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Leadership roles are often wide in scope and not easily definable. As a leader, one is expected to make personal sacrifice for the betterment of the group. The purpose of this essay is to explore the idea of self sacrifice as a main component of all roles that undertake a leadership position. In this analysis I will apply the leadership demonstrated by the volunteer workers as Court Appointed Special Advocates (CASA) and the social leader Mohandas Gandhi as how self sacrifice can impact those in need.
CASA volunteers have helped more than 2 million children locate new places to live and additionally providing fresh starts and new beginnings for those most troubled individuals and society. CASA is a nonprofit organization, it runs largely on a volunteer basis. Not receiving monetary compensation for work is a sign of self sacrifice and dedication to a cause greater than individual purpose.…
Court Appointed Special Advocates Website. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.casaforchildren.org/site/c.mtJSJ7MPIsE/b.5301295/k.BE9A/Home.htm
Mohandas Ghandi. Wikipedia website. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohandas_Karamchand_Gandhi
Skol Foundation Website (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.skollfoundation.org/skoll - entrepreneurs/
And SEE-Change, a movement in Australia, which could be emulated in the U.S., claims it has a goal of "empowering" Australians to make good decisions on a local level since political leaders cannot be counted on to lead. The SEE-Change group was launched by Canberra biologist Stephen Boyden; his book the Biology of Civilization apparently provided the spark for this social change movement. The changes that need to be made, according to Boyden's book, can be accomplished through the development of "life centers."
Those life centers will fulfill three pivotal objectives, the article explains. One, they will bring concerned citizens together so they can converse and "explore the nature and scientific underpinnings of future challenges." Two, the life centers will give the local community a "venue" through which they can decide which social change actions are most appropriate. And three, these centers will, the article asserts, give communities a "new…
Douglas, Bob. (2007). A SEE-Change Movement as a Vehicle for Cultural change and Local
Action on Climate Change. Social Alternatives, 26(3), 46-49.
Postel, Sandra. (2007). Safeguarding Freshwater Ecosystems. WorldWatch Institute. Retrieved February 15, 2008, at http://www.worldwatch.org.node.3994.
Vasi, Ion Bogdan. (2006). Organizational Environments, Framing Processes, and the Diffusion
Social Change, Leadership, And Advocacy Applied
The objective of this work is to identify at least one professional or societal problem or issue that concerns you and that would benefit from social change, leadership, and advocacy and explain why it is worthy of such efforts. This work will describe a manageable social change, leadership or advocacy goal related to the issue of domestic violence. This work will explain how and why accomplishing the goal would impact the issue.
Porter and Hall (2001) report in the work entitled "Keeping Collaboration Alive in the Criminal Justice esponse to Domestic Violence" that as the criminal justice system adjusted to changes in the law and the new zero tolerance climate, it became apparent that the work of service providers and practitioners in allied fields (law enforcement, the courts, probation, social services, victim services) needed coordinating. As a result, coalitions were formed in many areas…
Porter, Karen L. And Hall, William H. (2001) Keeping Collaboration Alive in the Criminal Justice Response to Domestic Violence. Presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Social Problems. Anaheim, CA August 17-19, 2001. Retrieved from: http://rji.alfred.edu/Publications/RJI_RR_3.pdf
Ambrosia, Zandra D. (2008) Advocating for Comprehensive Assessments in Domestic Violence Cases. Family Court Review. Vol. 46 No. 4 October 2008. Association of Family and Conciliation Courts. Retrieved from: RREEVHIEEWNSIVE ASSESSMENTS IN DOMESTIC VIOLENC
Hobart, Margaret (2008) Batterer Accountability: Responding to Child Maltreatment and Domestic Violence. Washington State Coalition Against Domestic Violence. August 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.wscadv.org/docs/Batterer_Accountability_Responding_to_child_maltreatment_and_domestic_violence.pdf
Social Change, Leadership, nd dvocacy
Sociology - Human Services
There are three concepts related to the counselling profession and those professions related to human services. These concepts deal with the matters of social change, leadership, and advocacy. Social change is very much to do with addressing the unfairness of living in a society, but is not limited to injustice alone. Leadership is about being the person to facilitate change both in a social as well as professional capacity, whilst advocacy supports and promotes these changes.
s human services professionals, educators and counsellors, it is important to understand these concepts fully and build an awareness of how they are different, but also how they are alike. Leadership is about guiding decision making and creating a supportive environment in which people can discuss social issues in a constructive and managed way[footnoteRef:1]. Discussion should be promoted and given direction so that…
Advocacy has a strong role to play in the ability to counsel or lead. Providing a forum where people can be heard or listened to supports the smooth transition towards social change. Being able to resolve conflict and manage dispute effectively is essential[footnoteRef:3]. Advocacy allows marginalized groups to speak and be heard so that a broader collection of people can be represented. In this way social change and social justice can not only be seen but experienced by all those involved. The true meaning of advocacy is to plead the cause of another individual's plight and to represent them to all those that can influence that individual's (or group's) life[footnoteRef:4]. Advocating for another can facilitate fairer social change in a broader context, because those that are marginalized or exist on the outskirts of society are brought forward and integrated so that any change that occurs in brought about with these people in mind. [3: http://grjsite.com/attachments/article/31/K.%20Santos%20Advocacy%20Supervision.pdf] [4: http://grjsite.com/attachments/article/31/K.%20Santos%20Advocacy%20Supervision.pdf]
Social change may be considered similar to leadership and to advocacy in the sense that it is an advancement on what is the current social situation. Both advocacy and leadership direct this change and support it and so in this way, all three concepts work in harmony. Conversely though they can work against one another if the social change that is needed is not what society is being led towards and what the leader supports. Advocating for those that are in need of change does not necessarily mean that those agencies that can facilitate these changes will listen, and act. Social change may equally be brought about by the people rather than the agencies that lead them in the case of a revolt or uprising.
What these comparisons show us is that social change is not an event that can occur spontaneously without leadership or advocacy, but it can occur aided by only one. Perhaps the most positive, fair, and holistic social change can only be brought about if the views and feelings of all are considered and to do this, both leadership and advocacy must work in tandem.
The world has grown more stratified, but the poor have grown more aware, through the media, of the extent of the divide between the haves and have-nots.
Social change may originate in material changes, like changes in climate, technology, or population numbers, but the subsequent social changes spawn further social changes unplanned by the creators of the material change, like a shift to a more sedentary society, the result of the ubiquity of the Internet at home and work. Societies are all equally affected by change, but not all of society benefits from technological progress. Technology has enriched the lives of Americas who are able to afford computers, but for those families who cannot, the educational divide between children who grow up with computers and those who do not, once considerable, now becomes seismic in terms of the necessary job skills the poor are deprived of, and some children may…
While science is going to be important, people in the twenty first century will also be less optimistic about the utility of science in dealing with problems of social nature. Developing countries are going to develop along the Japanese model: embracing technological and scientific innovations but remaining traditional in their outlook. This is going to be a complex development, as the flow of information from the developed countries is going to be disproportionally much higher than the flow of information and know-how from the developing countries. As such, westernization of traditional societies is likely to continue, perhaps in an accelerated manner; the primacy of English as an international language is going to continue in the age of facebooks and twitters, and the MTV and Hollywood are going to shake and in some cases destroy traditional cultures in many parts of the world. But at the same time, people receiving the…
Macionis, John. Society: the Basics. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2005.
Social change refers to the significant alteration of social structure and cultural patterns through time. Social structure is the routine interaction among persons or groups and cultural patterns refer to the shared way of thinking, knowledge, beliefs, etc. When a social change occurs, it affects both social structure and culture.
