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Smoking in a Public Area
Smoking in public areas has emerged as one of the controversial topics in the recent past, especially in light of the impact of smoke on people's lives. The controversy associated with this issue has been centered on debates regarding the positive or negative effects of smoking. Some people have argued that they have the right to smoke whenever they feel the urge to do so while others contend that they have the right to breathe smoke-free air. hile the debate and controversies continue, there have been several considerations on banning public smoking. Actually, many countries across the globe are increasingly considering establishing measures for preventing public smoking.
There are several reasons for the need to ban public smoking regardless of the ongoing debate on whether such a measure infringes the right of smokers to smoke whenever they want. First, public smoking should be banned because…
Rutherford, Jack. "5 Reasons to Ban Smoking in Public Places." The Richmond Register.
Richmond Register, 23 Oct. 2009. Web. 10 Oct. 2015. .
United States. Michigan Government. Office of Regulatory Reinvention. REASONS FOR BANNING SMOKING IN CERTAIN PUBLIC OUTDOOR AREAS. State of Michigan, n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2015. .
Banning Smoking in Public Places
In the present age of information explosion, almost everyone is aware of the harmful effects of smoking although the leading tobacco manufacturers have managed to confuse the issue through lobbying cleverly conducted media campaigns. That a large number of people still choose to smoke and inflict harm on their own bodies is partially attributable to the power of business corporations and the effectiveness of advertisement but highly unfortunate. What is more unfortunate, and in my opinion, absolutely unacceptable is the harm caused by smokers to the rest of us by smoking in public places. It is a practice that cannot be condoned by any stretch of the imagination. In this position paper, I shall argue why smoking should be banned in all public areas by outlining the health hazards of smoking and second hand smoke. The major arguments against such a ban shall also be…
"Factsheet No. 14." (2004). Smoking in Workplaces and Public Places:
Action on Smoking and Health (ASH). July 2004. Retrieved on November 11, 2004 from http://www.ash.org.uk/html/factsheets/html/fact14.html
'The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General." (2004). United States Department of Health and Services. May 27, 2004. Retrieved on November 11, 2004 from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov./library/smokingconsequences / 'Passive Smoke Risk Even Greater." (2004). BBC News World Edition. June 29, 2004. Retrieved on November 11, 2004 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3850083.stm 'Q& A: Passive Smoking." (2004). BBC News World Edition. October 18, 2004. Retrieved on November 11, 2004 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/medical_notes/3235820.stm 'Smoke Free Ordinance Lists." (2004). American Non-Smokers' Rights Foundation. October 5, 2004. Retrieved on November 11, 2004 from http://www.no-smoke.org/lists.html
The addiction-forming part of tobacco based on a review of 1,600 articles
Banning Smoking in Public Places
The debate on whether or not a nationwide federal smoking ban in all public places should be enacted has been going on for quite a while. In the U.S., most bans as well as restrictions in regard to cigarette smoking are a product of state laws. Although there are those who are convinced that public smoking should not be banned citing various reasons, numerous studies have in the past clearly demonstrated that secondhand smoke adversely affects the health and well-being of nonsmokers.
Recognizing the Need for a Nationwide Federal Smoking Ban in all Public Places
A recent Institute of Medicine report according to Belluck, found out that "smoking bans in places like restaurants, offices and public buildings reduce cases of heart attacks and heart disease…" In a majority of cases, those advocating for the banning of smoking in all public places base their arguments on…
Anderson, Judith. Smoking. London: Black Rabbit Books, 2005. Print.
Belluck, Pam. "U.S. Report Links Smoking Bans and Heart Health." New York Times. New York Times, 15 October 2009. Web. 4 May 2012.
Hanson, Glen R., Peter J. Venturelli, & Annette E. Fleckenstein. Drugs and Society. 11th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2011. Print.
smoking bans in public bars and restaurants. There are three references used for this paper.
Today many states have placed a ban on smoking in public bars and public restaurants. It is important to look at the health issues of smoking and determine why these bans should be enforced throughout the country.
Smoking is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Many smokers argue they should be allowed to smoke as they please and the only one it is hurting is them. However, research has proven that secondhand smoke is just as deadly to the non-smokers who are exposed to it.
In April 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a warning to those "at risk of heart disease to avoid all buildings and gathering places that allow indoor smoking. The CDC disclosed the advisory, saying doctors need to warn people…
Buchanan, Wyatt. "Coalition Begins Effort to Extinguish Smoking in Public Places." Seattle
Post-Intelligencer. (2003): 16 December.
Kaufman, Marc. "Secondhand Smoke Poses Heart Attack Risk, CDC Warns." The Washington
Post. (2004): 23 April.
Furthermore, smokers are also in greater danger than non-smokers of premature death as a result of their habit. Indeed, the Action on Smoking and Health Web site states that worldwide, a staggering 5 million smokers per year die prematurely, and that half of all smokers are at risk of premature death.
The prospects for non-smokers exposed to secondary smoke are also gloomy. According to Science News Online. http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07), a study has shown that secondary smoke causes at least 40% of the damage to a non-smoker as smoking does. Surely, for the protection not only of non-smokers, but also of smokers themselves and of our children, the law should discourage this habit.
Action on Smoking and Health. "Factsheet No:2." http://www.ash.org.uk/html/factsheets/html/fact02.html (accessed 07March07).
Seppa N. " Science News Online: Secondary Smoke Carries High Price." http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07).
Action on Smoking and Health. "Factsheet No:2." http://www.ash.org.uk/html/factsheets/html/fact02.html (accessed 07March07).
Seppa N. " Science News Online: Secondary Smoke Carries High Price." http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc98/1_17_98/fob1.htm (accessed 07March07).
A way to better distribute the information that is being taught in the classrooms is also through the community so that the changes are also effecting the parents to the students, as a change on their part as well would be helpful in the battle against obesity. It would be useful to initially target pamphlets, an informational booth or table at grocery stores, where the foundation of the problem lies. It would be effective if information is given before families go grocery shopping so they are more conscious of the items that they are purchasing. Furthermore, information should also be initially presented on TVs, in newspapers and magazines and other mediums that would likely be used in the more low-key and sedentary setting in order to galvanize individuals to get outside. Once outside, in order to sustain the physical activity, it would be nice to have water and juice at…
Ahuja, Gitika, & Salahi, Lara. (11, February 2010). School nutrition program takes up obesity fight. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/OnCall/school-nutrition-program-takes-obesity-fight/story?id=9802468
CausesofChildhoodObesity.org, Initials. (2010). Causes of childhood obesity. Retrieved from http://causesofchildhoodobesity.org/
Facts about obesity in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /pdf/facts_about_obesity_in_the_united_states.pdf
Mayo Clinic Staff, Initials. (2011, May 06). Risk factors. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=risk-factors
The problem is however that results appear less promising in the long-term. The most effective period for weight loss occurs during the first six months, whereas weight gain once again appears after this time.
hile it is a good idea to implement school and work-based programs, commercial giants such as KFC and Macdonald's make it very difficult to sustain healthy nutrition and weight loss. Advertising that tends to focus on the pleasure of eating unhealthy foods is one of the great culprits promoting obesity in the United States. Perhaps food addictions could be fought more effectively by similar means. The media could be used to promote healthy habits and curb unhealthy ones in terms of fast foods. This technique has shown promising results in smoking and could also prove useful in the food industry.
Guide to Community Preventive Services (2003, January 3). Overweight/Obesity. www.thecommunityguide.org/obesity
While it is a good idea to implement school and work-based programs, commercial giants such as KFC and Macdonald's make it very difficult to sustain healthy nutrition and weight loss. Advertising that tends to focus on the pleasure of eating unhealthy foods is one of the great culprits promoting obesity in the United States. Perhaps food addictions could be fought more effectively by similar means. The media could be used to promote healthy habits and curb unhealthy ones in terms of fast foods. This technique has shown promising results in smoking and could also prove useful in the food industry.
Guide to Community Preventive Services (2003, January 3). Overweight/Obesity. www.thecommunityguide.org/obesity
BANS ON SMOKING IN AMEICAN CITIES: NEW YOK CITY & LOS ANGELES
Moving with unexpected swiftness, New York state lawmakers passed a sweeping anti-smoking measure that makes New York the third state after California and Delaware to ban smoking in all workplaces, including restaurants, bars, and hotels. Within hours of the New York bill's passage, Governor George E. Pataki signed the tough measure, which exempts only America-Indian-owned casinos, cigar bars already licensed in New York City, fraternal clubs, outdoor areas of restaurants with no roof or awning, private homes, and personal but not company cars. New York's ban will take effect July 24 in areas where smoking now is permitted and where local ordinances are weaker. Although the law will not supersede the stricter measures previously passed in Westchester and Nassau counties, it will replace elements of New York City's new law, which took effect March 30.
