://www.snr-jnt.org/JournalNT/JNT (1-1)1.html. Accessed on 8 December, 2004

Bedard, Anne-Claude; Ickowicz, Abel; Logan, Gordon D; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Schachar, Russell; Tannock, Rosemary. Selective Inhibition in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Off and on Stimulant Medication. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. June, 2003. Volume: 12; No: 1; pp: 90-93
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD

Words: 2502 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59104397

He must have a reasonable amount of stick-to-itiveness and patience to tolerate difficult tasks; if he gives up immediately, learning will obviously be impaired. And... The ADHD child is both inattentive and readily frustrated. The learning problems are further complicated because they tend to move in vicious circles; they often snowball. (Wender, 2000, p. 22)

Another related aspect is that unless the problems that the student is experiencing are related to his or her ADHD condition, the student may become demotivated as a result of poor performance and criticism. This can lead to other learning issues and even to serious related problems such as the loss of self -worth and self-esteem. This will in turn impact again on the learning ability of the student.

There are numerous studies which attest to the relationship between ADHD and learning problems. In a study by Maynard et al. (1999) it was found that…… [Read More]

References

ADHD. Retrieved May 29, 2006, at http://www.psychiatry24x7.com/bgdisplay.jhtml?itemname=adhd_guest_consumers&s=2 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101227181

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (2004). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved May 30, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101230476

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 1. Retrieved May 29, 2006, at http://www.parentingteens.com/adhd.html

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Retrieved may 31, 2006, at http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/Site610/mainpageS610P0.html
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Nerve Disorders

Words: 574 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13850638

Fibromyalgia has emerged as one of the more controversial and prominent disorders of the recent years and decades. It is controversial because many have dismissed it as a perception or form of hypochondria while others have strongly asserted that this is dangerous talk and the disorder is absolutely real. This paper will discuss what the disorder is, who is at risk for it, what the symptoms are and what treatments are available. While the diagnosis and treatment of fibromyalgia is still somewhat in its nascent stages, there are indeed options that exist and a good many people have come forward as having the disorder.

Fibromyalgia is a disorder that manifests in a large amount of pain and something known as allodynia. The latter of those terms refers to a condition whereby pressure and touch becomes much more sensitive than it would be for a regular person as it becomes painful…… [Read More]

Reference

Mayo Clinic. (2014, August 19). Fibromyalgia. Definition. Retrieved August 19, 2014,

from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fibromyalgia/basics / definition/con-20019243
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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder the Diagnosis

Words: 1146 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77068315



Psychometric Properties

The normative sample for the DAPS included 620 participants from a stratified random sampling from Department of Motor Vehicles registries and telephone listings (Smith). Of these 620 participants, 446 reported at least one DSM-IV-T experience in the past. Smith also reports that 70 university students were sampled as well. The assessment authors conducted another sample to measure reliability. The study included 257 undergraduate students, 191 clinical patients, and 58 participants recruited through flyers and newspaper advertisements (Smith). Both samples were primarily female, 74% in the university sample and 80% in the community sample, as well as Caucasian, 84% in the university sample and 77% in the community sample (Smith). The mean age was 19.6 in the university sample and 35 in the community sample.

Boothroyd reports the following reliability and validity data for the DAPS. The majority of the 13 scales have Cronbach coefficients above .8, and internal…… [Read More]

References:

Axford, S.N.. (n.d.) Review the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Boothroyd, R.A. (n.d.) Review of detailed assessment of posttraumatic stress. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Courtois, C.A. (2008). Complex trauma, complex reactions: Assessment and treatment. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, (1), 86-100. doi:10.1037/1942-9681.S.1.86

Doll, B. (n.d.) Review the posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
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Assessing a Patient With Bipolar 1 Disorder

Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71657240

Danny's case, we do not have enough information thus far to make an accurate diagnosis. The information that he has provided is helpful as a starting point, but Danny has indicated that he is somewhat uncooperative at this point (he says he is not here for you to diagnose him with depression and that his arrival at your office is mandated by the school as part of his probation -- otherwise he would not be there). So, in order to properly diagnose Danny, more time will be needed and more information. Nonetheless, there are signs, just from the little that we have to go on, that could point us in the right direction. The history provided by the parents and the comments made my by Danny himself do suggest that Danny may be showing symptoms of bi-polar disorder…but more work must be done before this diagnosis can be made.

