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Social Development in Mexico: 1876-1911
eform ideas that spread during 1855-1875, "the reform period," came to be implemented at the national level under the regime of Porfirio Diaz. In the reform period, the goal of modernizing Mexico, i.e. make it more like the United States and Europe, gained many adherents. To move toward this goal, several objectives were promoted by liberal politicians. One of them was the reduction in the power of the Catholic Church by redistributing its lands and curtailing its monopoly on religion, allowing freedom to other churches and religions to establish themselves. Another objective was to secularize education and implement modern curricula in the schools. A third objective was to promote capitalist economic development. Yet during the reform period, the implementation of the modernization agenda was sporadic and limited geographically. The reform period was chaotic, marked by civil wars, the rule of French imperialism (and the war…
Buffington, R.M. & French, W.E. (2000). The Culture of Modernity. In M.C.
Meyer and W.H. Beezley (Eds.), The Oxford History of Mexico (pp.397-332). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Vanderwood, P. (2000). Betterment for Whom? The Reform Period: 1855-1875. In M.C.
Meyer and W.H. Beezley (Eds.), The Oxford History of Mexico (pp.371-396). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
" Therefore, the scientific experiments are presented as playtime, as a chance for the children to interact with the environment and develop an innate sense of curiosity. At the pre-operational stage of development, children are also developing their language skills. Therefore, the scientific experiments encourage the children to ask questions and frame those questions appropriately.
Still egocentric, children at or below Kindergarten age do not need to be thrust into activities requiring cognitive activities that are associated with higher stages of development. For example, when children progress to the concrete operational stage in later elementary school they will reap more benefit from activities that require concrete or logical thought. At an early age, the child's cognitive development precludes logical thinking. The UCSD ECEC program fosters natural, organic cognitive growth within a structured environment.
At the same time, the UCSD ECEC program offers Kindergarten-age children to develop their cognitive skills naturally.…
Developmental Programs (ECEC)." Retrieved May 15, 2008 at http://blink.ucsd.edu/Blink/External/Topics/Policy/0,1162,11192,00.html?delivery=&coming_from=Content
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date] at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html
Sharkey, W. (1997). "Erik Erikson." Retrieved May 15, 2008 at http://fates.cns.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/erikson.htm
Social Development in Early Childhood
and Future Academic Success
Teachers have long reported a positive correlation between a child's social/emotional development and academic success. The purpose of this paper is to review four articles that report on research examining this relationship.
Han, H.S., and Thomas, M.S. (2010). No child misunderstood: Enhancing early childhood teachers' multicultural responsiveness to the social competence of diverse children. Early Childhood Education Journal 37(6), pp. 469-476.
The majority of early childhood teachers are middle-class and of European descent. The demographics of early childhood classrooms, on the other hand, are reflective of changes in American society, and thus there are more children from diverse racial and cultural backgrounds. Research supports the importance of cultural considerations in understanding and promoting social competence in a classroom of young, culturally diverse students. As in the previous study, Han and Thomas characterize social competence as an important marker of development and…
Barack Obama: Erikson's Model of Development
According to Erik Erikson's theory of developmental stages, every human being goes through a series of conflicted stages which must be resolved before he or she can successfully progress to the next stage. Barack Obama's movement through Erickson's life stages can be seen most acutely in his adolescence and young adulthood, based upon what he has revealed about his development in his autobiography Dreams From My Father. However, it may also be presumed that during the infancy stage he went through the familiar crisis of 'trust vs. mistrust.' During this phase, Obama's father left his mother and young son, which could have created a sense of insecurity, despite his mother's evident love for her child. However, Obama's mother remarried an Indonesian man, who was by all accounts a loving stepfather (Barak Obama, 2012, Biography).
From ages 2-4, Erikson says the central crisis…
Barack Obama. (2012). Biography. Retrieved:
Obama, Barack. (2004). Dreams From My Father. Broadway Stages of social-emotional development. (2012). Child Development Info.
The parents then have to maintain a balance between the dependence and independence of their adolescent on the family as both extremes may prove to be harmful. The parents may also need to alter the family system as their adolescents interact with the extended family and make new friends. The middle aged parents also have to change their psychological interactions with their children as their children have now become teenagers and they would be required to make amendments in authority, privacy, perspective and emotional interactions. The middle aged parents who themselves are facing many problems also have to address the problems of their teenage children. (Hargrave, 2006)
Furthermore, people in their midlife go through the marriage of their children. After the marriage of their children, the parents may feel like a new couple again. Now some people take this positively and enjoy but some people regret it as they think…
Blackwell Publishing, (n.d.). Adolescence and adulthood. Retrieved from Blackwell Publishing website: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/intropsych/pdf/chapter10.pdf
Hargrave, D. (2006). Stories of women midlife experience. (Master's thesis), Available from University of South Africa. Retrieved from http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/1131/dissertation.pdf?sequence=1
Helson, a., Soto, C.J., & Cate, R.A. University of California, (n.d.). Through the Middle Ages. Retrieved from University of California website: http://www.colby.edu/psychology/labs/personality/publications/Helson_et_al_2006.pdf
Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety, (2011). Stress, mental health and suicide: Mid-life . Retrieved from Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety website: http://www.dhsspsni.gov.uk/mentalhealthmiddleage.pdf
At the same time, the relationship with the family changes as the teenager becomes more independent. Teenagers often spend more time with their friends than their family and also will listen more to their friends. The same trends from middle childhood also continue, as friends understand themselves as part of a peer group, and as one-on-one relationships with close friends become more important. The major social change that occurs in adolescence is that people begin to date and explore sexual relationships. In early adolescence, teens often begin dating and exploring love relationships. Berk (399) notes that "sticking with group activities, such as parties or dances, before becoming involved with a steady boyfriend of girlfriend is best for young teenagers." I have observed this and seen that early relationships are based on hanging out with and having fun with others, rather than having one-on-one intimate relationships. This then develops and changes…
Berk, L.A. Development Through the Lifespan. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 2004.
Child Psychological Development
Child Developmental Observation, Interview & eport
Individual capacities are generalized abilities or skills necessary to achieve desired outcomes. According to Antonovsky (1996) what all capacities have in common, is that they foster repeated life experiences that help one to see the world as making sense, cognitively, instrumentally, and emotionally. These experiences motivate people to address challenges (meaningfulness), enhance their ability to understand current and future challenges and support the attitude that one can utilize available resources to meet challenges (Antonovsky, 1996). The importance of well developed and integrated capacities for enhancing or maintaining good health lead to the interesting issue of how these capacities develop.
This essay is aimed to examine broad issues of child development. For this purpose the author observed a child (a one-year-old infant from neighbors) and then had a brief interview with the parents as how they interaction with the baby and how…
Antonovsky, A. (1996). The Salutogenic model as a theory to guide health promotion. Health Promotion International, 11(2), 11-10.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.