Hahn, RN, E.J., Rayens, PhD, M.K., York, RN, PhD, N., Zhang, RN, M., Dignan, PhD, Delaimy, MD, PhD, W.K. (2006) Effects of a Smoke-Free Law on Hair Nicotine and Respiratory Symptoms of Restaurant and Bar Workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 48(9), 906 -- 913.
Magzamen, S., & Glantz, PhD, S.A. (2001) The New Battleground: California's Experience with Smoke-Free Bars. American Journal of Public Health, 91(2), 245 -- 252.
Banning Smoking in Restaurants in All States
Through this study, the author aims to support a policy regarding ban on smoking in restaurants in all the 50 states of USA. The author is of the view that smoking should be banned in restaurants in all 50 states to lower the rate of second hand smoking related diseases in non-smokers
Due to bad impacts on secondhand smoke, it has been banned on public places and educational institutions in many states. For example, Utah fully banned smoking in restaurants in 1995 and California imposed a complete ban on smoking in restaurants and bars in 1998. No further complete smoking bans were passed by any state till 2002 when South Dakota totally banned smoking in workplaces, and Delaware totally banned smoking in workplaces, restaurants, and bars. As of 2002, the number of states where there is complete ban on smoke at workplace, restaurant…
Borland, R., Mullins, R. Trotter, L., & White, V.(1999). Trends in environmental tobacco smoke restrictions in the home in Victoria, Australia. Tobacco Control, 8, 266-271
Cunningham, R. (2006). National and subnational legislation requiring 100% smokefree restaurants and bars. Canadian Cancer Society. Retrieved on August 28, 2011 from www.smokefreeottawa.com/2006_en/pdfs/smokefreevacations.pdf.
Dockrell, M.J., Sandford, A., & Ward, S.(2007). Smoke-free public places and their impact on public health. Epert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, 7(4), 309-313
Farrelly, M.C., Nonemaker J.M., Chou, R., Hyland, A., Peterson, K.K., & Bauer, U.E. (2005). Changes in hospitatilty workers' exposure to secondhand smoke following the implementation of New York's smoke-free law. Tobacco Control, 4(4), 236-224
Phone numbers are displayed liberally. A stop-smoking hotline is listed with a toll-free telephone number. Links to sponsoring organizations like the Centers for Disease Control allow visitors to read more, and a "Get expert help" section invites viewers to use instant messaging to communicate with a "National Cancer Institute smoking cessation counselor."
Illustrations are used sparingly. No negative illustrations such as those depicting lungs decayed by cancer are included, keeping the imagery on the Web site positive and inoffensive. Most of the illustrations included on smokefree.gov are photographs depicting men and women exercising and enjoying the great outdoors. The images refresh themselves often, like a slide show. The smiling faces on the models imply that quitting smoking will make anyone feel healthier and more alive. Inclusion of people from various ethnic groups in the smokefree.gov photo database is helpful in reaching a broad audience. Background of the Web…
London, F., Rankin, S.H., Stallings, K.D. (2005). Patient education in health and illness
5 thed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven Publishers.
National Cancer Institute. Retrieved June 16, 2008 at http://www.cancer.gov/
Smokefree.gov. Web site retrieved June 16, 2008 at http://www.smokefree.gov/index.asp
Stages of Change Model: 43-year-old Smoker
The first stage of the Transtheoretical Stages of Change model is that of pre-contemplation, in which the client is still not fully committed to the need to taking action to make a necessary change. In the case of a 43-year-old smoker who began smoking in childhood, the smoker may be reluctant to commit to change because of a history of failed attempts. At this stage, the counselor would need to give the smoker options to convince the client that the next time will be different—for example, the use of medications, patches, or supportive group or individual counseling, versus going cold turkey. Asking questions such as, “What needs does smoking serve in your life,” may be useful, to identify the social and physical needs smoking has fulfilled. A typical, Caucasian resident of the United States who has resided in the US for the entirety of…
Banning Smoking in Cars With Children: Moral and Legal Issues
Five states in America, Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Maine and Oregon, and also Puerto ico -- have made it a crime to smoke in cars when children are there, and more states are considering the adoption of this legislation as well. For instance, other nations such as Canada, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates are also leaning towards such a ban. The ban is viewed as beneficial in the sense that it not only protects children but it also minimizes the amount of accidents which will be derived from cigarette-related distractions, such as lighting, ashing or dropping them while driving (ash.org). However, the biggest impetus for this legislation is the desire to protect all innocent children from exposure to the hazards which are inherently connected to cigarettes and cigarette smoke. One of the inherent necessities of this issue is in…
Ash.org. (n.d.). Smoking Should be Banned in Cars Whenever Children are Present. Retrieved from Ash.org: http://ash.org/carsmoking
Brown, A. (2014, Jan 29). Banning smoking in cars is wrong: where would it end? Retrieved from telegraph.co.uk: http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/andrewmcfbrown/100257222/banning-smoking-in - cars-is-wrong-where-would-it-end/
Healthday. (2013, July 23). Poll: U.S. Adults Support Smoking Ban in Cars With Kids. Retrieved from usnews.com: http://health.usnews.com/health-news/news/articles/2013/07/23/poll- us-adults-support-smoking-ban-in-cars-with-kids
Jarvie, J., & Malone, R. (2008). Children's Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Private Homes and Cars: An Ethical Analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 2140 -- 2145.
battle against cigarettes and tobacco has been around for a long time. As the authors A. Lee Fritschler and James M. Hoefler point out in their book Smoking and Politics there has always been a tug of war over the "golden leaf," the paradox that strict regulation of the business meant a windfall for the government.
Concern about the health consequences of smoking predates the "modern era" by nearly four centuries. In 1604, for example, King James I of England lambasted smoking as, "a custom loathsome to the eye, hateful to the Nose, harmeful to the braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof, nearest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomless" (as quoted in Sullum, 1998, p 18). King James subsequently raised the tax on tobacco by 1000%, deriving significant revenues for his coffers. This illustrates the profound dilemma that has…
American Cancer Society, et al. (2002) "Critical Elements of Any Legislation to Grant FDA
Authority to Regulate Tobacco Products." Viewed online on 11/25/2002 at http://www.tobaccofreekids.org /research/factsheets/pdf/0181.pdf
Center for Disease Control: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health
Promotion (2002) "Chronology of Significant Developments Related to Smoking and Health." Viewed on 11/27/2002 at http://www.cdc.gov /tobacco/overview/chron96.htm
This key characteristics of community-based participatory research were shown to include the equitable involvement of all stakeholders, including community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in ways that allow all partners to contribute to the enhancement of community health initiatives. The seven major steps used in an outbreak investigation and the various components of TB prevention and control in the U.S. were outlined. An analysis concerning the greatest future challenges to tobacco cessation interventions showed that nicotine is highly addictive, but that these challenges can be mitigated through enhanced healthcare curricular offerings and various evidence-based strategies. The differences in eligibility criteria between Medicaid and Medicare were shown to relate to target group and that there would be a need for these programs throughout the 21st century. Finally, because oral diseases affect lower-income people more frequently, they are regarded as a neglected epidemic that can have profound adverse healthcare consequences if…
Tobacco Education and Outreach Specialist
egularly reviews published peer-reviewed literature on the health impacts of tobacco use and addiction, and writes blog posts and news articles based on this data.
Designs and implements outreach programs for varying demographics, focusing on smoking prevention as well as smoking cessation.
Investigates local tobacco retailers and ensures compliance with tobacco control legislation.
Issues warning letters accordingly when tobacco vendors have been shown to violate tobacco control legislation.
Provides, when necessary, testimony in courtrooms for tobacco-related lawsuits.
Creates comprehensive tobacco education programs for the corporate sector, with the goal of helping organizations become tobacco-free environments.
Works closely with local health care organizations including private clinics and hospitals, to promote tobacco education services.
Degree in public health administration, nursing, or related field.
Work or internship experience in a public health organization.
Strong verbal and written communication skills.
$35,000-$45,000 ("Community Outreach Specialist Careers,"…
"Community Outreach Specialist Careers," (n.d.). Careers in Public Health. Retrieved online: http://www.careersinpublichealth.net/careers/community-outreach-specialist
Huselid, M.A. (1995). The impact of human resources management practices on turnover, productivity, and corporate financial performance. Academy of Management Journal 38(3): 635-672.