In…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). DSM-V. DC: APA.
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Gerontological & Griatric Nursing Nursing Paper-Gerontological &

Words: 1693 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9956260

GEONTOLOGICAL & GIATIC NUSING

Nursing Paper-Gerontological & Griatric Nursing

End of Life Issues and the Elderly

(2) "Identify and discuss the role of the nurse in providing family centred care to an elderly client who is palliative and living at home with his/her spouse or another family member."

Palliative care is an approach to provide a coordinated medical, nursing, and allied health service to address the patient's physical, social emotional and spiritual needs for people with progressive incurable illness. Palliative care seeks to deliver allied health service within the environment of person's choice to improve quality of life for both an ill person and the family or friends. In the United States, Europe and other part of the world, number of people reaching the advanced age and having the need of specialities for the management of pain control continues to increase. (oyal College of Nursing, 2004).

Meanwhile, a nurse plays…… [Read More]

References

Bliwise, D.L. Bliwise, N.G. Partinen, M. et al.(1988). Sleep Apnea and Mortality in an Aged Cohort. Am J. Public Health.78:544-547.

Bruce, S.D. & Hendrix, C.C. (2006). Palliative Sedation in End-of-Life Care: The Role of The Nurse in Palliative Sedation. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing.8(6):320-327.

Canadian Nurses Association (2008). Providing Nursing Care at the End of Life. Ottawa Canada.

Davies, E. & Higginson, I.J. (2004). Better Palliative Care for Older People. World Health Organization.
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Risk and Hazard Factors of

Words: 3788 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60811016

Even though users of light therapy are often advised not to look directly at the light source, the mechanisms of the eye focus incoming light onto the macula, the small region of the retina where vision takes place, and where age-related macular degeneration occurs. Since blue light wavelength make up only a small percentage of the light in white light, any form of light therapy using a high proportion of blue light therefore risks subverting a variety of defensive mechanisms that protect the retina against blue light hazard. These defensive mechanisms include the anatomical positioning and structure of eye and its surrounding features, as well as human posture, which makes it awkward for humans to gaze upwards for long periods of time. Sunnex iotechnologies, 2008)

The work of David H. Sliney entitled: "Ocular Hazards of Light" presented at the International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop states the following risks and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Figueiro, M.G., J.D. Bullough, R.H. Parsons, and M.S. Rea. Preliminary Evidence for Spectral Opponency in the Suppression of Melatonin by Light in Humans. Neuroreport, Vol. 15, 2004, pp. 313-316 in: Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7

Figueiro, M., et al. Demonstration of additivity failure in human circadian phototransduction. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 493-498.

Ingling, C.R., E. Martinez, and a.L. Lewis. Tonic-Phasic-Channel Dichotomy and Crozier's Law. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 73, 1983, pp. 183-189 in Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7 Report

Lack, Leon, Bramwell, Toby, Wright, Helen, and Kemp, Krystyn (2007) Morning blue light can advance the melatonin rhythm in mild delayed sleep phase syndrome
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Fibromyalgia the Objective of This Study Is

Words: 1328 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91428457

Fibromyalgia

The objective of this study is to examine the condition of Fibromyalgia. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of current literature in this area of inquiry.

Fibromyalgia is a syndrome reported as common and one in which the individual has pain throughout their body as well as joint, muscle, tendon and soft tissue tenderness on a long-term basis.

Causes of Fibromyalgia

While the cause of Fibromyalgia is uncertain it has been linked to such as fatigue, problems sleeping, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Factors that are believed to be potential triggers of fibromyalgia include: (1) physical or emotional trauma; (2) abnormal responses to pain in areas of the brain; (3) disturbances in sleep; and (4) infection although no specific virus has been identified as being responsible for causing Fibromyalgia.

Occurrence of Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is known to occur most in women ages 20 to 50 years of age.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Demirbad, B. And Erci, B. (2012) The Effects of Sleep and Touch Therapy on Symptoms of Fibromyalgia and Depression. Iran J. Public Health. 2012;41(11):44-53. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed 

Fibromyalgia - Fibromyositis; Fibrositis (2012) Summary of Cochrane Review. PubMed Health. Retrieved from:
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Lighting Design Examination of Full-Spectrum

Words: 3838 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2150086

This lighting component is connected by the "IR receiver/sensor to the dimming ballast...[which]...provides the control to change the lamp's lumen output." (Richman, 2005)

