Social Behavior and Crime
Cambridge First Certificate Exam
The Cambridge First Certificate Exam or FCE is somewhat complex to pass however with a plan in place to study and prepare it will be less of a challenge. The level of the test is the Intermediate level of English also called Upper Interim or B2. This is based on the CEFL or Common European Frame of eference for Language (Driscoll, 2008). The test comes in five distinct parts or Papers. The first is eading which will be the focus of this discussion. The other subjects include Listening, English Use, Writing, and Speech (Cambridgeesol. org, 2011). Steps for getting prepared for the first paper which is eading will ensure proper success.
The first Paper is eading (Englishspeaker. com, 2011).
This certification has a time limit of 60 minutes and three segments. For each segment there is a separate topic related to reading…… [Read More]
Delinquent Anti-Social Behavior
In the contemporary world of ours, one of the major problems that the modern society is facing is that of juvenile delinquency. Unfortunately, this problem is the cause of major suffering, damage and anguish to the sufferers, the person responsible for it and society in general. When delinquency is discussed in a broad context, it encompasses a large number of behaviors that can be considered as norm-breaking. Therefore, the adolescents who adopt such damaging behaviors are regarded as criminally responsible for a number of factors including drug use, aggressive felonies against other people and weapon carrying and handling. However, the mentioned are just a few examples of delinquency. The off-putting and harmful psychosocial and monetary consequences of criminal behavior in conjunction with its increasing development have given rise to experts' concerns. This is the reason why the recent info regarding delinquency restates the inevitability of these concerns…… [Read More]
In one study, subjects were given what they erroneously believed to be a mood 'fixing' drug -- "empathic subjects were more helpful than their nonempathic counterparts only when it seemed possible that their personal moods could be raised as a consequence of helping. High-empathy subjects who learned that their saddened mood states could not be altered by the helping act (because of the temporary action of a "mood-fixing drug") did not help at enhanced levels, despite their still-elevated empathic-concern scores" (Cialdini et al. 1987, p. 757). The proposition of a financial reward in exchange for nonempathetic behavior also reduced the subject's generosity -- the selfish pleasure from the reward reduced the selfish desire to reduce the anxiety from 'doing nothing,' Cialdini hypothesized.
Interestingly, only female subjects were used in the test, and Cialdini notes that they were psychology students. This raises several questions: firstly, might male and female empathic responses…… [Read More]
Abused children develop antisocial behavior that persists through three continuous generations. Such behavior grows out of angry, aggressive parenting and an overall negative home environment, perpetuated by sibling collusion, economic and biological factors. These children exhibit this in preschool by committing at least one antisocial behavior each day in class. As dysfunctional adolescents, their romantic lives and eventual marriages also fail. African-American children suffer from the affliction than Caucasian children. The current level of knowledge and efforts requires effective and efficient mechanisms at home, in school and the community in the crucial formative childhood years.
Understanding the Connection between Child Abuse and the Development of Antisocial Behavior
Abused children eventually become problem adults who are a burden to society.
ecent studies reveal the significance of parenting in the cross-generational transmission of aggressive or problem behavior up to three continuous generations. Stable evidence has long recognized and documented the negative effects…… [Read More]
educing Crime Through Crime Prevention
Crime prevention can be an effective way to reducing crime (Tiley, 2014). Increasing prison sentences, on the other hand, can be a costly means of keep criminals off the streets. Indeed, the most recent study by VEA -- Institute of Justice (2012) found that "the full price of prisons to taxpayers -- including costs that fell outside the corrections budgets -- was $39 billion, $5.4 billion more than the states' aggregate corrections department spending, which totaled $33.5 billion" (p. 6). In other words, incarceration is expensive and a drain on taxpayer funds -- funds that do not even cover the expense. Increasing incarceration times would only burden taxpayers more and add to the debt that already exists. For that reason, crime prevention should be the focus when it comes to reducing crime in the nation.
There are many ways in which crime prevention can be…… [Read More]
Social Disorganization Theory
There are myriad examples in the literature of how the social disorganization theory links street crimes with ecological themes in certain tough neighborhoods. The sociological aspect of the theory -- wretched socioeconomic conditions and mean, gang-dominated streets offer more of an accounting for crime or delinquency than the individuals who commit crimes -- has been tested and referenced as valid by numerous scholars and researchers. The theory seems to neatly apply in certain urban environments, which perhaps explains why neighbors in collaboration with law enforcement have implemented Neighborhood atch and Community Oriented Policing programs to control crime. But is strengthening the social networks in a crime-infested neighborhood really the one true answer to bringing down the crime rate? Do these programs, which do have a positive effect, really reach down into the core of the social problem? hile they may protect innocent residents in some instances and…… [Read More]
Prosocial behavior, as the name suggests, is behavior that is ultimately beneficial to others. Any act that is carried out with an end to helping someone else instead of oneself is prosocial behavior. If the behavior involves no gain to the individual, and in fact, may involve a personal cost, this behavior is considered altruistic. There is some debate over whether true altruism exists, or if even seemingly unselfish behavior is really motivated by a desire to impress, or feel good about oneself.
