Social Deviance Essays (Examples)

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Social Psychology Bringing it All Together

Words: 2439 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41289536

Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Penguin Books, 2006.

Cooper, S. "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30, 2006.

Ewen, Stuart. PR!: A Social History of Spin. NY: Basic Books, 1996.

Feenstra, Jennifer. Introduction to Social Psychology. Bridegeport Education, Inc., 2011.
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Social Issue Alcohol Drugs Consider a Social

Words: 1118 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83850354

Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.

Social issue: Drug abuse

The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…… [Read More]

References

Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.

Retrieved at:

http://articles.cnn.com/2011-11-01/justice/justice_crack-cocaine-sentencing_1_powder-cocaine-fair-sentencing-act-crack-penalties?_s=PM:JUSTICE

Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
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Social and Political Problems and How it Relates to Radicalization Into Violent Extremism

Words: 1148 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7812874

Social System, Institutional Values and Human Needs_

Burton's Deviance, Terrorism, and War redefined the nature of the problem to be discussed and the means to discuss it. Burton's agenda is not about states and state centric dynamics. He constitutes a new definition of the problem and a new definition of the reality (1979). In fact, the subtitle of his book, solving unsolved social and political problems, attests to this. Burton's work is therefore committed to addressing the process as opposed to stasis or structures. The book is committed to solving social and political problems and not their containment, management, or control. It is committed to initiating change not coercion. It is concerned with recurrent patterns of human behavior at all levels of social complexity (Burton, 1979).

Burton (1979) assesses the way society classifies and defines deviance. Structure of freedom underpins a portion of Burtons work. Structure of freedom is recognized…… [Read More]

References List

Burton, J. (1965). International Relations, a General Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press.

Burton, J. (1979). Deviance, Terrorism and War: The Process of Solving Unsolved Social and Political Problems. New York: St. Martin's Press.
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Social Inertia Quotation Analysis This

Words: 354 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99379963

This is also true of defendants labeled as child molesters -- even if not convicted, the label or suspicion is so insidious, it is difficult for juries or even witnesses to apprehend the facts with an unbiased eye ("In the Supreme Court of the United States," 1990, IPT). There is also a psychological reason for labeling theory, suggested by this example of prejudice -- once a first impression is created, it is difficult to forget that first impression, as all subsequent actions are interpreted in relation to that first negative image or label.

orks Cited

O'Connor, T. (2005). "Labeling theory of crime." Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/301/301lect12.htm

In the Supreme Court of the United States." (1990). IPT. 2.7. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.ipt-forensics.com/journal/volume2/j2_2_7.htm

Resources: framing the issue." (2003). Youth in the Media: McKnight Foundation. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.mcknight.org/hotissues/framing_youth.aspx… [Read More]

Works Cited

O'Connor, T. (2005). "Labeling theory of crime." Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/301/301lect12.htm

In the Supreme Court of the United States." (1990). IPT. 2.7. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007.  http://www.ipt-forensics.com/journal/volume2/j2_2_7.htm 

Resources: framing the issue." (2003). Youth in the Media: McKnight Foundation. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.mcknight.org/hotissues/framing_youth.aspx
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Social Grouping the Diminishing Effect

Words: 1212 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16159405

They may have resorted to labeling or differentiating their workplace because of the need to see the strength of their opinion. However, their labeling prevents a healthy sharing of ideas. In a worse scenario, they may progress to disapproving views from the outgroup or ultimately to rejecting the outgroup themselves.

The second event took place in a grocery store. A woman, after having the items in her cart registered by the cashier, declined purchase because she cannot find her money. The woman's uneasiness and embarrassment was obvious but despite it another shopper in line said that the woman's story may not be true because of the way she looked. The shopper commented that since the woman was wearing faded clothes and had slightly unkempt hair, she must not have lost her money but actually cannot really pay for all of the items in her cart. No conversation took place between…… [Read More]

References

Bankston, C. (2000). Sociology Basics. Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press.

Hogg, M. & Tindale, R.S. (2001). Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology. Malden, Mass. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Magill, F. (1998). Psychology Basics. Pasadena, Calif.: Salem Press.
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Manufacture of Deviance the Case of the Soviet Purge 1936-1938

Words: 401 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6389867

Soviet Purge

"The Manufacture of Deviance: The Case of the Soviet Purge, 1936-1938." American Sociological Review, 1972.

t's us vs. them! This familiar theme runs through a substantial amount of political rhetoric in the current electoral media discourse. However, writing during one of the most polarized periods of American politics, Walter D. Connor from the University of Michigan was able to show that such a construction of deviancy in a group deemed sociologically 'other' has been largely true of both the left and the right, throughout history and in many nations and political environments. Much as hippies and other social undesirables were tarred and feathered as deviant during the late 1960's and 1970's, in America, the American Sociological Review of 1972 article entitled "The Manufacture of Deviance: The Case of the Soviet Purge, 1936-1938" suggests that the repressive Soviet regime of Stalin similarly derived its sense of popular legitimacy from…… [Read More]

It's us vs. them! This familiar theme runs through a substantial amount of political rhetoric in the current electoral media discourse. However, writing during one of the most polarized periods of American politics, Walter D. Connor from the University of Michigan was able to show that such a construction of deviancy in a group deemed sociologically 'other' has been largely true of both the left and the right, throughout history and in many nations and political environments. Much as hippies and other social undesirables were tarred and feathered as deviant during the late 1960's and 1970's, in America, the American Sociological Review of 1972 article entitled "The Manufacture of Deviance: The Case of the Soviet Purge, 1936-1938" suggests that the repressive Soviet regime of Stalin similarly derived its sense of popular legitimacy from manufacturing or creating not only a communist sense of class or dialectical warfare, but of medical and racial and social deviance of good citizens of the republic vs. The bad citizens.

As the class warfare, according to official Soviet rhetoric had ended, between the bourgeois and proletarian, Stalin was in something of an ideological quandary as to how to define what was wrong with Soviet society, even after communist 'reforms' had been instated. Personal deviance from what was considered the norm in a sociological fashion was one way this was created. By perpetually creating or manufacturing distractions, and then purging such deviant groups, Stalin kept his hold on power through paranoia.

The public's ire and distrust wielded against other social groups, such as Jewish individuals or members of ethnic minorities, rather than politicians. Thus Stalin was able to keep secure in power, even in a nation that was weathering terrible economic privations that would normally spur a population to revolt. The ideological manufacturing of blaming a group, whether international capitalists outside, or Jewish doctors infiltrating the inner sanctum of Stalin's power base ensured that the dictator was able to create a climate of fear on a personal, micro level within the Kremlin and on a macro level for the populace at large, as they had to be constantly on guard for spies and other deviants in their midst. O'Connor ultimately concludes that polarization rather than harmonization is key in a dictatorship, and also in some manifestations of democracy during economic and social difficulties.
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Social Cognition

Words: 2651 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44120545

Social Cognition

Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents

Academic Institution

Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents

Child development is influenced by many factors. Some of the most important factors that affect the development of a child include heredity, nutrition, parental affection, and culture. Cognition refers to a general processes regarding the principles of thinking in humans, whereas social cognition refers to the study of how people process and use social information, particularly how social information is encoded, stored, retrieved, and then applied by the person in social situations (Striano & eid, 2006). Social cognition and social cognitive development are often studied by cognitive psychologist and social psychologists. The parallel between cognitive development and the development of social cognition certainly cannot be ignored. Cognition in children develops within the social context, but also most likely conforms to certain developmental patterns (Piaget, 1954). The primary influences of the…… [Read More]

References

Baumrind, D. (1967). Child-care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior.

Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88.

Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.

Blakemore, S.J. (2011). Social-Cognitive Development during Adolescence. Child Psychology
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Social construction theories on'serial killers

Words: 938 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44015896

Criminology researchers usually draw on multiple sociological theories for understanding crime and offenders. Certain elements of serial-killing research continue to be a subject of speculation and exploration, on account of the numerous preconceptions and myths surrounding the crime. The significance of establishing a theoretic basis to explain sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction (Hickey, 2013).

Social Structure Theory

This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success. They are, particularly owing to their subcultural, racial, or ethnic status, restricted in several ways from lawfully attaining the great “American Dream\". Thus, they resort to deviant techniques to succeed. Structural theories provide convincing justifications for numerous offenses, with the exception of serial killing. Normally, serial killers lack financial or social motivation, and aren’t members of any specific…… [Read More]

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Social Control Integration of Knowledge of the

Words: 2180 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92481927

Social Control

Integration of Knowledge of the Essay 'The City' with the Four Neighborhoods Described in 'There Goes the Neighborhood'

The objective of this study is to integrate the knowledge of the essay entitled "The City" with the four neighborhoods described in "There Goes the Neighborhood." This work will develop an analysis of how and why the features of the area chosen produce or lead to crime and disorder. This work will choose two of the four areas or neighborhoods described and summarize the main features including income, location, population, and race/ethnic composition and will discuss the salient factors in the location that lead to stability and the salient factors that produce change or instability. This work will identify the primary threats perceived or identified by the residents and how these threats are related to ideas such as invasion, succession, or the cycle of conflict, competition, accommodation, and assimilation. This…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carr, PJ (2003) The New Parochialism: The Implications of the Beltway Case for Arguments Concerning Informal Social Control. AJS Vol. 108. No. 6 May 2003. Pp. 1249-1291.

Pattillo, ME (1998) Sweet Mothers and Gangbangers: Managing Crime in a Black Middle-Class Neighborhood. Social Forces. Vol. 76 No. 3 Mar 1998. Pp.747-774.

Sampson, RJ and Wilson, WJ (1995) Toward Unified Theory of Race, Crime and Urban Inequality. Crime and Inequality. Disparities in the Criminal Justice System. 1995. University Press.
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Social Change the Purpose of This Qualitative

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34982121

Social Change

The purpose of this qualitative study is to better understand the dynamic and intricate process of child development within inner city neighborhoods. This study will seek to shed light upon the various factors which impact child development in such places, and determine out of issues like crime, lack of strong educational institutions, and the abundance of single-parent households -- which causes the greatest amount of harm to child development. This research project endeavors to determine which obstacle causes the greatest impediment to the ability of children to thrive so that the variable or variables which create them most harm are adequately pinpointed.

It is with great hope and intention that this research project creates lasting and precise social change. esearch like this is indeed meant to make a difference in the world and ultimately change the life trajectories of children who are born into such disadvantaged neighborhoods. This…… [Read More]

References

Branum, A. (2008, October). Food Allergy Among U.S. Children: Trends in Prevalence and Hospitalizations. Retrieved from cdc.gov:  http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db10.htm 

Currie, J. (2007, March). Poverty Among Inner-City Children . Retrieved from princeton.edu:  http://www.princeton.edu/~jcurrie/publications/inman_june07.pdf 

Fitzgerald, S. (2013, July). 'Crack baby' study ends with unexpected but clear result. Retrieved from philly.com:  http://articles.philly.com/2013-07-22/news/40709969_1_hallam-hurt-so-called-crack-babies-funded-study 

McCord, J. (1997). Violence and Childhood in the Inner City. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Social Bonding Theory

Words: 1686 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14253591

Travis Hirschi's Social Bonding Theory

The theorist, Hirschi, asserts that those who exhibit deviant behavior desire to do so and that criminal behavior is seen among people with weak social bonds. In his social bonding model, he delineated four elements which make up social bonds, namely, attachment to partner/spouse, engagement in conforming behaviors, holding conventional beliefs and values, and dedication to conventionality (Wolfzorn, Heckert & Heckert, 2006). The theorist indicates that with increased attachment of a person to fellow human beings, their belief in conformist social values will increase. Furthermore, with increased investment and involvement in conventional activity, their propensity to deviate will decrease (Chriss, 2007).
 

Four Elements of Social Bonding Theory

Social bonding has four elements, namely: attachment, involvement, belief, and commitment.

The first component -- attachment -- denotes individuals' ties to their spouses or partners, and other members of the family. This aspect encompasses the extent of…… [Read More]

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Social Structure That Help to

Words: 363 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74123733

This is also known as structural strain which refers to "the process by which inadequate regulation at the societal level filters down" to how a person perceives his/her own personal needs and desires. In other words, this is a type of friction which disrupts social regulation and creates criminal activity (2006, Internet).

The third theory concerns how the collapse or failure of certain societal/cultural processes creates individuals with deviant personalities that do not conform nor adhere to accepted cultural norms. Exactly how this process works is quite complex, but much research conducted over the last twenty years or so has demonstrated that social/cultural deviance can lead to criminal activity in the form of gangs, organized crime and even serial killers.

Overall, these three theories are very closely linked to one another and as separate theories, one does not dominate the other, meaning that one theory alone is not enough to…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

(2006). Social Disorganization Theories of Crime. Internet. Accessed September 15, 2009 from http://www.apsu.edu/oconnort/crim/crimtheory10.htm.
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Classic Social Psychology Experiments

Words: 5609 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63362377

Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics

Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.

While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…… [Read More]

References

Abrams, D. & Hogg, M. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 317-334.

Bond, R., & Smith, P. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's

(1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1), 111-137.

Darley, J. & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4), 377-383.
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Influential Theories Related to Deviance by Robert

Words: 3803 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29991827

influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.

The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas

There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from  http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/histcomp/index-merton.html 

Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.

Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications

Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
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Role of Deviance in Societies

Words: 2460 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2456834

Role of Deviance in Societies

Deviance is behavior that is regarded as outside the bounds of a group or society (Deviance pp). Deviance is a behavior that some people in society find offensive and which excites, or would excite if discovered, and is usually met with disapproval, punishment, condemnation, or hostility (Deviance pp).

Deviance is not merely behavior, but involves a moral judgement (Deviance pp). Moreover, in essence, any act can be defined as deviant (Deviance pp). It is not possible to isolate certain acts and find them universally condemned by all societies as deviant acts, not even murder or incest, and even within a given society, behavior defined as deviant continually undergoes redefinition (Deviance pp). Furthermore, it is relative to time and place, thus, it is not possible to find a behavior that is absolutely condemned by all societies, because what is deviant in one society may not be…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Boyden, Matthew; Green, Amy. "Positive Deviance."

http://64.233.187.104/search?q=cache:U0HBSqQA6f8J:www.ex.ac.uk/Psychology/docs/courses/3227/boydengreenwk7.ppt+Role+of+Deviance+in+Societies& hl=en

Campbell, LeAnne. "As strong as the weakest link: urban high school dropout."

