Normally, it is enough to have one night of sleep study to clearly diagnosis severe OSA in patients with sleep-disordered breathing and upper airway pathology. However, the others suffering from the severe OSA would not have been found and many with AHI variability would have been missed. .
Ahmadi et al. (2009) wanted to investigate AHI on two nights due to a concern with variability of the disorder and impact on clinical diagnosis. They conducted polysomnographies with 193 sleep clinic patients over two consecutive nights to analyze AHI variability. Anonymized records from five individuals with significant night-to-night AHI variability participated: the two-night tests from two patients were represented as four individual polysomnographies; the two-night tests for two others were represented as being obtained from two different sleep clinics; the last patient's results were shown as a two-night study. Twenty-two sleep experts at the Associated Professional Sleep Societies meeting diagnosed the…… [Read More]
Article Review on “Mindfulness Meditation and Improvement in Sleep Quality and Daytime Impairment Among Older Adults with Sleep Disturbances”
The article by Black et al. (2015) evaluating sleep patterns, assesses these issues and explores treatment techniques for the three prevalent sleep disorders among the elderly. It also discusses the consequences of geriatric HCPs in clinical practice who are caretakers of the older population living within communities. The authors argue that treating sleep problems remains essential in alleviating chronic health complications, lowering health costs, and increasing health and wellness of individuals, particularly, the elderly. The following study explores the presented argument by considering the evidence and interprets the findings from the authors. Moreover, it points out the application of the results in resolving issues. Sleep-related disorders emerging from psychological and health problems may be addressed adequately through preventive and curative measures translating to positive outcomes for patients and the society.…… [Read More]
Night TV Watcher
Questions to Ask the Patient
Would you be interested in recording your late night TV shows and watching them in the day if it means you can get to sleep earlier and be more wakeful during the daytime? If not
Would you be interested in asking your morning nurse to arrive later and if she is unable to do so would you be interested in making other arrangements for a nurse who can better accommodate your schedule? If not
Would you be interested in conducting a type of therapy that utilizes your enjoyment of receiving faxes during the day -- something like dignity therapy or spirituality therapy, which can have positive impacts on mood and outlook (Azizi, Azizi, Abedi et al., 2016)?
People to speak with for feedback to further assess the patient's situation would be her son who is devoted to her as well as her…… [Read More]
Sleep Hygiene Plan for a 65-Year Old Client
For most adults, seven to eight hours of sleep is sufficient for a good rest. This also applies to older adults aged 65 years or more. As one gets older, a change in sleeping patterns could emerge. These changes could result in insomnia whereby a person experiences trouble sleeping. Moreover, a 65-year-old could experience other changes that include waking up early in the morning, difficulties in sleeping after waking up in the middle of the night, and early tiredness in the evening. Other psychiatric and medical issues could affect nighttime sleep for adults aged 65. Nonetheless, individuals without major illnesses could enjoy a better sleep. Designing a sleep hygiene plan remains critical in addressing the changing sleep patterns in a 65-year-old person that consequently promotes overall body wellness.
Sleep Hygiene Plan
A study among adults aged 65 years and over established that…… [Read More]
The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) it aimed to identify relationships between sleep and other aspects of human functioning/performance; and 2) it sought to understand how sleep-wake patterns impact daytime functioning. The subject of this research was the researcher himself. The researcher kept a 4 week sleep diary with which to record information pertaining to sleep habits and daily life habits in order to test the conclusions of Bower, Bylsma, Morris and Rottenberg (2010) regarding their findings that poor reported sleep quality is predictive of low positive affects in daily life among persons of both healthy and disordered mindsets. Having a healthy mind, the researcher aimed to evaluate the extent to which sleep quality impacted his overall quality of life.
This topic is important because as Monk, Petrie, Hayes and Kupfer (1994) show, regularity in one’s daily life bears some relation to the development of the personality,…… [Read More]
business plan for a unique business opportunity- a sleep lab. This paper investigates the unique business needs of this business as well as the challenges of engaging the surrounding community, its employees as well as clients on the health benefits of sleep as well as the necessity for the identification as well as treatment of various sleep disorders. The safety needs of the participant are also taken into consideration and well as the setup and running costs.
A sleep disorder is noted by Al Ghamdi (2009) to be a medical disorder of a person's sleep patterns and is a serious condition that affects an individual's normal mental, physical as well as emotional functions. Most sleep disorders can effectively be diagnosed and treated in a sleep lab or center via a common test referred to as polysomnogram (Patil,2010).
Sleeps disorders as a source of public health concern
Sleep is also being…… [Read More]
Offered under the same roof are "consultative, diagnostic, and treatment services" which are stated to be provided "by board-certified practitioners in the fields of pulmonary medicine, otolarngology, family medicine and more." (2006)
Smith reports that the laboratories experiencing the most dramatic growth are two which are located the "farthest from the Hillsboro flagship" as they are located in two areas that were "formerly underserved." (2006) Smith additionally reports that the demand is stronger in the areas where the two fastest growing centers are located which supplies "plenty of fuel for expansion."
Smith states that the Sleep Health & Wellness NW is attempting to "fill a gap so that patients who previously were overlooked or not being reached or who fell through the cracks no longer are," she says. "We have no plans to open centers in areas where there are already quality sleep services programs. We only want to go…… [Read More]
I find that I could fall asleep almost anywhere, but especially after eating or when trying to relax. I am usually asleep within minutes of going to bed, but struggle mightily to get up in the morning. On a daily basis I find myself stressed to get through the day without felling tired, irritable and drowsy.