Chess, S., & Thomas, A. (1992). Interactions between offspring and parents in development. In B. Tizard & V. Varma (Eds), Vulnerability and resiliency in human
Cynader, M.S., & Frost, B.J. (1999). Mechanisms of brain development: Neuronal Sculpting by the physical and social environment. In P.D. Keating & C.Hertzman (Eds) DEveloopmetnal health and the wealth of nations: Social, biological, and educational dynamics (pp. 153-184). New York: The Guilford Press
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…
Jacobs, Garry; Cleveland, Harlan. (1 November, 1999) "Social Development Theory" retrieved at http://www.icpd.org/development_theory/SocialDevTheory.htm . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Keirsey, David. (1998) "Parenting and Temperament" retrieved at http://keirsey.com/parent.html . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Lavoie, Rick. "The Teacher's role in developing social skills" Retrieved at http://www.ldonline.org/article.php?max=20&special_grouping=&id=400&loc=22Accessed on 27 February 2005
Moore, Shirley. G. "The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence" ERIC Digest. Retrieved at http://www.fww.org/articles/misc/0628e.html. Accessed on 26 February 2005
Grohol J. (2005). Attachment heory. Psych Central. Retrieved October 7, 2005 from the World Wide Web: http://psychcentral.com/psypsych/Attachment_theory
Psych Central is a web site which provides free mental health, support and psychology information and resources online since 1992. he site is clustered with numerous links to psychological issues and people related to this field. his article has been written by Dr. John Grohol who is a renowned psychologist and owner of this web portal. he article focuses on the theory of attachment explaining various behavioral patterns observed in the canvas of this theory.
Holmes, J. (1993). John Bowlby and Attachment heory. New York: Routledge.
Jeremy Holmes is a Consultant Psychiatrist/Psychotherapist in North Devon
District Hospital, Barn Staple, United Kingdom. He is also a visiting professor at Psychoanalysis Unit University College London. In this book, Jeremy Holmes provides a focused and coherent account of Bowlby's life and work, based on interviews with…
The web site is an online resource for various definitions and explanation of various terms used in the language. The site contains list of words which are distributed in titles or categories. It is a comprehensive portal of the language.
Pietromonaco P.R. And Barrett L. F, (2000). Attachment Theory as an Organizing Framework: A view from different levels of analysis. Review of General Psychology, 4, No 2,107-110.
Review of General Psychology is a quarterly journal and publishes new theoretical, conceptual, or methodological articles that focus on the traditional sub-disciplines of psychology. It is an approved journal of American Psychological Association (APA). The writers of the article are renowned psychologists. Paula R. Pietrornonaco is teaching at University of Massachusetts at Amherst and Lisa Feldman Barrett at Boston College. The article encompasses most of the aspects of the diverse theory of attachment from its evolution to its present day status.
Teachers will continue to lead the educational process, but they need to be very sensitive about the issues facing the society as a whole and the children as individuals in this society. Then, education becomes a means of identifying the issues in the life of the students and gaining knowledge and understanding about them. Education in this global society also has to acknowledge that cultural diversity is valued and preserved (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 190). Teachers have to ensure that their students are taught in ways that respond to cultural groups without bias (Tozer, Violas, & Senese, 2002, p. 420). In education, there is a responsibility for students to gain a respect for other races, religions and gender that are different from their own. This is the only way that a diverse society can successfully survive.
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New…
Best, S. And Douglas, K. (1991) Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, New York, the Guilford Press.
Byrne, a. (1998). Interpretivism. In Roberto Casati (ed.), European Review of Philosophy. Stanford: CSLI Publications
Dewey, J. (1997). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone Books.
Giroux, H. (1997) 'Crossing the Boundaries of Educational Discourse: Modernism, post-modernism, and Feminism' in a.H. Halsey, H. Lauder, P. Brown and a.S. Wells (eds.) Education: Culture, Economy, and Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
...liberty to captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to let the oppressed go free,,: (Luke 4: 18)
Summary & Conclusion
The teaching of the Catholic Church in relation to social rights and responsibilities is quite clear however, it has been noted to be critical by the U.S. ishops that the church teaches these social principles more clearly and more persistently to the church in advancing the Kingdom of God and in fulfillment of the Great Commission.
yron, William J. (1998) Ten uilding locks of Catholic Social Teaching. America - the National Catholic Weekly Vol. 196 No. 3-29, January 29. Online available at http://www.americamagazine.org/articles/catholicsocialteachingbryon.cfm.
Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (2004)) Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church- to Hi Holiness Pope John Paul II Master of Social Doctrine and Evangelical Witness to Justice and Peace. 2004. Libreria Editrice Vaticana
ISN 88-209-7716-8. Online available at: www.vatican.va/roman_curia/p ontifical_councils/justpeace/docum…
Byron, William J. (1998) Ten Building Blocks of Catholic Social Teaching. America - the National Catholic Weekly Vol. 196 No. 3-29, January 29. Online available at http://www.americamagazine.org/articles/catholicsocialteachingbryon.cfm .
Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (2004)) Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church- to Hi Holiness Pope John Paul II Master of Social Doctrine and Evangelical Witness to Justice and Peace. 2004. Libreria Editrice Vaticana
ISBN 88-209-7716-8. Online available at: www.vatican.va/roman_curia/p ontifical_councils/justpeace/docum ents/rc_pc_justpeace_doc_20060526_compendio-dott-soc_en.html#the%20Church,%20the%20Kingdom%20of%20God%20and% 20 the%20renewal%20of%20social%20relations
Cf. John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Redemptor Hominis, 11: AAS 71 (1979), 276: "The Fathers of the Church rightly saw in the various religions as it were so many reflections of the one truth, 'seeds of the Word', attesting that, though the routes taken may be different, there is but a single goal to which is directed the deepest aspiration of the human spirit" Cited in: Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (2004)) Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church- to Hi Holiness Pope John Paul II Master of Social Doctrine and Evangelical Witness to Justice and Peace. 2004. Libreria Editrice Vaticana
According to Freud, human societies require people to give up many of their most natural instincts and to replace their natural desires with the need to satisfy the "false standards of measurement" such as the "power, success and wealth [that they seek] for themselves and admire & #8230; in others, and that [as a result,] they underestimate what is of true value in life." Fred suggested that the need to live up to the standards and expectations set by society causes "too many pains, disappointments and impossible tasks" and that "to bear it we cannot dispense with palliative measures." By that, Freud meant that all of the psychological mechanisms, substitutions, and escapes that cause psychological problems and that often prevent human happiness. These ideas introduced by Freud about the psychological price paid by people living in society would later be part of the views of several other 20th century sociological…
Social Determinants of Health
Quality Improvement and isk Management in Health Care
A health care system is an institution or organization of people using resources to deliver health care services to meet the target population's health needs. There are many health systems worldwide with many organizational structures and histories. Different countries have various systems that support their health system planning such as trade unions, governments, market participants, charities and religious co-ordinate bodies who deliver health care services that are planned and evolutionary. isk management entails the proper strategies that reduce possibilities of specific losses in health organizations (Spath, 2009).