High School Journal. 12/1/2003.
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Field Experiment on the Interactive Perspective of Deviance

Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66312090

Behavior Experiment

The experiment took place in a busy office building at around five o'clock in the evening. It started on the ground floor and involved walking into an elevator and not turning around. The total number of people who entered the elevator was six, two stopped on the third floor, which was the first stop and the other three stopped on the fifth, which was the last stop. The experiment ended on the fifth floor and took a little over three minutes.

eactions

The other five people upon entering the elevator realized that not everybody turned to face the entrance as usual. The group seemed baffled with the occurrence. Two people, a female and a male laughed asking jokingly if they were supposed to turn around. They appeared friendly and continued with interesting comment until they left the elevator. The other three smiled but seemed less concerned. However, the…… [Read More]

Reference

Alder, P., & Alder, P. (2012). Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context, and Interaction (7th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Beauvais, F. (1992). Characteristics of Indian Youth and Drug Use. American Indian and Alaska

Native Mental Health Research Journal .

Cullen, F.T., & Cullen, J.B. (1978). Toward A Paradigm of Labeling Theory. NCJRS, 53.
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Corporate Deviance in Their Seminal

Words: 610 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41396357



Sutherland was quite critical of why some crimes were defined as deviant, while society appears more tolerant of other transgressions. For example, individual theft is seen as causing great harm, while the harm caused by illegal pollution and the dissemination of hazardous waste are hardly recognized. In 2002, for example, the Carnival Company, a Florida-based cruise company which operates 40 ships, was convicted of falsifying its oil record books. The company under-reported the levels of oil in the bilge water it discharged. The higher levels of oil threatened ocean life. To avoid prosecution, Carnival agreed to pay $18 million in fines (Ferro 2003).

Though Carnival was guilty of wrongdoing, few members of the general public at the time would go so far as to define Carnival's actions as criminally deviant.

In summary, both functionalist and social labeling theories help to explain how corporate deviance are both defined and addressed in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ferro, Jeffrey. 2003. "White-Collar Crime." Crime: A Serious American Problem. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC

Friedrichs, David O. 1996. Trusted Criminals: White Collar Crime in Contemporary Society. New York: Wadsworth.

Sutherland, Edwin H. 1983. White Collar Crime: The Uncut Version. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group
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Durkheim Four Principles of Deviance in Looking

Words: 937 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18653310

Durkheim Four Principles of Deviance

In looking at the four functions of deviance in the context of examples. Namely rock and roll music and marijuana smoking, etc. In the 1950s and 1960s compared to today.

The first function according to Durkheim is that deviance gives affirmation to validate the values and cultural norms that guide behavior in society (Macionis, 2006).

In America a guiding principle of society has always been morality. Since the country was founded on a primary belief in Godly ("In God we Trust") principles of right and wrong. Along with the freedoms that comes with allowing people of all religions to determine their own destinies. With this freedom comes the realization that there will be differences in opinion about behavior and the type of attitudes that accompany a moral premise. If there is a virtue of what is 'acceptable' or good in society there has to be…… [Read More]

References

Digital Dream Door. (2005). Rock n Roll Timeline. Retrieved July 27, 2011 from http://www. digitaldreamdoor. com/pages/best_timeline-r1. html

Henslin, J.M. (1996). Essentials of Sociology. Retrieved July 27, 2011 from Needham

Heights:MA. Publishers Allyn & Bacon,

Macionis, J.J. (2006). The Basics of Society. Prentice Hall. Pearson Education. Edition 5.
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Crime and Deviance Crime Is

Words: 330 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81308266



The changing nature of crime should make criminology, in terms of criminal laws, flexible and up-to-date. The law must have a regular review to ensure that the society is governed by proper and accurate directives to guarantee peace and equality among the people. Moreover, flexibility is important to ensure that right punishment is rendered to every crime. Another impact that criminology holds because of the changing nature of crime is the goal and objective of assessing their tools and technology that fight against crime.

Unlike some decades ago, guns and written laws are not the only tools these days that can prevent crimes and put the criminals in bars. Because of the diverse high technology that emerges, it is important that criminology has the right and advance instruments that can enhance their purpose of serving and ensuring peace to society.… [Read More]

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Ethics - Deviance Eating Your Friends Is

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13382465

Ethics - Deviance

"Eating your Friends is the Hardest: The Survivors of the F-227" by James M. Henslin discusses the ways in which reality is created by society and groups within it. The unique life-or-death situation of the Andes Mountain plane crash survivors shows how a group can be compelled to redefine deviant behavior to make it acceptable and even holy. By examining this group's situation, Henslin is able to define a number of lessons about social reality.

"Eating your Friends is the Hardest: The Survivors of the F-227" by James M. Henslin discusses the ways in which reality is created by examining a unique but disturbing situation. This situation, in which some humans survived a plane crash in the Andes Mountains, were stranded in the Mountains for more than 2 months and were literally starving to death with no food source except human corpses, gave Henslin a unique opportunity…… [Read More]

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Gun Control as a Social

Words: 1735 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8919396



Furthermore, it is suggested that the roots of the problem lie deeper than the superficial debate about gun control. In sociological terms, this problem is to do with the lack of meaning and the breakdown of inherent normative structures. In this sense the debate about gun control should be seen against the underlying background of these sociological issues. Even if a compromise was be reached about whether or not to have gun control, there would still be underlying structural causative features that would need to be addressed and which are the source of this problem in the first place.

eferences

Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.

New York: Praeger Publishers.

Deviance and Social Control. etrieved November 21, 2004

(http://216.239.59.104/search?q=cache:_H3h_VLu1H4J:www.sociology.org.uk/devs1.doc+Durkheim%27s+anomie+theory+of+suicide+and+Japan&hl=en) .

Egger, Steven A., et al. 1990.Serial Murder: An Elusive Phenomenon. New York:

Praeger Publishers, 1990.

Lintelman, D. Gun Control. etrieved November 21, 2009…… [Read More]

References

Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.

New York: Praeger Publishers.

Deviance and Social Control. Retrieved November 21, 2004

(http://216.239.59.104/search?q=cache:_H3h_VLu1H4J:www.sociology.org.uk/devs1.doc+Durkheim%27s+anomie+theory+of+suicide+and+Japan&hl=en) .
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Rights and Social Inclusion Homeless

Words: 3174 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85089247

Often children must withhold information from people who could help them as public awareness of their homelessness would likely end in separation from loved ones as for children a greater number of programs exist to help them independently than collectively with their parents. Homeless youth are also a significant social issue and their numbers are hard to even estimate, though there are clear indications that the numbers are growing. "Novac, Serge, Eberle, and Brown (2002) identified four important trends among homeless youth: 1) the incidence is increasing; 2) an increasing number are chronically homeless; 3) the age at which youth become homeless is decreasing, especially for females; and 4) more identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgendered." (Wingert, Higgitt & istock, 2005, p. 54) the issue, like with that of other homeless populations is developing systems that build transitions to more stable and permanent housing. (Wingert, Higgitt & istock, 2005,…… [Read More]

References

Calhoun, J. (2006). Proven Pathways to Violence Prevention. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 15(1), 19.

Canada, G. (2001). The Best Way We Know How. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 10(1), 54.

Conderman, G., Heimerl, a.M., & Ketterhagen, B.L. (2001). Longing for a Father. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 10(3), 140.

