Smoking In Public Essays (Examples)

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Smoking After Many Studies Observations

Words: 360 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52576228

Furthermore, smokers are also in greater danger than non-smokers of premature death as a result of their habit. Indeed, the Action on Smoking and Health Web site states that worldwide, a staggering 5 million smokers per year die prematurely, and that half of all smokers are at risk of premature death.

The prospects for non-smokers exposed to secondary smoke are also gloomy. According to Science News Online. http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07), a study has shown that secondary smoke causes at least 40% of the damage to a non-smoker as smoking does. Surely, for the protection not only of non-smokers, but also of smokers themselves and of our children, the law should discourage this habit.

eferences

Action on Smoking and Health. "Factsheet No:2." http://www.ash.org.uk/html/factsheets/html/fact02.html (accessed 07March07).

Seppa N. " Science News Online: Secondary Smoke Carries High Price." http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07).… [Read More]

References

Action on Smoking and Health. "Factsheet No:2." http://www.ash.org.uk/html/factsheets/html/fact02.html (accessed 07March07).

Seppa N. " Science News Online: Secondary Smoke Carries High Price." http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07).
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Public Awareness and Human Diseases

Words: 2069 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71634531



A way to better distribute the information that is being taught in the classrooms is also through the community so that the changes are also effecting the parents to the students, as a change on their part as well would be helpful in the battle against obesity. It would be useful to initially target pamphlets, an informational booth or table at grocery stores, where the foundation of the problem lies. It would be effective if information is given before families go grocery shopping so they are more conscious of the items that they are purchasing. Furthermore, information should also be initially presented on TVs, in newspapers and magazines and other mediums that would likely be used in the more low-key and sedentary setting in order to galvanize individuals to get outside. Once outside, in order to sustain the physical activity, it would be nice to have water and juice at…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ahuja, Gitika, & Salahi, Lara. (11, February 2010). School nutrition program takes up obesity fight. Retrieved from  http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/OnCall/school-nutrition-program-takes-obesity-fight/story?id=9802468 

CausesofChildhoodObesity.org, Initials. (2010). Causes of childhood obesity. Retrieved from  http://causesofchildhoodobesity.org/ 

Facts about obesity in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov /pdf/facts_about_obesity_in_the_united_states.pdf

Mayo Clinic Staff, Initials. (2011, May 06). Risk factors. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=risk-factors
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Public Health Overweight Obesity Struggling With

Words: 307 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23926561

The problem is however that results appear less promising in the long-term. The most effective period for weight loss occurs during the first six months, whereas weight gain once again appears after this time.

hile it is a good idea to implement school and work-based programs, commercial giants such as KFC and Macdonald's make it very difficult to sustain healthy nutrition and weight loss. Advertising that tends to focus on the pleasure of eating unhealthy foods is one of the great culprits promoting obesity in the United States. Perhaps food addictions could be fought more effectively by similar means. The media could be used to promote healthy habits and curb unhealthy ones in terms of fast foods. This technique has shown promising results in smoking and could also prove useful in the food industry.

Source

Guide to Community Preventive Services (2003, January 3). Overweight/Obesity. www.thecommunityguide.org/obesity… [Read More]

While it is a good idea to implement school and work-based programs, commercial giants such as KFC and Macdonald's make it very difficult to sustain healthy nutrition and weight loss. Advertising that tends to focus on the pleasure of eating unhealthy foods is one of the great culprits promoting obesity in the United States. Perhaps food addictions could be fought more effectively by similar means. The media could be used to promote healthy habits and curb unhealthy ones in terms of fast foods. This technique has shown promising results in smoking and could also prove useful in the food industry.

Source

Guide to Community Preventive Services (2003, January 3). Overweight/Obesity. www.thecommunityguide.org/obesity
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Bans on Smoking in American Cities New

Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45619639

BANS ON SMOKING IN AMEICAN CITIES: NEW YOK CITY & LOS ANGELES

Public Health

Moving with unexpected swiftness, New York state lawmakers passed a sweeping anti-smoking measure that makes New York the third state after California and Delaware to ban smoking in all workplaces, including restaurants, bars, and hotels. Within hours of the New York bill's passage, Governor George E. Pataki signed the tough measure, which exempts only America-Indian-owned casinos, cigar bars already licensed in New York City, fraternal clubs, outdoor areas of restaurants with no roof or awning, private homes, and personal but not company cars. New York's ban will take effect July 24 in areas where smoking now is permitted and where local ordinances are weaker. Although the law will not supersede the stricter measures previously passed in Westchester and Nassau counties, it will replace elements of New York City's new law, which took effect March 30.

Bans…… [Read More]

References:

Hahn, RN, E.J., Rayens, PhD, M.K., York, RN, PhD, N., Zhang, RN, M., Dignan, PhD, Delaimy, MD, PhD, W.K. (2006) Effects of a Smoke-Free Law on Hair Nicotine and Respiratory Symptoms of Restaurant and Bar Workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 48(9), 906 -- 913.

Magzamen, S., & Glantz, PhD, S.A. (2001) The New Battleground: California's Experience with Smoke-Free Bars. American Journal of Public Health, 91(2), 245 -- 252.
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Banning Smoking in Restaurants in All States

Words: 2178 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13155519

Banning Smoking in Restaurants in All States

Through this study, the author aims to support a policy regarding ban on smoking in restaurants in all the 50 states of USA. The author is of the view that smoking should be banned in restaurants in all 50 states to lower the rate of second hand smoking related diseases in non-smokers

Due to bad impacts on secondhand smoke, it has been banned on public places and educational institutions in many states. For example, Utah fully banned smoking in restaurants in 1995 and California imposed a complete ban on smoking in restaurants and bars in 1998. No further complete smoking bans were passed by any state till 2002 when South Dakota totally banned smoking in workplaces, and Delaware totally banned smoking in workplaces, restaurants, and bars. As of 2002, the number of states where there is complete ban on smoke at workplace, restaurant…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Borland, R., Mullins, R. Trotter, L., & White, V.(1999). Trends in environmental tobacco smoke restrictions in the home in Victoria, Australia. Tobacco Control, 8, 266-271

Cunningham, R. (2006). National and subnational legislation requiring 100% smokefree restaurants and bars. Canadian Cancer Society. Retrieved on August 28, 2011 from www.smokefreeottawa.com/2006_en/pdfs/smokefreevacations.pdf.

Dockrell, M.J., Sandford, A., & Ward, S.(2007). Smoke-free public places and their impact on public health. Epert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, 7(4), 309-313

Farrelly, M.C., Nonemaker J.M., Chou, R., Hyland, A., Peterson, K.K., & Bauer, U.E. (2005). Changes in hospitatilty workers' exposure to secondhand smoke following the implementation of New York's smoke-free law. Tobacco Control, 4(4), 236-224
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Health Website Smoking Cessation Is

Words: 1414 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3735427

Phone numbers are displayed liberally. A stop-smoking hotline is listed with a toll-free telephone number. Links to sponsoring organizations like the Centers for Disease Control allow visitors to read more, and a "Get expert help" section invites viewers to use instant messaging to communicate with a "National Cancer Institute smoking cessation counselor."

Technical/Design Characteristics

Illustrations are used sparingly. No negative illustrations such as those depicting lungs decayed by cancer are included, keeping the imagery on the Web site positive and inoffensive. Most of the illustrations included on smokefree.gov are photographs depicting men and women exercising and enjoying the great outdoors. The images refresh themselves often, like a slide show. The smiling faces on the models imply that quitting smoking will make anyone feel healthier and more alive. Inclusion of people from various ethnic groups in the smokefree.gov photo database is helpful in reaching a broad audience. Background of the Web…… [Read More]

References

London, F., Rankin, S.H., Stallings, K.D. (2005). Patient education in health and illness

5 thed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven Publishers.