Another lighting system introduced by Knisley is one that "features a manual override of automated fluorescent lighting settings through use of a wall-mounted control, an infrared handheld remote control device, or a PC workstation." (Knisley, 2005) This system is capable of implementing natural daylight where available which is known as "daylight harvesting" and a strategy which utilizes "ceiling-mounted photocells to measure the changing contribution of daylight and then compares this light level to an established level of light in a room. The controller responds by dimming or brightening the fluorescent lighting to sustain the desired level. The controller is compatible only with specific manufacturer's electronic fluorescent dimming ballasts." (Knisley, 2008) Knisley describes yet another system which combines "fixtures, user controls, and digital communications and as an alternative…… [Read More]

Bibliography

G.R. (1995). Quantifying lighting quality based on experimental investigations of end user performance and preference. In Proceedings of Right Light Three, the Third European Conference on Energy-Efficient Lighting, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, June 18-21, 1995 (Vol. 1, pp. 119-127). Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK: Northern-Electric PLC National Research Council Canada.

Hogrege, Mark (2008) Putting Light Where it's Needed: The Benefits of Task Lighting. DAZOR. National Association of Independent Lighting Distributors, Inc. Online available at http://www.dazor.com/benefits.html

How Can Full-Spectrum Lighting Sources Be Compared? (2005) Lighting Research Institute. Vol. 7 Issue 5 March 2005. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute March 2005.

How valid are the claims regarding full-spectrum light sources? (2005) Lighting Research Institute. Vol. 7 Issue 5 March 2005. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute March 2005.
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Tourette Syndrome the Human Condition

Words: 2284 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72324891

Globus pallidusinterna (GPI) of the patient was treated through DBS. The internal pulse generators (IPG) helped stimulate the inner cognition area of patient's brain. Since the study employed Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) for assessing the results after intervention, lateral assessment indicated that 84%improvement in YGTSS was observed by the researchers. Thus, DBS as an effective intervention treatment is corroborated by two results of two independent research studies.

Many people report that since Tourette syndrome is a spectrum condition (that is it ranges from mild to severe and that too depends on the age of the sufferer) therefore associated characteristics and symptoms tend to become less severe as the sufferer ages. hat a Tourette syndrome patient requires most is no extensive cure in the form of administered medication, but instead an encouraging environment and dedicated support system which makes it possible for him or her to lead a completely…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brambilla, a. (n.d.). Comorbid Disorders in Tourette Syndrome. Tourette Centre - IRCCS Galeazzi Milano. Retrieved March 2013

Buckser, a. (2006). The Empty Gesture: Tourette Syndrome and the Semantic Dimension of Illness. Purdue University. University of Pittsburgh- of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education. Retrieved March 2013, from  http://www.jstor.org/stable/20456601 

Coffey, B., Berlin, C., & Naarden, a. (n.d.). Medications and Tourette's Disorder: Combined Pharmacotherapy and Drug Interactions. Retrieved March 2013, from http://www.tsa-usa.org/aMedical/images/medications_and_tourettes_berlin.pdf

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. (n.d.). 4th Edition, 103. American Psychiatric Association.
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My Autobiography

Words: 2913 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1399239

Autobiography of Iviannette Figueroa

In this paper, I will describe my life and how my life experiences have shaped the person that I am today, how they have impacted my dreams, and what I intend to do in the future. In this paper I explore my childhood and how the difficulties that I encountered in that childhood have helped shape the woman I am today. The woman that I am today is a mother, a wife, and a student working towards admission into the respiratory therapist program. Generally, I have worked hard to put a difficult childhood behind me. As a result, I have to acknowledge that an autobiographical paper was very challenging for me. I do not like to think about how my childhood has impacted the woman that I am today. While I am generally self-confident, I realize that the things I like the least about myself are…… [Read More]

References

Deaux, K. & Snyder, M. (2012). The Oxford handbook of personality and social psychology.

New York: Oxford University Press.

DiCanio, M. (2004). Encyclopedia of violence: Frequent, commonplace, unexpected. Lincoln,

NE: Mystery Writers of America.
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Narcolepsy and Its Treatment Narcolepsy Is a

Words: 1320 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99858285

narcolepsy and its treatment. Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that may have its origins as a neurological disorder. Narcoleptics can fall asleep uncontrollably during the day, and suffer from sleeplessness at night. Often, this disease is undiagnosed and untreated. It usually becomes apparent between the ages of 15 and 25, but it can occur at any time in a person's life. Narcolepsy is a serious illness that requires treatment, but there is no cure. It can be managed with drugs and lifestyle changes.