According to the Mayo Clinic's Sleep tips: 7 steps to better sleep (2012) there are 7 steps that one can use to achieve better sleep. These include:
Sticking to a regular sleep timetable -- going to bed and getting up at the same time every day, even on weekends, holidays and days off strengthens ones sleep-wake sequence and helps encourage better sleep at night.
Paying attention to what one eats and drinks -- one should never go to bed either hungry or stuffed as the discomfort might keep them up.
Creating a bedtime ritual…… [Read More]
Bipolar I disorder is an axis 1 clinical disorder in the DSM-IV and is a serious mental illness that can lead to suicidal ideation or action. The history of bipolar disorder research is a long one, and understanding of the disease has deepened considerably over the last several generations. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder 1 is complicated by its resemblance to other mood disorders, mainly major depression but also psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. esearch is revealing new treatment interventions that are targeted to the biological needs of bipolar patients, as antidepressants are often or usually contraindicated. A Christian worldview suggests that individualized treatment plans take into account the family history and patient's lifestyle when recommending a treatment plan.
Bipolar I disorder is a serious mental illness that affects between 1 and 2.5% of the general population in the United States (Ghaznavi & Deckersbach, 2012). The more conservative estimate, 1%, is…… [Read More]
Individual Programmatic Assessment
TEATMENTS OPTIONS FO IEGULA SLEEP-WAKE SYNDOME
Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome is a form of a psychological disorder also called Irregular Sleep-Wake hythm. People with Irregular Sleep-Wake Syndrome have non-aligned sleep times. These people have sleeping patterns that do not adhere to the "normal" times of sleeping at night. The sleeping patterns are disorganized to a magnitude that one cannot tell the presence of a clear sleep or wake pattern. Such people have a tendency to sleep off on some naps over a 24-hour period. The sleep patterns have been split into pieces. They behave like infants who sleep for a few hours, wake up for some other few hours, and also sleep off for some few hours, with the cycle repeating with no clear sequence. During the day, the number of sleep times may be high since they like napping a lot. During the night, they seem to…… [Read More]
17% of men and 13% of women have experienced more than three traumatic events in their lives, and the onset of PTSD is generally based on the degree and the extent of the trauma, and the duration, and the type. For example, when there is a rape, then there is a 49% chance that the women will experience PTSD, and when there is a physical assault, it would be 31.9%. For sexual assault, the percentage would be 23.7 and when the person has been in an accident, and then the percentage would be 16.8%. (What is PTSD?)
Other traumatic events may be a child's life threatening illness, or a natural disaster, or a witness or a victim of a shooting or a stabbing, and so on. (What is PTSD?) These people may also experience of several kinds of physical symptoms related to their traumatic experience, and some of them are:…… [Read More]
Attention-Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
According to the American Psychiatric Association Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) is now referred to as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD. However, most lay people and some professionals will still refer to the condition as ADD, which are the names given to the condition in 1980. ADHD has been around for a longer period than most people actually recall or realize. Hippocrates, who lived from 460 to 370 BC, described a condition similar to ADHD. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder where there are substantial problems with executive functions that cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, or impulsiveness, which is inappropriate for the person's age. In order for a diagnosis to be made for the condition, the symptoms of ADHD must persist for six months or more. According to (McGoey et al., 2014), they define ADHD as a condition that causes a person to have trouble focusing…… [Read More]
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Humans have a natural response to survival, stress and fear. Such responses enable an individual to pursue pertinent objectives and respond accordingly to the presence of danger. The 'flight or fight' response in a healthy individual is provoked via a real challenge or threat and is utilized as a means of acting appropriately to the situation. However, when an anxiety disorder manifests in someone, then an inappropriate/excessive state of arousal develops. People then feel symptoms of fear, apprehension, or uncertainty. These feelings or reactions may surface even when no real threat exists.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), is a common anxiety disorder that affects roughly 5% of the United States general population. "GAD is commonly associated with psychiatric and medical comorbidities and is often chronic. GAD is associated with extensive psychiatric and medical utilization and, if left untreated, can cause impairment as severe as major depressive disorder…… [Read More]
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Techniques
For Treating Sedative, Hypnotic or Anxiolytic use disorder
Sedative-Hypnotic are a Class of Medications that Includes Barbiturates.