The systematic utilization and gathering of data are very important to the practice and concept. The programs of risk management consist of both reactive and proactive components. The reactive components include the actions, which are in response to adverse occurrences while proactive components include those activities done to prevent adverse occurrences…
Barry, R. (2002). The six sigma book for healthcare: Improving outcomes by reducing errors. Chicago: Health Administration Publisher
Cook, R. (2006). Awareness and influence in health and social care: How you can really make a difference. San Diego, C.A: Radcliffe Publishing
Kavaler, F. (2003). Risk management in health care institutions: A strategic approach. Sudbury, U.S.A: Jones and Bartlett Publishers
Marco, W. (2011). Performance-Based medicine: Creating the high performance network to optimize managed care relationships. New York: Productivity Press
Looking at a problem from several different angles and viewpoints is the ultimate goal of group work and group decision-making. Having people who are different from one another helps to avoid 'groupthink' and contributes to in-depth discussions and better ideas than could be found in a group where the participants were basically all alike (Chartrand, van aaren, & argh, 2006). How a person reacts to others and to the situation, though, can seriously affect the outcome of the group. Society is made up of many different kinds of people, so a good group will be comprised of the same. This will help to ensure the success of whatever decision that the group comes to, since there will be a greater suggestion that the public will be receptive to it, as based on the opinions of the various group members.
oth internal and external information must be tracked in order to…
Chartrand, TL, van Baaren, RB, & Bargh, JA. (2006). Linking automatic evaluation to mood and information processing style: Consequences for experienced affect, impression formation, and stereotyping. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 135(1), 70-77.
Livingston, BA & Judge, TA (2008). Emotional responses to work-family conflict: An examination of gender role orientation among working men and women. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93(1), 207-216.
Molden, DC & Dweck, CS. (2006). Finding "meaning" in psychology: A lay theories approach to self-regulation, social perception, and social development. American Psychologist. 61(3), 192-203.
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…
Two qualities of the classroom environment that can contribute to the development of skills in the social arena include communication and teamwork. If a student is in a classroom setting in which open communication and sharing are a regular part of the day the student will begin to develop social skills that are positive in nature. If a student is asked to be part of a team and work on projects with others the student will begin to develop the ability to communicate with others and to accept the ideas, opinions and differences of others. Both are positive steps in the development of social skills.
One classroom quality that will inhibit the development of social skills is a classroom in which communication is discouraged. In a classroom setting where the teacher stands at the front of the class and lectures without ever giving the students an opportunity to respond or…
Learning Autonomy vs. Shame (Will) (accessed 8-8-06) http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/erickson.shtml
The education system of the Byzantine region spread through to the other nations, with them adopting new words from the Arab language, hence enriching their language. The social status of the slaves improved, whereas that of the elite and those who fought against the invasion deteriorated as they lost control over their territories.
The effects on Arab society
The interactions between the Arabs and the non-Arab community resulted in several changes within the Arab society. At the time of the conquest, the Arab received support from the Christians of the Syrian and Egypt territories because the Arabs promised them less taxation as compared to that of the Byzentine (Rogan 157). Therefore, the Arabs, after the conquest was over, feared that the interactions between the Muslim and the non-Muslim community would lead to undesirable results. For this reason, the Umayyad sought to keep the Muslim worriers concentrated in the garrison towns…
Bagnall, Roger S. Egypt in the Byzantine World, 300-700. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ.
Press, 2007. Print.
Brownworth, Lars. Lost to the West: The Forgotten Byzantine Empire That Rescued Western
Civilization. New York: Crown Publishers, 2010. Print.
Young adults are on the threshold between youthful behaviors and the adult world. Humans in their late teens begin to accept responsibilities for their own lives and learn to depend upon themselves financially, socially, and psychologically. This is also the time when they make life choices which will ultimately shape their futures and the people they eventually become. Renowned theorist Daniel Levinson defines adult development in the age between 17 and 33 as the novice phase, because this is the point where the young person takes on new responsibilities in the same way as an amateur or novice in a specific occupational field. According to theorist Erik Erikson:
In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. Intimacy refers to one's ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship…
Advocates for Youth. (2008). Growth and development, ages 18 and over -- what parents need to know. Retrieved from http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/parents/157?task=view
Beaty, L. (2002). Developmental counseling: the young adult period. Critical Issues in Young
Beck, M. (2012). Delayed development: 20-somethings blame the brain. The Wall Street
Intelligence in Infancy
The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.
The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.
The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…
AllPsych. (N.d.). Psychology 101. Retrieved from AllPsych: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html
CA Dept. Of Educatoin. (N.d.). Cognitive Development Domain. Retrieved from CA Dept. Of Educatoin: http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09cogdev.asp
Cherry, K. (N.d.). Communication Milestones. Retrieved from Psychology: http://psychology.about.com/od/early-child-development/a/communication-milestones.htm
Feranld, A., Marchman, V., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 234-248.
For me personally, however, the empathy that I develop is directed by my spirituality and inclination to see beyond what is obvious. This combination has been most beneficial for me as a social worker (obbins, Chatterjee and Canda, 2006; Lesser and Pope, 2007).
Furthermore, the level of loyalty and dedication that I bring to my work is something I am very proud of. As I mentioned earlier, loyalty and dedication are some of the important traits that I look for in my friends and the main reason for this is the fact that these are the traits that I personally vibe-out as well. I feel that as a social worker, perhaps the most important aspect that an individual can bring to work is dedication; as part of this world, u have to truly have a passion for it to be able to withstand the constant setbacks, financial instability and lack…
Correll, D. (2005). News and Views…from ICSW. International Social Work. 48:5, 688-691.
Hofer B.K. And Pintrich, P.R. (1997). The Development of Epistemological Theories: Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing and Their Relation to Learning. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 67, No. 1, 88-140.
Long, D.D. And Holle, M.C. (2007) Macro Systems in the Social Environment (2nd edition). Belmont, CA: Thompson, Brooks/Cole.
Lesser, J.C. And Pope, D.S. (2007). Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Theory and practice. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Participatory Approaches to Development Communication
It was confirmed by Everett ogers in 1976 that the dominating paradigm towards development of communication had passed. He negated all those theories, which have been prevalent in field of communication ever since the 10950s. These theories have been diffusion-ism, and it was replaced by the new participatory approach. It was a very important and significant declaration, especially when it came from ogers, who was a seminal personality in the field of diffusion study. Not only did this new theory point out the shortcomings of the existing belief, it has highlighted and brought forth the advantages of theories related to participation of community, and that of socio-economic structures towards analysis of communication process.
It is very important to study and highlight the findings of ogers almost thirty years after their being discovered, due to their validity till date and the substantial academic application. It is…
Edwards, M. (1999). International development NGOs: Agents of foreign aid or vehicles for international cooperation? Nonpro't and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 28(1), 25A37.
Ellerman, D. (2006). Helping people help themselves: From the World Bank to an alternative philosophy of development assistance. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Gumucio-Dagron, A. And T. Tufte (2006), eds., Communication for Social Change Anthology: Historical and Contemporary Readings. New Jersey: Communication for Social Change Consortium.
Gumucio-Dragon, A. (2006). Knowledge, communication, development: A perspective from Latin America. Development in Practice, 16(6). Retrieved 20 April 2008 from http://www.development inpractice.org/apc_ae-v16n6x542370.html
Frederick Jackson Turner is perhaps most well-known for his famous essay, "The Significance of the Frontier on American History." In this essay, Turner defines and supports his thesis that the history of the American West is the history of America. This theory directly correlates to the concept of Manifest Destiny put forth by Monroe in which the push westward and the subsequent development, it was believed, was man's God-given right.
One of the key components to Turner's work is the theory that this development does not take place along a single line, but rather, takes place in a series of "rebirths." Turner says
Thus American development has exhibited not merely advance along a single line, but a return to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and a new development for that area. American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier. This perennial…
Fehrenbacher, Don F. And Norman E. Tutorow. California: An Illustrated History. London: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1968.