The first kind is the change in personnel and it denotes the process of new people, with personal histories and experiences, continuously entering and leaving the society. The second kind refers to the changes that occur as parts of the structure related to each other. Then there are also changes in the way people function in the society and the way they relate to each other. You also find changes in the relationship between structures and new social structures emerge.
Social change occurs both at the macro and micro level in any society. We find both short-term changes as well…
1. Harper, C.L. & Leicht, K.T. (2010). Exploring social change: America and the world. Pearson Education Canada. 6th ed.
2. Packer, M.J. & Tappan, M.B. (2001). Cultural and critical perspectives on human development. State University of New York.
3. Rury, J.L. (2005). Education and social change: Themes in the history of American schooling. Lawrence Erlbaum associates, Inc.
4. Vela, C.A.M. (2001). World systems theory. ESD.83. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/esd.83/www/notebook/WorldSystem.
There are a number of theories of social change, referring to the way that a profession, person, or idea can help alter ideas within society -- typically with a view towards the philosophical idea of making this better over time. It may refer to the idea of large cultural change, say from feudalism to capitalism, a social revolution presented in Marxism or Leninism, or even social movements like the Woman's Equal ights movement or Civil ights for all. As such, it may be driven by a number of factors: cultural, religious, economic, scientific, or even technological forces that result in changes in social institutions, relations or behaviors (Harper, 2010).
Social change may also occur from a micro perspective as well. In fact, many of the social sciences are able to help social change evolve simply through a one-step at a time manner; envisioning the grander historical and modern…
Elder, G. (1994). Time, Human Agency, and Social Change: Perspectives on the Life
Course. Social Psychology Quarterly. 57 (1):L 4-15.
Harper, C.L. (1993). Exploring Social Change. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Sampson, E. (1989). The challenge of social change for psychology. American Psychologist. 44 (6): 914-21.
What positive social change lifetime? The negative? Macionis, John J. (2009). Society basics (10th ed.) Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Chapter 15: Population, Urbanization Environment Chapter 16: Social Change: Modern Postmodern Societies.
What do you see as the most positive social change in your lifetime? The most negative?
The election of Barak Obama to the presidency has become such a 'given,' such a seemingly natural part of our worldview that it is easy to forget its historical significance. The eradication of formal segregation in the United States is an ongoing national project. The struggle for racial equality began before I was born and may continue afterward. However, even during my short lifetime, I believe that more and more people are beginning to question the use of race as a useful way to categorize human beings.
American is becoming an increasingly diverse society. African-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Latinos…
Race -- The power of an illusion. (2003). PBS. Retrieved August 17, 2011 at http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-about-01.htm
Ideas and Ideologies
Throughout the years, sociology concepts have been developed, interpreted and put in rational frame works with concepts that advocate for social ideology. Human perspective thinking is guided by the systems of ideas that provide relevant societal theories with commitment and implications that promote social change (Johnston and Oliver, pg 1). Ideologies are of fundamental importance, especially when scrutinizing social and cultural formations that lead to social change. Ideas that human understanding is coherent with are of moral and ethical, upholding of norms, and behavioral characteristics acceptable to social life. The system of ideas and their internal structures have changed a great deal as compared to ancient times due to the increased account of phenomena that requires ideas to explain purposively.
A historical evolution pertaining ideas and ideologies is democracy. 1950s and 1960s were subsequent years that opposed personal accreditation. According to social psychologists, these years…
Hunt, E.F., and Colander, D.C. (2006). Social Science an Introduction to the Study of Society. New York: Allyn and Bacon Publishers.
Sharma, R.K., Sharma, R. K and Sharma, R. (1997). Social Psychology. New Jersey: Atlantic Publishers & Dist.
Schatz, S and Rexach, J.J. (2002). Conceptual Structure and Social Change: The Ideological Architecture of Democratization. Chicago: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Johnston, H and Oliver, P.E. What a Good Idea! Frames and Ideologies in Social Movement Research. American Sociological Review.
Running Head: ALIGNMENT AND SOCIAL CHANGE 1
ALIGNMENT AND SOCIAL CHANGE 2
Alignment and Social Change
The researcher must be able to critically evaluate research and be able to logically connect research components. The connection between different research components is referred to as research alignment. The alignment between methods used in data collection and other components to a research can be evaluated by examining these four primary ideas i.e. the strategy, the conceptual framework, procedures and tools used for the research, and what or who the study is focused (Adom, Hussein & Agyem, 2018). Research design embodies the initial project stage and entails thinking logically through the entire research process from where it starts to where it will end (Pavelek, 2013). The alignment between data collection and other research components can verified through careful examination of whether the strategy, conceptual framework, procedures and tools used for the research are adequate…
Blaxter, L., Hughes, C., & Tight, M. (2006). How to research. Berkshire, England; New York, NY: Open University Press
Punch, K. F. (2005). Introduction to social research: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. London: SAGE Publications.
Vogt, W. P., Gardner, D. C., & Haeffele, L. M. (2012). When to use what research design. New York: Guilford Press.
How Does Social Change Occur
The main purpose of this chapter is to examine the concept of social change and what it means for people, how it is communicated, how it is achieved, how it spreads, and so on. Hickman (2010) here aims to show the social change does not spontaneously manifest itself as a protest like that seen during the 1960s or 1970s. Instead, the author intends to show that social change begins organically, usually at a grassroots level, and grows as more and more people find commonality with the views of the movement. When the ideas have spread to a large population from a small population, social change is demanded and effected, sometimes through the sort of protests that one typically associates with social change. The author pursues this purpose by defining social change, the purpose of social change, the language of social change, concepts in social change…
Improving social justice for women has been identified as one of the building blocks of social change. Population control, education, and the eradication of domestic violence are all interlinked. "UNICEF estimates that worldwide, some 117 million school-aged children do not attend school, 62 million of them girls. Attendance rates are lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, where only 57% of girls are in school, and just 15% of these go on to secondary school" (About us, 2011, Women's global education fund). Women's education is not simply a feminist issue. Higher rates of female education are linked to lower birth rates and better health outcomes for children as well as women.
Women who are educated are more empowered to take control over family planning and have more resources to take care of the children they do have. "Educated mothers limit their families," says Dr. Yasmin aashid, a leader in obstetrics and…
About us. (2011). Women's Global Education Project.
Retrieved August 23, 2011 at http://www.womensglobal.org/About%20Us/about.html
Domestic violence. (2011). American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG).
Retrieved August 23, 2011 at http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp083.cfm
A lot has happened since I joined campus. In addition to reaching a different level of intellectual and physical maturity, I have also had an opportunity to meet new people, make new friends, and engage in numerous other activities. Before joining campus, I had only two regular friends with whom I routinely consulted and hanged out with. Now, I have more than six friends I regard close -- three are in my class while the others are pursuing different specializations.
Unlike was the case a few years ago, prior to joining campus, I now spend a lot of my time with friends. Most of these friends have the same interests as I do and it is for this reason that we routinely engage in similar activities -- just to enjoy ourselves. Some of the activities we have engaged in together, in the recent past, include, but they are…
West, R. & Turner, L. (2010). Understanding Interpersonal Communication: Making Choices in Changing Times (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Social Changes for the American Family: Today and in 10 Years
The next ten years will see a greater variation in the structure of families and marriages, with much greater variations and flexibility than has ever been the case in the past. This will be primarily driven by the recognition that children, regardless of the composition of a family unit, need the structure and stability of long-term relationships at the adult level of stabilize their emotional maturation
(Milot, 2001). This shift to as much greater tolerance of marriage structures in addition to a questioning of consumerism, and if economic conditions continue to be turbulent, anti-consumerism, will mark the next ten years. The American family will shift from the prototypical nuclear family definition to one marked by more of a polyglot of roles, responsibilities and lifestyles (Milot, 2001).