Craig, T.K.J. Hodson, S. (1998) Homeless youth in London: I. Childhood antecedents and psychiatric disorder. Psychological Medicine. 28:1379-1388.
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Mental Health and Social Inequalities

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39478805

Inequalities in Mental Health

Over the last several years, different theories have been utilized to explain the societal factors in the quality of mental health. The basic idea is to understand which variables will have the greatest impact on the person's ability to contribute to society. The social structure theory is taking a unique perspective in studying the problem. To fully understand its importance requires looking at the main ideas and why it was chosen. Together, these elements will illustrate how this influences mental health and the effects it is having on contemporary thinking. (Gabbidon, 2005) (Cole, 2013)

The social structure theory believes that the economic class will have a direct impact on the quality of care, treatment options and the effects on society itself. This is because poor neighborhoods face greater amounts of strain, frustrations, reduced opportunities and disorganization. These variables will influence how someone sees their surroundings and…… [Read More]

References

Cole, G. (2013). Survey of Criminal Justice. Mason, OH: Southwestern.

Gabbidon, S. (2005). Race, Crime and Justice. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Smith, D. (1988). "Social Structure and Criminal Victimization." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25 (1), 27-52.
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Celibacy and Sexual Deviance by Priest

Words: 2563 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54200333

Celibacy and Sexual Deviance by Priests

Many psychologists have suggested that clergy who take a vow of celibacy are more likely to engage in sexual deviance than clergy who are allowed to marry. Many others argue that this is completely untrue. This research paper aims to examine these points-of-view to either prove or disprove the relationship between celibacy and sexual deviances by priests.

In today's society, the Catholic Church is confronted with two important issues regarding sexuality. The first is the scandal of sexual abuse of children by priests, which is a highly publicized issue that it damaging the reputation of the Catholic Church in the United States. The second is the question of whether priest should take a vow of celibacy and remain unmarried.

In order to fully address this hypothesis, it is important to address these questions but not regard them as two aspects of one problem.

While…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berry, Jason. Lead Us Not Into Temptation: Catholic Priests and the Sexual Abuse of Children. Doubleday, 1992.

Burkett, Elinor, and Frank Bruni. A Gospel of Shame: Children, Sexual Abuse, and the Catholic Church. Viking, 1993.

Hudson, Dean. Ten Myths About Priestly Pedophilia. Crisis, July, 2001.

Isely, P. Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church: A Historical and Contemporary Review. Pastoral Psychology, 1997.
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Crime and Deviance Crimes and Increasing Criminal

Words: 3462 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10446452

Crime and Deviance

Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.

Theories of Crime and Deviance

Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, P 2011, Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/20/arts/genetics-and-crime-at-institute-of-justice-conference.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Community Crime Prevention Guide, n. d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from:http://www.criminaljusticereform.gov.bc.ca/en/what_you_can_do/crime_prevention/

Crime Control: A Short Note, n.d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from:  http://ncthakur.itgo.com/chand3c.htm
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Contrast of Occupational and Organizational Deviance

Words: 854 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71329310

police corruption. Furthermore, it will address the areas of organizational and occupational deviance.

Occupational and Organizational Deviance

The definition for occupational or workplace deviance given by Bennett and obinson is: voluntary employee behavior that goes against key company norms, and hence, threatens its well-being as well as that of fellow employees. The workplace represents a forum in which several different behaviors can be seen, with each of them having different consequences to organizational members and the overall organization. Such behaviors normally fall within organizational norms' constructs (Matthew, et.al, 2014). Company norms are defined as a collection of expected principles, behaviors, languages, and postulations, which enable its operations to progress at the proper pace. Any action is considered an occupational deviance if important organizational rules are violated by it. Some examples of occupational deviance include: absenteeism, alcohol/drug abuse, abusing sick leaves, sabotage, filing false accident claims, rule-breaking, stealing, not working to…… [Read More]

References

Egelko, B. (2014, December 5). SFGate: San Francisco Bay Area - News, Bay Area news, Sports, Business, Entertainment, Classifieds - SFGate. 2 San Francisco police officers convicted of corruption - SFGate. Retrieved January 18, 2016, from http://www.sfgate.com/crime/article/Two-San-Francisco-police-officers-convicted-in-5937963.php

(n.d.). Insurance Journal - Property Casualty Insurance News. Tulsa, Oklahoma, Settles Police Corruption Case for $425K. Retrieved January 18, 2016, from http://www.insurancejournal.com/news/southcentral/2014/01/31/319049

Matthew, O., Chigozie, U., & Kosiso, A. (2014). Workplace Deviance: A Predictive study of Occupational Stress and Emotional Intelligence among Secondary School teachers. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4(12). Retrieved, from http://hrmars.com/hrmars_papers/Workplace_Deviance_A_Predictive
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Workplace Deviance Counterproductive and Productive Behaviors Defining

Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52244688

Workplace Deviance

Counterproductive and Productive Behaviors

Defining Counterproductive and Productive Work Behavior

Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is defined by an employee's actions causing harm to either a coworker or their employer (reviewed by Krischer, Penney, and Hunter, 2010). The forms of CWB can vary considerably, from arguing with or ignoring coworkers, damaging equipment to sabotage the work of others, and reducing the amount of time spent at work. esearchers have proposed a number of theories that attempt to explain the psychological roots of CWB and these include an employee reacting emotionally to a perceived negative workplace event or condition, or simply seeking a desired outcome (manipulation).

Krischer, Penney, and Hunter (2010) argue that organizational psychology research has focused almost exclusively on an employee's affective response to negative events, to the exclusion of internal or instrumental motivations. Instrumental motivations for engaging in CWB could arise from an employee's attempts to cope…… [Read More]

References

Bennett, Rebecca J. And Robinson, Sandra L. (2000). Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 349-360.

Fodchuk, Katherine M. (2007). Work environments that negate counterproductive behaviors and foster organizational citizenship: Research-based recommendations for managers. Psychologist-Manager Journal, 10, 27-46.

Koster, Ferry and Sanders, Karin. (2006). Organizational citizens or reciprocal relationships? An empirical comparison. Personnel Review, 35, 519-537.

Krischer, Mindy M., Penney, Lisa M., and Hunter, Emily M. (2010). Can counterproductive work behaviors be productive? CWB as emotion-focused coping. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15, 154-166.
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Merton Social Structure and Anomie

Words: 1683 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66682546

Thus creative accounting becomes a way to justify the means -- because showing a profit will generate more profit, and gain the firm social esteem and more investors, being unethical in the supposedly 'short run' seems acceptable in the eyes of the firm's employees. People go along with it because it is accepted in the culture of the firm.

All of these are examples of how the social structure of a society, in this case, American society, sets certain norms, such as the norm of success. It creates institutional norms, like the ideal that capitalist firms that must quickly show a profit. Advertisements convey the message that expensive material possessions are equated with success. Subcultures within the greater social structure endorse aberrant behavior, however, and the wider the gulf between the common cultural aspirations and available methods of achieving these aspirations, the more likely aberrant, nonconformist behavior will arise. In…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dreer, Laura E. & David M. Dush, George F. Ronan, Timothy R. Elliot, Donna W.