Lavender, David. California: A Bicentennial History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1976.
Quiett, Glenn Chesney. "The Fight for a Free Port" from Los Angeles: Biography of a City by John and LaRee Caughey. Berkley, CA: University of California Press, 1976.
Turner, Frederick Jackson. "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" from The Frontier in American History. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1920.
hat impact does media violence have on society? How are children affected and how are adolescents affected by violence portrayed in movies, television, video games and in other forms? This paper reviews and critiques peer-reviewed articles that address the subject of media violence from several perspectives -- and takes positions on the arguments and research presented in those scholarly articles.
There is ample empirical research available to back up the assertion that violent video games, movies and television programs have a negative impact on young people. It is the thesis of this paper that ultimately the responsibility for guidance vis-a-vis violent media is not on schools or law enforcement but in fact is on the shoulders of parents.
The Influence of Media Violence on Youth
An article in the Psychological Science in the Public Interest (Anderson, et al., 2003) flatly asserts that there is "…unequivocal evidence that media…
Anderson, Craig A., Berkowitz, Leonard, Donnerstein, Edward, Husemann, Rowell L.,
Johnson, James D., Linz, Daniel, Malamuth, Neil M., and Wartella, Ellen. (2003). The
Influence of Media Violence on Youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest,
Social esponsibilty Strategy for Community
Social esponsibility Strategy for Community Hospital
Corporate Social esponsibility
The following is a fictional plan of that will describe the development of a fictional Hospital's Corporate Social esponsibility initiative. It will include things such as the philanthropic, community and environmental benefit that document Alexandria Hospital's commitment and concern in regards to the welfare of their employees and the patients that they will serve, in the community development and health, human rights, enabling people through education and material, public reporting and transparency, business ethics and providing a community benefit (ohini & Mahadevappa, 2010).
Community Benefit and Free Care
Alexandria Hospital will bring great benefit to the surrounding communities in order to be able to serve in countless methods, the hospital has future plans of giving nearly $923,000 in Community Health Improvement Services, supporting the care that will be provided to patients who are covered…
Castka, P., & Balzarova, M.A. (2008). Adoption of social responsibility through the expansion of existing management systems. Industrial Management + Data Systems, 108(3), 297-309.
Galbreath, J. (2010). The impact of strategic orientation on corporate social responsibility. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 18(1), 23-40.
Kakabadse, N.K., & Cecile Rozuel. (2006). Meaning of corporate social responsibility in a local French hospital: A case study. Society and Business Review, 1(1), 77-96.
Luu, T.T. (2013). Corporate social responsibility, upward influence behavior, team processes and competitive intelligence. Team Performance Management, 19(1), 6-33.
Social Network and Its Effects on the Developing Brain
The enhancing quantity of time kids are investing on computer systems in their home and institution has actually raised concerns about how using computer innovation might make a distinction in their lives-- from assisting with research to triggering depression to motivating terrible habits. This short article offers a review of the restricted study on the impacts of personal computer use on kids' physical development. Preliminary study recommends, for instance, that access to computer systems enhances the overall quantity of time kids invest in front of a TV or computer screen at the expenditure of other individual tasks, therefore putting them at danger for excessive weight. At the exact same time, intellectual study recommends that playing video game can be an essential foundation to computer proficiency due to the fact that it boosts kids' capability to check out and picture images in…
Deadwyler, S.A. (2008) 'Systemic and nasal delivery of Orexin -- A (Hypocretin-1) reduces the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance in nonhuman primates', Journal of Neuroscience, 27 (52): 14239 -- 47.
Linn, S. And Poussaint, A.F. (1999). The Trouble With Teletubbies. The American prospect. May 1, 1999. June.
Sigman, A. (2007a) Remotely Controlled: How Television Is Damaging Our Lives, Vermilion, London
Sigman, A. (2007b) 'Visual voodoo: the biological impact of watching television', The Biologist, 54 (1): 14 -- 19
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…
Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.
Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.
Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.
Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
I have had friends that I've known since I was in grade school. Our initial interaction occurred because of our attraction toward one another. We had so many things in common, such as the same favorite television shows and the same favorite sports. Our proximity to one another also aided in the development of this attraction toward one another. We all lived on the same block and therefore had more opportunities to interact with one another outside of the school setting.
Although physical attractiveness did not necessarily influence our friendship, according to Myers (2012), it is usually the first step in any sort of relationship, even those that are platonic in nature. The theory of physical attractiveness is based on research conducted that tends to suggest that people who are viewed as being more physically attractive are seen as being more approachable (Myers, 2012). My relationship with my friends can…
David, M. (2012). Social psychology. (11 ed.). New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia: How the Social Media Affect the E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia
SOCIAL COMMECE IN SAUDI AABIA
Conceptual Framework Model
Psychological Aspect and Theories
Digital Divide in Saudi Arabia
Ethos, eligious conviction, and Government in E-commerce Adoption
The ise of the P Industry in Saudi Arabia
Conceptual Model and esearch Hypothesis (Drawing)
Social Commerce in Saudi Arabia
Modern Saudi Arabia today actually represents an exceptional and convergent mixture of social conservatism and technological ability, a wonderful alteration from a remote, desert land that it was just something like 50 years ago. As social media is turning out to be increasingly prevalent in Saudi Arabia, online marketers are starting capitalizing in methods that service social media and include online customers. In Saudi Arabia Online marketers' adoption of new online marking trends is being prompted by discoveries that show individuals are spending great amounts…
Anderson, M. (2013). Turning "like" to "Buy" Social Media Emerges as a Commerce Channel. Booz & Company, 23-56.
Assad, S.W. (2009). The rise of consumerism in saudi arabian society. International Journal of Commerce & Management,, 73-104.
Bahaddad, A.A. (2013). Attracting customer in saudi arabia to buy from your business online. . International Journal of Business and Management, 65-81.
Brock, C. (2014). F-COMMERCE AND THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF TRUST. Online Communities and Digital Collaborations, 1-11.
Cradock's 2004 study of a correlation between population categories and child abuse lead to the development of an assessment tool that allowed social workers to determine when children were at risk for child abuse and when to intervene and what actions would be seen as an over-intervention. By using this assessment, social workers will not only know how to identify the serious danger of child abuse and what children are at-risk for being abused, but also the assessment makes it possible for social workers to determine when intervening in the situation may be dangerous or unnecessary for the children involved. Of similar importance are the tools developed to assess and evaluate those convicted of both child physical and sexual abuse. In Milner and Murphy's 1995 study, the methods of assessment and evaluation are discussed and critiqued. These methods, including interview, observation, personality tests, and offender-specific assessments, are all studied in…
Arad-Davidzon, Bilhah, and Benbenishty, Rami. "The role of workers' attitudes and parent and child wishes in child protection workers' assessments and recommendation regarding removal and reunification. Children and Youth Services Review. 30.1 (2008): 107-121.
Bray, James H. "Family Assessment: Current Issues in Evaluating Families." National
Council on Family Relations. 44.4 (1995): 469-477.
Buckner, Lynn P. And Salts, Connie J. "A Premarital Assessment Program." Family
57). This makes the idea that the minority communities that are using the community as a "springboard" for assimilation because there are less of the domestic non-Hispanic whites in the areas in which immigrants would typically assimilate.