National Cancer Institute. Retrieved June 16, 2008 at  http://www.cancer.gov/ 

Smokefree.gov. Web site retrieved June 16, 2008 at http://www.smokefree.gov/index.asp
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Smoking Stages of Change

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59104161

Stages of Change Model: 43-year-old Smoker

The first stage of the Transtheoretical Stages of Change model is that of pre-contemplation, in which the client is still not fully committed to the need to taking action to make a necessary change. In the case of a 43-year-old smoker who began smoking in childhood, the smoker may be reluctant to commit to change because of a history of failed attempts. At this stage, the counselor would need to give the smoker options to convince the client that the next time will be different—for example, the use of medications, patches, or supportive group or individual counseling, versus going cold turkey. Asking questions such as, “What needs does smoking serve in your life,” may be useful, to identify the social and physical needs smoking has fulfilled. A typical, Caucasian resident of the United States who has resided in the US for the entirety of…… [Read More]

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Smoking in Cars With Children Present

Words: 2505 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77412985

Banning Smoking in Cars With Children: Moral and Legal Issues

Five states in America, Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Maine and Oregon, and also Puerto ico -- have made it a crime to smoke in cars when children are there, and more states are considering the adoption of this legislation as well. For instance, other nations such as Canada, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates are also leaning towards such a ban. The ban is viewed as beneficial in the sense that it not only protects children but it also minimizes the amount of accidents which will be derived from cigarette-related distractions, such as lighting, ashing or dropping them while driving (ash.org). However, the biggest impetus for this legislation is the desire to protect all innocent children from exposure to the hazards which are inherently connected to cigarettes and cigarette smoke. One of the inherent necessities of this issue is in…… [Read More]

References

Ash.org. (n.d.). Smoking Should be Banned in Cars Whenever Children are Present. Retrieved from Ash.org: http://ash.org/carsmoking

Brown, A. (2014, Jan 29). Banning smoking in cars is wrong: where would it end? Retrieved from telegraph.co.uk: http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/andrewmcfbrown/100257222/banning-smoking-in- cars-is-wrong-where-would-it-end/

Healthday. (2013, July 23). Poll: U.S. Adults Support Smoking Ban in Cars With Kids. Retrieved from usnews.com: http://health.usnews.com/health-news/news/articles/2013/07/23/poll- us-adults-support-smoking-ban-in-cars-with-kids

Jarvie, J., & Malone, R. (2008). Children's Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Private Homes and Cars: An Ethical Analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 2140 -- 2145.
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Public Policy Directly Affects Local Government Area

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24343602

public policy directly affects local government area organization located. You select a policy affects,, local government area work located. (I work Orlando, Fl). The private sector affected federal, state, local policies.

Public policy: Healthcare in Orlando, Florida

Public policy is a government's attempt to address a problem that affects the public or to improve citizens' lives through legislation. One example of public policy on a federal level is that of the government's efforts to reform both government-sponsored and private healthcare insurance and to curtail spiraling healthcare costs. On a state level, Florida has made an aggressive attempt to reform healthcare. The focus of the proposed Florida program to reform Medicaid, the government insurance program for low-income residents, has been to force healthcare entities to limit care by setting spending caps, increasing the emphasis on personal responsibility, and charging patients fees for procedures to reduce the use of services.

Medicaid is…… [Read More]

References

Deslatte, Aaron. (2011, February 11). Florida Senate Medicaid bill would use HMO-like plans, ban illegal immigrants from care. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved February 19, 2011 at http://www.orlandosentinel.com/health/os-mulling-medicaid-cuts-20110217,0,1932812.story
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Smoking and Politics

Words: 1884 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18507536

battle against cigarettes and tobacco has been around for a long time. As the authors A. Lee Fritschler and James M. Hoefler point out in their book Smoking and Politics there has always been a tug of war over the "golden leaf," the paradox that strict regulation of the business meant a windfall for the government.

Concern about the health consequences of smoking predates the "modern era" by nearly four centuries. In 1604, for example, King James I of England lambasted smoking as, "a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the Nose, harmeful to the braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomless" (as quoted in Sullum, 1998, p 18). King James subsequently raised the tax on tobacco by 1000%, deriving significant revenues for his coffers. This illustrates the profound dilemma that has…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Cancer Society, et al. (2002) "Critical Elements of Any Legislation to Grant FDA

Authority to Regulate Tobacco Products." Viewed online on 11/25/2002 at  http://www.tobaccofreekids.org /research/factsheets/pdf/0181.pdf

Center for Disease Control: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health

Promotion (2002) "Chronology of Significant Developments Related to Smoking and Health." Viewed on 11/27/2002 at  http://www.cdc.gov /tobacco/overview/chron96.htm
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Public Health Threats in the 21st Century

Words: 1571 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69466037



Conclusion

This key characteristics of community-based participatory research were shown to include the equitable involvement of all stakeholders, including community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in ways that allow all partners to contribute to the enhancement of community health initiatives. The seven major steps used in an outbreak investigation and the various components of TB prevention and control in the U.S. were outlined. An analysis concerning the greatest future challenges to tobacco cessation interventions showed that nicotine is highly addictive, but that these challenges can be mitigated through enhanced healthcare curricular offerings and various evidence-based strategies. The differences in eligibility criteria between Medicaid and Medicare were shown to relate to target group and that there would be a need for these programs throughout the 21st century. Finally, because oral diseases affect lower-income people more frequently, they are regarded as a neglected epidemic that can have profound adverse healthcare consequences if…… [Read More]

References

CDC tuberculosis guidelines. (2014). Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved April 25, 2014

from   http://www.cdc.gov /tb/publications/guidelines/default.htm .

Gorin, S. (2000, February). A 'society for all ages': Saving Social Security and Medicare. Health and Social Work, 25(1), 69.

Israel, B.A. & Parker, E.A. (2006, October). Community-based participatory research: Lessons
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Public Health Job Description

Words: 542 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42889337

Tobacco Education and Outreach Specialist

DUTIES

egularly reviews published peer-reviewed literature on the health impacts of tobacco use and addiction, and writes blog posts and news articles based on this data.

Designs and implements outreach programs for varying demographics, focusing on smoking prevention as well as smoking cessation.

Investigates local tobacco retailers and ensures compliance with tobacco control legislation.

Issues warning letters accordingly when tobacco vendors have been shown to violate tobacco control legislation.

Provides, when necessary, testimony in courtrooms for tobacco-related lawsuits.

Creates comprehensive tobacco education programs for the corporate sector, with the goal of helping organizations become tobacco-free environments.

Works closely with local health care organizations including private clinics and hospitals, to promote tobacco education services.

QUALIFICATIONS

Degree in public health administration, nursing, or related field.

Work or internship experience in a public health organization.

Strong verbal and written communication skills.

AVEAGE SALAY

$35,000-$45,000 ("Community Outreach Specialist Careers,"…… [Read More]

References

"Community Outreach Specialist Careers," (n.d.). Careers in Public Health. Retrieved online: http://www.careersinpublichealth.net/careers/community-outreach-specialist

Huselid, M.A. (1995). The impact of human resources management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal 38(3): 635-672.

"Recruitment and Retention," (n.d.). PHF. Retrieved online: http://www.phf.org/programs/recruitmentandretention/Pages/RecruitmentandRetention_of_public_healthworkers.aspx

United States Department of Labor (2016). Summary of the major laws of the Department of Labor. Retrieved online: http://www.dol.gov/general/aboutdol/majorlaws
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Structure and Responsibility of Public Health

Words: 1133 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21567072

Public health as a discipline is really both the science and art of preventing disease, improving health, and prolonging the quality of life within a given society by use of public and private organizations. Overall, it is concerned with threats that are the type that may hurt society as a whole -- epidemics, dangers, social and mental well-being, etc. Modern public health is a multi-disciplinary field that includes medical professionals, statisticians, biologists, ecological and environmental professionals, dental professionals, nutritional experts, veterinarians, engineers, lawyers, sociologists, anthropologists, academics, and the political process itself (Rosen, 1993).

Historically, disease vectors, polluted water and pathogens, and lack of sewage without any scientific basis for control or actual understanding of pathogens created public health problems. In the modern world, public health focuses on several levels of health: local/regional, state, national and global -- typically based upon population statistics, demographics and the analysis of disease. Even in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Breslow, L. (Ed.). (2002). Encyclopedia of Public Health. New York: Macmillan.

Centers for Disease Control. (2012, April). National Public Health Performance Standards - Local Public Health Systems. Retrieved from cdc.gov:   http://www.cdc.gov /od/ocphp/nphpsp/documents/Local_v_1_OMB_0920-0555.pdf 

National Association of County and City Health Officials. (2011, February). Programs and Information. Retrieved from Naccho.org:  http://www.naccho.org/ 

Rosen, G. (1993). A History of Public Health. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
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Issue of Smoking

Words: 1185 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74445858

moking and Lung Disease

moking is a hazardous habit that has the ability to greatly affect the health of the smoker and those that are close to them. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate smoking and lung disease. The discussion will focus on possible community health nursing interventions/teaching strategies. We will also use Orem's nursing model to describe the community, its health issue/problem, and proposed interventions.