The motivations for an individual's behavior are complex and varied. After the murder of Kitty Genovese in New York in the 1960s, researchers became very interested in the effect of bystanders on the willingness of a person to offer aid. Genovese's murder was witnessed by 38 individuals and not one even phoned the police.
Research carried out by Latane and Darley in 1970 elucidated the…… [Read More]
The media is one of the most intense factors to influence people's personalities, with the audience often being inclined to follow what they see in the news. The American public, especially, spends a large time watching television, and, during the time that the T.V. is open, people watch hundreds of violent scenes. All things considered, the media encourages aggression and controls the way in which people's personalities are being shaped.
Scientists still have a long way to go until they will properly determine which are the exact factors influencing anti-social behavior. Most probably, time will solve the problem, and, in a few decades, people will be able to comprehend the ways in which genetics and environmental factors act on the human mind.
1. Laura A. Baker, Serena Bezdjian, Adrian Raine. (2006). "Behavioral Genetics: The Science of Antisocial Behavior." Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 69.
Laura A. Baker, Serena…… [Read More]
Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents
Current essay is a discussion of the antisocial behavior disorder amongst adolescents. The author critically reviewed studies on the topic. The literature suggests that neighborhood and peer holds a great influence as regards antisocial behavior amongst adolescents. Previous research has confirmed socialization experiences outside of the family shape what goes on inside of the family. Also there is possibility that peer and neighborhood characteristics are related to parenting and family relationships. Presence of violence in neighborhood may cause stress among parents resulting in poor parenthood quality.
Mediating Effects of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior
Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents
The importance of socialization contexts outside of the family has been well documented. In particular, neighborhood (e.g., violence, collective efficacy) and peer relationship (e.g., relationship quality, peer deviancy) factors both have been linked to a number of adolescent outcomes, such as self-esteem, academic…… [Read More]
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the
Concepts of Social Psychology
Attitudes and Persuasion
Social Identity Theory
Cultural and Gender Influences
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior
Introduction & Outline of the Essay
Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has been made that we need to have these feelings and opinions. The current essay is aimed at exploring the principles of persuasion influencing group behavior. The foundation for this essay is text book "Social Psychology" by Myers (2010) which discusses the attitude theory and persuasion, reviewing how attitudes are structured and how this structure influences their susceptibility to change
The essay is divided into four sections. In the first section…… [Read More]
A model that stresses the fact that people in a generally bad mood or situation will seek out pro-social behaviors, i.e. To help others to make him or herself feel better. (Berkowitz 185) Though this theory has often been contested, not simply because it tends to negate altruism but because people in bad moods tend not to seek out the doing of good deeds, (Berkowitz 186) these two examples of pro-social behavior in this film are both realistic and examples of the negative state relief model of action.
The first example is when Rob agrees to help two skater slackers and frequent shoplifters at his store to produce a record. Rob does not have a record label but it is a logical extension of his love of music and of human progress. He walks into the store, where Barry and Dick are listening to a demo tape of Vince and…… [Read More]
Social Order in Public Spaces
Every society has certain rules and regulations that help people live together harmoniously. Some of these rules are explicit and are openly known. Other rules are implicit and therefore subtle. Both implicit and explicit rules and regulations govern a society. However, when a person moves away from one particular society to another, he or she has difficulty in adjusting to the norms of that new society.
Social order is considered to be the method of explaining such rules and regulations so that we live in a society along with its members. Social order is very essential for organizing everyday social life.
When a particular group of people engage in a social activity, their social behavior may seem to threaten others. For example, when a group of people shout and scream in a street, the onlookers might find that their life, their neighborhood and society in…… [Read More]
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…… [Read More]
Those who predict future behavior and demand for products and services correctly can profit tremendously from their planning; conversely, those who invest in technologies or applications based on assumptions or expectations that never materialize run the risk of losing their entire investment. In that respect, the computer realm is no different from the decisions and projections made in traditional types of businesses. It may just seem different by virtue of the accelerated rate of computer evolution and development and the fact that some of the specific new technologies and capabilities become so widely and rapidly adopted that they can change society practically overnight.