There has even been the development of what is referred to as planned communities. Irvine California serves as a good example of such a development. Irvine was developed from ranch lands from a single developer that constructed "urban villages" in Orange County (Maher, 2004, p. 782). The particular site selected for this 1-997 study was in many ways a "typical" Irvine neighborhood. A planned community developed in the mid-1970s, Ridgewood comprised 246 single-family homes on a collection of cul-de-sacs connected by three public through streets: on average, residents were highly educated- 39% had graduate or professional degrees- and most of those who were employed worked in professional, managerial, technical, or sales positions (Maher,…
Maher, K. (2004). Borders and Social Distinction in the Global Suburb. American Quarterly, 781-806.
Zhou, M., Tseng, Y., & Kim, R. (2008). Rethinking Residential Assimilation: The Case of a Chinese Ethnoburb in the San Gabriel Valley, California. Amerasia Journal, 55-83.
Additionally, Sociocultural theory assumes that individuals develop self-concepts through interaction with others, and we are influenced by culture and social processes, such as social norms. Social norms dictate that girls are more sensitive and boys are less emotional, thus further explaining the gender differences in the above case study.
The two predictions of how these interactions affect a child's development are: 1) if the child is treated with more love, intimacy, and talked to about feelings, the child will grow up being more sensitive to others and more open to discuss their feelings with others. If the child is taught not to respond to their feelings, or let their emotions guide them, the child will grow up to be less sensitive, more aggressive and less likely to discuss their feelings. Depending on treatment, a child may grow up to have negative qualities, such as violence or repressed anger.
What is meant by the term 'social enterprise' and what do social enterprises contribute to society and the economies in which they operate?
The acceleration with which the world is changing day by day is continuous. A majority of organizations that have a motto of 'not-for-profit' are looking out for prospects with the help of which they can begin or widen their projects in order to get their missions fulfilled and offer the needy the earned profits. Thus, any organization or scheme that brings about the mentioned twofold objectives is considered a social enterprise. Social enterprises sell mission-related goods or services and by doing so they try to create a more impartial and fair environment through specific market-based strategies (Bornstein & Davis 2010).
In other words, a business is regarded as a social enterprise when the main objective is to cope up with the prevailing societal problems and…
Baptiste, T. (2009). Being a Leader and Making Decisions. 1st. ed. New York: Chelsea House.
Beerel, A. (2009). Leadership and Change Management. 1st. ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Bornstein, D. & Davis, S. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know. 1st. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. 1st. ed. London: Routledge.
Social psychology view: What ensures that women are treated fairly in office settings in the United States?
One of the most prudent applications of social psychology within contemporary settings are those that relate to gender. Gender issues can become exacerbated when they are viewed within particular social constructs, such as the work environment. Due to the fact that the majority of the world was initially a patriarchal society (particularly in the United States) before modern conceptions of gender became prevalent, the role of women within the work environment is one which is certainly worthy of investigation in terms of how women are treated, what sorts of issues they must contend with, and how others (men) consider working women. The principle difference between contemporary and most historic notions of gender pertaining to women in the workplace is that in modern times, there is supposed to be a substantial greater amount of…
Bisika, T. (2008). Do social and cultural factors perpetuate gender-based violence in Malawi?.Gender & Behaviour, 6(2), 1884-1896. doi:10.4314/gab.v6i2.23426
Cikara, M., Rudman, L., & Fiske, S. (2012). Dearth by a Thousand Cuts?: Accounting for Gender Differences in Top-Ranked Publication Rates in Social Psychology. Journal Of Social Issues, 68(2), 263-285. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2012.01748.x
Gilbert, D.G., Fiske, S.T. & Lindzey G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Huerta, M. (2007). Intersections of race and gender in women's experiences of harassment. (Order No. 3253291, University of Michigan). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,, 110-110 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304848503?accountid=25340 . (304848503).
Social workers often have commitments to specific policies, laws, or funding of programs that are vital to the population they serve or an issue that they strongly support. Such commitments often lead social workers to become involved in political issues and the campaigns of specific candidates. Being a social worker, such campaign experiences, the outcomes of your efforts, and how effective you felt you were may affect your view of the political process and the likelihood of becoming involved in similar campaigns in the future. Social workers' involvement in political advocacy is usually influenced by the impact of politics on social work practice. Through advocacy and lobbying in the political arena, social workers seek to promote changes in legislation and policy to enhance social conditions and promote social justice towards meeting basic human needs. In essence, social workers' participation in political advocacy is geared towards protecting individuals' rights and enhancing…
Social Cognitive, Behavioral Drinking
Social Cognitive/behavioralist Drinking
Drinking behavior provides informative demonstration of how social cognitive and behavioralist theories provide complementary rather than competing explanations of human agency. Bandura (1999) casts social cognitive theory against various determinist and materialist theories on the assertion humans are "sentient agents of experiences rather than simply undergoers of experiences" because people explore, manipulate and influence the environment they discover (p. 4). This contrasts against "automaticity," habit, "tendencies to repeat responses given a stable supporting context" (Oullette and Wood, 1998, p. 55). Oullette & Wood (1998) compare habit learning to skill development, where practice can lead to "nonvolitional, frequent, and consistent experiences in a given context" but new situations require deliberation (p. 55). Wood and Neal (2007) largely reiterate this summary as repeated learned behavior (843). The present inquiry is particularly interested in how and why particular behaviors become repeated after negative consequences have been…
Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John (Ed.),
Handbook of personality (2nd ed., pp. 154-196). New York: Guilford Publications. (Reprinted in D. Cervone & Y. Shoda [Eds.], The coherence of personality. New York: Guilford Press.)
Ouellette, J. & Wood, W. (1998). Habit and intention in everyday life: The multiple processes by which past behavior predicts future behavior. Psychological Bulletin 124(1), 54-74.
Wood, w. & Neal, D.T. (2007). A new look at habits and the habit -- goal interface. Psychological Review 114(4), 843 -- 863. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.114.4.843
Statement of the Issue
Beginning with a discussion of Social Darwinism's inherent logical fallacy, this study examines whether or not wealthy industrialists of the nineteenth century actually practiced what Social Darwinism called for. By considering the history of the concept and its relation to capitalism, it becomes clear that not only did wealthy industrialists practice Social Darwinism, but that they embraced it precisely because it provided a justification for the unethical business practices they were already engaged in.
Statement of the Issue
Social Darwinism was a major force in the political, economic, and social landscape of the nineteenth and early twentieth century, but it represents something of a conundrum for the historian attempting to determine whether or not the wealthy industrialists who were proponents of Social Darwinism actually practiced what they preached. The difficulty stems from the fact that Social Darwinism is itself an example of a formal…
Bannister, R. (1993). Social darwinism: Science and myth in anglo-american social thought.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Klein, S. (2003). The natural roots of capitalism and its virtues and values. Journal of Business
Ethics, 45(4), 387-401.
Social Media etailing Applications: Opportunities and Threats
How Has Social Media Developed and What are the Benefits and Downsides of Using Social Media for etailers Today?