Analysis of the American Family Today and in Ten Years
Clearly the economic…
Ali, A.J., & Wisniesk, J.M. (2010). Consumerism and ethical attitudes: An empirical study. International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, 3(1), 36-46.
Milot, L. (2001). Restitching the american marital quilt: Untangling marriage from the nuclear family. Virginia Law Review, 87(4), 701-728.
Perrone, K.M., & Worthington, Everett L.,,Jr. (2001). Factors influencing ratings of marital quality by individuals within dual-career marriages: A conceptual model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48(1), 3-9.
The purpose of this qualitative study is to better understand the dynamic and intricate process of child development within inner city neighborhoods. This study will seek to shed light upon the various factors which impact child development in such places, and determine out of issues like crime, lack of strong educational institutions, and the abundance of single-parent households -- which causes the greatest amount of harm to child development. This research project endeavors to determine which obstacle causes the greatest impediment to the ability of children to thrive so that the variable or variables which create them most harm are adequately pinpointed.
It is with great hope and intention that this research project creates lasting and precise social change. esearch like this is indeed meant to make a difference in the world and ultimately change the life trajectories of children who are born into such disadvantaged neighborhoods. This…
Branum, A. (2008, October). Food Allergy Among U.S. Children: Trends in Prevalence and Hospitalizations. Retrieved from cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db10.htm
Currie, J. (2007, March). Poverty Among Inner-City Children . Retrieved from princeton.edu: http://www.princeton.edu/~jcurrie/publications/inman_june07.pdf
Fitzgerald, S. (2013, July). 'Crack baby' study ends with unexpected but clear result. Retrieved from philly.com: http://articles.philly.com/2013-07-22/news/40709969_1_hallam-hurt-so-called-crack-babies-funded-study
McCord, J. (1997). Violence and Childhood in the Inner City. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Transcendentalism emerged in early 19th century. It is believed that Ralph Waldo Emerson who denied that he was a transcendentalist started transcendentalism. Amongst his peers, he was seen as the pioneer of American transcendentalism. Emerson has criticized various things in his essay especially regarding the Unitarian church. Other key transcendentalists were Henry David Thoreau, Thomas Parker, Amos Bronson Alcott, Margaret Fuller, James Freeman Clark, and Mary Moody Emerson. Ralph Emerson urged Americans to be themselves and searching for inspiration from Europe. He aimed at encouraging people to think openly and search for answers from nature and art. Emerson held on to the belief that people were naturally good, and they all had limitless potential. Emerson was totally against slavery, but was unwilling to speak up about it initially. Eventually in 1844, he began taking an active role in slavery opposition.
Thoreau pushed for simple living and encouraged people to…
I think that public health officials can be catalysts for social change. I had not previously really thought about this matter, but I can see know that we do have a role to play in enacting social change. We are especially in a position to change the way that people think about themselves, their health and a lot of health issues. Because of that I feel that I should really become more involved and be able to define our role in social change a little bit better than I might today. Health professionals deal with a wide range of people within the community, and because of that we are in an excellent position to push forward with the changing of minds, using our access to the community to pursue simple messages that will help to shift the socio-intellectual mindset.
I look at my Walden experience as being an…
However, while I see that Boy Scouts has helped develop my empathy and my planning ability, I know that I continue to struggle with my ability to frame concepts for a group. Servant leadership is not about asserting power, but about developing rightful authority. ather than force a group to do the leader's bidding, a servant leader's role is to persuade people to follow the leader's path. However, it is not really the leader's path that he asks people to follow. On the contrary, because a servant leader listens to people, respects all members of the group, and considers short- and long-term consequences, the path that the servant leader proposes should be one that is best for the group. Of course, that path may not seem best to the group because of competing interests, short-term worldview, or the fact that every plan is going to have pluses and minuses for…
Bennis, W., and Thomas, R. (2007). Leading for a lifetime: how defining moments shape leaders of today and tomorrow. Boston: Harvard Business Press.
Cress, C., Collier, P., and Reitenauer, V. (2005). Learning through serving: a student guidebook for service-learning across the disciplines. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
Greenleaf, R. (2002). Servant leadership: a journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press.
Komives, S., and Wagner, W. (2009). Leadership for a better world: understanding the social change model of leadership development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
A second change that has occurred and will continue to transform is that, regardless of the motivation, many employers have begun to experiment with flextime, telecommuting, and voluntary reduced-load work arrangements to give employees more discretion and personal flexibility in how they integrate work demands with other life roles such as family, community, and leisure. This increase in flexible work arrangements has further blurred the boundaries between work and home for many employees. Effectively switching and managing multiple work and non-work roles has never been more complex. Findings from individual, family, and organizational perspectives are mixed in terms of the success and social acceptance of alternative work arrangements (Kossek & Lambert, 2005, p. 6)
Though the criminal justice system is known for what they do and have been around for centuries, it is important to note that every organization has a plan, a vision, and successful mixed with failures. This…
Kossek, E.E. & Lambert, S.J. (Eds.). (2005). Work and Life Integration: Organizational, Cultural, and Individual Perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Miner, J.B. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Theories, and Analyses. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sims, R.R. (1994). Ethics and Organizational Decision Making: A Call for Renewal. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Sims, R.R. (2002). Managing Organizational Behavior. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
He disclosed that the proletarians inevitably outnumber the capitalists. The capitalist mode of production is capable of yielding tremendous growth because the capitalist can reinvest profits in new technologies. But Marx argued that capitalism was subject to cycle of crises. Marx argued that capitalist society undergoes a continuous cycle boom followed by collapse with marked upheavals in between. He rightly pointed out that the net result of all this process is further strengthening and enforcement of bourgeoisie class and dilipidation of proletriats.
Karl Marx assumed that if the proletariat class was to take control of means of production this class would probably indulge in social relations that would promote the benefits for everyone and thus making the society less prone to severe crisis. But this of course is more of an idealistic scenario where fairness and equal benefits for all are the name of the game, the reality on the…
Shlomo Avineri, the Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx (Cambridge University Press, 1968) ISBN 0-521-09619-7
G.A. Cohen, Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence (Princeton University Press, 1978) ISBN 0-691-07068-7
Hal Draper, Karl Marx's Theory of Revolution (4 volumes) Monthly Review Press
Ronald Duncan & Colin Wilson, (editors) Marx Refuted, (Bath, U.K., 1987) ISBN 0-906798-71-X
Another area of change brought on by the assistance of the EDF is that which now more explicitly connects environmental degradation with certain social and demographic factors. The creation of its Scorecard ebsite in 2001 would bring a new dimension to the social discourse on environmental issues. According to Dooley (2001), with this new scorecard in place, "on the main Environmental Justice page, entering a ZIP code generates a report of the varying degrees of environmental burden within that area for different racial, ethnic, and income groups. The burdens include releases of toxic chemicals, cancer risk from hazardous air pollutants, and facilities emitting criteria air pollutants." (Dooley, p. 367)
Other recent decisions also reflect the degree of success that the EDF has had in moving governments forward on specific issues. So is this reflected in the text by Zimmerman (1995), which reports on a decision in the case of City…
Dooley, E.E. (2001). Environmental Defense Scorecard: Environmental Justice. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(8).
Environmental Defense Fund. (2011). Our Mission and History. EDF.org.
F.B. (1979). Spectrum. Environment, 21(2).
Zimmerman, J.F. (1995). High Court Action To Elevate Costs Of Solid Waste Disposal. National Civic Review, 84(1).