Community and Health issue

The community in question is Grady County which is located in Chickasha, Oklahoma. moking is a prevalent problem in this community and people are seemingly unaware of the health consequences related to smoking. The reason why this issue was chosen was due to my mother having evere Emphysema and the effects this disease has on her, also because of the impact that second hand smoking can have on non-smokers For example, I am Deathly Allergic to moking. My…… [Read More]

Sources, and Consumption Values of Teenagers: Implications for Public Policy and Other Intervention Failures. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 36(1), 50+.

American Lung Asociation. 2005. http://www.lungusa.org/site/apps/s/content.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E& b=34706& ct=910873

Cigarette Smoking and Cancer, 2004. National Cancer Institute. http://cis.nci.nih.gov/fact/10_14.htm

Nicotene Addiction. (National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research Reporthttp://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/NicotineRR.pdf
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Keeping Cigarettes Away From Young People Through Media Campaigns

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5135629

Public Health Achievements

hat factors accounted for the control of tobacco in the U.S. Currently, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about 42.1 million Americans smoke cigarettes, which is about 18.1% of all adults (18 or over). About 20.5% of men smoke cigarettes and 15.8% of women smoke cigarettes (Liss, 2013).

the information environment -- mass media and counter-advertising. There is no doubt that media campaigns have a positive impact when it comes to anti-smoking campaigns. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that the first year of the federal government's national advertising campaign called "Tips from Former Smokers" "exceeded expectations; an estimated 1.6 million cigarette smokers attempted to stop smoking. Of those, about 100,000 actually succeeded in quitting, and that information came from a study published by the medical journal, The Lancet. Moreover, the campaign run by the CDC reportedly "inspired millions of nonsmokers to encourage…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control. (2011). Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from  http://www.cdc.gov .

Liss, S.M. (2013). CDC's Anti-Smoking Ad Campaign Spurred Over 100,000 Smokers to Quit;

Media Campaigns Must be Expanded Nationally and in the States. Center for Disease

Controls. Retrieved April 12, 2014, from  http://www.tobaccofreekids.org .
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Collective Impact and Public Collaboration

Words: 1263 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53475276

Opportunity that Logan Together has is to bring together the different groups in government, in schools, parents and health care practitioners to work together towards a common set of objectives regarding the well-being of children in Logan. This opportunity arises from the principle of collective impact, which is that groups working together can be more powerful and effective than if each group works individually in their own little silo.

The opportunity has presented itself with this new conceptualization of action because the external environment is favourable to this collaboration. Moreover, there are only limited internal weaknesses. The existing threats in the external environment can be overcome. Based on the analysis of the external environment, it is believed that Logan Together has tremendous potential for success, if given the right marketing strategy. The strategy will be focused on goals pertaining to the well-being of Logan's children, as these objectives are in…… [Read More]

References

Kania, J., Brown, F. & Juster, J. (no date). Collective insights on collective impact. In possession of the author.

Kania, J. & Kramer, M. (2013). Embracing emergence: How collective impact addresses complexity. Stanford Social Innovation Review. In possession of the author.

Logan Together (2015). The state of Logan's children and young people. Logan Together. In possession of the author.
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Military Ethics -- Smoking Within

Words: 1776 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52494149

Military personnel must achieve and maintain the best physical conditioning of they are reasonably able to reach for the duration of their enlistment as a fundamental obligation of being fit for duty. Smoking makes that impossible. Likewise, the American taxpayer has a justifiable interest in reducing the costs of fielding a military by eliminating unnecessary costs. Smoking invariably adds to the already substantial costs of providing medical care to armed services personnel, both during their active service as well as throughout their lives afterwards to the extent they rely on veteran's services for medical care.

Military personnel already understand that the privilege and benefits associated with military service entail various restrictions on rights enjoyed by civilians. In this case, military justice must catch up to the manner in which civilian society has already incorporated the understanding of the risks of smoking into American life.

eferences

Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire:…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:

Touchstone.

O'Neill, Xana and Lite, Jordan. "Real Estate Companies Making it Tougher for Smokers

in Their Homes" The New York Daily News, March 30, 2008. Retrieved February
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Nursing Supervised Smoking Cessation Plan

Words: 2766 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4187897



Developmental perspective was the concept that the nursing students participating in this study were typically younger than they patients they were caring for. This made it difficult for them to ask the "older" patient questions about a lifestyle they had been practicing for many years.

Environmental constraints were noted that prevented the participants in the study from fully implementing best practice guidelines. The primary of which was time. They noted that because of other duties and paper keeping requirements, they had little time to properly present the best practice guidelines. Some noted that they had little time to do expected things such as breathing, much less introduce the patient properly to best practice guidelines.

During their third year of training the nurses were introduced to a comprehensive program concerning cigarettes and cessation programs. In addition they had already been taught more efficient time management training. With these new tools they…… [Read More]

10) Sanders, D., Fowler, G., Mant, D., Fuller, a., Jones, L., & Marziller, j.

Randomized controlled trial of anti-smoking advice by nurses in General practice. Journal of the Royal College of General

Practitioners, 1989, 39, pp 273-276.
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Removing Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity

Words: 2301 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91781793

emoving Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity

The purpose of this proposed study is to determine if removing smoking from the workplace has increased workplace productivity. The writer will explore the question by using a survey study method. The participants will include workers across the nation in varying levels of work and careers. The proposed study is designed to measure whether or not there is an increase in productivity since employers began refusing to allow smoking in the workplace environment. There are several factors involved in the study including a look at five previously published studies regarding smokers and their habits. In addition the writer explores some of the different concerns for productivity that have been studied throughout the years with regards to smokers including secondhand smoke damage, absenteeism and dollars lost. This proposal suggests the direct question of affect on productivity from the time workplaces began to ban smoking…… [Read More]

References

Robert A. Logan; Daniel R. Longo, Rethinking Anti-Smoking Media Campaigns: Two Generations of Research and Issues for the Next. Vol. 25, Journal of Health Care Finance, 06-01-1999, pp 77-90.

Gonz-z; M.L. Ballester Calabuig., Tuberculosis Related to Labor Activity in an Area of Valencia, Spain. Vol. 62 no, Journal of Environmental Health, 07-01-1999.

Greene, Robert E.; Williams, Phillip L., Indoor air quality investigation protocols.. Vol. 59, Journal of Environmental Health, 10-01-1996, pp 6(9).

Dardis, Rachel; Keane, Thomas, Risk-benefit analysis of cigarette smoking: public policy implications.. Vol. 29, Journal of Consumer Affairs, 12-01-1995, pp 351(17).
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Student Smoking Behavior

Words: 900 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25896854

Students Smoking Behavior

The rates of campus students smoking have fluctuated over a period of the last twenty years. Most of the lifelong smokers' start their smoking habit before they reach the age of 24 years. This therefore means those campus years are a very crucial time when it comes to any study of cigarette smoking. Cigar rete smoking in campus has now become a very serious issue in public health issue. This has led to an increase in campus wide bans in smoking alongside other preventive programs in place to reduce students smoking rates. There are several economic, social and environmental factors that have been associated with the increase of smoking around campus students. Some of these factors are low socioeconomic status, students who have parents, close friends and relatives who smoke the acceptance as well as positive views of peers who smoke the exposure and high availability of…… [Read More]

References

Indiana University (2011), September 14). Campus smoking ban reduced students' smoking, changed attitudes. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 11,2013 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110914122700.htm

Schorr, M.(2009).A Third of college students smoke. Retrieved September 11,2013 from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=118065&page=1

Coster, D.(2013). Campus smokings ban a drag for some students. Retrieved September 11,2013 from  http://www.stuff.co.nz/taranaki-daily-news/news/9122346/Campus-smoking-ban-a-drag-for-some-students
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Scientific Effects of Smoking on the Human

Words: 942 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96151006

scientific effects of smoking on the human body especially on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We will give a brief analysis on how smoking affects the mentioned systems and see how the human body system works if the individual does not smoke. We will also support our paper with scientific and statistical evidence regarding the facts related to smoking.

Smoking and its effects

Before looking at smoking and its effects lets review on how the respiratory and cardiovascular systems work. When we breathe air it first enters Trachea/windpipe through which it enters on each of the bronchi present at both of the lungs. The bronchus is spread throughout the lungs like branches on trees and at its tips is as thin as a hair (bronchioles). Each lung has about thirty thousand bronchioles. At the tip of every bronchiole lies an area which leads to tiny air sacs known as alveoli.…… [Read More]

References

Timmins, William. (1989). Smoking and the workplace. New York: Quorum Books.