This study examines social business in general, how it developed and the benefits of using social media in particular. Second, this study provides a discussion concerning the potential positive as well as the effects of social business in the retail sector which is followed by a description of optimal business strategies for social media applications, the pros/cons of using these tools in the industry, and some representative case studies concerning companies that succeeded and some that recently failed in their use of social media. Finally, the study provides a summary of the research and important findings is followed by a series of recommendations concerning how retailers should use social media technologies in their own businesses in the concluding chapter.
Social Media Business Applications
About Honda. (2013). Honda. Available: http://corporate.honda.com/america/philanthropy.aspx?id=philanthropy_overview . Last accessed 1 November 2013.
About Virgin. (2013). Virgin America. Available: http://www.virginamerica.com/about/airline-company.html.
Baumann, M. (2010, June). @Twitter Discloses Business Model #Promotedtweets RT.
Information Today, 27 (6) 1-5.
Social Order and Inequalities
Social order and inequality
Ideas, beliefs, values, norms, roles, statuses, organizations and social class may have impact on an individual's life directly or indirectly. This can be in form of gender and social inequality. The life of my friend Jane who is a woman is an example of how these phenomenon impacts the life of individuals.
Gender inequalities rise from deepening division in the roles that are assigned to men and women, especially in the political, economic and educational sphere. When my friend Jane could not make it to the leadership of their community despite various attempts, it showed that women are always underrepresented in political activities as well as decision making processes. This is brought by the ever existing beliefs that men are better leaders than women. As a woman she is subjected to institutional discrimination where they face problem of accessing education which has…
Under the California Child Abuse and Neglect eporting Law, counselors, teachers, and other professionals are legally obliged to report suspected abuse or neglect. The legal obligation to report instances of child abuse or neglect to a local, state or federal social services agency is generally a good idea because it ensures reporting by teachers, counselors, and others who are in contact with the child. It is assumed that mandatory reporting means immediate and beneficial intervention. The reality is more complicated than this. Alerting child protective services can have unwanted detrimental effects on the child. As Lough (n.d.) points out, "nagging doubts about how the person suspected of abusing a child will react, what the outcome will be, and whether or not the report will put the child at greater risk" are what make the mandatory reporting laws controversial.
Theoretically, with a legal obligation, the individual is more motivated…
County of Riverside (2013). How do I report child abuse? Retrieved online: http://dpss.co.riverside.ca.us/childrens-services-division/child-abuse-reporting/how-to-report
Lough, P. (n.d.). California Department of Social Services Office of Child Abuse Prevention. The California Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Law. Retrieved online: http://www.dominican.edu/academics/resources/facultyresources/file/childabuselaw.pdf
State of California Department of Social Services (2013). Report abuse. Retrieved online: http://www.cdss.ca.gov/cdssweb/PG20.htm
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…
Frederickson, G. (1986). "New public administration." Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Rice, M.F. (2003). "Organizational Culture, Social Equity & Diversity: Teaching Public
Administration." Texas A& M. University, Bush School Working Paper #314. 14, November, 2004: http://bush.tamu.edu/content/research/working_papers/mrice/teach-post-modern.pdf
Christopher, G.C., Rutledge, P.J. (2001). "Reinvigorating the Social Equity Debate."
Social trends in Education / the next 5 years
With societal establishments and school structures, we can carry the most important task of providing youths with the necessary education which will provide them opportunities to thrive in our community. A simple casual glance at the comparative mode of lifestyle in our country would make it obvious that these establishments performed in an excellent manner for the greater part of this century. But the universe is transforming in manners that radically remodels the suppositions, customs and guiding principles, which catered the American people earlier. Besides, the pace of transformation is gearing up at an amazing speed, requiring in many customs and establishments the need to progress in certain spheres. To look forward to modifications, to a certain extent than acting in response to it, schools are spotting developments and scrutinizing their probable connotations.
ather than guessing what the coming years has…
Anglin, John. S. Educational Trends for the Future. Handbook of Theory and Research in Higher Education: Volume: 8; pp. 115-121. New York: Agathon, 2002
Carter, Holly. Implementation of International Competence Strategies: Faculty. In Bridges to the Future: Strategies for Internationalizing Higher Education, pp.191-203. Ed. Charles Klasek, Carbondale, Illinois: Association of International Education Administrators, 1992.
Corson, David. Language Diversity and Education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001.
Morrison, J.L. Higher-Education Trends and Indicators. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Volume: 46, No: 3; September 10, 1999; p. A54
Social and Labor Issues of Supply Chain Management
There are a myriad of labor and social issues that all enterprises need to contend with in designing, implementing and managing an international supply chain. In addition to the specifics of how suppliers will communicate pricing, product, and transaction-specific information and also synchronize efforts to support product introductions, there is also the more challenging social and labor issues to contend with. These differences are exacerbated by vast cultural differences between regions and nations. One of the most valuable frameworks for understanding social and labor issue differences in international supply chains is the Hofstede Model of Cultural Dimensions (Hofstede, 1993). This framework provides dimensional insight into how labor and social issues within and between nations can be planned for and optimized to gain the greatest level of performance given the inherent constrains in supply chain management (Hofstede, McCrae, 2004).
Analysis of Social and…
Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. The Executive, 7(1), 81.
Hofstede, G., & McCrae, R.R. (2004). Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture. Cross - Cultural Research, 38(1), 52-88.
Social evolution to rapid revolutionary change and contemporary globalization dynamics: Emphasizing the an Analysis of Global Economics.
An article that recently appeared in The Korea Herald, "U.S. And Germany stress cooperation" details a visit to Germany by U.S. Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner, who met with his German counterpart to discuss the financial crisis that has enveloped Europe as of late. The context for this meeting was important, as the European Union's currency, the Euro, has consistently been devalued in the past few years and several countries that are part of this alliance (17 altogether) are contemplating various measures in which the currency and the economic solidarity of the EU could be saved.
The crux of this article, which directly correlates to Hans-Werner Sinn's opinion editorial, "Why Berlin is Balking on Bailout" actually has less to do with the meeting between the two financial heads of the U.S. And Germany and…
Thus, this aspect can multiply into many sub-genres that focus on one or more aspects of the social world as they contribute to influencing behaviors and innate thought processes. Focusing on the social means looking for more abstract concepts that relate to existence within a social world. Actually trying to predict later success in publication, "Predicting the future success of junior scholars is of great concern to academic hiring committees," (Haslam & Lamb 2009:144). Yet it is based within two correlating variables that can then be compared, "It is therefore reasonable to predict that publication success during graduate school may be associated with publication success later in people's academic careers," (Haslam & Lamb 2009:144). Although the subject is socially constructed, the method of analysis is still quantitatively measured. Even this study shows quantitative measurement use- using mathematical prediction models in analysis of data (Haslam & Lamb 2009). egression analysis, common…
Haslam, Nick & Laham, Simon M. (2009). Ten years on: does graduate student promise predict later scientific achievement? Current Research in Social Psychology. 14(10):143-147.
Kearl, Michael C. (2009). Social psychology. Trinity University. Retrieved 28, October 2009 at http://trinity.edu/~mkearl/socpsy.html
New York University (2009). Infants able to identify humans as source of speech. Science Daily. Retrieved October 28, 2009 at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091019162919.htm
Smith, Eliot R. & Mackie, Diane M. (1999). Social Psychology. Routledge Press.