Technology and Social Change
The potential for social networks to transform and strengthen philanthropic efforts is still nascent yet shows significant potential. Social ecosystems formed to support the need for greater collaboration and communication continue to illustrate how effective they are as a platform for enabling social change and philanthropy (Hanna, ohm, Crittenden, 2011). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how Facebook, Google+, Twitter, and other social networks can be used for fund raising on the part of non-profit organizations. The ethics of fund raising is also discussed in this analysis with the concrete example of creating a Facebook Fan page to enable more donations.
Facebook and the Ethics of Philanthropy
Facebook continues to dominate social networking from a membership, activity and time-spent online standpoint. The latest statistics of their user base put total membership at 750 million globally, growing at 30% to 50% a year (Sharma, 2011).…
Christina M. Genest. (2005). Cultures, organizations and philanthropy. Corporate Communications, 10(4), 315-327.
Hanna, R., Rohm, A., & Crittenden, V.. (2011). We're all connected: The power of the social media ecosystem. Business Horizons, 54(3), 265.
E. Kumar Sharma. (2011, February). Facebook spreads its wall in India: After adding a million users a month last year, Facebook logs in to mobile and local languages to spread its reach.. Business Today.
Zimmer, M.. (2010). "But the data is already public": on the ethics of research in Facebook. Ethics and Information Technology, 12(4), 313-325.
economic and social changes after 1870 are so striking and so qualitatively different from the developments of the First Industrial Revolution that they deserve to be labeled, "The Second Industrial Revolution."
The Second Industrial Revolution
Rapid changes in societies that radically transform the way of life for significant segments of the population are termed revolutions. Such revolutions have occurred frequently in many parts of the world throughout history. However, only a few in the history of mankind have transformed societies in irreversible and profoundly significant ways. Two such significant events that have taken place in the course of human history are -- The Neolithic Revolution and The Industrial Revolution. In the Neolithic Revolution people changed their way of life and social systems based on hunting and gathering to more complex systems dependant on agriculture and the domestication of animals. This led to the development of communities who lived in permanent…
Electricity and Electric Power." The Second Industrial Revolution. Open Door Web Site. October 15, 2002. November 2, 2002. http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/050.html
Lewis, Pat. "Science and the 'Second' Industrial Revolution." Beginner's Guide to Research in the History of Science. Horus Publications Web Site. November 2, 2002. http://www.horuspublications.com/guide/sl103.html
Porter, Glenn. "Industrial Revolution." Article in Micosoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2002. CD-ROM Version.
Making the Modern World." The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870-1914. The Science Museum Web Site. November 2, 2002. http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/online/mmw/south5.asp
Technology and Social Change
The Industrial evolution completely changed the way that human beings live and work. Before the Industrial evolution, society was dominated by agrarian economies. The Industrial evolution created a new way of life in which an increasingly large percentage of the population either owned or worked in factories involved in mass production. Populations became increasingly concentrated in urban areas; fewer people worked on farms or owned farms. Instead of making their own goods and services, people now bought the majority of the items they needed in stores.
The current Knowledge evolution is technologically driven, just like the Industrial evolution. It is fueled by the Internet and radically expanded accessibility of information to everyone who has an Internet connection. In some ways, like the Industrial evolution, it is extremely democratic -- just as many people made their fortune through capitalism, the knowledge economy of World Wide Web has…
Gouras, M. (2003). Bulking up for a hardware battle. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved:
How women use the web. (2013). Mashable. Retrieved:
Expound upon the economic and social changes blacks in the South experienced during the econstruction era. Include within your discussion the topics of education, farming, family life, and the church.
In the South there was a conflict that was occurring between the federal government and many of the states. This is because white Southerners wanted to impose restrictions that were similar to slavery. Over the course of time, this resulted in a series of laws that were designed to restrict opportunities and access to resources. (Faragher, 2009)
In the field of education, this was taking place with many African-Americans not being able to attend school. This is from various Southern communities and states passing ordinances that did not allows them to go. However, a large number were eager to learn and they set up their own schools. These institutions sprang up across the country in order to provide access to…
Faragher, J. M (2009). Out of many: A history of the American people. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Popular Music and Social Change in the Present: Green Day's 'American Idiot' (2004)
Following the catalyzing events of September 11th, 2001, the United States would find itself deeply divided over the issues of terrorism, war and presidential politics. At the heart of this frequently impassioned and vitriolic debate would be the U.S.-led invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq as well as a far-reaching culture clash between two distinction American populations. The 2004 album by pop-punk trio Green Day, American Idiot, would be crafted with the intent of exploring these divisions. In the title track, Green Day would author an anthem that would become omnipresent in pop culture as the U.S. used falsified information to justify its invasion of Iraq.
"American Idiot" would serve both as a harsh critique of the war, of the presidency of George . Bush and of the violent, materialistic culture being fomented in the U.S.…
Geek Stink Breath (GSB). (2012). American Idiot Song Meaning. Geekstinkbreath.net.
Wiebe, C. (2007). Walkn' With Green Day. Center for Parent/Youth Understanding.
Vision for Social Change
My personal vision for social change is based on the underlying philosophy that change must come from those people who think differently than those who created the status quo. The drivers of the current status quo are the baby boom generation, who have held a substantial amount of political power since Clinton was elected, and who also form the largest voting bloc. However, I also see that the young people, the millennial generation, are a massive voting bloc, and they conceptualize their world quite differently than their parents and grandparents did. This is a generation that not only has faced different forms of adversity (Wyn & Woodman, 2006), but they also have been raised in a world where global trade and communication are the norm rather than the exception, and where climate change is the single most important issue. Further, this generation has been raised wholly…
Maton, K. (2008). Empowering community settings: Agents of individual development, community betterment, and positive social change. American Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 41 (1-2) 4-21.
Wyn, J. & Woodman, D (2006). Generational, youth and social change in Australia. Journal of Youth Studies. Vol. 9 (5) 495-514.
technology and social change, and discusses how they are related.
Ever since the prehistoric eras, technology has had a role to play in the lives of human beings. Mankind has invented and perfected means of communicating, traveling, manufacturing goods, curing ailments, growing food, constructing edifies and meeting other requirements using technology. Thus, one may claim that by means of technology, we have transformed our world (ITEA, 1996; ITEA, 2006). At present, all human activities are reliant on different machines with technological dominance being at a record level in the current era. For instance, automobiles have transformed how and where individuals live, and a colossal infrastructure encompassing roads, service stations, bridges, rules and insurance policies has developed. Technology impacts individual participation in the democratic process and successively impacts what must be taken into account for preparing pupils to actively participate in democratic societies (Crowe, 2006).
Most specifically, social change implies the…
Crowe, A. R. (2006). Technology, citizenship, and the social studies classroom: education for democracy in a technological age. International Journal of Social Education, 21(1), 111-121.
Howard, P., Busch, L., & Sheets, P. (2010). Comparing Digital Divides: Internet Access and Social Inequality in Canada and the United States. Canadian Journal of Communication, 109-128.
International Technology Education Association. (1996). Technology for All Americans. Reston, VA: Author.
International Technology Education Association. (2006). Technological Literacy for All (2nd Ed.). Reston, VA: Author
Ecological-Evolutionary Theory (EET)
Evolution and evolution: Comparative History of Social Change
In understanding the evolution of human societies in the course of history, it is best traced and determined through the different states of economic development that humanity has experienced. Humanity's evolution from being a hunting and gathering to an industrial society can be pointed to numerous variables that served as catalysts that eventually made the conditions suitable for the nature of societies at present, which are mainly industrialized or heading towards industrialization. Tracing the history of social change is tracing the catalysts that led to the following stages of economic development in human societies over time: from hunting and gathering, to simple horticultural, eventually to advanced horticultural, developing to simple agrarian, then to advanced agrarian, and ultimately, to industrial societies.