Klarreich, Samuel. (1987). Health and fitness in the workplace. New York: Praeger.

Weiss, Stephen. (1991). Health at work. New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.

Bunton, Robin. (2002). Health Promotion. London: Routledge.
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Advice - Smoking Cessation Advice

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71584562

Besides the most serious medical consequences, smoking causes bad breath, yellowing of teeth and is considered equally damaging to the skin in terms of premature aging and wrinkles as overexposure to the sun. Finally, the increased awareness of the dangers of second-hand smoke have already led to laws prohibiting smoking in the workplace, in restaurants and other public areas, and even in residential buildings. In general, smoking is becoming something that many people consider evidence of poor decision making or even low intelligence.

The decision to start smoking is just not consistent with good judgment and intelligent choices. The fact that so many people who already smoke wish they had never started and the difficulty they experience in trying to quit should be enough proof to anybody that starting is a very bad idea. Healthcare costs are one of the most expensive bills that Americans pay and a substantial amount…… [Read More]

References

Brody, Jane. In Adolescents, Addiction to Tobacco Comes Easy. The New York Times. (February 2, 2008).

O'Neill, Xana and Lite, Jordan. Real Estate Companies Making it Tougher for Smokers in Their Homes. The New York Daily News (March 30, 2008).
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Food as a Public Good and Obesity as an Externality

Words: 1729 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51126364

Health Public Good

Public Health as a Public Good

The United States has one of the lowest cost food options available to its consumers in the world. For an extended period, people assumed that this was a benefit of capitalism and that competition had helped push down the prices and made food available at lower costs through the market. However, many externalities have arisen in these circumstances that are now pointing researchers to question the consequences of having mass processed food available to consumers. The United States, as well as many other industrialized nations, currently has epidemic rates of obesity as well as the related obesity diseases such as heart disease and diabetes.

This trend is not restricted to just adult and the obesity rates among children have subsequently risen as well. This has made many instructions and activists compare the effects of poor diets and their health consequences to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, R. "Fat is a financial issue: Litigation over obesity could consign Big Mac, large fries and bucket-sized." 27 December 2002. The Guardian. Web. 28 March 2013.

Benloulou, J. "Pelman v. McDonald's: An In-depth Case Study of a Fast Food -- Obesity Lawsuit." April 2005.

"CASE 2-7." McDonald's and Obesity. N.d.

Chicago Defender. "Obesity and Fat Farm Subsidies." Chicago Defender (2003): 1. Online.
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Costa Rican Smoking Cessation

Words: 2663 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45911379



Evaluation Plan:

Outcomes to be Assessed:

The primary objective is to see that subjects of the program cease smoking and remain abstinent from tobacco use. This will be the primary outcome to be assessed therefore. Individuals in both the experiment and control groups would be consulted at the six-month juncture and the one year point in order to determine how many among them have remained abstinent from tobacco use in that duration and up to that point.

Other outcomes to be assessed would be long-term health factors relating to the use of tobacco. According to statistics compiled and sponsored by the T.J. Samson Community Hospital in Glasgow, Kentucky and most recently updated in the spring of 2006, habitual smokers of cigarettes are "fourteen times as likely to die of lung cancer" and twice as susceptible to fatality by heart disease. (T.J.S.C.H, 1) This means, according to the Community Hospital, that…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

American Heart Association (AHA). (2009). Smoking Cessation. Americanheart.org.

Bickman, L. & Rog, D.J. (2009). Randomized Controlled Trials for Evaluation and Planning. The Sage Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods.

Euromonitor International (EI). (2009). Tobacco in Costa Rica. Euromonitor.com

Fiore, M.C.; Novotny, T.E.; Pierce, J.P.; Giovino, G.A.; Hatziandreu, E.J.; Newcomb, P.A.; Surawicz, T.S. & Davis, R.M. (1990). Methods Used to Quit Smoking in the United States. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 263(20), 2760-2765.
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Psychosocial Smoking Cessation Interventions for Coronary Heart

Words: 3420 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23044103

psychosocial smoking cessation interventions for coronary heart disease patients effective?

The association with smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been well documented. To prevent further heart attacks, as well as to preserve their life, smokers have been consistently and strongly advised to quit smoking, and associations such as the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Task Force have drafted recommendations and reams of advice to assist patients in doing so. Nevertheless, many patients diagnosed with CHD continue to smoke despite the possibility of interventions and programs (many of them free) helping them to stop. Mortality can be reduced by as much as 36% if smokers with CHD determine to stop smoking 3-5 years after diagnosed (Critchley, 2003) aside from which dramatic reductions in cardiac attacks have been discovered when smokers have stopped smoking for as short a time as a year (Quist-Paulsen, & Gallefoss, 2003). The Coronary…… [Read More]

References

Barth, J., Critchley, J., & Benget, J. (2008). Psychosocial interventions for smoking cessations in patients with coronary heart disease, Cochrane Heart Review.

Critchley JA, Capewell S. Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease. J Am Med Ass;290:86 -- 97.

Frothingham, S. et al., (2006). How much does smoking cessation cut CHD risk? Clinical Inquiries, 57, 10, 675-679

Huey-Ling W., Harrell, J & Funk, S (2008). Factors Associated With Smoking Cessation
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Nursing Counseling and Smoking Cessation Among Inpatients

Words: 738 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4314111

Nursing Counseling and Smoking Cessation Among Inpatients

The work of Li, et al. (2014) reports a study that examines the facilitators and barriers to effective smoking cessation as it relates to counseling services provided to inpatients by nurse counselors.

The study reports that the Taiwanese Health Promotion Administration reports that 4.8 million smokers exist in Taiwan and that nearly 50% of these smokers were interested in quitting smoking. Smoking cessation is beneficial to both smokers and those whom they love and are loved by in that smoking cessation not only saves lives of those who quit smoking but in addition results in reduction in the costs of personal and health care. According to the report, THPA's implementation of the "New Smoking Cessation Policy on the 1st of March 2012 to expand smoking cessation counseling services to both outpatient and inpatient settings." (Li et al., 2014, p. 5) Li et al.…… [Read More]

References

Li, I. et al. (2014) Facilitators and Barriers to Effective Smoking Cessation: Counseling Services for Inpatients from Nurse-Counselor's Perspectives -- A Qualitative Study. Int J. Envrion Res. Public Health. 11, 4782-4798.
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Effects on Public Health of Health Care Reform

Words: 5200 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40260343

Health Care eform Effecting Public Health United States

Healthcare reform is an integral part of the United States healthcare system. Below is an evaluation of the effects healthcare reform has had on healthcare in the U.S. Internet sources as well as peer-reviewed journals will be looked at so as to see the effects.

The cost of healthcare has been on the rise. Issues of healthcare quality ought to be paid attention to and healthcare access equity improved upon (Health Care Transformation). Given these causes, while some differences exist on what reforms to carry out, a majority of Americans hold the belief that the U.S. Healthcare delivery systems need some improving. For a long time ANA has been advocating for reforms in healthcare and several of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions are in line with the Health System eform Agenda of the ANA. The ANA gave a chart that gives…… [Read More]

References"

1)

Kemp, C. (2012, October 11). Public Health in the Age of Health Care Reform. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from  http://www.cdc.gov /pcd/issues/2012/12_0151.htm

2)

How National Health Care Reform Will Affect a Variety of States. (2011, April 5). Retrieved January 21, 2015, from  http://www.rand.org/news/press/2011/04/05.html
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Essential of a Good Public Policy

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40031553

Disciplined Application of Intellect to Public Problems

Leslie Pal defined public policy as "a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities in addressing given problems or a set of interrelated problems (2010)." In essence, this implies that policies are instrumental in tackling issues of concern to the political community. ationalists argued the importance of policy analysis as having enough data and analysis hopes to solve problems in technical terms, without having to contaminate values. In public policy, the most important overarching value is the interest of public and is a benchmark or touchstone demonstrating what is done by democratic governments. For example, the Public Service has Values and Ethics Codes and under the law, the "democratic mission is to assist Ministers serve the interests of their public." The political system analyzes policies with an attempt to gain consensus, competition, the rule of law, inclusion, and gain good governance.…… [Read More]

Reference

Pal, L.A. (2010). Beyond Policy Analysis: Public Issue Management in Turbulent Times, (4th Eds.). Nelson Press.
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Obesity and Public Health

Words: 1033 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81962038

Government Health Initiatives:

Obesity and public health

Given the rise in obesity rates in the United States, prioritizing reducing the prevalence of this illness has become a critical cornerstone of many federal, state, and local health agencies. Because the federal government encompasses the USDA and the FDA which set health and safety standards for the foods consumed in the U.S. As well as offer nutritional guidelines, the federal government can exert a profound influence upon consumption habits. The government has also overseen a number of anti-obesity campaigns. First Lady Michelle Obama's "Let's Move" initiative is perhaps the most notable of these: it focuses on increasing physical activity and improving the diet of America's children. "esearch indicated that kids needed less sugar, salt and fat in their diets, so we revamped school lunch menus accordingly. When data showed that the lack of nearby grocery stores negatively affected people's eating habits, we…… [Read More]

References

Conflict of interest in USDA nutrition guidelines, doctors say. (2011). IBTimes

Retrieved from:  http://www.ibtimes.com/conflict-interest-usda-nutrition-guidelines-doctors-say-364426 

Lohr, K. (2014). Controversy swirls around harsh anti-obesity ads. NPR.

Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/2012/01/09/144799538/controversy-swirls-around-harsh-anti-obesity-ads
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Persuasive Against Smoking

Words: 1123 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32760190

If a driver ignored a road sign that said "Danger: Bridge Out!" and proceeded along the street, he would be labeled as an idiot by his community. If a fence had a sign on it that read, "arning: Vicious Dogs" and some adventure-seeking teens climbed that fence, no one would be surprised when they had their legs torn off by a pack of pit bulls. However, every single year 400,000 Americans die[1] from ignoring one of the most infamous warnings: The Surgeon General's warning on cigarette packages. Smoking cigarettes may seem to be a part of the definition of being an American-- everyone from the street punk rebels to the successful big business CEOs are automatically visualized with a cigarette or fat Cuban cigar hanging from their mouths. These smokers see themselves as a better person for the momentary pleasure they receive from these tobacco products, but fail to realize…… [Read More]

Works Cited.

The American Cancer Society. Who Is At Risk? "Tobacco and Cancer." 2001.

The American Heart Association. Publications and Resources. "Tobacco Smoke."

California Department of Health Services. Youth Media Network. "Effects of Secondhand Smoke." November 2001.

Emphysema Foundation For Our Right to Survive. Medical Info Pages. "About Smoking With Emphysema." January 2002.
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Dealing With Health and Smoking

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58865447

CVS enames Itself CVS Health as it Ends Sale of Tobacco Products

(1) Who are the major winners and losers in this story? Why do you think so?

The new CVS strategy definitely seems more consistent relative to health promotion. Promoting health and well-being includes smoking cessation and being smoke free. By selling tobacco products, many argued that CVS was sending mixed signals to their clients. However, the reorganization of the company, now referred to as CVS health, sends a clear message that they are in the health promotion business. Yet, by doing so, the company is also sacrificing a significant revenue stream in all their locations. It is too early to tell if the more consistent mission statement will overcome the loss in revenues that they will experience throughout the transition.

The general public should be a winner in this situation as well. Although some consumers might be inconvenienced…… [Read More]

References

CDC. (N.d.). Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking. Retrieved from CDC:  http://www.cdc.gov /tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/

Tobacco Free. (N.d.). State Tobacco Taxes. Retrieved from Tobacco Free:  http://www.tobaccofreekids.org /what_we_do/state_local/taxes/
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Zero Tolerance Policies in Public Schools

Words: 5978 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28363637

Education:

The Intolerance of Zero Tolerance

Zero Tolerance Policies in Public Schools

One has only to turn on the television, log onto the Internet, or glance at a newspaper to see that violence is everywhere in our society. The nightly news is dominated by one act of depravity after another: murders, rapes, and violent assaults, among others. Hate crimes send shockwaves through seemingly peaceful communities. A cross is burned in a field, a Jewish cemetery is ransacked, the tombstones broken and covered with swastikas, a gay college student is crucified on a fence, left to die by his homophobic classmates, and a Black man is dragged behind a speeding car. Such horrific incidents seem almost commonplace. Mutual intolerance of one group for another breeds hatred and cruelty. People today appear quick to anger and even quicker to react...violently. Stabbings and shootings and bloody assaults are as frequent as fights on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bauder, David. (14 October 1999). The Washington Post.

Fagan, Patrick. (1998). "The Breakdown of the Family: The Consequences for Children and American Society." Issues '98: The Candidate's Briefing Book, 6, 11. The Heritage Foundation.

Garbarino, James, PhD. (January 2001). "Where Do We Point the Finger of Blame?" Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 155. The American Medical Association.

Kemp, Dawn; and Center, David. (2000, August) "Troubled Children Grown Up: Antisocial Behavior in Young Criminals." Education and Treatment of Children, 23, 3. Atlanta, GA: Georgia State University, 223-238.
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Police vs Public

Words: 3513 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28298945

Police Interviews

The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the anonymity of the officers as well as a way to get the most honest and complete answers, the identity of the officers as well as the departments they have or do work for will not be identified in any way, shape or form. The answers garnered were insightful, honest and illuminating. The perspective they offer is perhaps not nearly as known as it should be given the reporting going on as it relates to the incidents in Ferguson and other places where cops have been shot or allegedly unarmed and/or innocent people on the street have endured the same. While there are two sides to each story, both the police and the people have the right to have their voice…… [Read More]

References

Cooper, H. (2009, July 22). Obama Criticizes Arrest Of a Harvard Professor. The New

York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/23/us/politics/23gates.html?_r=0

Reyes, D. (1994, November 2). Only One Drunk Driver in 500 Is Caught: Enforcement:

Even with tough Highway Patrol policy, probability of arrest in California is small.
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Detention Suspension and Expulsion Effect of Disciplinary Policy in Public School

Words: 4451 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12423838

Detention, Suspension,

AND EXPULSION:

EFFECT OF DISCIPLINAY POLICY

Instrument to be used

Participants

Future use of study results

Over the last few decades the institution of education has undergone many changes. One of the most scrutinized areas of education currently is the area of discipline. The recent rash of violence across the nation at high school has caused the focus to turn to discipline. The Columbine killings among other violent school events have caused experts to begin looking at bullies, violence, at risk students and others to discover what the key is to turning them around in their school career. One discipline method that has been used for years is removal of the offending student from the general student population. The student who is removed is done so either through suspension or expulsion. Suspension and expulsion are used in many situations as discipline. When students break zero tolerance policies, or…… [Read More]

References

Aisha Sultan; And Holly Hacker; Of The Post-Dispatch, METRO EAST SUSPENSION RATE IS TWICE THE STATE AVERAGE: PARENTS ARE ALARMED, BUT ADMINISTRATORS SAY ORDER MUST BE MAINTAINED., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 02-24-2002, pp C1.

Brian, Bumbarger. School Violence: Disciplinary Exclusion Prevention and Alternatives. Universties Children's Policy Partnership. 1999.

VOS Inger, Cambridge cuts suspensions., Waikato Times (New Zealand), 12-01-2001, pp 3.

Robert L. Morgan; Travis S. Loosli; Sebastian Striefel, REGULATING THE USE OF BEHAVIORAL PROCEDURES IN SCHOOLS: A FIVE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP SURVEY OF STATE DEPARTMENT STANDARDS. Vol. 30, Journal of Special Education, 01-15-1997.
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Law and Economics

Words: 1590 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27694728

life we are always faced with situations where the rights on one individual overlap those of another, causing a legal conflict that is often decided upon in the court of law. In many cases, these are private rights, but we are sometimes in a situation when the rights delimitation is imposed by the government, as is the case with the tobacco industry and smoking regulations and delimitations.

The problem with smoking in public places bares much resemblance in Canada, Europe or the United States. The right of smoking individuals to smoke in public places was gradually and constantly diminished to the degree that nowadays smoking in restaurants, offices or any closed locations. The movement against smoking in public places seems to have started in Canada in the early 1990s, when the City of Toronto emitted a series of by-laws, referred to as The Workplace Smoking y-law. This law "requires all…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. H. Demsetz, "Toward a Theory of Property Rights," American Economic Review, Vol.57 (May, 1967).