Normally, a person enters EM (apid Eye Movement) sleep about 90 minutes after falling asleep. This is the deepest form of sleep, and it is when dreams usually occur. During this time, sleepers may experience a loss in muscle tone, sleep paralysis, and especially vivid dreams. In a narcoleptic patient, EM occurs almost immediately after falling asleep, and it can reoccur throughout the day, as well. The…… [Read More]

References

Aldrich, M.S. (1998). Diagnostic aspects of narcolepsy. Neurology; 50:S2-S7. (From Google Scholar).

Editors. (2009). Narcolepsy. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2009 from the WebMD Web site:  http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/guide/narcolepsy .

Editors. (2009). Narcolepsy information page. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2009 from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders Web site:  http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/narcolepsy/narcolepsy.htm .

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2009). Narcolepsy. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2009 from the Mayo Clinic Web site:
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Unique Preventable Disease

Words: 2104 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26553310

FIBOMYALGIA OUTLINE and PAMPHLET

Introduction to Fibromyalgia

Symptoms of Fibromyalgia

Effects of the symptoms on the body.

isk factors and preventive steps.

(1) Demographics.

Diagnosis and Treatment for fibromyalgia.

Therapeutic and diagnostic methods for fibromyalgia.

Prognosis.

Treatment for fibromyalgia.

Fibromyalgia

Having many physical and clinical symptoms, Fibromyalgia is a syndrome whose effects are felt in form of extreme musculoskeletal pain. It is believed that many environmental, genetic and biological factors are responsible for the start and progress of this infection although its etiology is undermined. In many industrialized countries, its rate of occurrence is 0.7-4.7% amongst the general population. It is incidentally seen more in women than men and the general female-to-male ratio being 9-1. Due to the diverse nature of its symptoms, those infected experience major difficulties adapting to their working environment, family or their life. It also subjects the sufferers to use consultative health services and social resources…… [Read More]

References

Arthritis and Fibromyalgia.Plos ONE, 9(2), 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088740

Derrer, David, T.,2014, understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, webmdmd,2014,understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/fibromyalgia/understanding-fibromyalgia-symptoms.

Fibromyalgia | University of Maryland Medical Center http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/fibromyalgia#ixzz3HSyCkaXF

KengenTraska, T., Rutledge, D., Mouttapa, M., Weiss, J., & Aquino, J. (2012). Strategies used for managing symptoms by women with fibromyalgia. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 21(5/6), 626-635. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03501.x
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Restless Legs Syndrome

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71783053

Restless Legs Syndrome and its related risk factors as they relate to nursing. The medical community has labeled Restless Legs Syndrome as idiopathic. In addition, Restless Leg Syndrome is not curable although the syndrome seems to wax and wane over time. It is a definitely annoying sleep predicament which occurs in adults and can become especially problematic for the elderly. "The prognosis of Restless Leg Syndrome is a lifelong condition for which there is no cure. Remissions do occur, but symptoms will usually reappear." (Cuellar, 2003)

Because a patient's health can so often be linked directly to sleep patterns, this disorder becomes particular troubling to the nursing community. The research gathered throughout this research process could possibly provide assistance to the nursing community with both new and seasoned staffs as well as the patient community's awareness.

Some insights into the lives of individuals who suffer from this syndrome may help…… [Read More]

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Sleeping and Insomnia

Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56526180

Sleeping and Insomnia

Introduction have been observing my roommate's sleeping patterns. He has insomnia and takes sleeping pills every night, sometimes with alcohol. My hypothesis is that his dependence on sleeping pills and his mixing with alcohol are hindering his condition, rather than helping it. I think that there are many other, more natural things he could do to ease his insomnia.

General understanding of sleeping

We spend about one third of our life sleeping. Sleep is defined as the suspension of consciousness during which the powers of the body are restored (ThinkQuest, 2003). The brain is not at rest during sleep as popularly thought, but is extremely active and it is the brain that tells us when it is time to sleep. Sensations of light taken in from the retina are transferred through the nerves to an area of the brain determines the amount of light exposure and adjusts…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ThinkQuest Online Library. (2003). "Sleep From A To Zzz." Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.thinkquest.org/

Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. (2003). "Sleep." MSN. Retrieved from the Internet at http://encarta.msn.com/

Coren, Stanley. (1996). "Sleep Thieves: an Eye-Opening Exploration into the Science & Mysteries of Sleep." New York: The Free Press, 1996.