This transition from different levels of economic development could have been spurred by population growth, wherein the need more…
Nielsen, F. (2003). "The ecological-evolutionary typology of human societies and the evolution of social inequality." Sociological Theory.
Nolan, P. (2003). "Toward an ecological-evolutionary theory of the incidence of warfare in post-industrial societies." Sociological Theory, Vol. 21, No. 1.
As a student of the Public Policy and Administration program at Walden I looked forward to being a part of the drive towards positive social change in the world by uniting my skills, diligence, energy, time, and orientation to the idea that the world can be transformed for the better into a thriving, united, meaningful and honest society where camaraderie is key and individuals are treated with respect, dignity, transparency, and commitment.
My vision for positive social change is based in a belief that a better, more accountable society can be fostered through a social commitment to truth and transparency. This change could facilitate support for leaders who are transparent and accountable to a higher ideal, who hold themselves accountable, and who strive to do right on a social justice level.
In the context of my professional goals, this vision helps to fortify me against the dangers or temptations…
Walden University. (2014). About the school. Retrieved from http://www.waldenu.edu/colleges-schools/school-of-public-policy-and-administration/about
Walden University. (2014). Vision and mission statements. Retrieved from http://www.waldenu.edu/about/who-we-are/data/vision-mission-statements
The criteria I could use to evaluate alignment between data collection methods and other research components, such as problem, purpose, research questions, and design would be a) reliability and b) validity. Validity refers to whether the study measures what it intends to measure. Reliability refers to whether the study’s findings can be reproduced were the methodology to be duplicated and the study essentially conducted again using a similar sample. To obtain reliability and validity, the research study question should align the method of collecting data.
This means that if the researcher is doing an experiment or measuring the impact of one variable on another or the relationship of variables, counting percentages or doing something statistical, the study will need a quantitative design. The data collection instrument will be something like a survey with a Likert scale measurement, or it will look at data test results, or so on. The purpose…
Tyack and Cuban with Dewey on Social Change
David Tyack and Larry Cuban do share similar views to John Dewey about the nature of the traditional education system in the United States as well as its origins. Public education as it exists today is a product of the 19th Century industrialization and urbanization process, which created schools that resembled factories, timetables and schedules, and teachers who acted like bosses on a factory floor. Dewey of course abhorred this system and criticized it unmercifully for decades, both in the way it was structured and the type of information it imparted to students. In the history of American education, there has never been a more vocal, prominent and outspoken critic of the traditional system than Dewey, and none has been the subject of greater wrath from conservatives and traditionalists, even decades after his death. Tyack and Cuban are well aware of the…
Dewey, J. (1938, 1998). Education and Experience: The 60th Anniversary Edition. Indianapolis, IN: Kappa Delta Pi Society.
Tyack, D. And L. Cuban (1995). Tinkering Toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform. Harvard University Press.
What is meant by the term 'social enterprise' and what do social enterprises contribute to society and the economies in which they operate?
The acceleration with which the world is changing day by day is continuous. A majority of organizations that have a motto of 'not-for-profit' are looking out for prospects with the help of which they can begin or widen their projects in order to get their missions fulfilled and offer the needy the earned profits. Thus, any organization or scheme that brings about the mentioned twofold objectives is considered a social enterprise. Social enterprises sell mission-related goods or services and by doing so they try to create a more impartial and fair environment through specific market-based strategies (Bornstein & Davis 2010).
In other words, a business is regarded as a social enterprise when the main objective is to cope up with the prevailing societal problems and…
Baptiste, T. (2009). Being a Leader and Making Decisions. 1st. ed. New York: Chelsea House.
Beerel, A. (2009). Leadership and Change Management. 1st. ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Bornstein, D. & Davis, S. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know. 1st. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. 1st. ed. London: Routledge.
Social Media etailing Applications: Opportunities and Threats
How Has Social Media Developed and What are the Benefits and Downsides of Using Social Media for etailers Today?
This study examines social business in general, how it developed and the benefits of using social media in particular. Second, this study provides a discussion concerning the potential positive as well as the effects of social business in the retail sector which is followed by a description of optimal business strategies for social media applications, the pros/cons of using these tools in the industry, and some representative case studies concerning companies that succeeded and some that recently failed in their use of social media. Finally, the study provides a summary of the research and important findings is followed by a series of recommendations concerning how retailers should use social media technologies in their own businesses in the concluding chapter.
Social Media Business Applications
About Honda. (2013). Honda. Available: http://corporate.honda.com/america/philanthropy.aspx?id=philanthropy_overview . Last accessed 1 November 2013.
About Virgin. (2013). Virgin America. Available: http://www.virginamerica.com/about/airline-company.html.
Baumann, M. (2010, June). @Twitter Discloses Business Model #Promotedtweets RT.
Information Today, 27 (6) 1-5.
Western Sexual Mores and Fundamental Beliefs about omantic Love:
Beyond the unfair effect of gender-based differential sexual socialization on sexually liberated women in dating relationships, another component of American social psychology often undermines romantic happiness. Specifically, the many messages about romance and marriage that help shape the American view of love suggest that: (1) sexual desire between couples who love each other is exclusive; (2) sexual desire for others indicates a failure of a relationship (or lack of character or sincerity of one's partner); and (3) sexual jealousy is an indication of romantic love (Branden 2002).
Sexual jealousy is practically universal in romantic love within Western society (Buss 2000), but the fact of the matter is, at least in human beings, it is a learned reaction that is virtually unknown in several known aboriginal societies (Barash & Lipton 2001).
Despite the fact that psychologists consider sexual fidelity a matter of…
Ackerman, D. (1994) a Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage.
Baker, R., Elliston, F. (2002) Philosophy & Sex. Buffalo: Prometheus
Barash, D.P., Lipton, J.E. (2001) the Myth of Monogamy: Fidelity and Infidelity in Animals and People. New York: Henry Holt.
Branden, N. (2002) the Psychology of Romantic Love.
Social Innovation Workplace
The role that social innovation plays in the global marketplace
It is clear that online marketing is becoming popular in all global corporations. Just as most things in life have shown significant progress, companies such as Wal-Mart and Apple are seeking for convenience. Wal-Mart and Apple have taken note of this and are offering online marketing and display of products. While marketers have an option of making sales through online-based infrastructures such YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter, they have a wide range of variety in the market place. This makes us wonder about the pros and cons of online media (oberts, 2007).
Marketers with busy schedules throughout the day are able to continue with their sales and marketing efforts through online strategies. Here, customers are potential customers can log onto such as Facebook and Twitter at their convenient time and bump into adverts selling products and services. egular…
Cassin, R.L. (2008). Bribery abroad: Lessons from the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Morrisville, N.C: Lulu.com.
Mulgan, G., Tucker, S., Ali, R. & Sanders, B. (2009). Social innovation What it is, Why it matters and how it can be accelerated. London: Kogan Page.
Roberts, J. (2007). Stanford Social Innovation Review. What's Next Let's Play Microloan. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press.
Saul, J. (2011). Social innovation, Inc.: 5 strategies for driving business growth through social change. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Teachers will continue to lead the educational process, but they need to be very sensitive about the issues facing the society as a whole and the children as individuals in this society. Then, education becomes a means of identifying the issues in the life of the students and gaining knowledge and understanding about them. Education in this global society also has to acknowledge that cultural diversity is valued and preserved (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 190). Teachers have to ensure that their students are taught in ways that respond to cultural groups without bias (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 420). In education, there is a responsibility for students to gain a respect for other races, religions and gender that are different from their own. This is the only way that a diverse society can successfully survive.