In all likelihood, computers today are similar to paper in the Middle Ages when producing paper was so labor intensive and expensive that very little was available and only to the wealthiest classes. Another analog might be dry cell battery technology around the turn of the 20th…… [Read More]
Social Determinants of Health
Quality Improvement and isk Management in Health Care
A health care system is an institution or organization of people using resources to deliver health care services to meet the target population's health needs. There are many health systems worldwide with many organizational structures and histories. Different countries have various systems that support their health system planning such as trade unions, governments, market participants, charities and religious co-ordinate bodies who deliver health care services that are planned and evolutionary. isk management entails the proper strategies that reduce possibilities of specific losses in health organizations (Spath, 2009).
The systematic utilization and gathering of data are very important to the practice and concept. The programs of risk management consist of both reactive and proactive components. The reactive components include the actions, which are in response to adverse occurrences while proactive components include those activities done to prevent adverse occurrences…… [Read More]
Often times, the impact of social relationships begins to emerge in childhood, thus illustrating the importance of how familial structures set the tone for mental and physical health of children as they grow into adulthood. Children set a tone at a very young age based on the health and type of familial and social structures they have around them, Whether positive or negative, these relationships can set a lasting impact that will thus influence how the child reacts to social situations later in life. If a child experiences relative social isolation, or the absence of strong familial or social ties, this may have a negative impact on both his or her immediate and long-term mental and physical health. On the other hand, children with higher levels of social integration will have much stronger self-esteem and will often have a higher resistance to physical health issues. The support these children have…… [Read More]
The GEMS effort was to create a social environment that encouraged healthy eating and exercise, and expanded health literacy in a fun manner, and was accessible to young girls.
It is easier to change health-related behaviors in the young, and the program tried to address the unique and often more acute problem of obesity in African-American young girls. The entire community and family units were incorporated into the program effort. Positive aspects of the African-American community, such as strong social support, were used by the study designers, also in line with social cognition theory. Existing support structures and social learning were combined: for example, the families in question were often not educated in how to properly read food labels, but once they were, the desire to help their daughters become healthier would hopefully reinforce the need to engage in proactive steps to improve dietary health. During Family Nights, families of…… [Read More]
Early trauma that causes anger often corresponds to higher levels of aggression later in life, especially where the traumas are suppressed and internalized instead of being expressed at the time of their origin and at the source.
Furthermore, since many dysfunctional families forbid the expression of anger by children (particularly anger toward parents), individuals who experience significant levels of early trauma that produces repressed anger are often considerably more aggressive throughout life subsequently than individuals who were fortunate not to experience as much early trauma (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). Aggression is a known factor in criminal conduct as well as other forms of non-criminal negative social behavior such as those associated with overt prejudice and other types of social intolerance toward others (Macionis 2003).
Aggression and Prejudice:
One of the primary ways that aggression-prone individuals express their repressed rage is in their treatment of other less powerful individuals (Gerrig &…… [Read More]
" This is especially true of neighborhoods associated with gang activity, where the color of one's shirt or hat can become a matter of life or death regardless of racial similarity or dissimilarity.
In everyday social interactions in areas of the local community other than those where racial animosity may be merely part of much more general resentment based on social class or "home turf" defensiveness, I experience relatively non-racialized responses without any perceptible tension based on my race. That is not necessarily to suggest that individuals from respective races harbor no differences in their personal attitudes about race; it is only based on my perception of direct outward conduct and response to me.
If anything, I would have t say that I have experienced interactions where individuals of other racial backgrounds seem to relate to me more politely than racially similar individuals. For example, I have noticed that clerks…… [Read More]
There is also real indication to depict that declining supply and drinking time could assist in solving the binge drinking, as resulted in Finland, Sweden and Norway. (Lords Hansard text, 2005) Moreover, the Interim Analytical eport indicates that increasing amounts of consumption has been coupled with the increase during the last 25 years in accessibility. It continues to visualize that applications for on-licenses of alcohol have enhanced by 145% over the last two decades. The connection between enhanced accessibility and harm is in someway recognized. But despite suggesting for the regulations on this enormous expansion in supply, the 2003 Act makes the alcohol industry depend on a 'voluntary social responsibility scheme'. The Government is profoundly pressurized by the alcohol industry that promotes income as well as jobs. Therefore, any approaches that are not agreeable to or threat the profit of the alcohol industry have been discarded. Those related to the…… [Read More]
..set of critical stages for normal psychologic development." (2001) Kandel relates that prior to formal studies being conducted on material deprivation: "...a few anecdotal examples of social isolation were collected by anthropologists and clinicians. From time to time children had been discovered living in an attic or a cellar, with minimal social contact, perhaps spending only a few minutes a day with a caretaker, a nurse or a parent. Children so deprived in early childhood are often later found to be speechless and lacking in social responsiveness." (Kandel, 2001) According to the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities in the work entitled: "Issues in Learning Disabilities: Assessment and Diagnosis": Diagnosis, assessment and treatment must be in the nature of 'differential diagnosis' in making identification between varying disorders, syndromes and other factors that impact the acquisition of the skills of listening, speaking, reading, writing reasoning or mathematical abilities." (National Joint Committee…… [Read More]
This is because the majority will spend several hours a day watching these images through: various movie channels and those they can download from their cable / satellite TV provider. At the same time, the music is influencing them towards anti-social activity. This is based on the fact that 9 out of 10 individuals owns an I Pod or an MP3 player.