Sedative hypnotic refers to the medication such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates and nonbenzodiazepine. All these are medications used to treat insomnia. They are referred to as Z drugs because the members consist of zaleplon, the eszopiclone and zolpiden all of which contain letter Z. Benzodiazepines are the most prescribed drugs across the globe. They are used to treat anxiety, disorder, insomnia and panic disorders. The drugs are used to treat disorders even though they are hazardous, and expose the user to other conditions such as physical dependence misuse, overdose as well as abuse (Levounis, Herron & American Psychiatric Association, 2014). When the individuals become dependent, they suffer from anxiolytic, hypnotic or sedative; a condition where one becomes dependent on the substances that cause a calming effect. They may also suffer…… [Read More]
estless legs syndrome, also known as Ekbom syndrome, is the most commonly experienced sensorimotor disorder among the general population (Bassetti et al., 2011). The disorder afflicts approximately 2 to 10% of the general population and it is experienced as periodic limb movements in 80% of individuals with restless legs syndrome (Bassetti et al., 2011). The most prominent symptoms of the disorder are urges to move the legs as well as unpleasant sensations in the legs (Lee et al., 2011). The symptoms generally commence or become worse during inactivity and individuals with the disorder generally feel relief from symptoms after movement (Lee et al., 2011). Also, symptoms of the disorder are generally worse during the evening hours in comparison to the daytime. Furthermore, restless leg syndrome often results in sleep disturbances such as delayed sleep onset, multiple awakenings, and reduced sleep efficiency (Lee et al., 2011). The disorder is…… [Read More]
Epilepsy Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy -- a Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which causes frequent seizures due to abnormal electricity activity within the brain. Epilepsy is considered a brain disorder disturbing the brain function which ultimately affects behaviour and cognition. This paper highlights some common symptoms of epilepsy. It also explains different treatments deployed for reducing seizure activity in epilepsy. Each treatment portrays a different way of taking control over the seizures and points out a path towards leading a balanced life.
Epilepsy -- A Neurological Disorder
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterised by repeated spontaneous seizures of any type which cause problems with speech, vision, movement, awareness and muscle control. Epilepsy cannot be considered as an intellectual disability or mental illness. This paper explains the common symptoms associated with epilepsy. It highlights three different types of treatments for epilepsy and presents a comparative analysis…… [Read More]
The unstated biases are that each person has some kind of social problems and were forced to go through added amounts of therapy to address them. A large segment was selected from different gender groups, ethnic and racial backgrounds. In general, the study results are concentrating on understanding specific factors impacting the population sample. It is based upon the challenges impacting everyone and the way they are adjusting with them. (Dorrepaal, 2012) (Goodard, 2004) (Litwin, 1995)
The design of the study was clearly articulated. A randomized controlled sample was used. This achieved through concentrating on a number of factors in each module. The most notable are demonstrated in the below diagram:
The correct recognition of emotions Skills
Anger management Assertiveness Distrust Guilt
This is strong design for the research. It improves internal validity by illustrating how these factors are related to one another. The potential…… [Read More]
However, things have advanced. ith better technology, we can monitor the brain's activity while in REM. Certainly, one thing is certain: with out sleep there is no life. ithout sleep, body temperature, eating, infection prevention, and basic brain functioning suffer.
In terms of survival, where do dreams fit in? Researchers argue that the continuation of a complex brain process such as REM sleep indicates serves an important function for the survival of mammalian and avian species. Certainly, it was a very valuable step along the evolutionary ladder and led to survival. As the brain grew more complex, it needed downtime to process new information. Like any computer, especially a complex one, the human brain requires maintenance. Besides simple "down time," it also requires reprogramming every 24 hours. Just like our network computers take necessary updates and downloads, the brain needs a reprogramming session every 24 hours to recharge itself and…… [Read More]
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Following an unusual and an unexpected event, that is stressful, such as being diagnosed with cancer, one may develop characteristic symptoms that may differ slightly from person to person. This normal human response has been classified into two broad categories; adjustment disorder and post traumatic stress disorder. (Nicholas A., Nicki ., Brian ., and John A.A.)
Post traumatic stress disorder is a type of response, which has a delayed onset and is of a prolonged nature, to events that are particularly threatening in quality, for example, being part of, or witnessing an earthquake. Slightly differing from the novel definition, this disorder can also occur with events that may not be life threatening. According to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, PTSD can occur due to an actual or even a threatened death or injury to oneself or to others. Needless to say,…… [Read More]
Hours of Sleep, Life Satisfaction & Cognitive Functioning
ELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HOUS OF SLEEP, SATISFACTION WITH LIFE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING
elationship between Hours of Sleep and Both of Satisfaction with Life and Cognitive Functioning
Proper sleeping hours are very important for our body's functioning. When a person is sleeping, his body is in the process of repair; thus allowing his brain to have some rest and the needed down time. There are many negative effects of less sleeping hours on the cognitive function as well as life satisfaction of a person.
Just like a proper diet, sleep plays a very essential role in the maintenance of overall health of an individual. Unfortunately, Americans are facing some serious cognitive and life satisfaction problems due to lack of sleeping hours. According to an estimate from U.S. Center for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), approximately 25% of U.S. citizens have less sleeping…… [Read More]
Similarly, regular exposure to certain types of artificial lighting can have a negative effect on the quality of sleep as well. Research into the comparative health of daytime and nighttime workers has helped establish some of the more specific ways that sleep is important to human health. For example, certain forms of cancer such as breast cancer and colorectal cancer) have been documented at higher rates among nighttime workers Pauley, 2004). As it happens, those forms of cancer are known to be moderated by Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland during specific phases of sleep and known to vary in relation to exposure to light Pauley, 2004).
Research on mice revealed that melatonin-related cancers increased when the subjects were exposed to very small levels of light during sleep and also that completely blind human beings have a lower incidence of colorectal cancers than blind people who can perceive…… [Read More]
For instance a patient suffering from hypotonia may receive physical therapy to assist them in gain more control over bodily movements. Likewise an individual with Sotos syndrome that has been diagnosed with ADD may be treated with behavioral counseling and medications. Behavioral therapies may also be needed to combat aggressiveness, develop social skills, combat tantrums and some personality disorders that may be present. The mental retardation that can occur as a result of Sotos may be treated with learning therapies and through special education. Also language delay may be treated with speech therapy.