2. R.Coase, "The Problem of Social Cost," Journal of Law and Economics, Vol.3 (October 1960).

3. Impact of Workplace Smoking Restriction - Compliance Issues. On the Internet at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hecs-sesc/tobacco/facts/workplace/part3_compliance.html

Impact of Workplace Smoking Restriction - Compliance Issues. On the Internet at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hecs-sesc/tobacco/facts/workplace/part3_compliance.html
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Resisting Any Legislative Attempts to

Words: 559 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96227930



Thoughts

The new attitude of the ussian government makes perfect sense because, according to the article, the annual national death toll attributable to smoking in ussia is approximately 400,000. Moreover, the morbidity associated with smoking is only a portion of the total societal cost of smoking because it is estimated that smoking also costs the already-cash-strapped nation the equivalent of almost $50 billion in annual healthcare costs and lost worker productivity from smoking-related illnesses. Just as in the West before the historic disclosure of previously confidential industry information by a former insider that led to multiple class action settlements from litigation initiated by various state attorneys general in the 1990s, there is a tremendous tobacco industry political lobby in ussia fighting tooth-and-nail against the proposed legislation. Generally, they represent only the selfish interests of the tobacco companies and do not have any concern for the welfare of the members of…… [Read More]

Reference

Alpert, L.I. "Kremlin Cracks Down on Big Tobacco: Russia, the World's Second-Largest

Cigarette Market after China, Plans 'Harsh' Anti-smoking Rules." The Wall Street

Journal, October 15, 2012. Retrieved online:

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10000872396390443624204578058201182906048.html?mod=WSJ_business_whatsNews
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Business Law the 1988 and Later 1992

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39151916

Business Law

The 1988 and later 1992 Supreme Court decision in Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc. illustrates the functions and role of law in business and public health. This case relates to the tobacco industry's culpability in promoting smoking through marketing campaigns after knowledge of the detrimental effects of smoking, and in spite of the mandatory Surgeon General Warning labels that had been federally mandated since the 1960s and the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (1965 Act).

In the Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc., case, it was ultimately decided that the federal laws trumped state laws that permitted promotion of harmful materials, in this case, cigarettes. What is interesting about this case is that it pertains directly to marketing, rather than to the tobacco companies themselves. Separate litigation, of course, impinged upon the tobacco companies. The Cipollone v. Liggett Group case illustrates several key points. First, the case upholds…… [Read More]

Reference

Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc. Retrieved online: Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/90-1038.ZS.html
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Agree With New Yorks Ban

Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8037306

"Perhaps less dramatic because of their ubiquitous presence and legal status, nicotine and alcohol are often consumed together for physiological and/or social reasons. Both drugs stimulate dopamine release, and work synergistically to increase dopamine levels" (Menke, 2009). Similarly, the concept of enjoying a drink and a cigarette makes some people think that they live in a permissive environment, this standing as proof that they live in a democrat society. Moreover, "the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA, 1 998) reports that between 80% and 95% of alcoholics smoke" (Menke, 2009). It is thus difficult to consider the outcome that the smoking ban has had on bars and restaurants without actually checking for convincing data. In spite of the fact that many bar and restaurant owners complained in regard to how their businesses were severely affected by the smoking ban, reality seems to be different. The smoking ban was…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Menke, J. Michael "Bar Patronage after a Smoking Ban," Journal of Drug Issues 39.2 (2009)

Whitney, Ben "Study Finds New York Restaurants Not Hurt by Smoking Ban," Retrieved June 24, 2011, from the Tobacco Control Website: http://www.tobaccocontrol.neu.edu/tcu/tcu05.1/States/study_finds_new_york_restaurants.htm

"NYC Smoking Ban Debuts," Retrieved June 24, 2011, from the CBSNews Website: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/03/29/national/main546751.shtml
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Alcohol Tobacco and Marijuana The

Words: 1476 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30695449



Like alcohol, tobacco use is prohibited by minors but permitted by adults. Also like alcohol, tobacco use is detrimental to the health of the user, except even more so.

Whereas alcohol consumption generally benign and only acutely harmful when it is overused, tobacco use (especially in the form of cigarettes) is extremely dangerous for practically all users. This is simply a function of the fact that "typical" use of tobacco entails physical addiction to nicotine, its primary active ingredient. For this reason, it is very rare for smokers to use tobacco too infrequently to become chronic daily users

In contrast, most alcohol users do not partake so often that it compromises their physical health.

The dramatic long-term medical consequences of long-term tobacco use are universal as well as predictable; in fact, the medical community is united in the position that tobacco use causes more preventable illness and death than all…… [Read More]

References

Brecher, E.M. (1972) Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report.

Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age

New York: Little Brown & Co.
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Senator Rodney Ellis Texas State Senator Rodney

Words: 1630 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59487213

Senator Rodney Ellis

Texas State Senator Rodney Ellis, a Democrat representing District 13 in Houston, has been a member of the Senate since 1990. He graduated from Texas Southern University with a Bachelor of Arts; he received his M.P.A. (Master of Public Administration) from the Lyndon Baines Johnson School of Public Affairs, and got his J.D. (Justice of the Peace / Law Degree) from the University of Texas Law School. The senator is also a partner with Rice Financial Products Company; he is a shareholder in the Tagos Group; and he is an attorney associated with the Reaud, Morgan, & Quinn law firm. Senator Ellis is married to Licia Green-Ellis and the couple has four children. This paper reviews Ellis' career, his important issues, the controversies he has been involved in and other matters that are pertinent to this legislator.

Senator Rodney Ellis's Career and Community Involvement

Prior to being…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kuffner, Charles. (2011). Smoking ban survives Senate committee. Houston Chronicle.

Retrieved July 31, 2012, from http://blog.chron.com.

Martin, Gary. (2012). Sen. Rodney Ellis: Texas Voter ID law "has everything to do with race."

Houston Chronicle. Retrieved July 31, 2012, from http://blog.chron.com.
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Legalizing Activities Such as Recreational Drug Use

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87368177

legalizing activities such as recreational drug use that do not affect anyone other than the person who chooses to engage in the activity. In the sense that one's actions and choices always affect one's family and loved ones, the decision to take drugs impacts on their lives, but that is outside the realm of government legislation. The decision to smoke cigarettes or to skydive can also be said to affect the lives of one's loved ones, yet neither is prohibited by legislation.

Recently, both individual states and the federal government have enacted laws intended to severely limit the rights of tobacco smoking in public areas, in rightful recognition of the distinction between choices to engage in certain behaviors privately and the rights of others not to be subjected to dangers or inconvenience posed by such choices. This is the essential issue that distinguishes justifiable and unjustifiable government paternalism.

Drunk driving…… [Read More]

On another level, paternalistic legislation might be drafted to disqualify those who engage in certain behaviors from government subsidized medical care, under the theory that one has no right to saddle the rest of society with the financial burden of paying for one's irresponsible choice to persist in behaviors known to be detrimental to health and longevity. Naturally, the same concept would apply equally to those suffering the long-term medical consequences of smoking tobacco, which currently constitutes the largest preventable cause of lung cancer, heart disease, and many other illnesses that drain public resources.

The spectrum of government paternalism spans from complete permissibility, allowing utterly reckless conduct that is injurious to others to comprehensive over- regulation, where legal penalties attach to eating junk food if one is above one's ideal weight. My first disagreement with the current illegal status of recreational drugs is that I believe it represents a position on the spectrum that is too close to over- regulation in that it prohibits activities that are (or that should be) purely matters of personal choice. In my opinion, mandatory seatbelt and motorcycle helmet laws infringe into issues of personal choice where there is no justification based on protecting the public at large. Conversely, I am in favor of prohibiting seemingly innocuous activities such as operating cellular phones while driving, precisely because it increases the risk of collision with innocent people. The difference is seatbelts and helmets protect only the individual who chooses to use them, whereas distracted drivers represent a potential risk to other people as well. I also reject any claim that legalizing recreational drugs would result in an increase in crimes associated with their use, because, as I suggested earlier, the same can be said (and has already been witnessed in this country) in connection with 1920's Prohibition.

Ultimately, my most fundamental objection to the current illegal status of recreational drugs is their unjustified inequality and incongruence, as compared to regulation of tobacco, alcohol, and for that matter, ropeless mountain climbing and junk food. Regardless of any argument as to the appropriate point for anti-drug laws on the legislative spectrum between absolute permissibility and over-legislation, government regulations must, in principle, reflect uniformity and a logical consistency.
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Models of Policy Change

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23675457

Policy Changes

Eight Models of Policy Change as Related to a Problem-Structuring Method

Comprehensive Rationality and Synectics

According to the text, comprehensive rationality occurs when "an individual or collective decision maker […] weighs the cost and benefits of all available alternatives and takes actions that are motivated by a concern with the efficient use of resources" (Chapter 2, 48).

Here, problems within the community are addressed and discussed in terms of importance to see if they are worth acting upon. Some may not ever be dealt with, while others are sent forth onto the next stage.

An example of this is when a council member prepares a presentation for public policy change independently and then produces it to the Council.