Ronan. (May/Jun 2004). "Binge Drinking and College Students: An Investigation of Social Problem-Solving Abilities." Journal of College Student Development. Retrieved 18 Oct 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3752/is_200405/ai_n9363055

Merton, Robert K. (Oct 1938). "Social structure and Anomie." American Sociological

Review. 3: 672-682.
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Hirschis Social Bond Theory and Its Impact on the Juvenile Justice System

Words: 947 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58417535

Hirschi's Social Bond Theory

Hirschi's social bonding theory argues that those persons who strong and abiding attachments to conventional society are less likely to deviate than persons who have shallow or weak bonds (Smangs, 2010). These bonds come in four interrelated forms, the first of which is attachment. Attachment, refers to the level of psychological affection one has for pro-social others and institutions. Parents and schools are of critical importance in this regard. Youths who form close attachments to their parents1 and schools will, by extension, experience greater levels of social control. The second type of bond is referred to as commitment. Commitment stresses the importance of the social relationships that people value, which they would not want to risk jeopardizing by committing criminal or deviant acts. People are less likely to misbehave when they know that they have something to lose. For juveniles, this could mean not wanting to…… [Read More]

References

"Key idea: Hirschi's social bond/social control theory." (NDI). Sage Publications. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/36812_5.pdf

Smangs, M. (2010, December) Delinquency, social skills, and the structure of peer relations: Assessing criminological theories by social network theory. Social Forces, Vol. 89, Issue 2, 609-631. University of North Carolina Press. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=a9dcb4b0-c42c-4f64-8b67-c1a089b82105%40sessionmgr110&hid=108
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Understanding the Connection Between Child Abuse and Anti-Social Behavior

Words: 6698 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75798499

Abused children develop antisocial behavior that persists through three continuous generations. Such behavior grows out of angry, aggressive parenting and an overall negative home environment, perpetuated by sibling collusion, economic and biological factors. These children exhibit this in preschool by committing at least one antisocial behavior each day in class. As dysfunctional adolescents, their romantic lives and eventual marriages also fail. African-American children suffer from the affliction than Caucasian children. The current level of knowledge and efforts requires effective and efficient mechanisms at home, in school and the community in the crucial formative childhood years.

Understanding the Connection between Child Abuse and the Development of Antisocial Behavior

Abused children eventually become problem adults who are a burden to society.

ecent studies reveal the significance of parenting in the cross-generational transmission of aggressive or problem behavior up to three continuous generations. Stable evidence has long recognized and documented the negative effects…… [Read More]

References

Ary, D.V., Duncan, T.E., Biglan, A., Mitzler, C., & Smolkowski, K (April

1999). Development of Adolescent Problem Behavior. Journal of Abnormal

Child Psychology. New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation. Retrieved from the Web July 17, 2004. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0902/is_2_27/ai_55208541

2. Ballard, S. (August 18, 2003).How Your Relationships Affect Your Child. Jet.
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Bastards of the Party and

Words: 867 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50968263



Merton also incorporated Durkheim's observations of the difference between intrinsic motivation for work and economic profit and purely superficial extrinsic motivation for the tangible trappings of success and/or social status. Since post-Industrial evolution social values tended to focus so much more on acquisition and less on contributing to society through work, individuals experiencing psychosocial strains from the lack of available opportunities for legitimate work often sought to acquire the same outward social status through deviant and criminal means (Schmalleger, 2008).

The documentary traced the evolution of organized neighborhood protection and political rights organizations in vast criminal enterprises after the discovery of the economic profit potential associated with selling illicit narcotics. In Los Angeles, a parasitic relationship developed wherein the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) extracted protection money from the gangs while simultaneously increasing their official budget to upgrade their facilities and equipment on the basis of the increasing firepower and…… [Read More]

References

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, R. (2005). Psychology and Life/. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Henslin, J. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
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Society as We Know Exerts Its Influence

Words: 1735 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40773627

society as we know exerts its influence on the affairs and behavior of human beings. Social influences encompass the changes that occur in attitudes, beliefs, and behavior that often result from interpersonal interactions. Conformity and obedience are key concepts that aid in explaining social influences. Concisely, conformity refers to the influence that the masses or the majority have over an individual (Collins, 2009). On the other hand, obedience is influence exerted by the state or an authority over its subjects. This essay will endeavor to compare and contrast these two forms of social influences and draw conclusions that will candidly show the difference between conformity and obedience.

Conformity and obedience bear some semblance with each other in the fact that they can both persuade, or inspire an individual to change one's behavior, actions and thoughts, as regards a specific situation. Another semblance between conformity and obedience lies in their ability…… [Read More]

References

Bleske-rechek, A.L. (1999). Obedience, Conformity, and Social Roles: Active Learning in a Large Introductory Psychology Class. Teaching of Psychology, 28(4), 260-262.

Burger, J.M., Neil J. Smelser & Paul B. Baltes. (2001). The psychology of social influence. In N.J. Smelser & P.B. Baltes (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Social Behavioral Sciences (pp. 14320-14325). Cambridge University Press.

Collins, S.D. (2009). Persuasion. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Fiske, S.T. (2010). Social beings: Core Motives in Social Psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ:
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Sociology - Hirschi & Delinquency

Words: 813 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90051962

In those cases, "deviance" from socially accepted values would be considered a positive response rather than "delinquency" in an objective sense.

Alternate ideas, such as differential association formulated by Sutherland (Pfohl

1994), in particular, demonstrate that even in contemporary American society, social values are extremely subjective and that specific populations - most notably, incarcerated prisoners - form their own societal norms and shared values that contradict those of larger society and that those mores are as powerful and likely to shape future behavior among adolescents exposed to them for long periods (Scmalleger 1997).

Similarly, modern criminologists (Pinizzotto, et al. 2007) detail the extent to which violent criminal street gangs fulfill the same role as families of origin in many

American communities. Furthermore, many Baby Boomers of the so-called hippie generation also would seem to contradict Hirschi's theory in that, especially when viewed retrospectively, behavior that was considered "deviant" or "delinquent"…… [Read More]

References

Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, R.G. (2005)

Psychology and Life 18th Ed.

New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Kerik, B.B. (2002) the Lost Son: A Life in Pursuit of Justice. New York: Harper Collins Macionis, J.J. (2003) Sociology 9th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Pfohl, S. (1994). Images of Deviance and Social Control. New York: McGraw-Hill
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John Rommel Case Study Why Would John

Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37303748

John ommel Case Study

Why would John be considered a deviant? What social foundations of deviance appear to be evident in this case study?

Deviance is defined as the recognized violation of cultural norms. Social deviance is defined as any behavior that violates the social norms within a culture or greater community. This behavior can be criminal but does not necessarily need to violate a law to qualify. Criminal acts such as theft or assault are common types of social deviance, but so are incidental behaviors like lying, excessive drinking, or nose picking. The theory of social deviance is the foundation of the study of criminology and splinters into three classes of deviant behavior: conflict, structural functionalism, and symbolic interactionism.

2.Examine the three theoretical foundations of deviance (structural-functional, symbolic-interaction, and social-conflict). Determine which foundation applied to John's situation, and why. Give specific examples.