Individuals that develop tumors and cancer as a result of the disorder may be treated with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. Likewise those with heart defects or kidney problems may need surgery or dialysis. Medical treatments may also be necessary as it relates to any skeletal malformations that may persist into adulthood as some researchers have reported that…… [Read More]
Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.
Description and differentiation
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…… [Read More]
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder is a behavioral disorder that is mostly found in children. According to one research almost 7.5% of school-aged children are suffering from some kind of ADHD related behavioral problem in the United States. In some cases, untreated symptoms can persist in the adulthood too, which can create numerous problems in the patient's social and emotional life. ADHD is rarely found in isolation as the child may also develop some other behavioral problems. The existence of more than one behavioral disorder is known as co-morbidity, which usually complicates the case because the child cannot be treated for one specific condition. It was once believed that ADHD patients outgrow the symptoms with age but this theory is no longer supported by latest research, which indicates that without treatment, ADHD's symptoms can easily persist in one's adult life. A newspaper article, which appeared in St. Louis Post-Dispatch (1994), author…… [Read More]
If left untreated it may lead to tetany, seizures and decreased mental status. It also decreases coronary blood flow and predisposes persons to refractory arrhythmias. This condition may also cause hypoventilation, leading to hypoxemia and impair weaning from mechanical ventilation. This is also associated with hypokalemia and may precipitate hepatic encephalopathy in susceptible patients.
Third simple acid-base disorder is respiratory acidosis. This is a clinical disturbance due to alveolar hypoventilation. The production of carbon dioxide increases and there is a failure of ventilation, which increases the partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide. This in turn decreases the HCO3-/PaCO2 and decreases pH. This condition can either be acute or chronic. Acute respiratory acidosis occurs when an abrupt failure of ventilation occurs, whereas, chronic respiratory acidosis may be secondary to many disorders, including COPD. This disorder can be manifested depending on the severity and on the rate of development of hypercapnia. Patients…… [Read More]
This neurological disorder or disease discovered and first described in 1966 by an Austrian physician, Dr. Andreas Rett
A paper published on the disorder in an English medical journal in 1983 by Dr. engst Hagberg and associates. Global awareness established and thengrew. First diagnoses of unidentified cases made.
Disorder initially observed to affect only girls of different races worldwide
Mutations in an X chromosome gene called MeCP2.
First discovered at the laboratory by Dr. Huda Zoghbi, a neurogeneticist, in October 1999
Primarily affects girls but recently found to affect boys as well
Condition between 6 to 18 months and progresses in stages
A developmental, not a genetic or nutritional, disorder
Affects 1 in 10,000 to 23,000 females worldwide
Apparently normal pregnancy and delivery for the mother and normal development of voluntary movements to the affected person
Deceleration of head growth between 6 and 18 months
Unexplained…… [Read More]
Post=traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychiatric disorder caused by extreme stress under dangerous or potentially dangerous situations. People with PTSD may have been raped, or abused, sexually or otherwise in childhood, have witnessed or experienced some disaster, such as earthquake, fire or flood, or it may be acquired from wartime experiences. Although PTSD was first entered into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1980 (Harbert, 2002), its effects on soldiers returning from war have been noted for many centuries before, often called "battle fatigue" or "shell shock." (Roswell, 2004)
Any traumatic event (wartime experience, a natural disaster, an accident, a life-threatening illness -- or an act of terrorism) can present a clear threat to the existing conceptual framework one relies on to understand the world. While the condition is a psychiatric one, often the person with PTSD responds with physical signs. They can include increased or irregular…… [Read More]
In the United States alone, a staggering number of people suffer from some sort of mental illness and many more are at high risk of developing a mental condition. Worldwide, the number is even greater, especially in countries without the resources to provide the care needed by such people. Some mental conditions are more prevalent and easier to develop than others. Whereas a serious disease that manifests various forms of psychosis like schizophrenia is mostly prevalent in those who inherit it from family members, those who have abused drugs long-term and consistently, or those with brain injuries, milder conditions like bipolar disorder can be developed by virtually anyone. In the United States, about 2.5% of the population has some form of bipolar disorder (WedMD, 2014). This translate to about 6 million people.
Because of this high number of sufferers, increasing research attention in the psychiatric and medical fields…… [Read More]
Bipolar and Personality Disorder
Approximately 20% of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder are also found to suffer from borderline personality disorder (Zimmerman & Morgan, 2013). While some of the symptoms and characteristics of both disorders are similar, it is important, as Zimmerman and Morgan (2013) point out, to distinguish between the two, as each requires its own form of treatment in order to allow the patient to overcome the issues associated with each. This paper will discuss the treatment considerations for a person presenting with both bipolar disorder and personality disorder.
DSM-5 (2013) states that the diagnostic criteria for Bipolar 1 Disorder are: “For a diagnosis of bipolar 1 disorder, it is necessary to meet the following criteria for a manic episode. The manic episode may have been preceded by and may be followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes” (p. 123). Mania is described as a…… [Read More]
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) happens to be the most common of all the other kinds of sleep apnea – with the other types of OSA being mixed sleep apnea and central sleep apnea. Garvey, Pengo, Drakatos and Kent (2015) point out that as a matter of fact, there is evidence to suggest that it is the most common respiratory disorder. This, in the words of the authors, is more so the case given “recent data from the United States and Europe suggesting that between 14% and 49% of middle-aged men have clinically significant OSA” (Garvey, Pengo, Drakatos and Kent, 2015, p. 274).