Improving social justice for women has been identified as one of the building blocks of social change. Population control, education, and the eradication of domestic violence are all interlinked. "UNICEF estimates that worldwide, some 117 million school-aged children do not attend school, 62 million of them girls. Attendance rates are lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, where only 57% of girls are in school, and just 15% of these go on to secondary school" (About us, 2011, Women's global education fund). Women's education is not simply a feminist issue. Higher rates of female education are linked to lower birth rates and better health outcomes for children as well as women.
Women who are educated are more empowered to take control over family planning and have more resources to take care of the children they do have. "Educated mothers limit their families," says Dr. Yasmin aashid, a leader in obstetrics and…
About us. (2011). Women's Global Education Project.
Retrieved August 23, 2011 at http://www.womensglobal.org/About%20Us/about.html
Domestic violence. (2011). American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG).
Retrieved August 23, 2011 at http://www.acog.org/publications/patient_education/bp083.cfm
Competitor products and their equivalent prizes, this is so that after establishing our break-even analysis it can act as a guiding line to set the best price. (Tao 2008)
The survey should enable one establish the best marketing strategies and anticipate any future contingencies.
Entrepreneurship development services
This service will target individuals who wish to start business on their own or in a group it will mainly involve
Training on how to originate business ideas. It is said that if you feed a man you have only feed him a day, a long-term problem in a short-term way. If you show the man how to fish then you have feed him and his family for life and I add that if you show the man how to run a fish business you will have feed the society too. In his book ich Dad Poor Dad, Kiyosaki explains that the most…
Adaman F., Keyder C., Mudderrisoglu S., Yukseker D. (2009) Poverty and Social Exclusion in the Slum Areas of Large Cities in Turkey. European Commission on Employment, SocialAffairs and Equal Opportunities Development Goal. European Union, Luxenbourg, Europe.
Agbola T., Agunbiade E. (2009) Urbanization, Slum Development and Security of Tenure: The Challenges of Meeting Millennium Development Goal 7 in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Camur E. (2003) What are the Social, Physical and Economic Problems of Slums and their Expectations from the Urban City? Sage books.New York.
Dumashie a. (2004) Informal Housing in East Africa: Lessons Learned From Cross Country Borders (Part II). Journal, FIG Working Week, May 22-27, United Kingdom.
Social Media in the Business Environment
In the past few years, there has been a tremendous and dramatic increase in the use of social networking sites and social media such as Facebook and Twitter. This is particularly because of the low-cost, user-oriented, and highly collaborative means of communication that continues to evolve through its own impetus. Consequently, social networking sites or social media are based on certain principles that the corporate or business environment can learn from. There is an assumption that the widespread adoption of social media in people's personal lives can be moved to the professional environment where they can be used to develop unprecedented knowledge bases in which people, industries, and the society can be empowered. However, many businesses still consider social media and social networking sites tools as frivolous to an extent that they have prohibited their use in the working environment. Actually, these companies still…
Coleman, A (2012), How Social Media can Benefit Small Businesses, The Guardian, viewed 6
Ernst & Young (2012), Protecting and Strengthening your Brand, Ernst & Young, viewed 6
Social work history displays that the desire of social justice is both a task and a myth for employees and their immediate predecessors in organizations. This study provides a critical analysis of Janet Finn's and Maxine Jacobson's work titled "Just Practice." The great focus is on the first and the third chapter where their contributions and critical omissions are identified. Finn and Jacobson have worked hard to illustrate the historical development of social work, which was largely premised on charity for the poor (Finn, & Jacobson, 2003). In both chapters, they have elaborated in length on how social work came into being. Ideally, social work history revolves around the industrial revolution and the way the rise of capitalism created a gap between the rich and the poor. In the first chapter, the role of Charity Organization Societies and Settlement House Movement as the pioneers of social work has been elucidated…
Barusch, A.S. (2009). Foundations of social policy: Social justice in human perspective. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Finn, J.L., & Jacobson, M. (2003). Just practice: a social justice approach to social work. Peosta, Iowa: Eddie Bowers Pub. Co..
Leiby, J. (1978). A history of social welfare and social work in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lundy, C., & Lundy, C. (2011). Social work, social justice, & human rights: A structural approach to practice. North York, Ont: University of Toronto Press.
Those who predict future behavior and demand for products and services correctly can profit tremendously from their planning; conversely, those who invest in technologies or applications based on assumptions or expectations that never materialize run the risk of losing their entire investment. In that respect, the computer realm is no different from the decisions and projections made in traditional types of businesses. It may just seem different by virtue of the accelerated rate of computer evolution and development and the fact that some of the specific new technologies and capabilities become so widely and rapidly adopted that they can change society practically overnight.
In all likelihood, computers today are similar to paper in the Middle Ages when producing paper was so labor intensive and expensive that very little was available and only to the wealthiest classes. Another analog might be dry cell battery technology around the turn of the 20th…
As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…
Alexanian, Janet A.. "Eyewitness Accounts and Political Claims: Transnational Responses to the 2009 Postelection Protests in Iran." Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 31.2 (2011): 425-442. Project MUSE. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. .
Burns, Alex and Ben Eltham, "Twitter free Iran: an evaluation of twitter's role in public diplomacy and information operations in Iran's 2009 election crisis," in Papandrea, Franco & Armstrong, Mark (Eds.). Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009. Sydney: Network Insight Institute. Web. 26 Nov. 2011 .
China, Walid. "The Facebook Revolution." New African 503 (2011): 24. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Eltahawy, Mona. "The Middle East's Generation Facebook." World Policy Journal 25.3 (2008): 69-77. Academic Search Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
This drives a value system that makes our work preventative by one intent. ith a clear understanding that some intervention will require a removal of the child from his or her parents' care, the value of family togetherness will direct the strategy of community involvement on the part of the agency.
The practice framework is guided by specialized knowledge on the patterns and trends dominating the landscape of abuse cases. The breakdown of major abuse categories reported by Bromfield & Horsfall finds that 39% of abuse cases are of the emotional abuse category, 29% in the category of neglect, 22% in the category of physical abuse and 10% in the category of sexual abuse. (p. 3)
Moreover, a major thrust of the report by Bromfield & Horsfall is that reports of all types of cases are on the rise, but also attributes this to certain realities including the…
BBC News. (20009). Australia 'Sorry' for Child Abuse. Bbc.co.uk.
Bromfield, L. & Horsfall, B. (2010). Child Abuse and Neglect Statistics. National Child Protection Clearinghouse.
Department for Child Protection (DCP). (2010). Homepage. Government of Western Australia. Online at http://www.community.wa.gov.au/DCP/
Early Childhood Australia (ECA). (2006). Statistics Show Child Abuse in Australia is Getting Worse. Early Childhoodaustralia.org.
A model that stresses the fact that people in a generally bad mood or situation will seek out pro-social behaviors, i.e. To help others to make him or herself feel better. (Berkowitz 185) Though this theory has often been contested, not simply because it tends to negate altruism but because people in bad moods tend not to seek out the doing of good deeds, (Berkowitz 186) these two examples of pro-social behavior in this film are both realistic and examples of the negative state relief model of action.
The first example is when Rob agrees to help two skater slackers and frequent shoplifters at his store to produce a record. Rob does not have a record label but it is a logical extension of his love of music and of human progress. He walks into the store, where Barry and Dick are listening to a demo tape of Vince and…
Berkowitz, Leonard. Causes and Consequences of Feelings. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Geen, Russell G. Human Aggression. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2001.