As a result, the various statistics are indicating that this is leading to a rise in disruptive behavior. The reason why, is because they are highlighting how the underlying trends are becoming worse with the changes in technology. This is leading to more incidents of criminal activity in relation to the rest of the population. Once this occurs, it means that society will have more issues to deal with: surrounding teenagers imitating what they are seeing and hearing. This is despite the claims that are made by: the…… [Read More]
This leads one to believe that they are not very well off financially and the mother has not real education in order to obtain employment since she is currently attaining administrative assistant training. Antonio also has issues with controlling his behavior when in the daycare environment, as he frequently has violent outbursts and crying spells.
If one were to assess Antonio from an Eco-Feminist perspective one would be better able to understand Antonio and his present behavior. Ecofeminism is the social movement that regards the domination of women and nature as unified. It is one of the few movements and analyses that in fact connect the two movements. Lately, ecofeminist theorists have extended their analyses to reflect on the interconnections flanked by sexism, the domination of nature, and also racism and social dissimilarities (What is Ecofeminism, n.d.). Daniel spent a lot of time suppressing Hilda in his behavior that he…… [Read More]
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Stanley…… [Read More]
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY?
Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In this regard, Wood and Kroger (1998) report that, "Lewin's experiments in leadership style (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire) became classics in the new experimental social psychology" (p. 267). Lewins' early work was carried on by Festinger and others who explored cognitive dissonance for the next 20 years at MIT and subsequently at the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota, making this one of the foundations of social psychology (Wood & Kroger, 1998).
Simply stated, social psychology uses the scientific method to study human social behavior (ogers, 2003). According to ogers, psychological social psychology "studies how social events and phenomena influence the ways in which individual people feel, think and act. It is concerned with the psychological processes (such as social perception and cognition) that…… [Read More]
social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.
In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…… [Read More]
He seems to suggest that treating strangers like extended members of the same social group, which, in a modern society they are, will help erase the feeling of cultural disconnect that many people in modern society experience.
Perhaps Forni's most important sociological contribution comes in his chapter about asserting oneself. The competitive nature of modern society has created a scenario in which people feel as if asserting oneself and being polite are an either/or proposition, and that one cannot assert oneself without being rude. Forni disagrees with this proposition. Instead, he believes that "assertiveness ought to be a natural consequence of [one] being reasonably sensitive to [one's] own needs" (Forni, p. 111). Moreover, he believes that a study in civility will help people learn how to simultaneously be assertive and show respect for the needs of others. "e can choose to pay no because we are entitled to exercise control…… [Read More]
Moral Licensing and Morality:
Does Being Good Make You Bad?
This study focuses on 107 psychology students living in Australia for more than a year. The students were given a moral licensing crime task with two potential suspects; one of whom was more likely to be guilty. For the control group, both suspects were Anglo Australians; for the moral licensing group, the less suspicious suspect was Aboriginal. The hypotheses were that: moral licensing will not impact explicit moral self-concept; moral licensing will have a negative impact on implicit moral self-concept; moral licensing will make participants less racially sensitive; and moral licensing will make participants less likely to volunteer than the control participants. There was no significant different between the control condition and the moral licensing condition for explicit moral self-concept or for racism sensitivity. Participants in the control condition scored higher on the test for implicit moral self-concept and were…… [Read More]
hat impact does media violence have on society? How are children affected and how are adolescents affected by violence portrayed in movies, television, video games and in other forms? This paper reviews and critiques peer-reviewed articles that address the subject of media violence from several perspectives -- and takes positions on the arguments and research presented in those scholarly articles.
There is ample empirical research available to back up the assertion that violent video games, movies and television programs have a negative impact on young people. It is the thesis of this paper that ultimately the responsibility for guidance vis-a-vis violent media is not on schools or law enforcement but in fact is on the shoulders of parents.