Breathing Cessations and Severity Assessment
In basic terms, OSA involves periodic breathing cessations during sleep – with the occurrence (and the number) of the said cessations varying significantly. Most cases of OSA go unrecognized, effectively meaning that a very small percentage of those suffering…… [Read More]
Also known as manic-depressive disorder, bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness that can be treated with a combination of medication and regular therapy. Bipolar disorder is classified as a mood disorder, and is qualified by abnormal intensity of moods and mood swings, leading to dysfunctional, erratic, or self-destructive behaviors. When left untreated or unrecognized, bipolar disorder can disrupt daily functioning and human relationships. Therefore, chemical and non-chemical treatment interventions are critical for maintaining healthy functioning.
Bipolar disorder is referred to as having a cyclic pattern, because the symptoms are episodic. In other words, the person may be severely depressed, then normal, then fully manic, and then back to being depressed. Mania and depression are the two poles from which the person swings back and forth. Prevalence is equally common in men and women ("Bipolar Disorder," n.d.). First signs of onset are usually in the teens or early twenties;…… [Read More]
This paper will provide an overview of bipolar disorder, as currently described in the most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). It will explain how the symptoms of the disorder may manifest themselves, different treatment options, and evolving research in the field. Bipolar disorder remains a complex mental disease that can often mispresent in its features to clinicians, depending on the type and stage of the mood cycle the patient is in, so a clearer understanding by psychiatric clinicians, sufferers, and family members is needed.
Bipolar Disorder: An Overview
Bipolar disorder was once more commonly known as manic depression. It is classified as a mood disorder, under the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). A variety of types exist of the disorder, but its predominant feature is rapid shifts of mood. The most common forms of the disorder, bipolar I…… [Read More]
Since bipolar disorder has been shown to be a major cause of suicide, a number of U.S. studies have concluded that a person affected by this condition often shows signs and symptoms that may accompany suicidal feelings, such as talking or discussing suicide, having the feeling that "nothing will ever change or get better," that "nothing one does makes any difference" and feelings that the person is "a burden to family and friends." Also, the suicidal person may begin to abuse alcohol or illegal drugs like marijuana, cocaine and even heroin and proceed to put his/her affairs in order like "organizing finances or giving away possessions to prepare for one's death." Not surprisingly, such as person may also put him/herself in "harm's way or in situations where there is a danger of being killed" (2007, "Bipolar Disorder," Internet).
Clearly, a person with bipolar disorder will exhibit outward signs and indications…… [Read More]
DSM-5 Diagnostic Case Studies
Tom is a 30-year-old male who was near the orld Trade Center during the 9/11 attack. He witnessed horrific scenes, including people jumping from the orld Trade Center. Since that day, he has had nightmares. henever a plane flies overhead, he has the feeling that he needs to run to a secure place. He has thought of moving out of New York City because he finds himself reliving the event every time he is down in the area of the 9/11 attack.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) although a very complex disorder, is a well-known psychiatric consequence of trauma, which is likely what Tom is experiencing (Iribarren, Prolo, Neagos, & Chiappelli, 2005). The event that is responsible for the PTSD must be directly experienced as a threat to one's own integrity and associated with intense fear, helplessness, or horror; the patient also persistently re-experiences the…… [Read More]
Treatment of Bipolar Disorder?
The article what is the treatment for Bipolar Disorder by G. ayel revolves around the treatment options for Bipolar Disorder. The article lacks a proper introduction which otherwise would have begun with the explanation of bipolar disorder giving a brief overview about the maniac and depressive episodes along with the need to treat the disorder before proceeding onto the treatment procedures. Despite this, the author presents a coherent logical progression and sequence in his article by clearly describing the role of medicines such as antidepressants and antipsychotics. Although several terms such as mood stabilizers and psychotherapy are not elucidated, the order of ideas presented by ayel Michael in his article is vital in understanding the treatment strategies of bipolar disorder.
The main point of the writer is to explain the ways in which Bipolar Disorder can be treated. Since the writer has not explained the…… [Read More]
depressive disorder (MDD) is a condition distinguished by the presence of at least one major depressive episode (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). MDD occurs in adolescents with an estimated annual prevalence of four to eight percent and with a lifetime prevalence of 20% by age 18 (APA, 2000). In addition, the data indicates that the prevalence of depression rates among adolescents is increasing with the greatest surge in rates of depression occurring in adolescents between the ages of 15-18 years-old (Costello, Erkanli, & Angold, 2006).
Previous research has suggested that when MDD occurs in adolescents and children an untreated episode can last from seven to nine months (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Adolescent depression shares many clinical features similar to depression in adults. Depressed adolescents are sad, they can lose interest in activities that used to be of importance to them, and they are very critical of themselves and believe that…… [Read More]
Traumatic events can shape a persons life and cause untold stress and pain for long periods of time. Natural disasters occur and can affect a persons life in terms of losing their home, causing long-term injuries, and creating a sense of instability. Betty has experienced a powerful tornado that ravaged her home and led to her husband breaking his leg. This essay will focus on post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) assessment and treatment options for someone like Betty to enable her stabilize herself and find ways to positively cope with such trauma.