"Recruitment and Retention," (n.d.). PHF. Retrieved online: http://www.phf.org/programs/recruitmentandretention/Pages/RecruitmentandRetention_of_public_healthworkers.aspx
United States Department of Labor (2016). Summary of the major laws of the Department of Labor. Retrieved online: http://www.dol.gov/general/aboutdol/majorlaws
Public health as a discipline is really both the science and art of preventing disease, improving health, and prolonging the quality of life within a given society by use of public and private organizations. Overall, it is concerned with threats that are the type that may hurt society as a whole -- epidemics, dangers, social and mental well-being, etc. Modern public health is a multi-disciplinary field that includes medical professionals, statisticians, biologists, ecological and environmental professionals, dental professionals, nutritional experts, veterinarians, engineers, lawyers, sociologists, anthropologists, academics, and the political process itself (Rosen, 1993).
Historically, disease vectors, polluted water and pathogens, and lack of sewage without any scientific basis for control or actual understanding of pathogens created public health problems. In the modern world, public health focuses on several levels of health: local/regional, state, national and global -- typically based upon population statistics, demographics and the analysis of disease. Even in…
Breslow, L. (Ed.). (2002). Encyclopedia of Public Health. New York: Macmillan.
Centers for Disease Control. (2012, April). National Public Health Performance Standards - Local Public Health Systems. Retrieved from cdc.gov:
moking and Lung Disease
moking is a hazardous habit that has the ability to greatly affect the health of the smoker and those that are close to them. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate smoking and lung disease. The discussion will focus on possible community health nursing interventions/teaching strategies. We will also use Orem's nursing model to describe the community, its health issue/problem, and proposed interventions.
Community and Health issue
The community in question is Grady County which is located in Chickasha, Oklahoma. moking is a prevalent problem in this community and people are seemingly unaware of the health consequences related to smoking. The reason why this issue was chosen was due to my mother having evere Emphysema and the effects this disease has on her, also because of the impact that second hand smoking can have on non-smokers For example, I am Deathly Allergic to moking. My…
Sources, and Consumption Values of Teenagers: Implications for Public Policy and Other Intervention Failures. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 36(1), 50+.
American Lung Asociation. 2005. http://www.lungusa.org/site/apps/s/content.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E& ; b=34706& ct=910873
Cigarette Smoking and Cancer, 2004. National Cancer Institute. http://cis.nci.nih.gov/fact/10_14.htm
Nicotene Addiction. (National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research Reporthttp://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/NicotineRR.pdf
Public Health Achievements
hat factors accounted for the control of tobacco in the U.S. Currently, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about 42.1 million Americans smoke cigarettes, which is about 18.1% of all adults (18 or over). About 20.5% of men smoke cigarettes and 15.8% of women smoke cigarettes (Liss, 2013).
the information environment -- mass media and counter-advertising. There is no doubt that media campaigns have a positive impact when it comes to anti-smoking campaigns. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that the first year of the federal government's national advertising campaign called "Tips from Former Smokers" "exceeded expectations; an estimated 1.6 million cigarette smokers attempted to stop smoking. Of those, about 100,000 actually succeeded in quitting, and that information came from a study published by the medical journal, The Lancet. Moreover, the campaign run by the CDC reportedly "inspired millions of nonsmokers to encourage…
Centers for Disease Control. (2011). Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States. Retrieved April 11, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov .
Liss, S.M. (2013). CDC's Anti-Smoking Ad Campaign Spurred Over 100,000 Smokers to Quit;
Media Campaigns Must be Expanded Nationally and in the States. Center for Disease
Controls. Retrieved April 12, 2014, from http://www.tobaccofreekids.org .
Opportunity that Logan Together has is to bring together the different groups in government, in schools, parents and health care practitioners to work together towards a common set of objectives regarding the well-being of children in Logan. This opportunity arises from the principle of collective impact, which is that groups working together can be more powerful and effective than if each group works individually in their own little silo.
The opportunity has presented itself with this new conceptualization of action because the external environment is favourable to this collaboration. Moreover, there are only limited internal weaknesses. The existing threats in the external environment can be overcome. Based on the analysis of the external environment, it is believed that Logan Together has tremendous potential for success, if given the right marketing strategy. The strategy will be focused on goals pertaining to the well-being of Logan's children, as these objectives are in…
Kania, J., Brown, F. & Juster, J. (no date). Collective insights on collective impact. In possession of the author.
Kania, J. & Kramer, M. (2013). Embracing emergence: How collective impact addresses complexity. Stanford Social Innovation Review. In possession of the author.
Logan Together (2015). The state of Logan's children and young people. Logan Together. In possession of the author.
Military personnel must achieve and maintain the best physical conditioning of they are reasonably able to reach for the duration of their enlistment as a fundamental obligation of being fit for duty. Smoking makes that impossible. Likewise, the American taxpayer has a justifiable interest in reducing the costs of fielding a military by eliminating unnecessary costs. Smoking invariably adds to the already substantial costs of providing medical care to armed services personnel, both during their active service as well as throughout their lives afterwards to the extent they rely on veteran's services for medical care.
Military personnel already understand that the privilege and benefits associated with military service entail various restrictions on rights enjoyed by civilians. In this case, military justice must catch up to the manner in which civilian society has already incorporated the understanding of the risks of smoking into American life.
Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire:…
Dershowitz, Alan. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
O'Neill, Xana and Lite, Jordan. "Real Estate Companies Making it Tougher for Smokers
in Their Homes" The New York Daily News, March 30, 2008. Retrieved February
Developmental perspective was the concept that the nursing students participating in this study were typically younger than they patients they were caring for. This made it difficult for them to ask the "older" patient questions about a lifestyle they had been practicing for many years.
Environmental constraints were noted that prevented the participants in the study from fully implementing best practice guidelines. The primary of which was time. They noted that because of other duties and paper keeping requirements, they had little time to properly present the best practice guidelines. Some noted that they had little time to do expected things such as breathing, much less introduce the patient properly to best practice guidelines.
During their third year of training the nurses were introduced to a comprehensive program concerning cigarettes and cessation programs. In addition they had already been taught more efficient time management training. With these new tools they…
10) Sanders, D., Fowler, G., Mant, D., Fuller, a., Jones, L., & Marziller, j.
Randomized controlled trial of anti-smoking advice by nurses in General practice. Journal of the Royal College of General
Practitioners, 1989, 39, pp 273-276.
emoving Smoking in the Workplace Increases Productivity
The purpose of this proposed study is to determine if removing smoking from the workplace has increased workplace productivity. The writer will explore the question by using a survey study method. The participants will include workers across the nation in varying levels of work and careers. The proposed study is designed to measure whether or not there is an increase in productivity since employers began refusing to allow smoking in the workplace environment. There are several factors involved in the study including a look at five previously published studies regarding smokers and their habits. In addition the writer explores some of the different concerns for productivity that have been studied throughout the years with regards to smokers including secondhand smoke damage, absenteeism and dollars lost. This proposal suggests the direct question of affect on productivity from the time workplaces began to ban smoking…
Robert A. Logan; Daniel R. Longo, Rethinking Anti-Smoking Media Campaigns: Two Generations of Research and Issues for the Next. Vol. 25, Journal of Health Care Finance, 06-01-1999, pp 77-90.
Gonz-z; M.L. Ballester Calabuig., Tuberculosis Related to Labor Activity in an Area of Valencia, Spain. Vol. 62 no, Journal of Environmental Health, 07-01-1999.
Greene, Robert E.; Williams, Phillip L., Indoor air quality investigation protocols.. Vol. 59, Journal of Environmental Health, 10-01-1996, pp 6(9).
Dardis, Rachel; Keane, Thomas, Risk-benefit analysis of cigarette smoking: public policy implications.. Vol. 29, Journal of Consumer Affairs, 12-01-1995, pp 351(17).
Students Smoking Behavior
The rates of campus students smoking have fluctuated over a period of the last twenty years. Most of the lifelong smokers' start their smoking habit before they reach the age of 24 years. This therefore means those campus years are a very crucial time when it comes to any study of cigarette smoking. Cigar rete smoking in campus has now become a very serious issue in public health issue. This has led to an increase in campus wide bans in smoking alongside other preventive programs in place to reduce students smoking rates. There are several economic, social and environmental factors that have been associated with the increase of smoking around campus students. Some of these factors are low socioeconomic status, students who have parents, close friends and relatives who smoke the acceptance as well as positive views of peers who smoke the exposure and high availability of…
Indiana University (2011), September 14). Campus smoking ban reduced students' smoking, changed attitudes. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 11,2013 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110914122700.htm
Schorr, M.(2009).A Third of college students smoke. Retrieved September 11,2013 from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=118065&page=1
Coster, D.(2013). Campus smokings ban a drag for some students. Retrieved September 11,2013 from http://www.stuff.co.nz/taranaki-daily-news/news/9122346/Campus-smoking-ban-a-drag-for-some-students
scientific effects of smoking on the human body especially on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We will give a brief analysis on how smoking affects the mentioned systems and see how the human body system works if the individual does not smoke. We will also support our paper with scientific and statistical evidence regarding the facts related to smoking.