The Influence of Media Violence on Youth
An article in the Psychological Science in the Public Interest (Anderson, et al., 2003) flatly asserts that there is "…unequivocal evidence that media…… [Read More]
Fifteen questions used to measure willingness to AC were assembled into a questionnaire designed to examine the personality measures and items regarding employee response to various safety issues, adequacy of safety training, and attitudes toward other safety related issues. The most pertinent questions relating to AC were:
If I know a coworker is going to do a hazardous job, I am willing to remind him/her of the hazards (even if the employee is familiar with the job),
I am willing to warn my peers about working unsafely am willing to do whatever I can to improve safety, even confronting my peers about their unsafe acts.
The responses to these questions, measured on a 5-point Likert scale, were added to attain an AC score. The Likert technique presents a set of attitude statements. Subjects are asked to express agreement or disagreement of a five-point scale. Each degree of agreement is given…… [Read More]
Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics
Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.
While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…… [Read More]
Social Advocacy in Counseling
Social advocacy has been described by some counseling theorists as a "fifth force" paradigm that should be considered to rival if not replace other major counseling psychology paradigms regarding behavior and mental illness (atts, 2009). This paper briefly discusses what social justice/advocacy is, the debate regarding its status as a paradigm in counseling psychology, and how social advocacy can enhance both the client's experience and life and the professional counselor's personal, professional, and ethical obligations to helping others.
Social justice is fairness or impartiality exercised in society, specifically as it is implemented by and within different levels of social classes of a society. A truly socially just populace would be based on the principles of solidarity and equality, would consider and maintain values, human rights, and the dignity of every person in the society (Bell, 1997). Social justice/advocacy theories have in recent years been…… [Read More]
Social Order: Institutions, Socializations, And the Performance of Social Roles
Erving Goffman dramaturgical theory is a seminal theory in the field of sociology. An example of "micro-sociological analysis," it forced sociological analysis back into the examination of things which actually exist, individual behavior, instead of mere concepts. Goffman demonstrated that the examination of real things can not only clarify existing lines of thought, but open up new avenues for the study of social behavior. Thesis: Through his emphasis on the individual's performance of social roles, Goffman demonstrates that, although social organization and dynamics do influence individual behavior, it is the individual herself who determines the final shape of this behavior.
Summary of the Theory
Erving Goffman's work, often classified as "symbolic interactionism," is highly valuable for the study of socialization and the performance of social roles. Erving studied how individuals used symbols in the performance of their social roles and…… [Read More]
Social Cognitivism: Viewpoint Synthesis
Literature eview on Social Cognitivism
Theoretical Paper: Social Cognitive Theory of Personality by Albert Bandura
The core of the social cognitive theory is that through observation, learning occurs. This theory has several premises forming its foundation. Human beings are seen to learn when they participate in the observation process. A person who is a model, demonstrates a behaviour while the observer picks up this behaviour or learns it by seeing the model doing it. Albert Bandura, in his Social Cognitive Theory on personality, which is now known as the Social Learning Theory, states that there are many interactions of various elements such as people, the environment and behaviours when learning is taking place. Thus it takes place within a social setting (Bandura, 1999).
Purpose of the study
Bandura pursued various aims in this study. He looked at the behaviour of groups and individuals and…… [Read More]
Social Psychology Concept Matrix
Social Psychology Concept
Application to Society
Application to the Individual
The researcher selects a certain number of people from the population that he/she wants to study and presents them with a list of questions on the topic asking them to respond in order to elicit their opinion.
The survey can be conducted in writing, over the phone, as face-to-face interview, or in a small-group oral format
The survey can be used to, for instance, discover the expectations that citizens wish from their new president.
The citizens of the country can be polled and asked what they wish the president to accomplish for them / their country in the new term. Results can tell the government what the citizens most wish to be implemented in their country.