Heath, Robert L., and Jennings Bryant. Human Communication Theory and Research: Concepts, Contexts, and Challenges. 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
Sociocultural approaches to learning and development: a Vygotskian framework
In this article the authors discuss how both social and individual processes work together to produce knowledge. The article looks at three things that make up the framework: the social sources that cause development as an individual, the symbols (such as language) that cause development, and genetics. All three are very important in how human beings develop a sense of self and knowledge about all things. The main theme, however, is how much of a role culture and language play in the development of human beings. There are implications at the end of the article that this may have some relevance where teaching and classroom learning are concerned. This is due to the collaboration that often goes on between teacher and student to help make the learning experience more complete. All of this interaction is just as essential to…
A nation faithful to democracy is blessed and called to spread this "good news" throughout the nations "(Withrow,2007, p.15 ).
Coupled with this "gospel" was the support and verification of major scientific theories during this period. Social Darwinism was derived from Darwin's work on the evolution of the species. In essence, Darwin's theory of human evolution refers to the principle of the 'survival of the fittest," on which the ideal of human progress becomes possible. Therefore, taking this principle into account, Social Darwinism attempt to explain and justify the social and economic inequalities in society in terms of those who are the strongest and fittest in the society i.e. those who are the most prosperous and who accumulate the most. Therefore, the vision that this theory produced was one that favored and justified the strongest and most successful in society.
In order to understand the impact of Social Darwinism one…
Carnegie a. The Gospel of Wealth Reflection Questions. Excerpts of an essay written by Carnegie in 1889. Retrieved from http://learningtogive.org/resources/stories/gospelofwealth/
De Santis, V. The American Gilded Age Revisited. Australian Journal of Politics & History, 29
(2), pp. 354 -- 367. Available from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119538983/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
Withrow L. Success and the Prosperity Gospel: from Commodification to Transformation a Wesleyan Perspective. Journal of Religious Leadership, 6(2). Available from http://arl-jrl.org/Volumes/Withrow07.pdf.
Inductive reasoning occurs when one makes inferences from particular situations or scenarios to predict future situations. In this study, the authors seek to use information from particular youth's experiences of the transition to adulthood and apply it to the development of a general understanding of whether or not youth can overcome existing social class, gender and ethnic divisions (MacDonald et al., 2005).
5. Identify at least 4 major findings from this study.
MacDonald et al. (2005) found that with few exceptions youth stayed within the community in which they were raised. The authors attributed this finding to the housing market but a more influential factor appears to be the preference of these youth to remain in their neighborhoods despite the presence of social exclusion. A key factor in this preference was the comfort that is provided through familiarity with the neighborhood (MacDonald et al., 2005). Within these neighborhoods, MacDonald et…
MacDonald, R., Shildrick, T., Webster, C., & Simpson, D. (2005). Growing up in poor
neighbourhoods: The significance of class and place in the extended transitions of 'socially excluded' young adults. Sociology, 39(5), 873-891.
Indeed, his model includes the entire range of human experience and its effect upon behavior, while at the same time explicating it without being excessively confusing.
To accomplish this is a rare feat indeed. Bandura appears to have accomplished the difficult task of explaining the complex nature of human behavior in a non-complex way. This is what makes his theory so fascinating. It shows the reader the different aspects of human behavior as well as the various elements that can influence it. At the core of the theory lies the understanding that human behavior is affected by both external and internal factors, and how these interact with each other.
Having read the article and the various aspects of the theory, it is therefore not surprising to find at the end that the theory has many useful applications in the healthcare field, and in particular in studying how children develop.
George's marriage to Ella is his second one; his first wife was from an arranged marriage in Pakistan that left him unhappy. Yet he was able to incorporate aspects of development theory within his own life to find a new wife who he is (mostly) pleased with in a Western environment, and even owns a successful fish and chips restaurant. In his romantic life and in his economic life, George is able to evince some of the best qualities of development theory and modernization by taking his best assets and (literally) marrying them with those from a Western society to update and contemporize his life and his source of income.
However, what George does not take account of is the fact that he must allow the same degree of leniency from his religion and tradition that he permitted himself in marrying Ella to his children. In this sense, East is…
Social Psychology 2nd
Morality and Group elations: Possible Bias
The article entitled "Morality and intergroup relations: Threats to safety and group image predict the desire to interact with outgroup and ingroup members" as written by Brambilla et al. is comprised of three different research studies. However, each of these studies explores different facets of the same phenomena: how morality within and outside of groups varies by type of threat, and what sort of behavior these threats elicit from these same groups (Brambilla et al., 2013, p. 813). There is an extreme amount of relevance to the research conducted within this article and the principle research question of the present author, who is attempting to ascertain the meaning of relationships with moral development and reasoning in social groups.
Prior to stratifying the analysis of this paper to the three respective studies, it is necessary to mention various salient factors regarding the…
Fiske, S.T., Gilbert, D.T., Lindzey, G. (2010). Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: Wiley.
Tuffin, K. (2004). Understanding Critical Social Psychology. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Brambilla, M., Sacchi, S., Pagliaro, S., Ellemers, N. (2013). Morality and intergroup relations: Threats to safety and group image predict the desire to interact with outgroup and ingroup members. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 49: 811-821.
The purpose of this article is to extend on previous rsearch relating the issue of group morality to the perceived threat and influential behavior within an ingroup as actuated on the part of an outgroup. The researchers studided an ingroup of Italian nationals and an outgroup of Indians who were living Italy. Therefore, there ethnic differences between these groups as well as those which may have been perceived related to nationality.
Vatican II, officially known as the Second Vatican Council, was a meeting of many leaders of the Catholic Church to discuss both theological and social issues pertaining to the Church in the modern era. Convened by Pope John XXIII in the 1960s and continued by his successor Paul VI, the main goal of the Second Vatican Council was to establish the Church's role and meaning in the modern world, which it recognized as fundamentally changed from the role of the Church in previous eras. Many different topics of concern were examined during the many phases of Vatican II, and the Council produced a number of documents on these varying subjects that help to define Church doctrine and perspectives on the modern world. When it comes to the social thought and action of the Catholic Church following Vatican II, one of the most important documents produced by the Council…
Some jobs will require that a person continue his college education and some will require learning that can take place on the job in order to acquire the needed skills.
on-the-job training can take place in several forms. An outside training firm can be brought in to the company to hold seminars on a relevant topic for the employees. In this environment, the social nature of learning could be one of camaraderie or competitiveness among the adult employees. The adult employee wanted to get ahead may try to excel and outperform his coworkers to increase his chances of advancing. On the other hand, the environment could be more of a friendly social nature while everyone is learning. They may be asked to work in groups, much like in a college classroom setting. This will allow them to collaborate and perhaps learn about new skills they can acquire from their coworkers.…
Cameron, David. (2010). Adult learning and the way it inspires people is crucially important. Adults Learning, 21(9), 16-17.
http://www.learning-theories.com/vygotskys-social-learning-theory.html (Accessed on June 22, 2010).
http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html (Accessed on June 22, 2010).
Schmidt, Laurel. (2008). How we don't learn. Leadership, 38(2), 10-14.