Cardinal, Florence. (2003). "Insomnia- What Is Insomnia?." Retrieved on the Internet at http://sleepdisorders.about.com/cs/whatisinsomnia
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Chronic Fatigue Is Normal Aspect

Words: 2091 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48201858

However, he questions the research that has been done in this area. First, he wonders whether the exercise is a placebo effect based on the anticipation of improvement. The second question is the acceptability of this treatment. Many CFS patients actively avoid exercise and many healthcare providers in fact recommend rest at all costs rather than a concern of relapse. However, the positive aspect of the CBT and the exercise is that it has the patients question their fears. In both cases, there is a psychotherapeutic affect that may be beneficial.

The use of antidepressants is another approach that has been suggested and studied. However, the results on this have also been mixed. As Demitrack (1996, p. 282) states, "At the present time, it is unrealistic to present medication as a sole treatment for this disease." It may be that medications could work in the short-term and provide enough symptomatic…… [Read More]

References

Center for Disease Control (2006, May 9). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Retrieved January 30, 2007 http://www.cdc.gov/cfs/cfsbasicfacts.htm.

Demitrack, M. And Abbey, S. (1996) (Eds) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. New York: Guilford Press.

Hyland, M.E. et. al. (2006) Letter to the Editor. The Lancet 367 (9522), 1573-1576

Komaroff, a., & Fagioli, L. (1996) Medial Assessment of Fatigue and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. In M. Demitrack and S. Abbey (Eds) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (pg. 154-181). New York: Guilford Press,.
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Fibromyalgia Is a Rather Mysterious Condition With

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61273567

Fibromyalgia is a rather mysterious condition, with no known cause and no known cure. The symptoms of fibromyalgia consist primarily of muscle and joint pain and heightened sensitivity to pain, experienced globally. Secondary symptoms, which are also common in sufferers, include chronic fatigue, cognitive and memory dysfunction, sleep disorders, and mood disorders. Women are far more likely to suffer from fibromyalgia than men, and age of onset is generally between 30 to 50 years. A combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are recommended, with the latter taking precedence over the former in evidence-based practice. Prognosis is relatively good when the right combination of lifestyle and treatment options is employed.

Etiology

The cause of fibromyalgia remains a mystery. ecent research reveals the possibility of a genetic marker for pain sensitivity in fibromyalgia patients, in that haplotypes of the COMT gene and genotypes of the Val158Met polymorphism play a key role on…… [Read More]

References

Fitzcharles, M. et al. (2013). 2012 Canadian Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of fibromyalgia syndrome: Executive summary. Pain Res Manag. 2013 May-Jun; 18(3): 119 -- 126.

Martinez-Jauand, M. et al. (2013). Pain sensitivity in fibromyalgia is associated with catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. European Journal of Pain 17(1): 16-27.

Mayo Clinic (2015). Fibromyalgia. Retrieved online: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/fibromyalgia/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20019243

Neusch, E. et al. (2011). Comparative efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in fibromyalgia syndrome: network meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis 2013;72:955-962
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Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to

Words: 2115 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87064250



3.3 Data Collection

Is maternal UE3A active following iPS treatment: Data will be gathered on the iPS-treated mice via positron emission tomography, and in vivo brain slice preparation, and Western lot Analysis. H1 will essentially be ascertained following these tests.

Does iPS treatment rescue the motor and cognitive deficits associated with Angelman Syndrome: Data will be gathered from testing the treated mice in scientifically recognized tests of cognitive ability in a mouse model. This project proposes using the water maze test, the electric shock test, and the submerged platform test. H2 will effectively be answered using the data gleaned from these tests.

4. Conclusion

4.1. Potential Therapeutic and Other Considerations

The potential of using iPS treatment to rescue/alleviate the severe motor and cognitive deficits witnessed in Angelman Syndrome is theoretically viable. Reliable mouse models of AS exist with which to run the tests. The technology needed to tease iPS stem…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abuhatzira, L., Shemer, R., & Razin, A. (2009). MeCP2 involvement in the regulation of neuronal alpha-tubulin production. Human Molecular Genetics, 1415-1423.

Condic, M.L., & Rao, M. (2008). Regulatory Issues for Personalized Pluripotent Cells. Stem Cells, 2753-2758.

Dindot, S., Antalffy, B., Meenakshi, B., & Beaudet, A. (2008). The Angelman syndrome ubiquitin ligase localizes to the synapse and nucleus, and maternal deficiency results in abnormal dendritic spine morphology. Human Molecular Genetics, 111-118.