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New…
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New York, the Guilford Press.
Byrne, a. (1998). Interpretivism. In Roberto Casati (ed.), European Review of Philosophy. Stanford: CSLI Publications
Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone Books.
Giroux, H. (1997) 'Crossing the Boundaries of Educational Discourse: Modernism, post-modernism, and Feminism' in a.H. Halsey, H. Lauder, P. Brown and a.S. Wells (eds.) Education: Culture, Economy, and Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…
Alexanian, Janet A.. "Eyewitness Accounts and Political Claims: Transnational Responses to the 2009 Postelection Protests in Iran." Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 31.2 (2011): 425-442. Project MUSE. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. .
Burns, Alex and Ben Eltham, "Twitter free Iran: an evaluation of twitter's role in public diplomacy and information operations in Iran's 2009 election crisis," in Papandrea, Franco & Armstrong, Mark (Eds.). Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009. Sydney: Network Insight Institute. Web. 26 Nov. 2011 .
China, Walid. "The Facebook Revolution." New African 503 (2011): 24. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Eltahawy, Mona. "The Middle East's Generation Facebook." World Policy Journal 25.3 (2008): 69-77. Academic Search Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Social Partnership' And
The Implications for Trade Unions
This report attempts to explain what is meant by the term social partnership and it also evaluates some implications of social partnerships on trade unions. Social Partnerships have been elevated to be more of the foundation of industrial relations policies. Industrialized nations in these highly global, competitive and technologically advanced economic situations have all new social demands and issues. Labor parties and management teams today have come to realize and understand that if there are going to be economic success stories in their future, then both sides will be required to put emphasis on the importance of partnerships in the workplace. These partnerships entail new methods for problem solving, quality control and productivity. Today, both sides must understand that partnership agreements will help produce more socially adept workers who are well trained, prepared and competitive. Labor and management must come to a…
Baccaro, Lucio, et al. (1999). "The Brave New World of European Labor: European Trade Unions at the Millennium." Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Boucher, Gerry, & Collins, Grainne (2003). Having One's Cake and Being Eaten Too: Irish Neo-Liberal Corporatism. Review of Social Economy, Vol. 61.
Ferner, A. And Hyman, R. (eds) (1998) "Changing Industrial Relations in Europe." Oxford: Blackwell.
Guest, D.E. And Peccei, R. (2001) "Partnership at work: mutuality and the balance of advantage" British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 399 no.2 pp.207-236
Life in the United States in 1868 was though different from what it was a century later because racial discrimination was not as severely crippling as it was immediately after the abolition of slavery, still economic growth of blacks accelerated after the introduction of affirmative action and not exactly after the passage of Civil ights Act of 1964. During this period, numerous political, economic and social changes were witnessed but civil rights for blacks a perpetually contentious issue. The status of women, however, improved significantly during this 100-year period, as they became a major part of American workforce and also gained suffrage rights.
Black men and women in 1868 continued to suffer at the hands of a weak proslavery government of Andrew Johnson and tensions between Democrats and epublicans was making life miserable for the blacks. Civil rights were though granted by the Congress, they were not approved…
Roberta Hughes Wright, The Birth of the Montgomery Bus Boycott (Southfield: Charro Press, 1991) 52-53.
Lori Johnson, Forgotten heroes:
Joseph T. Wilson "The Black Phalanx - A History of the Negro Soldiers of the United States," American Publishing Company, 1890
Changing the Status of Women
Status of Women
In order to properly address gender inequality in a country requires knowledge of the sources and the depth of discrimination. Legitimate indicators that capture various aspects of gender inequality are indispensable for informing and directing policy. Existing indicators tend to focus on gender disparities related to access to education, health care, political representation, earnings or income and so forth. The aggregate indices that have received the most attention are the United Nations Development Program's (UNDP) Gender Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). The UNDP's Human Development eports regularly cover both for individual countries. The GDI is an unweighted average of three indices that measure gender differences in terms of life expectancy at birth, gross enrolment and literacy rates and earned income. The GEM is an unweighted average of three other variables reflecting the importance of women in society. They…
"Innovative approaches to promoting women's economic empowerment." (2008, September 25). United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from http://content.undp.org/go/cms-service/stream/asset/?asset_id=2524504
Jutting, J., & Morrison, C. (2005). Changing social institutions to improve the status of women in developing countries. OECD Development Centre. Policy Brief No.27. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from http://www.oecd.org/dev/poverty/35155725.pdf
His rejected and criticized Montaigne's self-indulgence. He stressed the need to be concerned for others and to temper one's self-expression so that it more closely resembled an ordered society.
Reading these three authors gives the reader a feeling for the changes in society that dictated a sense of identity and self from the 16th to 18th Centuries. Society went through some radical changes during this time that can be characterized by the ability and acceptability of indulging in self-expression. During the 16th century, one was free to express themself in almost any way possible. By the 18th Century, one had to temper what they had to say so that it fit within society's rules.
The rebellious self-indulgence of the 16th century was confined to within certain limits by the 18th century. As time progressed, even these limits were tightened and society dictated more of what a persons was allowed to…
Addison, Joseph. "The Spectator No. 476." 1712. Quotidiana. Ed. Patrick Madden. 12 Mar 2007. http://essays.quotidiana.org/addison/spectator_no_476/ . Accessed June 2, 2008.
Addison, Joseph. "The Spectator No. 562." Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=loE0AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=+the+Spectator+no.+562&source=gbs_similarbooks_r&cad=2_1#PPA214,M1 .
Montaigne, (2005) Saggi ii, Milano, Adelphi, pp. 1543-1544.
Montaigne. The Complete Essays of Montaigne. Donald M. Frame (trans). Stanford University Press. 1958.
Social Problem Related to Human Services
Social justice implies citizens’ equal entitlement to the self-same services and rights. In this paper, the inequalities in providing various human services to different societal groups in the nation will be addressed.
Beginning with education, a fundamental human service, it is a highly concerning fact that the nation’s educational system continually fails unwanted, abused and neglected children. Also, foster children totally at society’s mercy for survival are largely ignored. As children don’t have any avenue for voicing their views and demands, and cannot finance political campaigns, protest for improved services, or lobby elected representatives in order for being heard, it is the responsibility of society’s adults to speak for this faction of society. Attempts at organizing an effective child welfare system can be traced back to the late nineteenth century, when the nation’s contemporary system of foster care was established and Charles Loring Brace…
Social Marginalization by Race: Economic Deprivation and White American Resistance in the allot or the ullet by Malcolm X
The rigorous history of African-Americanism and their emancipation within the American society reflects the struggles and perpetuation of discrimination among black Americans even during the 20th century. Malcolm X, considered one of the most radical and influential leader of the black American civil rights movement, centers on the issues of discrimination and white American resistance among the blacks in his famous discourse, The allot or the ullet, delivered in April 3, 1964.
The relevance and significance of Malcolm X's discourse must be put into context in the events happening during his time. Historically, the socio-political landscape of the United States during the 1960s is characterized by the emergence and development of the civil rights movement for the marginalized sectors of the society, such as the youth, women, poor, and particularly, African-Americans.…
Malcolm X (1964). The Ballot or the Bullet. Available at: http://www.indiana.edu/~rterrill/Text-BorB.html .
Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and he can feed himself for life. How could you put this principle into practice through the development of a social entrepreneurship venture?