Smoking and its effects
Before looking at smoking and its effects lets review on how the respiratory and cardiovascular systems work. When we breathe air it first enters Trachea/windpipe through which it enters on each of the bronchi present at both of the lungs. The bronchus is spread throughout the lungs like branches on trees and at its tips is as thin as a hair (bronchioles). Each lung has about thirty thousand bronchioles. At the tip of every bronchiole lies an area which leads to tiny air sacs known as alveoli.…
Timmins, William. (1989). Smoking and the workplace. New York: Quorum Books.
Klarreich, Samuel. (1987). Health and fitness in the workplace. New York: Praeger.
Weiss, Stephen. (1991). Health at work. New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.
Bunton, Robin. (2002). Health Promotion. London: Routledge.
Besides the most serious medical consequences, smoking causes bad breath, yellowing of teeth and is considered equally damaging to the skin in terms of premature aging and wrinkles as overexposure to the sun. Finally, the increased awareness of the dangers of second-hand smoke have already led to laws prohibiting smoking in the workplace, in restaurants and other public areas, and even in residential buildings. In general, smoking is becoming something that many people consider evidence of poor decision making or even low intelligence.
The decision to start smoking is just not consistent with good judgment and intelligent choices. The fact that so many people who already smoke wish they had never started and the difficulty they experience in trying to quit should be enough proof to anybody that starting is a very bad idea. Healthcare costs are one of the most expensive bills that Americans pay and a substantial amount…
Brody, Jane. In Adolescents, Addiction to Tobacco Comes Easy. The New York Times. (February 2, 2008).
O'Neill, Xana and Lite, Jordan. Real Estate Companies Making it Tougher for Smokers in Their Homes. The New York Daily News (March 30, 2008).
Health Public Good
Public Health as a Public Good
The United States has one of the lowest cost food options available to its consumers in the world. For an extended period, people assumed that this was a benefit of capitalism and that competition had helped push down the prices and made food available at lower costs through the market. However, many externalities have arisen in these circumstances that are now pointing researchers to question the consequences of having mass processed food available to consumers. The United States, as well as many other industrialized nations, currently has epidemic rates of obesity as well as the related obesity diseases such as heart disease and diabetes.
This trend is not restricted to just adult and the obesity rates among children have subsequently risen as well. This has made many instructions and activists compare the effects of poor diets and their health consequences to…
Adams, R. "Fat is a financial issue: Litigation over obesity could consign Big Mac, large fries and bucket-sized." 27 December 2002. The Guardian. Web. 28 March 2013.
Benloulou, J. "Pelman v. McDonald's: An In-depth Case Study of a Fast Food -- Obesity Lawsuit." April 2005.
"CASE 2-7." McDonald's and Obesity. N.d.
Chicago Defender. "Obesity and Fat Farm Subsidies." Chicago Defender (2003): 1. Online.
Outcomes to be Assessed:
The primary objective is to see that subjects of the program cease smoking and remain abstinent from tobacco use. This will be the primary outcome to be assessed therefore. Individuals in both the experiment and control groups would be consulted at the six-month juncture and the one year point in order to determine how many among them have remained abstinent from tobacco use in that duration and up to that point.
Other outcomes to be assessed would be long-term health factors relating to the use of tobacco. According to statistics compiled and sponsored by the T.J. Samson Community Hospital in Glasgow, Kentucky and most recently updated in the spring of 2006, habitual smokers of cigarettes are "fourteen times as likely to die of lung cancer" and twice as susceptible to fatality by heart disease. (T.J.S.C.H, 1) This means, according to the Community Hospital, that…
American Heart Association (AHA). (2009). Smoking Cessation. Americanheart.org.
Bickman, L. & Rog, D.J. (2009). Randomized Controlled Trials for Evaluation and Planning. The Sage Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods.
Euromonitor International (EI). (2009). Tobacco in Costa Rica. Euromonitor.com
Fiore, M.C.; Novotny, T.E.; Pierce, J.P.; Giovino, G.A.; Hatziandreu, E.J.; Newcomb, P.A.; Surawicz, T.S. & Davis, R.M. (1990). Methods Used to Quit Smoking in the United States. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 263(20), 2760-2765.
psychosocial smoking cessation interventions for coronary heart disease patients effective?
The association with smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been well documented. To prevent further heart attacks, as well as to preserve their life, smokers have been consistently and strongly advised to quit smoking, and associations such as the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Task Force have drafted recommendations and reams of advice to assist patients in doing so. Nevertheless, many patients diagnosed with CHD continue to smoke despite the possibility of interventions and programs (many of them free) helping them to stop. Mortality can be reduced by as much as 36% if smokers with CHD determine to stop smoking 3-5 years after diagnosed (Critchley, 2003) aside from which dramatic reductions in cardiac attacks have been discovered when smokers have stopped smoking for as short a time as a year (Quist-Paulsen, & Gallefoss, 2003). The Coronary…
Barth, J., Critchley, J., & Benget, J. (2008). Psychosocial interventions for smoking cessations in patients with coronary heart disease, Cochrane Heart Review.
Critchley JA, Capewell S. Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease. J Am Med Ass;290:86 -- 97.
Frothingham, S. et al., (2006). How much does smoking cessation cut CHD risk? Clinical Inquiries, 57, 10, 675-679
Huey-Ling W., Harrell, J & Funk, S (2008). Factors Associated With Smoking Cessation
Nursing Counseling and Smoking Cessation Among Inpatients
The work of Li, et al. (2014) reports a study that examines the facilitators and barriers to effective smoking cessation as it relates to counseling services provided to inpatients by nurse counselors.
The study reports that the Taiwanese Health Promotion Administration reports that 4.8 million smokers exist in Taiwan and that nearly 50% of these smokers were interested in quitting smoking. Smoking cessation is beneficial to both smokers and those whom they love and are loved by in that smoking cessation not only saves lives of those who quit smoking but in addition results in reduction in the costs of personal and health care. According to the report, THPA's implementation of the "New Smoking Cessation Policy on the 1st of March 2012 to expand smoking cessation counseling services to both outpatient and inpatient settings." (Li et al., 2014, p. 5) Li et al.…
Li, I. et al. (2014) Facilitators and Barriers to Effective Smoking Cessation: Counseling Services for Inpatients from Nurse-Counselor's Perspectives -- A Qualitative Study. Int J. Envrion Res. Public Health. 11, 4782-4798.
Health Care eform Effecting Public Health United States
Healthcare reform is an integral part of the United States healthcare system. Below is an evaluation of the effects healthcare reform has had on healthcare in the U.S. Internet sources as well as peer-reviewed journals will be looked at so as to see the effects.
The cost of healthcare has been on the rise. Issues of healthcare quality ought to be paid attention to and healthcare access equity improved upon (Health Care Transformation). Given these causes, while some differences exist on what reforms to carry out, a majority of Americans hold the belief that the U.S. Healthcare delivery systems need some improving. For a long time ANA has been advocating for reforms in healthcare and several of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions are in line with the Health System eform Agenda of the ANA. The ANA gave a chart that gives…
Kemp, C. (2012, October 11). Public Health in the Age of Health Care Reform. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov /pcd/issues/2012/12_0151.htm
How National Health Care Reform Will Affect a Variety of States. (2011, April 5). Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.rand.org/news/press/2011/04/05.html
Government Health Initiatives:
Obesity and public health
Given the rise in obesity rates in the United States, prioritizing reducing the prevalence of this illness has become a critical cornerstone of many federal, state, and local health agencies. Because the federal government encompasses the USDA and the FDA which set health and safety standards for the foods consumed in the U.S. As well as offer nutritional guidelines, the federal government can exert a profound influence upon consumption habits. The government has also overseen a number of anti-obesity campaigns. First Lady Michelle Obama's "Let's Move" initiative is perhaps the most notable of these: it focuses on increasing physical activity and improving the diet of America's children. "esearch indicated that kids needed less sugar, salt and fat in their diets, so we revamped school lunch menus accordingly. When data showed that the lack of nearby grocery stores negatively affected people's eating habits, we…
Conflict of interest in USDA nutrition guidelines, doctors say. (2011). IBTimes
Retrieved from: http://www.ibtimes.com/conflict-interest-usda-nutrition-guidelines-doctors-say-364426
Lohr, K. (2014). Controversy swirls around harsh anti-obesity ads. NPR.
Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/2012/01/09/144799538/controversy-swirls-around-harsh-anti-obesity-ads
Disciplined Application of Intellect to Public Problems
Leslie Pal defined public policy as "a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities in addressing given problems or a set of interrelated problems (2010)." In essence, this implies that policies are instrumental in tackling issues of concern to the political community. ationalists argued the importance of policy analysis as having enough data and analysis hopes to solve problems in technical terms, without having to contaminate values. In public policy, the most important overarching value is the interest of public and is a benchmark or touchstone demonstrating what is done by democratic governments. For example, the Public Service has Values and Ethics Codes and under the law, the "democratic mission is to assist Ministers serve the interests of their public." The political system analyzes policies with an attempt to gain consensus, competition, the rule of law, inclusion, and gain good governance.…
Pal, L.A. (2010). Beyond Policy Analysis: Public Issue Management in Turbulent Times, (4th Eds.). Nelson Press.
If a driver ignored a road sign that said "Danger: Bridge Out!" and proceeded along the street, he would be labeled as an idiot by his community. If a fence had a sign on it that read, "arning: Vicious Dogs" and some adventure-seeking teens climbed that fence, no one would be surprised when they had their legs torn off by a pack of pit bulls. However, every single year 400,000 Americans die from ignoring one of the most infamous warnings: The Surgeon General's warning on cigarette packages. Smoking cigarettes may seem to be a part of the definition of being an American-- everyone from the street punk rebels to the successful big business CEOs are automatically visualized with a cigarette or fat Cuban cigar hanging from their mouths. These smokers see themselves as a better person for the momentary pleasure they receive from these tobacco products, but fail to realize…
The American Cancer Society. Who Is At Risk? "Tobacco and Cancer." 2001.
The American Heart Association. Publications and Resources. "Tobacco Smoke."
California Department of Health Services. Youth Media Network. "Effects of Secondhand Smoke." November 2001.
Emphysema Foundation For Our Right to Survive. Medical Info Pages. "About Smoking With Emphysema." January 2002.
CVS enames Itself CVS Health as it Ends Sale of Tobacco Products
(1) Who are the major winners and losers in this story? Why do you think so?
The new CVS strategy definitely seems more consistent relative to health promotion. Promoting health and well-being includes smoking cessation and being smoke free. By selling tobacco products, many argued that CVS was sending mixed signals to their clients. However, the reorganization of the company, now referred to as CVS health, sends a clear message that they are in the health promotion business. Yet, by doing so, the company is also sacrificing a significant revenue stream in all their locations. It is too early to tell if the more consistent mission statement will overcome the loss in revenues that they will experience throughout the transition.
The general public should be a winner in this situation as well. Although some consumers might be inconvenienced…
CDC. (N.d.). Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking. Retrieved from CDC: http://www.cdc.gov /tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/
Tobacco Free. (N.d.). State Tobacco Taxes. Retrieved from Tobacco Free: http://www.tobaccofreekids.org /what_we_do/state_local/taxes/
The Intolerance of Zero Tolerance
Zero Tolerance Policies in Public Schools
One has only to turn on the television, log onto the Internet, or glance at a newspaper to see that violence is everywhere in our society. The nightly news is dominated by one act of depravity after another: murders, rapes, and violent assaults, among others. Hate crimes send shockwaves through seemingly peaceful communities. A cross is burned in a field, a Jewish cemetery is ransacked, the tombstones broken and covered with swastikas, a gay college student is crucified on a fence, left to die by his homophobic classmates, and a Black man is dragged behind a speeding car. Such horrific incidents seem almost commonplace. Mutual intolerance of one group for another breeds hatred and cruelty. People today appear quick to anger and even quicker to react...violently. Stabbings and shootings and bloody assaults are as frequent as fights on…
Bauder, David. (14 October 1999). The Washington Post.
Fagan, Patrick. (1998). "The Breakdown of the Family: The Consequences for Children and American Society." Issues '98: The Candidate's Briefing Book, 6, 11. The Heritage Foundation.
Garbarino, James, PhD. (January 2001). "Where Do We Point the Finger of Blame?" Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 155. The American Medical Association.
Kemp, Dawn; and Center, David. (2000, August) "Troubled Children Grown Up: Antisocial Behavior in Young Criminals." Education and Treatment of Children, 23, 3. Atlanta, GA: Georgia State University, 223-238.
The author of this report has been asked to conduct two interviews of police officers with six basic questions being the crux of both interviews. To protect the anonymity of the officers as well as a way to get the most honest and complete answers, the identity of the officers as well as the departments they have or do work for will not be identified in any way, shape or form. The answers garnered were insightful, honest and illuminating. The perspective they offer is perhaps not nearly as known as it should be given the reporting going on as it relates to the incidents in Ferguson and other places where cops have been shot or allegedly unarmed and/or innocent people on the street have endured the same. While there are two sides to each story, both the police and the people have the right to have their voice…
Cooper, H. (2009, July 22). Obama Criticizes Arrest Of a Harvard Professor. The New
York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/23/us/politics/23gates.html?_r=0
Reyes, D. (1994, November 2). Only One Drunk Driver in 500 Is Caught: Enforcement:
Even with tough Highway Patrol policy, probability of arrest in California is small.
EFFECT OF DISCIPLINAY POLICY
Instrument to be used
Future use of study results
Over the last few decades the institution of education has undergone many changes. One of the most scrutinized areas of education currently is the area of discipline. The recent rash of violence across the nation at high school has caused the focus to turn to discipline. The Columbine killings among other violent school events have caused experts to begin looking at bullies, violence, at risk students and others to discover what the key is to turning them around in their school career. One discipline method that has been used for years is removal of the offending student from the general student population. The student who is removed is done so either through suspension or expulsion. Suspension and expulsion are used in many situations as discipline. When students break zero tolerance policies, or…
Aisha Sultan; And Holly Hacker; Of The Post-Dispatch, METRO EAST SUSPENSION RATE IS TWICE THE STATE AVERAGE: PARENTS ARE ALARMED, BUT ADMINISTRATORS SAY ORDER MUST BE MAINTAINED., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 02-24-2002, pp C1.
Brian, Bumbarger. School Violence: Disciplinary Exclusion Prevention and Alternatives. Universties Children's Policy Partnership. 1999.
VOS Inger, Cambridge cuts suspensions., Waikato Times (New Zealand), 12-01-2001, pp 3.
Robert L. Morgan; Travis S. Loosli; Sebastian Striefel, REGULATING THE USE OF BEHAVIORAL PROCEDURES IN SCHOOLS: A FIVE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP SURVEY OF STATE DEPARTMENT STANDARDS. Vol. 30, Journal of Special Education, 01-15-1997.
life we are always faced with situations where the rights on one individual overlap those of another, causing a legal conflict that is often decided upon in the court of law. In many cases, these are private rights, but we are sometimes in a situation when the rights delimitation is imposed by the government, as is the case with the tobacco industry and smoking regulations and delimitations.
The problem with smoking in public places bares much resemblance in Canada, Europe or the United States. The right of smoking individuals to smoke in public places was gradually and constantly diminished to the degree that nowadays smoking in restaurants, offices or any closed locations. The movement against smoking in public places seems to have started in Canada in the early 1990s, when the City of Toronto emitted a series of by-laws, referred to as The Workplace Smoking y-law. This law "requires all…
1. H. Demsetz, "Toward a Theory of Property Rights," American Economic Review, Vol.57 (May, 1967).
2. R.Coase, "The Problem of Social Cost," Journal of Law and Economics, Vol.3 (October 1960).
3. Impact of Workplace Smoking Restriction - Compliance Issues. On the Internet at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hecs-sesc/tobacco/facts/workplace/part3_compliance.html
Impact of Workplace Smoking Restriction - Compliance Issues. On the Internet at
The new attitude of the ussian government makes perfect sense because, according to the article, the annual national death toll attributable to smoking in ussia is approximately 400,000. Moreover, the morbidity associated with smoking is only a portion of the total societal cost of smoking because it is estimated that smoking also costs the already-cash-strapped nation the equivalent of almost $50 billion in annual healthcare costs and lost worker productivity from smoking-related illnesses. Just as in the West before the historic disclosure of previously confidential industry information by a former insider that led to multiple class action settlements from litigation initiated by various state attorneys general in the 1990s, there is a tremendous tobacco industry political lobby in ussia fighting tooth-and-nail against the proposed legislation. Generally, they represent only the selfish interests of the tobacco companies and do not have any concern for the welfare of the members of…
Alpert, L.I. "Kremlin Cracks Down on Big Tobacco: Russia, the World's Second-Largest
Cigarette Market after China, Plans 'Harsh' Anti-smoking Rules." The Wall Street
Journal, October 15, 2012. Retrieved online:
The 1988 and later 1992 Supreme Court decision in Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc. illustrates the functions and role of law in business and public health. This case relates to the tobacco industry's culpability in promoting smoking through marketing campaigns after knowledge of the detrimental effects of smoking, and in spite of the mandatory Surgeon General Warning labels that had been federally mandated since the 1960s and the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (1965 Act).