Tjaden and Thoennes (2000) surveyed men and women to find their comparable…… [Read More]
Social Cognitive, Behavioral Drinking
Social Cognitive/behavioralist Drinking
Drinking behavior provides informative demonstration of how social cognitive and behavioralist theories provide complementary rather than competing explanations of human agency. Bandura (1999) casts social cognitive theory against various determinist and materialist theories on the assertion humans are "sentient agents of experiences rather than simply undergoers of experiences" because people explore, manipulate and influence the environment they discover (p. 4). This contrasts against "automaticity," habit, "tendencies to repeat responses given a stable supporting context" (Oullette and Wood, 1998, p. 55). Oullette & Wood (1998) compare habit learning to skill development, where practice can lead to "nonvolitional, frequent, and consistent experiences in a given context" but new situations require deliberation (p. 55). Wood and Neal (2007) largely reiterate this summary as repeated learned behavior (843). The present inquiry is particularly interested in how and why particular behaviors become repeated after negative consequences have been…… [Read More]
Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…… [Read More]
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…… [Read More]
Social Network and Its Effects on the Developing Brain
The enhancing quantity of time kids are investing on computer systems in their home and institution has actually raised concerns about how using computer innovation might make a distinction in their lives-- from assisting with research to triggering depression to motivating terrible habits. This short article offers a review of the restricted study on the impacts of personal computer use on kids' physical development. Preliminary study recommends, for instance, that access to computer systems enhances the overall quantity of time kids invest in front of a TV or computer screen at the expenditure of other individual tasks, therefore putting them at danger for excessive weight. At the exact same time, intellectual study recommends that playing video game can be an essential foundation to computer proficiency due to the fact that it boosts kids' capability to check out and picture images in…… [Read More]
Thus, this aspect can multiply into many sub-genres that focus on one or more aspects of the social world as they contribute to influencing behaviors and innate thought processes. Focusing on the social means looking for more abstract concepts that relate to existence within a social world. Actually trying to predict later success in publication, "Predicting the future success of junior scholars is of great concern to academic hiring committees," (Haslam & Lamb 2009:144). Yet it is based within two correlating variables that can then be compared, "It is therefore reasonable to predict that publication success during graduate school may be associated with publication success later in people's academic careers," (Haslam & Lamb 2009:144). Although the subject is socially constructed, the method of analysis is still quantitatively measured. Even this study shows quantitative measurement use- using mathematical prediction models in analysis of data (Haslam & Lamb 2009). egression analysis, common…… [Read More]
Social Facilitation, Social Inhibition, And Social Loafing
The objective of this study is to provide a description of the characters in the media program demonstrating social loafing, social inhibition, and social facilitation. One of the characters will be selected by using the current literature and two ways their behavior might be mitigated will be explained. This work will additionally describe a situation in which negative consequences were observed resulting from groupthink or group polarization and use an article from the current literature to explain how on alternative to groupthink or group polarization could have been used in that situation.
Social Loafing, Social Inhibition, and Social Facilitation
Social loafing is described as "the tendency to reduce individual effort when working in groups compared to the individual effort expended when working alone." (Piezon and Donaldson, n.d., p.1) Social facilitation is described as the increase "of individuals' performance in the presence of others"…… [Read More]
Social Psychology 2nd
Morality and Group elations: Possible Bias
The article entitled "Morality and intergroup relations: Threats to safety and group image predict the desire to interact with outgroup and ingroup members" as written by Brambilla et al. is comprised of three different research studies. However, each of these studies explores different facets of the same phenomena: how morality within and outside of groups varies by type of threat, and what sort of behavior these threats elicit from these same groups (Brambilla et al., 2013, p. 813). There is an extreme amount of relevance to the research conducted within this article and the principle research question of the present author, who is attempting to ascertain the meaning of relationships with moral development and reasoning in social groups.
Prior to stratifying the analysis of this paper to the three respective studies, it is necessary to mention various salient factors regarding the…… [Read More]
Social psychology view: What ensures that women are treated fairly in office settings in the United States?
One of the most prudent applications of social psychology within contemporary settings are those that relate to gender. Gender issues can become exacerbated when they are viewed within particular social constructs, such as the work environment. Due to the fact that the majority of the world was initially a patriarchal society (particularly in the United States) before modern conceptions of gender became prevalent, the role of women within the work environment is one which is certainly worthy of investigation in terms of how women are treated, what sorts of issues they must contend with, and how others (men) consider working women. The principle difference between contemporary and most historic notions of gender pertaining to women in the workplace is that in modern times, there is supposed to be a substantial greater amount of…… [Read More]
Additionally, Sociocultural theory assumes that individuals develop self-concepts through interaction with others, and we are influenced by culture and social processes, such as social norms. Social norms dictate that girls are more sensitive and boys are less emotional, thus further explaining the gender differences in the above case study.
The two predictions of how these interactions affect a child's development are: 1) if the child is treated with more love, intimacy, and talked to about feelings, the child will grow up being more sensitive to others and more open to discuss their feelings with others. If the child is taught not to respond to their feelings, or let their emotions guide them, the child will grow up to be less sensitive, more aggressive and less likely to discuss their feelings. Depending on treatment, a child may grow up to have negative qualities, such as violence or repressed anger.
These interactions…… [Read More]
Situation: My male roommate was late to work and in a hurry. When he went to start his car he realized the battery was dead. He said, "I knew this would happen! Why do the car gods always do this to me? I'm supposed to know about these car things, all the other guys do!"