Development of Social Entrepreneurialism
Corporate Social Responsibility
Social Entrepreneurship and Food
Social entrepreneurship was introduced in the 1970s to address the issue of social sustainably and the term "social entrepreneur." This analysis will begin by providing a brief history as well as a working definition for the concept of social entrepreneurialism. It will also discuss some of the related movements that have been working towards some of the same goals, albeit, from different directions to address various challenges in society and the environment. Furthermore, a more detailed overview of the exact challenges that are present in society that social entrepreneurialism can work to address will…
Abu-Saifan, S., 2012. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries. [Online]
Available at: http://timreview.ca/article/523
[Accessed 28 April 2016].
Ashoka, N.d.. Vision and Mission. [Online]
1.3. Summary of argument, Hypothesis
The role of leadership styles and their applicability to the success or failure of mergers, acquisitions and alliances is the focus of this research. Any leadership study, to be relevant, must also focus on the needs of those served by the organizations studies. That is why in the proposed Change Management Equilibrium Model have customer-driven processes at their center or core. The focus of the research to either validate or refute the model is based on consistency and collaboration as two factors that also serve to create greater levels of integration between the two or more healthcare providers merging or changing their organizational structures to better serve the market. This market orientation is what many public-ally-owned and operated healthcare providers struggle with, as often the source of funding becomes their "customer" or whom they serve (Brinkmann, O'Brien, 2010). Studies by AM esearch for example show…
Abbott, R., Ploubidis, G., Huppert, F., Kuh, D., & Croudace, T.. (2010). An Evaluation of the Precision of Measurement of Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales in a Population Sample. Social Indicators Research, 97(3), 357-373.
Faten Fahad Al-Mailam. (2004). Transactional vs. Transformational Style of Leadership-Employee Perception of Leadership Efficacy in Public and Private Hospitals in Kuwait. Quality Management in Health Care, 13(4), 278-284.
Antonakis, J., & House, R.J. (2002). The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. 3 -- 33. Boston: JAI Press.
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Introduction to, and overview of, transformational and charismatic leadership. In B.J. Avolio & F.J. Yammarino (Eds.) Transformational and Charismatic Leadership, Volume 2, p. xvii -- xxiii. Boston: JAI Press.
It was originally established in the early 19th century by Auguste Comte who tried to unify history, psychology and economics through an understanding of society as a broad paradigm. Emile Durkheim took this a bit further and focused on the way societies could maintain a sort of integrity within the modern work where past cultural trends (religion, ethnicity, etc.) were no longer the singular part of society. His view, which has become the modern view of sociology, surrounded questions of what binds individuals together as a formal group (society) and what happens to this group both collectively and for the individual. This is a broad discipline as well, and clearly an academic response to the modern age (industrialization, urbanization, secularization, etc.). The field looks at social rules, the way those rules were formed, and the way that individuals coalesce into groups, communities, institutions, and even powerful social organizations that transcend…
American Anthropological Association. (2012, January). What is Anthropology. Retrieved from aaanet.org: http://www.aaanet.org/about/WhatisAnthropology.cfm
Backhouse, R., & Fontaine, P. (Eds.). (2010). The History of the Social Sciences Since 1945. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bernard, H. (2011). Research Methods in Anthropology. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Fernald, L. (2008). Psychology: Six Perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
The education system of the Byzantine region spread through to the other nations, with them adopting new words from the Arab language, hence enriching their language. The social status of the slaves improved, whereas that of the elite and those who fought against the invasion deteriorated as they lost control over their territories.
The effects on Arab society
The interactions between the Arabs and the non-Arab community resulted in several changes within the Arab society. At the time of the conquest, the Arab received support from the Christians of the Syrian and Egypt territories because the Arabs promised them less taxation as compared to that of the Byzentine (Rogan 157). Therefore, the Arabs, after the conquest was over, feared that the interactions between the Muslim and the non-Muslim community would lead to undesirable results. For this reason, the Umayyad sought to keep the Muslim worriers concentrated in the garrison towns…
Bagnall, Roger S. Egypt in the Byzantine World, 300-700. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ.
Press, 2007. Print.
Brownworth, Lars. Lost to the West: The Forgotten Byzantine Empire That Rescued Western
Civilization. New York: Crown Publishers, 2010. Print.
social, economic, and political changes the country as experienced since 1783 are fulfilling the promises of the Revolution?
The American revolutionary war is one of the most significant events in the history of today's United States of America. It involved a war between the American colonies and Great Britain. This great historical event took place in the years 1775 to 1783 and led to the formation of United States of America. Conflicts leading to the war of independence arose from the tension between the 13 colonies of North America's residents and the Britain colonial government. The tensions leading to the America's independence war emerged from attempts by British government to raise revenue by taxing her colonies.
The war with Great Britain created awareness to Americans and pushed the nation into the search for a new and long-lasting society based on equality, liberty and independent ideas. Following the war of…
Morton, C.J. The American Revolution. United States of America: Green wood press, 2003. Print
Frank, A. American Revolution: People and perspectives. California: ABC-CLIO, Inc. Print
The Social Media Age
A social change that I have experienced is the arrival of the Digital and Information Age, which has led to a revolution in the way people communication, obtain knowledge, and engage with ideas. Mainly the big change is the arrival of social media which has made everything private suddenly public. There is no more line between a private life and a public life. Everything is blurred together. People are less genuine and more interested in building their “brand” than in actually being human—because, after all, being human does not necessarily get one a million subscribers on YouTube. As Olsen (2013) notes, everything is “leading to a world that feels less personal, less polite and less human.” So while there have definitely been some good points about the Digital Era and the Information Age—such as the ability to now share information more easily than ever before, to…
For example, Krishan Kumar of the University of Kent at Canterbury11 states,... "in sum, a fine piece of properly political sociology, of which there are in truth very few examples. Society gets its due share of attention; but as is fitting and absolutely essential in any discussion of revolution, it is the peculiar nature of and crisis of the state that occupies the centre of the stage."
Similarly, Michael Kimmel of the University of California -- Santa Cruz,12 states that "Theda Skocpol is perhaps the most ambitious and exciting of a new generation of historical-comparative sociologists who have focused their attention squarely on the big issues of social change that once preoccupied the classic sociologists."
The difficulty that some reviewers had about this book is because of some of the misinformation. For example, George Yaney 12 of the University of Maryland states it is based almost entirely on secondary sources…
Kimmel, Michael. "States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China. By Theda Skocpol." http://www.jstor.org.libdb.fairfield.edu/browse/00029602 " the American Journal of Sociology. 86 No.5 (1981): 1145-1154
Kumar, Krishan. States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France,
Russia and China by Theda Skocpol" the British Journal of Sociology. 31, no. 2
.....fellow colleagues provided a varied and thoughtful perspective on social work professionals and social policy. One thing noted was the lack of available resources for social workers regarding their clients. Often clients may come from a foreign background and require translation. This can be difficult because most people in the United States speak only English with some speaking Spanish and Chinese. Having tools available to make translation easier can lead to more effective communication and ability to help the clients in what they need regardless of potential obstacles like language.
When looking at the entirety of the social work profession, it was built on social change. It has long been the purpose of social workers to ensure everyone has equal access to opportunities and resources that permit them to meet basic needs such as food, shelter, and healthcare. That is why it is important to continue to persist for tools…
Changing Role of Women in the Late 1800s
In "A azard of New Fortunes," William Dean owells explores a number of themes through the interaction of the major characters in the novel. Much of his focus revolves around the women in the book and the interaction of these women with each other and with men. owells writes about issues contemporary to the time of the book's publication in 1890. Not coincidentally the 1880s marked the beginning of a significant upsurge in the women's movement. "A azard of New Fortunes" presents women who abide by the old values in contrast to women who have begun to adopt the values that eventually lead to full suffrage for women, more education opportunities for women, and more career choices for women. Women would become increasingly vocal about their opinions and begin to organize themselves for a direct assault on the institutions that were so…
Howells illustrates the crosscurrents of the late 1800s in the United States by conceiving two conflicting characters, Mrs. March and Alma Leighton. Mrs. March represents the traditional good wife who is her husband's confidant and who supports him in every way. Alma represents the petulant "new woman" who has no sense of compromise and no sense of responsibility except to her. Howells portrayal of Mrs. March is much kinder than his portrayal of Alma. With the wave of social change yet to crest, Howells is more inclined to the traditional than to the radical. Ultimately though the ideal situation would be a balance between the traditional and the radical.