British sociologist A.. adcliffe-Brown developed the structural-functionalism…… [Read More]

References

Kessel, DH (n.d.). Sociological theoretical perspectives. Retrieved from  http://www.angelfire.com/or/sociologyshop/soctheopers.html
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Sociology - Sex & AIDS

Words: 1710 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51173182

In its current form in the U.S., prostitution is associated with high rates of criminality, but that is likely a function of its illegal status more than of anything inherent in prostitution. Prostitution is also associated with high risks of STDs, but a closer examination of the specific factors to which that is attributable strongly suggest that legalizing prostitution can effectively eliminate that negative element. Ultimately, prevailing negative attitudes about legalized prostitution are much more reflective of the persistence of irrational social stigmas and antiquated definitions of social deviance that originated in the Victorian Age, if not even much earlier.

eferences

Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting ealistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:…… [Read More]

References

Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting Realistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:

Little Brown & Co.

Kaul, R., Kimani, J., Nagelkerk, N.J. (1997).Risk Factors for Genital Ulcerations in Kenyan Sex Workers Sexually Transmissible Diseases [Vol. 4: 24(7):387-392].
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Delinquency Theories Edwin Sutherland --

Words: 1026 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10717935

Just as parole programs typically restrict contact between offenders, a Differential Association-oriented delinquency prevention program would endeavor to prohibit the formation of deviant groups and criminally-prone gangs.

The specific mechanisms for intervention would include sentencing juvenile offenders to mandatory suspension of social relationships deemed capable of precipitating delinquent or criminal conduct in lieu of harsher penalties. Another mechanism might be the strict enforcement of particular municipal codes, such as ordinances prohibiting the public assembly of groups of individuals or the promulgation of such legislation for that purpose where existing legislation is lacking in that regard.

Likewise, the strict enforcement of other commonly overlooked activities technically prohibited by ordinance, such as the timely vacating of parks promptly at closing time, loitering on private commercial property adjacent to convenience stores, and truancy statutes would all be incorporated into a Differential Association-oriented approach to delinquency prevention.

More generally, that concept of delinquency prevention…… [Read More]

References

Henslin, J. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach Boston: Allyn

and Bacon.

Macionis, J. (2003). Sociology 9th Ed New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., Miller, C. (2007). "Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
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Sociology - Crime Theories Making

Words: 1174 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24217799

In this view, the fact that underprivileged subcultures already promoted a different set of social values emphasizing "street smarts" and toughness instead of socially productive attributes and goals combined with the substitution of deviant role models for father figures is a significant source of criminal conduct, particularly in poor communities (Adler, Mueller & Laufer, 2008).

Other modern sociological perspectives began reconsidering crime and other forms of socially deviant behavior as primarily a function of individual psychology.

However, whereas earlier theories of individual responsibility focused on the role of rational choice, the modern approach viewed crime much more as a function of the cumulative psychological effects on the individual of the consequences of social labeling.

Furthermore, it has been suggested that much of the difference in crime rates in underprivileged communities also relates directly to the different types of characterizations and institutional responses to different types of crime in American society.…… [Read More]

References

John Adler, John Mueller, and John Laufer. Criminology (6th Edition). City, State:

McGraw-Hill, 2008. MLA

Adler J, Mueller J, and Laufer J. (2008). Criminology (6th Edition). City, State: McGraw-Hill. APA
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Criminology Theories and Their Impact

Words: 1252 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30304167

"

One study examined 595 participants, who filled out questionnaires for the research and concluded that social bonding issues play a part in social deviance including the use of drugs and alcohol (Pawlak, 1993).

elating Theory to Social Issue

elating the two criminology theories to the current social issue of adolescent substance abuse, is relatively easy to do. In each of the theories, studies have been conducted to ascertain the amount, if any, of substance abuse that the theories support. Both of the theories have relatively clear markers for how they impact the possibility of adolescent substance abuse.

The research into the labeling theory, clearly indicates that adolescents often develop their self-image by the reaction of society to their existence. If a teenager believes he is labeled as a problem, or a throw-away child, he will most likely develop poor self-esteem, and one of the consequences of that low self-esteem,…… [Read More]

References

Harrison, Larry R (1997) Control theory, labeling theory, and the delivery of services for drug abuse to adolescents. Adolescence Marcos, a.C., & Johnson, R.E. (1988). Cultural patterns and causal processes in adolescent drug use: The case of Greeks vs. Americans. The International Journal of the Addictions, 23, 545-572.

Ray, M.C., & Downs, W.R. (1986). An empirical test of labeling theory using longitudinal data. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 23, 169-194.

Pawlak, Rebecca (1993) Effects of social bonds and childhood experiences on alcohol abuse and smoking. The Journal of Social Psychology
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Ideal Society

Words: 1264 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88309674

Society

Every person has thought, at least once in their life, that it would be nice if there were no disease, no crime, no poverty, and/or for some other improvement in the Human condition. Since everyone has dreamed of a better world, it is fair to say that Humanity has a common dream. While no two humans are exactly the same, we are all of one race, the human race, and we all share the experience of life in an essentially identical carbon-based life-form structure. We all work for continuing survival while in this structure, and hope for a happy, safe, and good life for ourselves and for our loved ones. Therefore, everyone has a common desire for the best life attainable."

Economic Equality

Extreme gaps exist between the rich and the poor around the globe and, in particular, in the United States. Reports of the corporate earnings of executives…… [Read More]

Given this, and without falling down the slippery slope of moral relativism, we must therefore recognize that one group's behaviors, and the meanings attached to those behaviors will always provoke a negative reaction among some other group.

Nevertheless, if we do not fall prey to moral relativism and therefore, do recognize that some behavior - at least according to our belief system - is wrong, we must treat cultural "deviants" as humanely and justly as possible. In an ideal society, we should also act pro-actively and engage in societal reform to reduce the extent of social deviance in the first instance.

Jon Will, "Utopian Philosophy." Utopia Now Studies. July 20, 2002.  http://users.erols.com/jonwill/ .
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Rosa Lee of All the

Words: 4537 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48380846

Patty's introduction to prostitution certainly reinforces this notion: it became a part of her life as a result of her social situation and a perceived necessity. Still, more fervent moral positions against prostitution, in the Untied States, often come from Christianity. Obviously, it violates the general principles of Christianity to pay for sexual intercourse; however, it is also a violation of Christian principles to engage in premarital sex, extramarital sex, homosexual sex, or even masturbation. Notably, none of these actions are illegal in the United States -- or at least the antiquated laws pertaining to them are not enforced -- and of them, only homosexuality is ever regularly regarded as a form of social deviance; though this too is a matter of debate. Ultimately, viewing prostitution as a moral crime from the standpoint of Christianity fails miserably, because doing so would require accepting that law should be solely determined by…… [Read More]

References

Brown, Stephen E. et al. (1991). Criminology: Explaining Crime and its Context. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing.

Dash, Leon. (1996). Rosa Lee: a Mother and Her Family in Urban America. New York: Basic.

Pagliaro, Ann Marie and Louis A. Pagliaro. (2000). Substance Use among Women. Lillington: Brunner/Mazel.

Schlaadt, Richard G. (1992). Wellness: Drugs, Society, & Behavior. Guilford: Dushkin.
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Causes of Crime - Categories

Words: 1570 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95486408

Conversely, many individuals with comparatively fewer social benefits and apparent opportunities manage to overcome their disadvantages and achieve economic, educational, and vocational success and satisfaction.