This situation clearly illustrates three principles of social psychology: hindsight bias, external locus of control, and social comparison. If I knew the reasons why my roommate was running late, there would be even more principles of social psychology to discuss. As it was, my roommate claimed to "know" that his car would not start. He assumed that he knew such a thing would happen. If he had really known it would happen, however, he might not have left on his lights or done whatever he could to prevent the battery from dying. This…… [Read More]
Social Implications of Sexual Identity Formation and Coming Out Process
Chad Mosher's article, "The social implications of identity formation and the coming-out-process: a review of the theoretical and empirical literature" provides a fairly comprehensive look at the theories and realities of individuals asserting their homosexual tendencies to the world. The article is widely written as a source of material and instruction for psychologists who are employed in a therapeutic or counseling capacity with such individuals, as there are implications for them to incorporate into their practice in the article's conclusion. In addition to discussing the two principle theories regarding coming out, essentialism and social constructionism, the author discusses aspects of the theories that are integrated as well as the effect of coming out on both the audience and the homosexual perception. Audiences are stratified into three distinct categories: family members, heterosexuals, as well as homosexuals and those somewhere in between…… [Read More]
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia: How the Social Media Affect the E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia
SOCIAL COMMECE IN SAUDI AABIA
Conceptual Framework Model
Psychological Aspect and Theories
Digital Divide in Saudi Arabia
Ethos, eligious conviction, and Government in E-commerce Adoption
The ise of the P Industry in Saudi Arabia
Conceptual Model and esearch Hypothesis (Drawing)
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia
Modern Saudi Arabia today actually represents an exceptional and convergent mixture of social conservatism and technological ability, a wonderful alteration from a remote, desert land that it was just something like 50 years ago. As social media is turning out to be increasingly prevalent in Saudi Arabia, online marketers are starting capitalizing in methods that service social media and include online customers. In Saudi Arabia Online marketers' adoption of new online marking trends is being prompted by discoveries that show individuals are spending great amounts…… [Read More]
The reason for this is that the phenomenon generally occurs within groups. Individuals who function in a group often do so differently than when left upon their own. To conduct the study, one individual and one group of people should be observed in two separate rooms.
The individual will be able to observe the group by means of a one-way window. The group will be unaware of the individual. All the group members except one were told to clap their hands in unison when a piece of rhythmic music begins to play. The individual in the adjacent room will observe this behavior as well as be able to hear the music.
As soon as the music begins to play, it is hypothesized that the person without prior coaching will be initially surprised. The other group members will overtly or covertly stare at the person or encourage him or her to…… [Read More]
Social Impact of Gas Price on American Price in American Society
In the last few years, the price of gasoline has increased above average in the United States, and in many part of the United States, the price of gasoline is above $3 per gallon. The data from the Department of Energy reveals that price of gas was $1.05 in 1999, and ever since, the gas price continues to increase. In 2005, the gas price was $2.05 per gallon, and $3 in 2007 and in some part of the country, the price of gasoline has reached $4 per gallon. (Johnson 1). The increase in gasoline price has led to several social effects on the American society. The objective of this paper is to investigate the social impact of the increase in the price of gasoline on American society.
Impact of Gasoline Price Increase on American Society
There are several social…… [Read More]
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…… [Read More]
Social Perceptions and Bias
Within any organization there is a dual cognitive and emotional role in making decisions. In the 21st century global environment, this role is accentuated and allows far less time than ever before. Typically, decision making is the result of stimuli, then choosing from alternatives based on past and current knowledge, then making a final choice of an action or group of action. One way of looking at the decision making process is that it is ingrained within the human psychological perspective, which makes it both unique and complex for the individual or organization involved. esearchers Seo and Barrett (2007) present a theory that contrary to the popular belief that emotions (feelings) are dysfunctional in decision making, in fact, research shows that individuals who are able to identify and distinguish among feelings have a greater chance of making successful and discreet decisions by looking critically at their…… [Read More]
Social psychology, both as an academic and a professional practice, is extremely useful for elucidating the phenomenon of high rates of suicide within the military, and within the United States in general. The frequency of the occurrence of suicide within the military is explicitly denoted within Brewin's article (2013), in which there are record rates for suicide in the armed services in 2013 and the "number of military suicides has more than doubled since 2001" (p. 1). Sweeping phenomena such as the high incidence of suicide within a specific population setting validates social psychology as a discipline, since it is apparent that such problems are indicative of social concerns. Such problems will not simply go away, and require psychological means to address this issue.
This fact is widely alluded to within the aforementioned article. One of the chief reasons for suicide is the general perception that seeking counseling or psychological…… [Read More]
The participants should be able to rate their performance both in the experimental situation involving a small audience and in that involving a large audience.