The first thing to understand is the difference between screening and assessment. Screening involves a typical yes or no answer and evaluation for possible existence of a specific problem. An assessment on the other hand is a process used to define the nature of an issue, determination of diagnosis, and development of specific treatment recommendations to help…… [Read More]
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Gender -- Male
Ben is currently being raised by a single mother who has two additional children. The mother has worked full time for a number of years while the biological father is absent and rarely offers support or sees his children. The mother currently reports high levels of stress that are in part due to Ben's ASD symptoms and his behavior at home. These symptoms include requiring considerable amounts of attention, difficulties with communication, mood swings and frequent outbursts, and trouble with school and homework.
Ben has had many problematic behaviors since birth including poor sleeping habits. Currently, Ben has entered the first grade and is experiencing tremendous difficulties in school which has prompted the school to moving Ben to an individualized educational program (IEP). Although there are many problematic behaviors that have been reported at school, the primary problem that the…… [Read More]
The right medication stimulates these under-operating chemicals to make added neurotransmitters, thereby enhancing the child's potential to concentrate, have a check on the impulses, and lessen hyperactivity. Medication required to attain this usually needs a number of doses in the course of the day, since a single dose of medication remains effective for a short interval up to 4 hours. but, slow or timed-release types of medication for instance, Concerta would let a child having ADHD to go on to take the advantage of medication in an extended stretch of period. (Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A esource for School and Home)
Psycho-stimulant medications like MPH are considered to trigger auto-regulatory or control procedures, thus improving the basic restraint shortfall in children having ADHD. Documented experiments on stimulants have exhibited experimental favor for this hypothesis. For instance, the influences of MPH on reaction restraint employing the fundamental stop-signal…… [Read More]
He must have a reasonable amount of stick-to-itiveness and patience to tolerate difficult tasks; if he gives up immediately, learning will obviously be impaired. And... The ADHD child is both inattentive and readily frustrated. The learning problems are further complicated because they tend to move in vicious circles; they often snowball. (Wender, 2000, p. 22)
Another related aspect is that unless the problems that the student is experiencing are related to his or her ADHD condition, the student may become demotivated as a result of poor performance and criticism. This can lead to other learning issues and even to serious related problems such as the loss of self -worth and self-esteem. This will in turn impact again on the learning ability of the student.
There are numerous studies which attest to the relationship between ADHD and learning problems. In a study by Maynard et al. (1999) it was found that…… [Read More]
Fibromyalgia has emerged as one of the more controversial and prominent disorders of the recent years and decades. It is controversial because many have dismissed it as a perception or form of hypochondria while others have strongly asserted that this is dangerous talk and the disorder is absolutely real. This paper will discuss what the disorder is, who is at risk for it, what the symptoms are and what treatments are available. While the diagnosis and treatment of fibromyalgia is still somewhat in its nascent stages, there are indeed options that exist and a good many people have come forward as having the disorder.
Fibromyalgia is a disorder that manifests in a large amount of pain and something known as allodynia. The latter of those terms refers to a condition whereby pressure and touch becomes much more sensitive than it would be for a regular person as it becomes painful…… [Read More]
The normative sample for the DAPS included 620 participants from a stratified random sampling from Department of Motor Vehicles registries and telephone listings (Smith). Of these 620 participants, 446 reported at least one DSM-IV-T experience in the past. Smith also reports that 70 university students were sampled as well. The assessment authors conducted another sample to measure reliability. The study included 257 undergraduate students, 191 clinical patients, and 58 participants recruited through flyers and newspaper advertisements (Smith). Both samples were primarily female, 74% in the university sample and 80% in the community sample, as well as Caucasian, 84% in the university sample and 77% in the community sample (Smith). The mean age was 19.6 in the university sample and 35 in the community sample.
Boothroyd reports the following reliability and validity data for the DAPS. The majority of the 13 scales have Cronbach coefficients above .8, and internal…… [Read More]
Danny's case, we do not have enough information thus far to make an accurate diagnosis. The information that he has provided is helpful as a starting point, but Danny has indicated that he is somewhat uncooperative at this point (he says he is not here for you to diagnose him with depression and that his arrival at your office is mandated by the school as part of his probation -- otherwise he would not be there). So, in order to properly diagnose Danny, more time will be needed and more information. Nonetheless, there are signs, just from the little that we have to go on, that could point us in the right direction. The history provided by the parents and the comments made my by Danny himself do suggest that Danny may be showing symptoms of bi-polar disorder…but more work must be done before this diagnosis can be made.
In…… [Read More]
GEONTOLOGICAL & GIATIC NUSING
Nursing Paper-Gerontological & Griatric Nursing
End of Life Issues and the Elderly
(2) "Identify and discuss the role of the nurse in providing family centred care to an elderly client who is palliative and living at home with his/her spouse or another family member."
Palliative care is an approach to provide a coordinated medical, nursing, and allied health service to address the patient's physical, social emotional and spiritual needs for people with progressive incurable illness. Palliative care seeks to deliver allied health service within the environment of person's choice to improve quality of life for both an ill person and the family or friends. In the United States, Europe and other part of the world, number of people reaching the advanced age and having the need of specialities for the management of pain control continues to increase. (oyal College of Nursing, 2004).