Thus, the City Council should pair this with the Synectics problem structuring approach because of the fact an individual can create and discern comparisons without the distraction of the group.…… [Read More]

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Block for Instructions Issue Facing a Local

Words: 1051 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98631294

Block for Instructions

Issue facing a local community:

Limitations on soda consumption in New York City

One of the most divisive local issues in America does not pertain to gun control or education but revolves around that quintessentially all-American beverage -- the soft drink. New York City Mayor Bloomberg recently proposed limiting the sizes of "large sodas and other sugary drinks at restaurants, movie theaters and street carts, in the most ambitious effort by the Bloomberg administration to combat rising obesity" (Grynbaum 2012). While New York City's obesity rates are not as alarmingly high as elsewhere in the nation, they are still high enough to cause concern, specifically within demographics such as children, minorities, and the poor. Sodas have been the target of anti-obesity activists because of their minimal nutritional value and high caloric content. Under the proposal, sales of sweetened drinks larger than 16 fluid ounces would be prohibited…… [Read More]

References

DeNoon, Daniel. (2005). Drink more diet soda, gain more weight? Web MD. Retrieved:

http://www.webmd.com/diet/news/20050613/drink-more-diet-soda-gain-more-weight

Gross, Samantha. (2012). N.Y. mayor wants to limit soda drinks to 16 ounces. Philly.com.

Retrieved:  http://articles.philly.com/2012-06-01/news/31960343_1_sugary-drinks-diet-soda-health-commissioner-thomas-farley
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Substance Abuse in Modern Society Substance Abuse

Words: 889 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19796171

Substance Abuse

In modern society, substance abuse refers to a maladaptive pattern of using a substance that is unnecessary for health. It is not limited to mood-altering or psycho-active drugs (marijuana, alcohol, etc.), but is defined as any substance that is habitual, interferes with one's life, and causes a large range of dependencies within human culture. It is a public health cost and issue, and comes under a number of categories (Lowinson, 2005). In the Healthy People 2020 initiative, one of the goals is to "reduce substance abuse to protect the health, safety and quality of life for all, especially children." For this review, we will use Tobacco Addiction as a model.

Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of disease, death, or disability in the United States. More deaths are caused yearly from tobacco use than any other substance abuse, motor vehicle injury, HIV, or murder combined (Anti-Smoking,…… [Read More]

Cited in:

http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/13/suppl_2/ii1.
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Marlboro Regulations in Many Industries

Words: 1371 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66664097



In public statements such as the one below:

We are keen to work with governments, public health authorities and other tobacco companies to agree on rules and regulations for our industry. We want to do what we can to respond to public health concerns and, at the same time, establish a stable business environment for our company (Why we support strong legislation (http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/PMINTL/pages/eng/busenv/Tob_regulation.asp)."

The industry provides an attitude of compassion and caring for the products they place on the retail shelves and therefore in the hands of innocent buyers.

They further combat the regulations however by making statements like the following:

It can be difficult to create a regulatory environment for a product that is dangerous yet remains popular (Why we support strong legislation (http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/PMINTL/pages/eng/busenv/Tob_regulation.asp)."

The industry has given up the fight against public smoking bans and instead decided on a smart advertising strategy of agreeing with such bans in…… [Read More]

References

Buyout program (Accessed 12-06-06)

http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?encquery=31b830daa0f3dd91&invocationType=keyword_rollover&ie=UTF-8

Kraft Boycott (Accessed 12-06-06)

http://www.infact.org/helpstop.html
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Social Order and the Justice

Words: 1712 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92580250

If the public trusts the judges and believes that they are administering justice equally among all people, then there appears to be a mutual respect atmosphere, in which the public adheres to the law willingly. However, if there is distrust of the administration, violence and criminal behavior becomes more prevalent, as the people resist unequal administration of the law.

eferences

Moe .C., Gilmour .S. (1995). ediscovering principles of public administration: the neglected foundation of public law. Public Administration eview, Vol. 55. etrieved November 13, 2007 at http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5001645731.

Monahan, J. (1984).The prediction of violent behavior: toward a second generation of theory and policy. Am J. Psychiatry. Vol. 141:10-15 etrieved November 13, 2007 at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/141/1/10.

Osborne, D. And Gaebler, T. (1992). einventing Government. New York, NY: Penguin Press.

Paulozzi, L.J.; Spengler, F, and Gower, MA. (1992). An evaluation of the Vermont worksite smoking law.Public Health ep. Nov-Dec 1992. 107(6) 724-726.

Springer, L.M.…… [Read More]

References

Moe R.C., Gilmour R.S. (1995). Rediscovering principles of public administration: the neglected foundation of public law. Public Administration Review, Vol. 55. Retrieved November 13, 2007 at http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5001645731.

Monahan, J. (1984).The prediction of violent behavior: toward a second generation of theory and policy. Am J. Psychiatry. Vol. 141:10-15 Retrieved November 13, 2007 at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/141/1/10.

Osborne, D. And Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing Government. New York, NY: Penguin Press.

Paulozzi, L.J.; Spengler, RF, and Gower, MA. (1992). An evaluation of the Vermont worksite smoking law.Public Health Rep. Nov-Dec 1992. 107(6) 724-726.
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Measurable Outcomes Tobacco Control Program

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85515578

Health Care -- Measurable Outcomes -- Tobacco Control Program

n "outcome" is a planned and deliberate effect of a program. Programs ideally have short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes leading to achievement of the program's stated goals. The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) is an excellent example of a program that has attained short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes due to its aggressive, ambitious mission and efforts. Through its 20+ year history, the CTCP program's outcomes have included significant inroads in public attitudes about smoking, lower smoke-related illness, morbidity and health care costs, and impactful actions against the tobacco industry. Given the measurable outcomes of the CTCP program, it is understandably a guiding force for tobacco control programs in other states and countries.

Body: The Measurable Outcomes that Would be Representative of the California Tobacco Control Program

n important aspect of any health-related program resides in its outcomes. Simply put, an "outcome"…… [Read More]

An important aspect of any health-related program resides in its outcomes. Simply put, an "outcome" is a planned and deliberate effect of the program (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 31). Well-planned programs typically have short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes that ideally lead to achievement of the program's stated goals. A short-term outcome is typically an immediate effect of a program, usually focusing on the target population's desired gains in attitudes, knowledge and skills because of the program. Some examples of short-term outcomes for a tobacco control program might include: the public's greater awareness of the harms of environmental tobacco smoke; the public's greater understanding of valid reasons for bans on smoking in public places; and business owners' more positive reactions to smoking bans in places of business (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 32). An intermediate outcome normally involves a more established change in behavior, norms and policies. Some examples of intermediate outcomes for a tobacco control program are voluntary clean air policies and voluntary bans on smoking in public places (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 32). A long-term outcome is typically achieved over a period of years. Examples of long-term outcomes for a tobacco control program are: a decrease in the use of tobacco; a decrease in tobacco-related illness; and a decrease in tobacco-related deaths (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 32). Though tobacco control programs may differ in some specific approaches, their short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes are often similar or even identical.

The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) was established more than 20 years ago with the specific mission "to improve the health of all Californians by reducing illness and premature death attributable to the use of tobacco products" (California Department of Public Health, 2010, modified 10/31/2012). With that ambitious mission in mind, CTCP developed the core strategy of changing social norms (California Department of Public Health, n.d.) and long-term goals of: empowering health agencies to promote health and quality of life by giving leadership and research advocating the appropriate social norms creating a tobacco-free environment; halting illegal tobacco sales to California youth; combatting the aggressive marketing employed by the tobacco industry; assisting people in permanent smoking cessation programs (California Department of Public Health, n.d.). Given the ardent mission and long history of the CTCP, it has achieved numerous measurable short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes, though the program has operated so successfully for such a long time that many of the cited outcomes are long-term.

The CTCP's measurable outcomes, whether short-term, intermediate or long-term, are so numerable that it they could not be listed in a short paper. However, several measurable outcomes are obvious. For example, through data collection and evaluation, researchers have found
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Measurement and Density Determination Measurement

Words: 1315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27019507

Protecting children from the effects of second-hand smoke and the extent by which the government can mandate repulsive images on the cigarette boxes are two cases which are causing controversy. The "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released data claiming that one in five middle and high school students are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke while in cars." (Yahanda, 2012, p. 1) Thus there are many proponents of banning smoking while in the car and children are present. This type of law is difficult because to many it impinges on individual freedom in a private location. Secondly, a U.S. District judge blocked the government mandate that required cigarette companies to place specific graphic images of the effects of cigarette smoking on cigarette boxes. This case also deals with the government authority to require corporations to compel private business to include images on their product.