This is also a measure of their self-efficacy prior to exposure to the audiences. The purpose of this act is to see whether the change in their self-evaluation is due to exposure to the audiences. The self-evaluation is done by using a self-administered questionnaire. The second stage is the exposure to the two types of audience. After performing in front of the two types of audiences, the group of gymnasts is asked to rate themselves using the same self-administered questionnaire. Using the subjects' self-evaluation it is possible to identify the changes. And by taking into consideration the changes it would be possible to decide whether the size of the audience had any impact on the performance. However, in such a study it is possible to…… [Read More]
Therefore, today's society in the United States is diverse, which is something a social worker needs to understand and know how to deal with each diverse group. Furthermore, through research, it has been discovered most ethnic groups that live in the United States consist of young people, which means by staying in this country, they grow accustom to their surroundings. Once they have grown accustom to living here, they feel like this is their home to start a life with their own families. This continues the growing number of ethnic groups in this country.
Due to the educational accommodations that schools and college campuses make for students that have ethnic backgrounds, there is not enough prejudice of one group to let a Holocaust to occur in the United Stated. Furthermore, this country believes in freedom of speech to allow one ethnic to be isolated from the rest and condone any…… [Read More]
Social Work Exercises
Preparing for 3 Clients
Mrs. Nancy Cannon telephoned from her place of work ( the Capital nsurance Company -- phone [HDDEN] She sounded concerned. She said that on the previ-ous Saturday night, her 14-year-old daughter Amy had come home after her 9: 00 p. m. curfew, smelling of alcohol. She says that she " grounded" her daughter but now wants to talk with a social worker about the situation. Mrs. Cannon requested an appointment for herself alone, indicating that she wanted to sort things out with someone before she dealt further with her daughter.
Mrs. C. reported that this was the first such incident. She said, " 've never had any trouble whatsoever from Amy. She's been a wonderful child." She stated that she had not sought pro-fessional help before and that this was her first contact with any social service or mental health agency. She indicated…… [Read More]
This in turn generates a kind of societal morality. As a consequence, social order becomes an incorporated trait of everyday life. According to the theory, what people see as standards are indirect behavioral rules. Infringements of the standard lead to diverse amounts of punishment depending on how common the standard may be. Chastisements can come in the shape of being disqualified from one's social group, critical looks, or imprisonment in the case of harsh infringements like killing or assault (Jeanty, 2010).
As sociologists and historians examine social work, they often see a profession the spirit of which is social control. For them the language of therapy, assisting, or even empowerment masquerades a coercive center. Various recent literature of the vocation, conversely, has confronted the attitude of those researchers who depend on case reports as proof of what social workers in fact do in the field has highlighted empowerment in the…… [Read More]
Looking at a problem from several different angles and viewpoints is the ultimate goal of group work and group decision-making. Having people who are different from one another helps to avoid 'groupthink' and contributes to in-depth discussions and better ideas than could be found in a group where the participants were basically all alike (Chartrand, van aaren, & argh, 2006). How a person reacts to others and to the situation, though, can seriously affect the outcome of the group. Society is made up of many different kinds of people, so a good group will be comprised of the same. This will help to ensure the success of whatever decision that the group comes to, since there will be a greater suggestion that the public will be receptive to it, as based on the opinions of the various group members.
oth internal and external information must be tracked in order to…… [Read More]
They perceive their self-worth mainly in connection with those achievements and their confidence in social situations is largely dependent on the knowledge that others recognize them for those attributes (Branden, 2007).
The Shift from False Confidence to Self-Efficacy
I experienced a period during my later childhood and adolescence where I now realize I had substituted unjustified fears and apprehensions with unjustified confidence and positive beliefs about myself that exceeded my actual abilities. My parents meant to instill in me a sense of self-esteem by inflating my self-image. However, in doing so, they actually infused me with what I have more recently learned to recognize as false confidence. Because I was taught to "be confident" I became equally confident in situations where I knew almost nothing as I was in situations where I deserved to be confident. On several occasions, I allowed myself to become argumentative even after realizing that I…… [Read More]
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…… [Read More]
Social Technology and Security
Cincom Systems, a privately-held enterprise software company who is very active on Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter and has an extensive blog network relies on social media sites to share customer success stories and the latest updates on events the company is participating in. Cincom has six different product divisions, each offering a different type of enterprise software, ranging from Customer elationship Management (CM), and Enterprise esource Planning (EP) to advanced product and sales configuration systems as well. The latest information on employee accomplishments and a continual stream of updates on new products dominate the social networking sites, while the website is used for communicating the unique value proposition of the six different divisions.
The website is also used for providing product overviews and presentations given at conference, along with the biographies of the senior executives. Cincom's executives are all over 50 years of age, with several over…… [Read More]