In the Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc., case, it was ultimately decided that the federal laws trumped state laws that permitted promotion of harmful materials, in this case, cigarettes. What is interesting about this case is that it pertains directly to marketing, rather than to the tobacco companies themselves. Separate litigation, of course, impinged upon the tobacco companies. The Cipollone v. Liggett Group case illustrates several key points. First, the case upholds…
Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc. Retrieved online: Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/90-1038.ZS.html
"Perhaps less dramatic because of their ubiquitous presence and legal status, nicotine and alcohol are often consumed together for physiological and/or social reasons. Both drugs stimulate dopamine release, and work synergistically to increase dopamine levels" (Menke, 2009). Similarly, the concept of enjoying a drink and a cigarette makes some people think that they live in a permissive environment, this standing as proof that they live in a democrat society. Moreover, "the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA, 1 998) reports that between 80% and 95% of alcoholics smoke" (Menke, 2009). It is thus difficult to consider the outcome that the smoking ban has had on bars and restaurants without actually checking for convincing data. In spite of the fact that many bar and restaurant owners complained in regard to how their businesses were severely affected by the smoking ban, reality seems to be different. The smoking ban was…
Menke, J. Michael "Bar Patronage after a Smoking Ban," Journal of Drug Issues 39.2 (2009)
Whitney, Ben "Study Finds New York Restaurants Not Hurt by Smoking Ban," Retrieved June 24, 2011, from the Tobacco Control Website: http://www.tobaccocontrol.neu.edu/tcu/tcu05.1/States/study_finds_new_york_restaurants.htm
"NYC Smoking Ban Debuts," Retrieved June 24, 2011, from the CBSNews Website: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/03/29/national/main546751.shtml
Like alcohol, tobacco use is prohibited by minors but permitted by adults. Also like alcohol, tobacco use is detrimental to the health of the user, except even more so.
Whereas alcohol consumption generally benign and only acutely harmful when it is overused, tobacco use (especially in the form of cigarettes) is extremely dangerous for practically all users. This is simply a function of the fact that "typical" use of tobacco entails physical addiction to nicotine, its primary active ingredient. For this reason, it is very rare for smokers to use tobacco too infrequently to become chronic daily users
In contrast, most alcohol users do not partake so often that it compromises their physical health.
The dramatic long-term medical consequences of long-term tobacco use are universal as well as predictable; in fact, the medical community is united in the position that tobacco use causes more preventable illness and death than all…
Brecher, E.M. (1972) Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report.
Boston: Little, Brown & Co.
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age
New York: Little Brown & Co.
legalizing activities such as recreational drug use that do not affect anyone other than the person who chooses to engage in the activity. In the sense that one's actions and choices always affect one's family and loved ones, the decision to take drugs impacts on their lives, but that is outside the realm of government legislation. The decision to smoke cigarettes or to skydive can also be said to affect the lives of one's loved ones, yet neither is prohibited by legislation.
Recently, both individual states and the federal government have enacted laws intended to severely limit the rights of tobacco smoking in public areas, in rightful recognition of the distinction between choices to engage in certain behaviors privately and the rights of others not to be subjected to dangers or inconvenience posed by such choices. This is the essential issue that distinguishes justifiable and unjustifiable government paternalism.
On another level, paternalistic legislation might be drafted to disqualify those who engage in certain behaviors from government subsidized medical care, under the theory that one has no right to saddle the rest of society with the financial burden of paying for one's irresponsible choice to persist in behaviors known to be detrimental to health and longevity. Naturally, the same concept would apply equally to those suffering the long-term medical consequences of smoking tobacco, which currently constitutes the largest preventable cause of lung cancer, heart disease, and many other illnesses that drain public resources.
The spectrum of government paternalism spans from complete permissibility, allowing utterly reckless conduct that is injurious to others to comprehensive over- regulation, where legal penalties attach to eating junk food if one is above one's ideal weight. My first disagreement with the current illegal status of recreational drugs is that I believe it represents a position on the spectrum that is too close to over- regulation in that it prohibits activities that are (or that should be) purely matters of personal choice. In my opinion, mandatory seatbelt and motorcycle helmet laws infringe into issues of personal choice where there is no justification based on protecting the public at large. Conversely, I am in favor of prohibiting seemingly innocuous activities such as operating cellular phones while driving, precisely because it increases the risk of collision with innocent people. The difference is seatbelts and helmets protect only the individual who chooses to use them, whereas distracted drivers represent a potential risk to other people as well. I also reject any claim that legalizing recreational drugs would result in an increase in crimes associated with their use, because, as I suggested earlier, the same can be said (and has already been witnessed in this country) in connection with 1920's Prohibition.
Ultimately, my most fundamental objection to the current illegal status of recreational drugs is their unjustified inequality and incongruence, as compared to regulation of tobacco, alcohol, and for that matter, ropeless mountain climbing and junk food. Regardless of any argument as to the appropriate point for anti-drug laws on the legislative spectrum between absolute permissibility and over-legislation, government regulations must, in principle, reflect uniformity and a logical consistency.
Block for Instructions
Issue facing a local community:
Limitations on soda consumption in New York City
One of the most divisive local issues in America does not pertain to gun control or education but revolves around that quintessentially all-American beverage -- the soft drink. New York City Mayor Bloomberg recently proposed limiting the sizes of "large sodas and other sugary drinks at restaurants, movie theaters and street carts, in the most ambitious effort by the Bloomberg administration to combat rising obesity" (Grynbaum 2012). While New York City's obesity rates are not as alarmingly high as elsewhere in the nation, they are still high enough to cause concern, specifically within demographics such as children, minorities, and the poor. Sodas have been the target of anti-obesity activists because of their minimal nutritional value and high caloric content. Under the proposal, sales of sweetened drinks larger than 16 fluid ounces would be prohibited…
DeNoon, Daniel. (2005). Drink more diet soda, gain more weight? Web MD. Retrieved:
Gross, Samantha. (2012). N.Y. mayor wants to limit soda drinks to 16 ounces. Philly.com.
In public statements such as the one below:
We are keen to work with governments, public health authorities and other tobacco companies to agree on rules and regulations for our industry. We want to do what we can to respond to public health concerns and, at the same time, establish a stable business environment for our company (Why we support strong legislation (http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/PMINTL/pages/eng/busenv/Tob_regulation.asp)."
The industry provides an attitude of compassion and caring for the products they place on the retail shelves and therefore in the hands of innocent buyers.
They further combat the regulations however by making statements like the following:
It can be difficult to create a regulatory environment for a product that is dangerous yet remains popular (Why we support strong legislation (http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/PMINTL/pages/eng/busenv/Tob_regulation.asp)."
The industry has given up the fight against public smoking bans and instead decided on a smart advertising strategy of agreeing with such bans in…
Buyout program (Accessed 12-06-06)
Kraft Boycott (Accessed 12-06-06)
If the public trusts the judges and believes that they are administering justice equally among all people, then there appears to be a mutual respect atmosphere, in which the public adheres to the law willingly. However, if there is distrust of the administration, violence and criminal behavior becomes more prevalent, as the people resist unequal administration of the law.
Moe .C., Gilmour .S. (1995). ediscovering principles of public administration: the neglected foundation of public law. Public Administration eview, Vol. 55. etrieved November 13, 2007 at http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5001645731.
Monahan, J. (1984).The prediction of violent behavior: toward a second generation of theory and policy. Am J. Psychiatry. Vol. 141:10-15 etrieved November 13, 2007 at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/141/1/10.
Osborne, D. And Gaebler, T. (1992). einventing Government. New York, NY: Penguin Press.
Paulozzi, L.J.; Spengler, F, and Gower, MA. (1992). An evaluation of the Vermont worksite smoking law.Public Health ep. Nov-Dec 1992. 107(6) 724-726.