Procedures

1. Two pieces of…… [Read More]

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Sustainability and the Future

Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48981873

Sustainable Future

Selfless Actions and a Sustainable Future

There are many ways in which a person can get involved in selfless actions that can help the planet. One of these is to take public transportation (or carpool) instead of driving. There are certainly people who live in places where they cannot do this, or who have the types of jobs where this simply would not be realistic. However, for the most part people who live in urban areas are capable of using public transportation in their daily lives or carpooling with others on their way to work or other types of activities, including shopping. This helps the planet because it reduces the number of cars on the road. In turn, that reduces the level of emissions being placed into the air. With healthier air, not only can human beings breathe better but so can plants and animals. The entire ecosystem…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice - Policing Styles

Words: 1951 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69042586



The most common modern incarnation of this style has evolved into "community policing" including the establishment of specific units within police agency dedicated to public contact and community relations. Typical examples of the community relations element of service style approaches include making officers available to grade school presentations and the establishment of child safety seat checking facilities, inviting citizens to have their child safety seats inspected by officers to ensure correct use and optimal occupant protection.

According to many crime theorists (Ellison 2006), service style and community-oriented policing styles are not appropriate to all communities. In particular, high-crime communities are better served by more proactive, legalistic styles.

Surprisingly, while middle class communities provide the optimal environment for implementation of service style policing and community. On the other hand, more affluent communities manifested a definite preference for a more watchman-like policing style, preferring little or no direct involvement with police functions…… [Read More]

References

Black, D.J. (1971) the Social Organization of Arrest;. Stanford Law Review, Vol. 23, No. 6. (Jun., 1971), pp. 1087-1111.

Conlon, E. (2004) Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Duff, H.W. Concerned Reliable Citizens' Program. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 75 No. 8 (Aug/06).

Ellison, J. Community Policing: Implementation Issues. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 75 No. 4 (Apr/06).

Klinger, D.A. (1997) Negotiating Order in Patrol Work: An Ecological Theory of Police Response to Deviance. Criminology, Vol. 35, No. 2. pp. 277-306
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Consumer Protection Memo

Words: 685 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56404843

Consumer Protection

Memo: Consumer Protection

In their article in the Harvard Business Review, Robinson, Viscusi & Zeckhauser (2016) argue that consumer warning labels are not effective. They resoundingly assert that the labels do not communicate adequate information for consumers, especially in terms of benefits and risks. Essentially, the current labeling system is miserably ineffective in differentiating between significant and insignificant risks, or between "wolves" and "puppies" as the authors put it. Most of the consumer warning labels place the same emphasis on both small and huge risks. Such a warning system, according to the authors of the article, is of little benefit to the consumer. In the long-term, consumers tend to disregard warnings as they come across considerably more insignificant risks (puppies) than significant risks (wolves). In other words, treating both minor and major risks with the same weight tends to increase consumers' skepticism about warnings, which may cause truly…… [Read More]

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Similarities and Differences to the Nursing Process Models of Prevention Theory

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95365339

Leavell and Clark's Levels Of Prevention Model:

Similarities and differences to the nursing process

Although technically not a nursing theory, Leavell and Clark's 1975 levels of prevention model has been extremely influential within the healthcare field. "This model suggests that the natural history of any disease exists on a continuum, with health at one end and advanced disease at the other" (Models of prevention, 2013, Current Nursing). There are four distinct levels of application to prevent disease. On the level of primordial prevention, before the disease has appeared, children and adults are encouraged to avoid developing unhealthy lifestyles that promote diseases that may occur in the future (preventative actions include eating well and exercising and engaging in proper sanitation practices like hand-washing as well as getting regular vaccines). On a primary prevention level when the potential for a specific disease is known, the population is also encouraged to take positive…… [Read More]

References

Models of prevention. (2013). Current Nursing. Retrieved from:

http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/models_prevention.html#Levels%20of%20Prevention%20Model

Nursing process. (2014). ANA. Retrieved from:

 http://www.nursingworld.org/EspeciallyForYou/What-is-Nursing/Tools-You-Need/Thenursingprocess.html
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AIDS Epidemic of the 1980's

Words: 1269 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71009801

aegis.com/topics/timeline/default.asp).

One year later the casualty number doubled again with more than 4,000 victims of the disease.

At this time Americans continued to blame homosexuals while the CDC fought against that belief with public service messages aimed at all people who were sexually active whether they were gay or straight.

In 1986 the epidemic has begun to grow. President onald egan mentioned it publically for the first time as part of the Agenda for the Future discussions.

By this time there had been more than 16,000 deaths because of AIDS.

The public began to accept the fact that it is not a gay disease and extreme fear takes hold as people worry they can get it from sharing a glass or a spoon. The United States shut the borders to all HIV infected travelers and immigrants due to public outcry (SO LITTLE TIME (http://www.aegis.com/topics/timeline/default.asp).

Number of known deaths in U.S.…… [Read More]

References

STATISTICS U.S. AIDS

http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/aidsstat.htm

RYAN WHITE CARE ACT

http://hab.hrsa.gov/history/purpose.htm
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How to Prevent AIDS in the Gay Community

Words: 3659 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9440599

prevent AIDS in the Gay community

In all culture sex among men is present. The receptive companion is at the risk of carrying a HIV transmission if involved in anal sex and when unshielded. In some parts of the world the HIV transmission is mainly because of the sex among men, while in some other areas other ways of transmission is also possible. But almost everywhere sex amongst men is the major and regular cause for this spate. It should not be overlooked. These sex-actions are done only by option. The occurrence of sex between male-to-male is frequent in the establishments in which male are forced to spend longer periods in full male company like the military, prisons and men-only educational organizations. Antagonism and misunderstandings about sex among men have lead to insufficient protection procedures in many countries.

Defective and lack of epidemiological facts is the barrier for HIV deterrence…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Altman, Lawrence K. "Many Gay Men in U.S. Unaware They Have H.I.V., Study Finds" The New York Times, July 7, 2002, A7

Carrns, Ann "HIV Study Shows 44% Infection Rate for Young Gay Men." Wall Street journal 1January2001:B2.

Coyle, Adrian. "Lesbian and Gay Psychology; New Perspectives." Oxford, UK. Maiden, MA, Bps Blackwell, 2002, p.23

Diaz, Johnny. Study: "Young gays lax about safe sex" Miami Herald - Sunday, June 10, 2001,p6
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Hospitality Consumer Wants the Consumers

Words: 833 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59130361

Pubs on account of operating costs, food prices, and the increase in minimum wages have therefore changed to the tenanted model. Some regulations have also curbed customer choice like ban on smoking in public places, and other interventions on customer freedom have resulted in the closure of two thousand pubs. Changing customer habits have resulted in the decline of the UK restaurant by three percent as a result of poor consumer spending. (Deoitte, 2011)

In England these different entities are representative of the fact that consumers have grown in variety and as well have begun to explore all that the hospitality industry has to offer. Apart from the changes in the eating habits of the natives, the demands from the tourists, and the peculiar tourist out for gastronomic experience has given birth to a new industry -- Gastronomic tour. There are many types of consumers of hospitality including the current…… [Read More]

References

Bowers, Simon. 2011. Mayfair Hotel: RBS Sells Top Mayfair Hotel to Indian

Billionaire. The Guardian, p. 6.

Deoitte. 2011. Issues and Trends. [Online] Available at:

http://www.deloitte.com/view/en_GB/uk/industries/thl/licensed-retail/04b2dd45801b1210VgnVCM200000bb42f00aRCRD.htm
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Electronically Business Research Methods Faculty

Words: 3062 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30899940

Administration which relates to issues such as security, rules during work, holidays and vacations, office layout and services and personal record. Lastly human resources section is shouldered with the responsibility of industrial and labour relations which looks in to issues such as collective bargaining, grievance procedures and presentation of elections.

2.2 Challenges facing Human esources

According to Duncan (2005), "The identification close to eight areas which pose great challenge to the hotel industry including the five star hotels"; these are employment which includes increase in minimum wage, increasing flexibility of working hours, over dependence of foreign expatriates, employee training. As mentioned by Kim and Oh (2994), the issue of taxation that is in some cases high increases the rates of value added tax on the industry thus discouraging tourism. Environmental factors do also pose a challenge in the hotel sector for instance the banning of smoking in public places as…… [Read More]

References

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Reference

Chauhan, J. 2009. Introduction to Hotel Industry. Internet.