Dobkin, B. (2007). Behavioral, temporal, and spatial targets for cellular transplants as adjuncts to rehabilitation for stroke. Stroke, 832-839.
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Psychology & Nbsp general Taumatic Brain

Words: 5753 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54980300

The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)

However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.

Severe Traumatic Brain njury

The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…… [Read More]

In describing the course of their patients, experienced clinicians who use HBOT to treat patients with brain injury, cerebral palsy, and stroke refer to improvements that may be ignored in standardized measures of motor and neuro-cognitive dysfunction. These measures do not seem to capture the impact of the changes that clinicians and parents perceive. Caregivers' perceptions should be given more weight in evaluating the significance of objective improvements in a patient's function. Unfortunately, studies have not consistently measured caregiver burden, or have assessed it only by self-report. Studies in which the caregivers' burden was directly observed would provide much stronger evidence than is currently available about treatment outcome. (AHRQ Publication Number 03-E049, 2003)

In other words, this somewhat alternative treatment produces results that are more meaningful to the injured person and his or her caregivers.

I have focused here primarily on the biochemical end of treatments for those with traumatic brain injury because it is this level of treatment that offers the long-term possibility of the greatest level of treatment. Such treatments as are described here have the chance to cure traumatic brain injury. But until these are perfected, every other kind of treatment and therapy -- from drug treatments to speech therapy to the love of friends -- will remain priceless.
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Night Eating Explore the Individuals

Words: 7427 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41952902

"…people with NES tend to be more depressed than obese people without NES, and the mood of those with NES tends to worsen during the evening, something not seen in other obese people"(Logue, 2004, p. 185).

Among the many studies that provide insight into the background and origins of this syndrome, one of the most enlightening was Obesity by Stunkard, in Fairburn and Brownell (2002). This provides an in-depth analysis of night eating syndrome as well as a concise overview of the background of this condition. Stunkard also refers to a detailed overview of this condition.

Studies using the above criteria estimate that the prevalence of the night eating syndrome in the general population is approximately 1.5% and that prevalence increases with increasing weight, from about 10% of persons enrolling in obesity clinics to as high as 25% of patients undergoing surgical treatment for obesity…it occurs among about 5% of…… [Read More]

References

Allison K. et al. ( 2005) Neuroendocrine Profiles Associated with Energy Intake, Sleep, and Stress in the Night Eating Syndrome . The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(11), pp. 6214-6217.

Amanda Ursell's: Feel Good. (2001, January 7). Sunday Mirror (London, England), p. 16. Retrieved April 23, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007796657

Arieti, S. & Brodie, H.K. (Eds.). (1981). Advances and New Directions. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved April 23, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101519121

Aronoff N., Geliebter a., and Zammit G. ( 2001) Gender and body mass index as related to the night-eating syndrome in obese outpatients. J Am Diet Assoc.101(1), pp.102-4.
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Melatonin and the Pineal Gland

Words: 2598 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19486196

Melatonin & the Pineal Gland

The focus of this work is to examine melatonin and the pineal gland. Towards this end, this study examines the literature in this area of study and reports on the findings. The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland hormonal activity "is influenced by both the dark-light cycle and the seasonal cycle, causing it to play an important role in the neuroendocrine control of reproductive physiology."

Melatonin & The Pineal Gland

The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Arendt, Josephine (1998) Melatonin and the pineal gland: in-uence on mammalian seasonal and Bercemi, N. et al. (2004) Melatonin for Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Summary: Evidence Report/Technology Assessment: Number 108. Retrieved from: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcsums/melatsum.htm

Borijgin, J. And Snyder SH (1999) The pineal gland and melatonin: molecular and pharmacologic regulation. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1999;39:53-65.

Bowen, R. (2003) The Pineal Gland and Melatonin. Other Endocrine Tissues and Hormones 17 Mar 2003 Rerieved from:  http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/otherendo/pineal.html  circadian physiology. Reviews of Reproduction 3; 13-22. Retrieved from:  http://www.reproduction-online.org/content/revreprod/3/1/13.full.pdf 

Summation -- Fluoride and Pineal Gland (2012) Fluoride Action Network. Retried from: http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/pineal/
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Globalization and Innovations in Telecommunications

Words: 18188 Length: 66 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2190458



Chapter 2:

Review of Related Literature

Chapter Introduction

This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.

Hypnosis

In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…… [Read More]

bibliography. (2010). http://science.jrank.org / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.

Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.

Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.

Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.

Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.