However, criminal law is neither particularly well designed nor equipped to address the disparate influences on individuals with respect to the specific factors related to criminal conduct and the relative social advantages and disadvantages available to individuals. By definition, criminal law primarily serves three principal functions

(already described); except for the deterrence component, it is not specifically intended to address the causal factors underlying criminal conduct (Schmalleger, 2001). Admittedly, therefore, criminal law essentially ignores the root causes of the conduct it is intended to redress, notwithstanding the valuable role it plays with regard to doing so, after the fact.

The responsibility of addressing the myriad social factors and societal inequities that contribute to the actual causes underlying criminal conduct do not fall within the purview…… [Read More]

References

Friedman, L.M. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston:

Pearson.
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Decline of the Institution of

Words: 1838 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75345978

).

Domestic Violence at the Root

This presents as the most important issue for family dissolution or divorce among low-income families (Haskins et al. 2005). Research conducted by Kathrun Edin and her team found that many poor mothers are willing to bear children even for men they consider unsuitable for marriage. Often, it is because these women believe they are in love with these men and that having children may improve these men's attitude in the long-term. ut these women are aware that their boyfriends or cohabiters have problems with forging long-term relationships. Quarrels often grow out of chronic infidelity, physical abuse, alcoholism and drug addiction, criminal activity and imprisonment. Research showed that these men harbor similar doubts about their women (Haskins et al.).

Some of the problems in these situations and relationships may be managed by quality marriage education when combined with employment, mental health and other support services…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bergmann, Barbara R. The Economic Consequences of the Decline of Marriage.

Working Paper 0818, Department of Economics: Johannes Kepler University of Linz, 2008. Retrieved on December 11, 2009 from  http://www.econ.jku.at/papers/2008/wp0818.pdf 

Haskins, Ron et al. The Decline of Marriage: What to Do. Princeton-Brookings:

Princeton University, 2005. Retrieved on December 11, 2009 from Http://www.heartland.org/custom/semod_policybot/pdf/19317.pdf
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Stress and Depression Among Adolescents

Words: 2014 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98170852



Adolescents with poor problem-solving skills are at greater risk of suicide, according to an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (Grover, et al., 2009). The authors concentrate on the problem of "chronic stress" in adolescents, saying it involves "deprivation or disadvantage" that is ongoing and those dynamics create a "continuous stream of threats and challenges" for the adolescent. The therapy in this research? Counselors, therapists, parents and teachers all need to help adolescents learn "well-developed problem-solving abilities" in order to "buffer the negative impact of both episodic and chronic stress…" (Grover, p. 1286).

Conclusion

Earlier in this paper it was asserted that up to 20% of adolescents in the U.S. will encounter some form of depression due to stress. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggests that the best treatment for severely depressed youths is a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication; that formula works better than either…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bradley, Kristen. (2002). Survey Shows High Levels of Teen Stress. International Child and Youth Care Network. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from  http://www.cyc-net.org/today2002/today021016.html .

Byrne, D.G., and Mazanov, J. (1999). Sources of Adolescent Stress, Smoking and the Use of other Drugs. Stress and Health, 15(4), 215-227.

Cherry, Kendra. (2009). What Is Emotional Intelligence? About.com. Psychology. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com.

Ciarrochi, Joseph, Deane, Frank P., and Anderson, Stephen. (2001). Emotional Intelligence
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Criminal Justice - Gender and

Words: 3438 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98457029

In that regard, Agnew's version of strain theory no longer explains the marked difference in male and female homicide rates, simply because it downplays the importance of the types of strains described by Merton. Whereas Merton's strains were associated more with the types of failures more likely to be experienced by males, Agnew's strains included many types of strains that, at least arguably, could be said to plague females even more than males.

Merton conceived of the source of strain as predominantly a function of identity roles and social success as defined in the cultural environment; Agnew added the many other sources of potential strain that relate to expectations of the individual rather than necessarily of society (Macionis 2003). More specifically, Agnew (1992) suggested that individuals vary substantially from one another and form many elements of their ideal "role model" more autonomously: whereas some individuals (of either gender) may value…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory. Criminology, Vol. 30, No.1, pp. 47-87.

Broidy, L. (2001). Test of General Strain Theory; Criminology, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 9-35

Dugan, L., Nagin, D., Rosenfeld, R. (1999). Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The Effects of Changing Domesticity, Women's Status, and Domestic Violence Resources; Homicide Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 187-214. Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 17th Edition.

Boston: Allyn & Bacon
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Sociological Theories of Mental Illness

Words: 1646 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45334137

social structures exert a definite pressure upon certain persons in the society to engage in nonconformist rather than conformist conduct," (Merton, 1938, p. 672). With his own italics emphasizing the stress and strain that social structures can produce in the individual, obert Merton outlines the basis of strain and stress theories. Stress is a natural part of life; it is how people cope with stress or react to it that matters most. Individual differences in background, situational variables, and also personality and psychological traits can also impact how people deal with stress and respond to stressors. However, some people will naturally encounter more stressors and more strain than others. Merton and other sociologists who recognized the value of strain theory showed how poverty and other structural variables cause stress and strain, and can often be the cause for behavioral problems including criminality. Yet once a person has been labeled a…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. & Scheuerman, H. (2015). Strain theories. Retrieved online: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0005.xml

"Labeing Theory," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.d.umn.edu/~bmork/2306/Theories/BAMlabeling.htm

McLeod, S. (2010). Stressful life events. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/SRRS.html

Merton, R.K. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review 3(5): 672-682.
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Sociological and Therapeutic Bias on Understanding Brain Disease

Words: 1446 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16568786

Sociological and Therapeutic Implications of the Brain Disease

Inspiration for professionals who authored the account on chronic brain illnesses came from findings on drugs' impacts on the human brain. The assurance that strong anti-addiction medicines can be found appeared great. The budding scientific branch, addiction biology, implies that addiction --a condition which starts off with the clear, intentional decision to have a go at drugs, spiraling quickly down to an irrepressible, involuntary state --would now be considered seriously, and forever, as an ailment. Using this knowledge, authors hoped to sensitize lawmakers as well as the society to drug-addicts' needs, including improved coverage of private insurance and public treatment access. The agenda also included moderating of puritanical outlooks and smoothing of penal law enforcement. The neuro-centric approach supports unjustified optimism with regard to pharmaceutical treatments, overrating the requirement of professional aid. Conditions characteristically remitted in young adulthood are branded as "chronic."…… [Read More]

References

Clark, M. (2011).Conceptualizing addiction: How useful is the construct. International Journal of Humanities & Social Science, 1(13), 55-64.

Deviance and Addiction. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://alcoholrehab.com/addiction-articles/deviance-and-addiction/

GOODE, E. (2011, March 19). THE SOCIOLOGY OF DRUG USE. Retrieved November 17, 2015, from https://edge.sagepub.com/system/files/Ballantine5e_6.2SK_0.pdf

May, C. (2001).Pathology, Identity and the Social Construction of Alcohol Dependence Sociology 35, 385-40.
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An Interpretation of Bolohead Row

Words: 3195 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76436927

Bolohead is discussed in the story is Bolohead ow where Keeaumoku ended at Kapiolani, which was right in front of one of the area's shopping centers, Ala Moana. Bolohead owers were detailed later on in the book around page 60. The narrator mentions old-school Bolohead owers and that the majority of them spoke with this kind of heavy, pidgin accent. They grew up before television became the nation's pastime. They essentially were old, growing up in the "Stone Age" before the invention of SUVs with DVD and TVs in the backseats. Eddie would have been considered the quintessential Bolohead and it showed with the author's choice of dialog for the character. Instead, confusing words like "how," Eddie said "ho" and "rememba" instead of "remember." "

Boloheads are also another name for bald heads and also described old, nearsighted men. Boloheads deviated from normalcy within the book by speaking pidgin and…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, M., & Inouye, J. (2013). Depression and Chronic Illness: Asian/Pacific Islander Adults in Hawaii. Issues In Mental Health Nursing, 34(3), 169. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/01612840.2012.738356

McKinney, C. (2005). Bolohead row. Honolulu, Hawaii: Mutual Pub.