Meanwhile, a nurse plays…… [Read More]
Even though users of light therapy are often advised not to look directly at the light source, the mechanisms of the eye focus incoming light onto the macula, the small region of the retina where vision takes place, and where age-related macular degeneration occurs. Since blue light wavelength make up only a small percentage of the light in white light, any form of light therapy using a high proportion of blue light therefore risks subverting a variety of defensive mechanisms that protect the retina against blue light hazard. These defensive mechanisms include the anatomical positioning and structure of eye and its surrounding features, as well as human posture, which makes it awkward for humans to gaze upwards for long periods of time. Sunnex iotechnologies, 2008)
The work of David H. Sliney entitled: "Ocular Hazards of Light" presented at the International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop states the following risks and…… [Read More]
The objective of this study is to examine the condition of Fibromyalgia. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of current literature in this area of inquiry.
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome reported as common and one in which the individual has pain throughout their body as well as joint, muscle, tendon and soft tissue tenderness on a long-term basis.
Causes of Fibromyalgia
While the cause of Fibromyalgia is uncertain it has been linked to such as fatigue, problems sleeping, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Factors that are believed to be potential triggers of fibromyalgia include: (1) physical or emotional trauma; (2) abnormal responses to pain in areas of the brain; (3) disturbances in sleep; and (4) infection although no specific virus has been identified as being responsible for causing Fibromyalgia.
Occurrence of Fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia is known to occur most in women ages 20 to 50 years of age.…… [Read More]
This lighting component is connected by the "IR receiver/sensor to the dimming ballast...[which]...provides the control to change the lamp's lumen output." (Richman, 2005)
Another lighting system introduced by Knisley is one that "features a manual override of automated fluorescent lighting settings through use of a wall-mounted control, an infrared handheld remote control device, or a PC workstation." (Knisley, 2005) This system is capable of implementing natural daylight where available which is known as "daylight harvesting" and a strategy which utilizes "ceiling-mounted photocells to measure the changing contribution of daylight and then compares this light level to an established level of light in a room. The controller responds by dimming or brightening the fluorescent lighting to sustain the desired level. The controller is compatible only with specific manufacturer's electronic fluorescent dimming ballasts." (Knisley, 2008) Knisley describes yet another system which combines "fixtures, user controls, and digital communications and as an alternative…… [Read More]
Autobiography of Iviannette Figueroa
In this paper, I will describe my life and how my life experiences have shaped the person that I am today, how they have impacted my dreams, and what I intend to do in the future. In this paper I explore my childhood and how the difficulties that I encountered in that childhood have helped shape the woman I am today. The woman that I am today is a mother, a wife, and a student working towards admission into the respiratory therapist program. Generally, I have worked hard to put a difficult childhood behind me. As a result, I have to acknowledge that an autobiographical paper was very challenging for me. I do not like to think about how my childhood has impacted the woman that I am today. While I am generally self-confident, I realize that the things I like the least about myself are…… [Read More]
narcolepsy and its treatment. Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that may have its origins as a neurological disorder. Narcoleptics can fall asleep uncontrollably during the day, and suffer from sleeplessness at night. Often, this disease is undiagnosed and untreated. It usually becomes apparent between the ages of 15 and 25, but it can occur at any time in a person's life. Narcolepsy is a serious illness that requires treatment, but there is no cure. It can be managed with drugs and lifestyle changes.
Normally, a person enters EM (apid Eye Movement) sleep about 90 minutes after falling asleep. This is the deepest form of sleep, and it is when dreams usually occur. During this time, sleepers may experience a loss in muscle tone, sleep paralysis, and especially vivid dreams. In a narcoleptic patient, EM occurs almost immediately after falling asleep, and it can reoccur throughout the day, as well. The…… [Read More]
Restless Legs Syndrome and its related risk factors as they relate to nursing. The medical community has labeled Restless Legs Syndrome as idiopathic. In addition, Restless Leg Syndrome is not curable although the syndrome seems to wax and wane over time. It is a definitely annoying sleep predicament which occurs in adults and can become especially problematic for the elderly. "The prognosis of Restless Leg Syndrome is a lifelong condition for which there is no cure. Remissions do occur, but symptoms will usually reappear." (Cuellar, 2003)
Because a patient's health can so often be linked directly to sleep patterns, this disorder becomes particular troubling to the nursing community. The research gathered throughout this research process could possibly provide assistance to the nursing community with both new and seasoned staffs as well as the patient community's awareness.
Some insights into the lives of individuals who suffer from this syndrome may help…… [Read More]
FIBOMYALGIA OUTLINE and PAMPHLET
Introduction to Fibromyalgia
Symptoms of Fibromyalgia
Effects of the symptoms on the body.
isk factors and preventive steps.
Diagnosis and Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Therapeutic and diagnostic methods for fibromyalgia.
Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Having many physical and clinical symptoms, Fibromyalgia is a syndrome whose effects are felt in form of extreme musculoskeletal pain. It is believed that many environmental, genetic and biological factors are responsible for the start and progress of this infection although its etiology is undermined. In many industrialized countries, its rate of occurrence is 0.7-4.7% amongst the general population. It is incidentally seen more in women than men and the general female-to-male ratio being 9-1. Due to the diverse nature of its symptoms, those infected experience major difficulties adapting to their working environment, family or their life. It also subjects the sufferers to use consultative health services and social resources…… [Read More]
Sleeping and Insomnia
Introduction have been observing my roommate's sleeping patterns. He has insomnia and takes sleeping pills every night, sometimes with alcohol. My hypothesis is that his dependence on sleeping pills and his mixing with alcohol are hindering his condition, rather than helping it. I think that there are many other, more natural things he could do to ease his insomnia.