Moe R.C., Gilmour R.S. (1995). Rediscovering principles of public administration: the neglected foundation of public law. Public Administration Review, Vol. 55. Retrieved November 13, 2007 at http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=5001645731 .
Monahan, J. (1984).The prediction of violent behavior: toward a second generation of theory and policy. Am J. Psychiatry. Vol. 141:10-15 Retrieved November 13, 2007 at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/141/1/10 .
Osborne, D. And Gaebler, T. (1992). Reinventing Government. New York, NY: Penguin Press.
Paulozzi, L.J.; Spengler, RF, and Gower, MA. (1992). An evaluation of the Vermont worksite smoking law.Public Health Rep. Nov-Dec 1992. 107(6) 724-726.
Health Care -- Measurable Outcomes -- Tobacco Control Program
n "outcome" is a planned and deliberate effect of a program. Programs ideally have short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes leading to achievement of the program's stated goals. The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) is an excellent example of a program that has attained short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes due to its aggressive, ambitious mission and efforts. Through its 20+ year history, the CTCP program's outcomes have included significant inroads in public attitudes about smoking, lower smoke-related illness, morbidity and health care costs, and impactful actions against the tobacco industry. Given the measurable outcomes of the CTCP program, it is understandably a guiding force for tobacco control programs in other states and countries.
Body: The Measurable Outcomes that Would be Representative of the California Tobacco Control Program
n important aspect of any health-related program resides in its outcomes. Simply put, an "outcome"…
An important aspect of any health-related program resides in its outcomes. Simply put, an "outcome" is a planned and deliberate effect of the program (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 31). Well-planned programs typically have short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes that ideally lead to achievement of the program's stated goals. A short-term outcome is typically an immediate effect of a program, usually focusing on the target population's desired gains in attitudes, knowledge and skills because of the program. Some examples of short-term outcomes for a tobacco control program might include: the public's greater awareness of the harms of environmental tobacco smoke; the public's greater understanding of valid reasons for bans on smoking in public places; and business owners' more positive reactions to smoking bans in places of business (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 32). An intermediate outcome normally involves a more established change in behavior, norms and policies. Some examples of intermediate outcomes for a tobacco control program are voluntary clean air policies and voluntary bans on smoking in public places (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 32). A long-term outcome is typically achieved over a period of years. Examples of long-term outcomes for a tobacco control program are: a decrease in the use of tobacco; a decrease in tobacco-related illness; and a decrease in tobacco-related deaths (MacDonald, et al., 2001, p. 32). Though tobacco control programs may differ in some specific approaches, their short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes are often similar or even identical.
The California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) was established more than 20 years ago with the specific mission "to improve the health of all Californians by reducing illness and premature death attributable to the use of tobacco products" (California Department of Public Health, 2010, modified 10/31/2012). With that ambitious mission in mind, CTCP developed the core strategy of changing social norms (California Department of Public Health, n.d.) and long-term goals of: empowering health agencies to promote health and quality of life by giving leadership and research advocating the appropriate social norms creating a tobacco-free environment; halting illegal tobacco sales to California youth; combatting the aggressive marketing employed by the tobacco industry; assisting people in permanent smoking cessation programs (California Department of Public Health, n.d.). Given the ardent mission and long history of the CTCP, it has achieved numerous measurable short-term, intermediate and long-term outcomes, though the program has operated so successfully for such a long time that many of the cited outcomes are long-term.
The CTCP's measurable outcomes, whether short-term, intermediate or long-term, are so numerable that it they could not be listed in a short paper. However, several measurable outcomes are obvious. For example, through data collection and evaluation, researchers have found
Protecting children from the effects of second-hand smoke and the extent by which the government can mandate repulsive images on the cigarette boxes are two cases which are causing controversy. The "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released data claiming that one in five middle and high school students are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke while in cars." (Yahanda, 2012, p. 1) Thus there are many proponents of banning smoking while in the car and children are present. This type of law is difficult because to many it impinges on individual freedom in a private location. Secondly, a U.S. District judge blocked the government mandate that required cigarette companies to place specific graphic images of the effects of cigarette smoking on cigarette boxes. This case also deals with the government authority to require corporations to compel private business to include images on their product.
1. Two pieces of…
Selfless Actions and a Sustainable Future
There are many ways in which a person can get involved in selfless actions that can help the planet. One of these is to take public transportation (or carpool) instead of driving. There are certainly people who live in places where they cannot do this, or who have the types of jobs where this simply would not be realistic. However, for the most part people who live in urban areas are capable of using public transportation in their daily lives or carpooling with others on their way to work or other types of activities, including shopping. This helps the planet because it reduces the number of cars on the road. In turn, that reduces the level of emissions being placed into the air. With healthier air, not only can human beings breathe better but so can plants and animals. The entire ecosystem…
The most common modern incarnation of this style has evolved into "community policing" including the establishment of specific units within police agency dedicated to public contact and community relations. Typical examples of the community relations element of service style approaches include making officers available to grade school presentations and the establishment of child safety seat checking facilities, inviting citizens to have their child safety seats inspected by officers to ensure correct use and optimal occupant protection.
According to many crime theorists (Ellison 2006), service style and community-oriented policing styles are not appropriate to all communities. In particular, high-crime communities are better served by more proactive, legalistic styles.
Surprisingly, while middle class communities provide the optimal environment for implementation of service style policing and community. On the other hand, more affluent communities manifested a definite preference for a more watchman-like policing style, preferring little or no direct involvement with police functions…
Black, D.J. (1971) the Social Organization of Arrest;. Stanford Law Review, Vol. 23, No. 6. (Jun., 1971), pp. 1087-1111.
Conlon, E. (2004) Blue Blood. Riverhead, NY: Duff, H.W. Concerned Reliable Citizens' Program. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 75 No. 8 (Aug/06).
Ellison, J. Community Policing: Implementation Issues. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Bulletin. Vol. 75 No. 4 (Apr/06).
Klinger, D.A. (1997) Negotiating Order in Patrol Work: An Ecological Theory of Police Response to Deviance. Criminology, Vol. 35, No. 2. pp. 277-306
Memo: Consumer Protection
In their article in the Harvard Business Review, Robinson, Viscusi & Zeckhauser (2016) argue that consumer warning labels are not effective. They resoundingly assert that the labels do not communicate adequate information for consumers, especially in terms of benefits and risks. Essentially, the current labeling system is miserably ineffective in differentiating between significant and insignificant risks, or between "wolves" and "puppies" as the authors put it. Most of the consumer warning labels place the same emphasis on both small and huge risks. Such a warning system, according to the authors of the article, is of little benefit to the consumer. In the long-term, consumers tend to disregard warnings as they come across considerably more insignificant risks (puppies) than significant risks (wolves). In other words, treating both minor and major risks with the same weight tends to increase consumers' skepticism about warnings, which may cause truly…
prevent AIDS in the Gay community
In all culture sex among men is present. The receptive companion is at the risk of carrying a HIV transmission if involved in anal sex and when unshielded. In some parts of the world the HIV transmission is mainly because of the sex among men, while in some other areas other ways of transmission is also possible. But almost everywhere sex amongst men is the major and regular cause for this spate. It should not be overlooked. These sex-actions are done only by option. The occurrence of sex between male-to-male is frequent in the establishments in which male are forced to spend longer periods in full male company like the military, prisons and men-only educational organizations. Antagonism and misunderstandings about sex among men have lead to insufficient protection procedures in many countries.
Defective and lack of epidemiological facts is the barrier for HIV deterrence…
Altman, Lawrence K. "Many Gay Men in U.S. Unaware They Have H.I.V., Study Finds" The New York Times, July 7, 2002, A7
Carrns, Ann "HIV Study Shows 44% Infection Rate for Young Gay Men." Wall Street journal 1January2001:B2.
Coyle, Adrian. "Lesbian and Gay Psychology; New Perspectives." Oxford, UK. Maiden, MA, Bps Blackwell, 2002, p.23
Diaz, Johnny. Study: "Young gays lax about safe sex" Miami Herald - Sunday, June 10, 2001,p6
Pubs on account of operating costs, food prices, and the increase in minimum wages have therefore changed to the tenanted model. Some regulations have also curbed customer choice like ban on smoking in public places, and other interventions on customer freedom have resulted in the closure of two thousand pubs. Changing customer habits have resulted in the decline of the UK restaurant by three percent as a result of poor consumer spending. (Deoitte, 2011)
In England these different entities are representative of the fact that consumers have grown in variety and as well have begun to explore all that the hospitality industry has to offer. Apart from the changes in the eating habits of the natives, the demands from the tourists, and the peculiar tourist out for gastronomic experience has given birth to a new industry -- Gastronomic tour. There are many types of consumers of hospitality including the current…
Bowers, Simon. 2011. Mayfair Hotel: RBS Sells Top Mayfair Hotel to Indian
Billionaire. The Guardian, p. 6.