Howells, William Dean. A Hazard of New Fortunes. Aug 2002. Produced by David Widger for The Project Gutenberg Etext. 23 Feb 2002.
The authors believe that some citizens have become "...socialized into a particular ideological system that molds their values, attitudes, beliefs and/or symbolic predispositions on a wide range of issues, including political parties and the economy." And this article also found that most party interests and self-interests revolve around both ideological considerations and economic considerations; however, those voters who are on the lower rung of the economic ladder tend to be less ideological and more economically-motivated, which makes sense.
Labour...[which is] traditionally welfare state in ideology, was the party that initiated the conversion to neoliberalism" prior to the election of the Alliance in 1999, the article continues. Allen and Ng write that many members of the Labour party "felt confused and betrayed" when the Alliance moved away from the welfare state policies and into neoliberalism. Another result of the Labour Alliance's shift from welfare to neoliberalism was an "increase in poverty…
Allen, Michael W.; & Ng, Sik Hung. (2000). Self-Interest, Economic Beliefs, and Political Party Preference in New Zealand. Political Psychology, 21(2), 323-345.
Blair, Tony. (1998). Tony Blair, the Third Way. Goucher College History Department. Retrieved 9 July 2008, at http://faculty.goucher.edu/history231/blair.htm.
Blair, Tony, & Schroeder, Gerhard. (1999). Europe: The Third Way. Retrieved 9 July, 2008, at http://www.socialdemocrats.org/blairandschroeder6-8-99.html, also available from www.labour.org.uk;produced by Social Democrats.
Giddens, Anthony. (2000). Social Democracy and the Third Way. In the Third Way and Its Critics, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
social sciences: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. However, there is another classification of research -- evaluation research -- frequently deployed in organizations. Evaluation research may make use of all of these different methodologies, even though it has a different goal than academic research. "The generic goal of most evaluations is to provide 'useful feedback' to a variety of audiences including sponsors, donors, client-groups, administrators, staff, and other relevant constituencies" (Trochim 2006).
In contrast to the use of the scientific method as in quantitative research, evaluation research is more intent upon offering practical data that can be used to maximize organizational resources and is specifically devoted to program evaluation. Some evaluation research does use standard qualitative methods in the tradition of the scientific method. However, an equally common approach is that of "management-oriented systems models. Two of the most common of these are PET, the Program Evaluation and eview Technique, and…
Trochim, W. (2006). Evaluation research. Social Science Research Methods. Retrieved:
The correlation between evaluation research and research methods are they are applications for research and they are also purposes of research (Laureate Education, Inc., 2009). Evaluation research and research methods are distinct in the manner that they specify a specific purpose. The correlation when using the research is that they all correlate together to distinguish a common reason, intent, goal, or idea which is used in acquiring knowledge (Laureate Education Inc., 2009).
Obesity, overweight and underweight all have impacts that are negative on self-esteem of many children and adolescents that if not checked can have long-term effects on the success in lives of these children and their general happiness in the future (Moran, 1999).
The persistence of chronic diseases in more in the developing than in the developed countries. The World Health Organization posits that by 2020, a quarter of deaths in the least developed countries will be caused by the so called non-communicable diseases, WHO, (1997). In this regard, a major mind blowing public health problem in the developing world may the reality of increasing obesity in children populations which might result to major social and economic burdens on these developing nations in the coming years, (Freedman et al., 2001).
This health care problem is present in almost all parts of the world and the Arabian Gulf region is not exempted.…
Ali, H,2010.Major characteristics of Saudi hospitals http://bit.ly/kdNzPX
Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M.2001. Current concepts in the management of obesity. An evidenced-based review. Saudi Med J. 2001; 22: 20
Amin, T.T.,Al-Sultan.,A.I.,Ali.,A, 2008.Overweight and Obesity and their Association with Dietary Habits, and Sociodemographic Characteristics Among Male Primary School Children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Baum, F. 2008 The new public health (3rd Edition) Oxford University Press, Melbourne
Supreme Court Chief Justices Warren and ehnquist
Compare and contrast approaches to criminal procedures by U.S. Supreme Courts:
The Warren vs. The ehnquist Court
A common philosophical debate within the legal community is when the approach advocated by so-called 'conservative' justices (often called strict constructionism) is pitted against more 'liberal' and freer interpretations of constitutional words and history. Throughout much of the 20th century, it was often said that the more liberal interpreters of the Constitution were 'winning the war' in regards to this issue, thanks to the presiding intelligence of Chief Justice Earl Warren. "Following his appointment in 1953 Chief Justice Earl Warren led the Court into a series of decisions that drastically affected sexual freedom, the rights of criminals, the practice of religion, civil rights, and the structure of political representation. The decisions of the Warren Court reflected its deep concern for the individual, no matter how lowly"…
Byellin, J. (2013). John G. Roberts: Conservative yet apolitical consensus building chief justice.
Legal Solutions. Retrieved from:
Liptak, A. (2012). Supreme Court upholds healthcare law 5-4, in a victory for Obama.
There are a number of issues at play in this scenario. The two employees are raising some interesting, practical concerns. However, management may have already dealt with these concerns. Thus, there is a point where management needs to act on its strategies, knowing that it has already considered the issues that Vernon and Bud are raising. The key now is that management needs to change the way that these two are thinking and get them on board with the change.
esistance to change occurs for several reasons. Some people's mental models are essentially non-flexible, and as a result they are unable or unwilling to conceive of change. This makes them resistant to change. The first question the company has to ask is whether these two are resisting change because they have thought this issue through and have legitimate concerns about the company's strategy, or because they are simply resistant…
Lawrence, P. (1969). How to deal with resistance to change. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://hbr.org/1969/01/how-to-deal-with-resistance-to-change/ar/1
Stauffer, D. (2011). Mindset: Innovation's third way. Innovator Mindset. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://blog.innovatormindset.com/2011/09/19/mindset-innovations-third-way/
Tanner, R. (2014). Organizational change: 8 reason why people resist change. Business Consulting Solutions. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://managementisajourney.com/organizational-change-8-reasons-why-people-resist-change/
How industrialization and other social changes transformed the face of 19th century America
The late 19th century in America was characterized by seismic political shifts in the ways in which Americans conducted their economic lives. In addition to the changes the Civil ar wrought in America, there was also an increasing divide between the needs of urban and rural Americans. The U.S. was becoming more ethnically diverse due to the rise of immigration and newly freed African-Americans were attempting to find their political voice. The increasingly dominant urban culture of the North along with the interjection of new political parties and cultures was profoundly threatening for many Americans and raised charges that America was becoming more "European." This concept meant very different things to people, depending on their perspective. For rural farmers it meant the dismaying rise of big business and banks which had become the power elites…
Andrews, Thomas. Killing for Coal: America's Deadliest Labor War. Cambridge, MA: Harvard
University Press, 2010.
Clement, Elizabeth Alice. Love for Sale: Courting, Treating, and Prostitution in New York City,
1900-1945. Raleigh, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.