General understanding of sleeping
We spend about one third of our life sleeping. Sleep is defined as the suspension of consciousness during which the powers of the body are restored (ThinkQuest, 2003). The brain is not at rest during sleep as popularly thought, but is extremely active and it is the brain that tells us when it is time to sleep. Sensations of light taken in from the retina are transferred through the nerves to an area of the brain determines the amount of light exposure and adjusts…… [Read More]
However, he questions the research that has been done in this area. First, he wonders whether the exercise is a placebo effect based on the anticipation of improvement. The second question is the acceptability of this treatment. Many CFS patients actively avoid exercise and many healthcare providers in fact recommend rest at all costs rather than a concern of relapse. However, the positive aspect of the CBT and the exercise is that it has the patients question their fears. In both cases, there is a psychotherapeutic affect that may be beneficial.
The use of antidepressants is another approach that has been suggested and studied. However, the results on this have also been mixed. As Demitrack (1996, p. 282) states, "At the present time, it is unrealistic to present medication as a sole treatment for this disease." It may be that medications could work in the short-term and provide enough symptomatic…… [Read More]
Fibromyalgia is a rather mysterious condition, with no known cause and no known cure. The symptoms of fibromyalgia consist primarily of muscle and joint pain and heightened sensitivity to pain, experienced globally. Secondary symptoms, which are also common in sufferers, include chronic fatigue, cognitive and memory dysfunction, sleep disorders, and mood disorders. Women are far more likely to suffer from fibromyalgia than men, and age of onset is generally between 30 to 50 years. A combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are recommended, with the latter taking precedence over the former in evidence-based practice. Prognosis is relatively good when the right combination of lifestyle and treatment options is employed.
The cause of fibromyalgia remains a mystery. ecent research reveals the possibility of a genetic marker for pain sensitivity in fibromyalgia patients, in that haplotypes of the COMT gene and genotypes of the Val158Met polymorphism play a key role on…… [Read More]
3.3 Data Collection
Is maternal UE3A active following iPS treatment: Data will be gathered on the iPS-treated mice via positron emission tomography, and in vivo brain slice preparation, and Western lot Analysis. H1 will essentially be ascertained following these tests.
Does iPS treatment rescue the motor and cognitive deficits associated with Angelman Syndrome: Data will be gathered from testing the treated mice in scientifically recognized tests of cognitive ability in a mouse model. This project proposes using the water maze test, the electric shock test, and the submerged platform test. H2 will effectively be answered using the data gleaned from these tests.
4.1. Potential Therapeutic and Other Considerations
The potential of using iPS treatment to rescue/alleviate the severe motor and cognitive deficits witnessed in Angelman Syndrome is theoretically viable. Reliable mouse models of AS exist with which to run the tests. The technology needed to tease iPS stem…… [Read More]
The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)
However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.
Severe Traumatic Brain njury
The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…… [Read More]
"…people with NES tend to be more depressed than obese people without NES, and the mood of those with NES tends to worsen during the evening, something not seen in other obese people"(Logue, 2004, p. 185).
Among the many studies that provide insight into the background and origins of this syndrome, one of the most enlightening was Obesity by Stunkard, in Fairburn and Brownell (2002). This provides an in-depth analysis of night eating syndrome as well as a concise overview of the background of this condition. Stunkard also refers to a detailed overview of this condition.
Studies using the above criteria estimate that the prevalence of the night eating syndrome in the general population is approximately 1.5% and that prevalence increases with increasing weight, from about 10% of persons enrolling in obesity clinics to as high as 25% of patients undergoing surgical treatment for obesity…it occurs among about 5% of…… [Read More]
Melatonin & the Pineal Gland
The focus of this work is to examine melatonin and the pineal gland. Towards this end, this study examines the literature in this area of study and reports on the findings. The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland hormonal activity "is influenced by both the dark-light cycle and the seasonal cycle, causing it to play an important role in the neuroendocrine control of reproductive physiology."
Melatonin & The Pineal Gland
The work of Turgut and Kumar (1996) addresses information on the pineal gland, "epiphysis…a small gland in the brain. Stated as that the chief product of pineal gland is that of melatonin. Aleandri, Spina and Morini report that the pineal gland…… [Read More]
Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.
In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…… [Read More]
consciousness has been studied actively since the 1960s. Interestingly, Taylor (2003) notes, "Consciousness is a subtle phenomenon, which has so far resisted all attempts to understand it." Taylor's statement may be an exaggeration, as the author of this assigned reading goes on to discuss a number of facets of consciousness that have been well studied. These include biological rhythms, facets of waking consciousness, automatic vs. controlled processing, shifts in self-awareness, sleep, and drugs that alter consciousness.
This article notes that circadian rhythms can be either short-term or longer term, and are simply biological rhythms that occur as regular changes in our bodily functions and processes. The pineal gland plays an important role in long-term biological rhythms like hibernation through its production of melatonin. Human differences between day and night people is a common example of biological rhythms in humans.
The author then moves on to examine common disturbances in circadian…… [Read More]