Deoitte. 2011. Issues and Trends. [Online] Available at:
Administration which relates to issues such as security, rules during work, holidays and vacations, office layout and services and personal record. Lastly human resources section is shouldered with the responsibility of industrial and labour relations which looks in to issues such as collective bargaining, grievance procedures and presentation of elections.
2.2 Challenges facing Human esources
According to Duncan (2005), "The identification close to eight areas which pose great challenge to the hotel industry including the five star hotels"; these are employment which includes increase in minimum wage, increasing flexibility of working hours, over dependence of foreign expatriates, employee training. As mentioned by Kim and Oh (2994), the issue of taxation that is in some cases high increases the rates of value added tax on the industry thus discouraging tourism. Environmental factors do also pose a challenge in the hotel sector for instance the banning of smoking in public places as…
Chauhan, J. 2009. Introduction to Hotel Industry. Internet.
Beverage & obacco
Beverage and obacco Industry Analysis
Although the beverage and tobacco industry face mounting obstacles to their success, there are also an infinite number of possible opportunities. One clear opportunity is provided by emerging markets. he numbers of individuals who have greater levels of disposable incomes are increasing exponentially in the developing world. his represents a tremendous opportunity for corporations in the beverage and tobacco industry to tap into these emerging markets. Another opportunity for this industry can be thought of in terms of a localization initiative. here are growing concerns in industrialized nations which are centered on health issues. hus the beverage and tobacco industry stands the potential to innovate based on the consumer demands. hey could create a diversified product portfolio that was catered to the needs of the specific market.
here are a growing number of potential threats that plague the beverage and…
There are a growing number of potential threats that plague the beverage and tobacco industry. The first is the trend that is emerging in many of the industry's primary markets which is that the consumers are becoming more health conscious. Thus consumer demand for tobacco products and unhealthy beverages that contain ingredients such as high fructose corn syrup are diminishing rapidly. Many consumers are dedicated to living more healthy lifestyles and as a consequence they are shunning products that are not consistent with this preference. Another threat that is driven by consumer preference but represent an entirely different level of threat is that many health considerations are actually the subject of increasing regulations. For example, many cities have chosen to ban smoking from public spaces as well as prohibit unhealthy beverages being sold at places such as schools.
There are a countless number of manufactures and suppliers in this industry. Phillip Morris is one of the world's largest tobacco companies which name was officially rebranded in 2003 under a new name known as Atria. Atria also holds a significant stake in Kraft foods and also subsidiaries that operate in the wine industry. PepsiCo is one of the largest food and beverage companies and the largest U.S. based firm in the industry. InBev is one of the largest alcoholic manufactures and distributors in the world and operates in over one hundred thirty different countries. It recently purchased Anheuser-Busch in 2009 which significantly increased the size of the operations. To complete the deal, the United States required that InBev quit importing certain brands of beers to the U.S. market so that InBev would meet anti-trust regulations.
Public Health Nurse Interview
When it comes to community education and health care, nurses are essential. They provide important services, but they also provide a lot of ongoing support and education. Those are all important aspects of what they do, and can significantly alter and affect a community based on how they are handled. There are three roles that nurses play in a community when it comes to the prevention of health care problems: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Those will be discussed here, along with an interview conducted with Sarah Winters, a nurse who has been working in community education for 35 years. By combining the educational information of various sources with the personal information that can only be provided by interviewing a person in the field, a better understanding of the role and value of the community health nurse can be seen. That provides insight to communities who are…
D'Antonio, P. (2010). American nursing: A history of knowledge, authority, and the meaning of work . NY: JHUP.
Fairman, J. & Lynaugh, J.E. (2000). Critical care nursing: A history. NY: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Fitzpatrick, J.J. & Kazer, M. (eds.). (2011). Encyclopedia of nursing research (3rd. ed.). NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Longe, J. (ed.). (2013). Gale encyclopedia of nursing and allied Hhealth (6 vol.). NY: Gale Group.
Smoking becomes a symbol of anti-cultural rebellion and even more so it takes on the symbol of something holy unrealistic and undesirable. The basic affect is to create a sense of empowerment as a result of smoking they feel that they are now better than they were before, in both a sense of adulthood as well as "counter-culture" mentality. Teenagers all desire to rebel against the normalcy of society, this is a natural response to the restrictions that society institutes upon teenagers. The decision to "go against the grain" is one that teenagers make in subtle and forthright ways, whether it takes the form of not doing homework or arguing with parents. Smoking has become such a controversial subject, through it's almost bombardment of health information and anti-smoking campaigns, that it epitomizes the one thing that youth can do to fight against the establishment. This becomes a crucial reason for…
Canada Tries Tough Smoking Labels, http://www.discount-cigars-store.com/news/canada_tries_tough_smoking_labels.htm
Dichter, Earnest, Why Do We Smoke Cigarettes?, the Psychology of Everyday Living,1947
Facts & Figures: Cigarette Smoking in Canada, Individual and Population Health, Canadian University,2000.
Kaiserman, Murray J, the Cost of Smoking in Canada, 1991, Chronics Diseases in Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada, Volume 18, No.1 -1997
, Binns, Colin W., and Alfonso Helman. (2006): "Which Women Stop Smoking During Pregnancy and the Effect on Breastfeeding Duration." Biomed Central. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/6/195
Torfs, Claudine P. And Roberta E. Christianson. (2000): "Effect of Maternal Smoking and Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Having a Recognized Down Syndrome Pregnancy." American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 152, No. 12: 1185-1191.
Solomon, Laura J. And Virginia P. Quinn. (2003): "Spontaneous Quitting: Self Initiated Smoking Cessation in Early Pregnancy." Nicotine and Tobacco Research. Vol. 6, Sup. 2; S203-S216.
leinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.
Eichhammer P, and Johann M. harraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.
In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can…
Kleinman, Michael. (2000): "The Health Effects of Air Pollution on Children." Irvine: University of California.
Eichhammer P, and Johann M. Kharraz. (2003): "High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Decreases Cigarette Smoking." Journal of Clincial Psychiatry. 64:951-953.
In conclusion, the literature presented clearly shows that smoking during pregnancy does have an adverse affect on infants and fetuses and that through the proper treatment and counseling, these effects can be mitigated either before they happen or after the infant is born. However, the literature review shows that the research thus far conducted is limited in that there is no conclusive evidence as to the best method for preventing smoking during pregnancy. Therefore, all future research should be focused not on what the effects are, as this is already known, but how best to get pregnant mothers to cease smoking.
Encouraging people to report violations for the sake of their health is a final service that nurses can perform to support the ban. People often do not like to report violations, because they feel like 'busybodies' but there is no way that state health inspectors alone can constantly police restaurant owners who illegally look the other way when customers light up. Nurses can remind the public that this legislation was the result of a voter-generated, rather than a politician-generated effort. It must be supported by the public to succeed.
One final criticism of the bill was that smokers will simply go across the border to smoke (Steinberg, 2007). However, proponents point out that, for smokers, there are other options, like patios, personal residences, and other places where they can smoke and not put hospitality workers' lives at risk. And once again, nurses can act as advocates, asking smokers to ask…
The Basics: Smoke Free Arizona" (2007). Smoke Free Arizona. Retrieved 19 May 2007 at: http://www.smokefreearizona.org/
Exemptions." (2007). Smoke Free Arizona. Smoke Free Arizona. Retrieved 19 May, 2007 at
Minmum 750 words.
The tobacco industry is one of the most successful businesses in the contemporary society. This happens in spite of the fact that individuals who smoke are very well-acquainted with the risks coming along with smoking the substance. What is even more concerning is that smoking is often adopted by certain individuals as a result of the fact that they believe that they are fashionable because they smoke. Surely, freedom is one of the most important values that the social order benefits from and it would be absurd to deny someone the right to smoke as long as the respective individuals understands the risks and still wants to do it. However, considering that most people who start to smoke do it because they are searching for social acceptance or simply want to feel what it is like to smoke, it seems that the system needs to install more…
Pahl, Nadine, and Richter, Anne, "Does the Latest German Anti-Smoking Law Affect the Restaurant Behaviour of the Berlin People?," (GRIN Verlag, 2009)
Slovic, Paul, "Smoking: Risk, Perception & Policy," (SAGE 2001)