Mitchell, R. (2015). Robert Herrick, Victorian Poet: Christina Rossetti, George Meredith, and the Victorian Recovery of Hesperides. Modern Philology,113(1), 88-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/681024

Thio, A., Calhoun, T., & Conyers, A. (2013). Deviance today. Boston: Pearson.
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Field Analysis

Words: 1315 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79722353

Wake Up; Take a Shower; Take Breakfast With Other Family Members

Arrive at the bank; pick a waiting ticket; interaction with service staff; a member of staff in the next counter is having a difficult time with a customer

9:00 am: Arrive at my girlfriend's house; help her with laundry and other household chores; watch a movie together

12:30 pm: Having lunch with my girlfriend in a restaurant; in an adjacent table three women are talking about their dating experiences with men in different cultures

2:00 pm: At the parking lot a beggar stops me; he tells me he has no home or family

7:00 pm: Watching evening news -- robbery at a local store and unnecessary shooting of an innocent Black man by a White police officer

Application

Sociology demonstrates that people's daily lives are shaped and constrained by the society (Dillon, 2010). By interacting with and/or watching other…… [Read More]

References

Dillon, M. (2010). Introduction to sociological theory: theorists, concepts, and their applicability to the twenty-first century. UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Hurst, C., Gibbon, H., & Nurse, A. (2016). Social inequality: forms, causes and consequences. 9th ed. New York: Routledge.

Williams, C. (2003). Sky demands: the demands of emotional labour in the airline industry. Gender, Work & Organisation, 10(5), 513-550.
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Female Criminality as With the General Cultural

Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81436102

Female Criminality

As with the general cultural perspective permeating academics and the life sciences in the early 20th century, theories on female criminality are pointedly sexist in nature and descend from an aggressively patriarchal view point. As we find in biologically driven models proposed by figures such as Lombroso, there is a proclivity to view female criminals through a completely different lens specifically informed by abnormalities or variations in femininity. According to Hamilton (1999), Lombroso "described criminal women as biologically dysfunctional. He believed that female deviants lacked maternal instincts, exhibited atavistic characteristics, and bore more masculine physical features, such as an excess of body hair." (Hamilton, p. 1) Taking this notion yet a step further, Freud argues that women prone to crime are abnormal not just in their deviation from femininity but in their penis envy. The view that female mental disorder descends from the desire to be male is,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Hamilton, M. (1999). Theorist: Freda Adler. FSU.edu.

Harris, M.K. (1998). Women's Imprisonment in the United States. Corrections Today.

Hedeen, M. (2012). Bail Hearing for Woman Accused of Threatening Obama Adjoured. YNN.
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Looking at Hate Crime and Moral Panic Today

Words: 814 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70568814

moral panic, especially with regard to those who are transgender in the society.

The Moral Panic of Transgender

The Grassroots Model describes moral panic as that which arises from a society's spontaneous reaction to what the society perceived to be morally deviant behavior. The deviance is perceived to be a danger to the society's moral fiber and this creates a lot of stress, which can lead to anger. This stress may not have an avenue to be expressed directly (Social Context Moral Entrepreneurs, n.d.). When the displacement of these anxieties happens, there may be direction of the same to the social deviants as they are regarded as the cause of all this. Kai Erickson, in her book 'the Wayward Puritans', demonstrates this when she relates how the people of Massachusetts Bay Colony went back to witch-hunting as a way to direct the anxiety that arose from social deviance.

The transgender…… [Read More]

References

Abowd-Chicago, M. (2013, November 5). Futurity: Research News from Top Universities. How transgender policy sets off 'gender panic' - Futurity. Retrieved December 4, 2015, from http://www.futurity.org/transgender-news-can-spark-gender-panic/

Social Context Moral Entrepreneurs Document (n. d.)

U.S. PDF Document (n. d.).
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Robert Merton This Is a

Words: 2713 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59312888

And it is those negative consequences that could, in the long-term, create alterations in those original basic values. Finally, there is Merton's self-defeating prophecy. Worry about being afraid of some consequence motivates people to take action before the problem exists. The non-occurrence of that problem they acted against, is not anticipated as a possibility.

It is interesting to note here that it is not improbable that the reader of this can place himself or herself in several of these situations and, therefore, see the accuracy, and the depth and complexity of Merton's postulations and conclusions.

Manifest and latent functions were first defined by Merton for the science of sociology. He was attempting to focus on the conceptual practices employed in a functional analysis. Functional analysis is the study of the individual elements of a functioning societal structure such as its customs, traditions and institutions. As Herbert Spencer, a 19th century…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berger, P.L. Excerptom Invitation to Sociology. New York: Doubleday, 1963.

Calhoun, C. "Robert K. Merton Remembered." March 2003. asanet.org. 27 January 2010 .

Crothers, Charles. Robert K. Merton. Oxford, UK: Taylor & Francis, 1987.

Hollander, J. "Renowned Columbia Sociologist and Nationsl Medal of Science Winner Robert K. Merton Dies at 92." 25 February 2003. Columbia University News. 27 January 2010 .
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Critical Analysis Mental Illness

Words: 3769 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82859192

Mental illness appears in various forms. It is characterized by some serious disruptions in someone's thoughts or even demonstrated in their actions. The person presenting these symptoms is often unable to deal with the day-to-day activities and patterns of a normal life. Mental illness can take over 200 forms each having an effect on the patient's disposition, character, traits, and even the way they interact with others. Some of the common forms of mental illness are 'schizophrenia', 'depression,' 'bipolar disorders' and 'dementia'. Taylor and Brown (1988) state that mental illness can be presented in a psychological, emotional way and even in physical symptoms. A person under severe stress due to dealing with an incident or series of stressors' build-up over time is prone to mental illness. A person may also present symptoms of mental illness through a biochemical imbalance, a negative reaction to his environment, and the pressures accrued thereby,…… [Read More]

References

Bartlett, A., & McGauley, G. (2010). Forensic mental health: Concepts, systems, and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Clinic, M. (2015, October 13). Mental illness. Retrieved December 7, 2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/mental-illness/basics/definition/CON-20033813

Corrigan, P. W., Morris, S., Larson, J., Rafacz, J., Wassel, A., Michaels, P., ... Rusch, N. (2010). SELF-STIGMA AND COMING OUT ABOUT ONE'S MENTAL ILLNESS. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(3), 259-275. http://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20363

Dowrick. C., Dunn. G., Ayuso-Mateos.J et al. (2000). Problem-solving treatment and group psycho-education for depression: multicenter randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 321, 1450-4
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Has

Words: 1152 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66220254

The unstated biases are that each person has some kind of social problems and were forced to go through added amounts of therapy to address them. A large segment was selected from different gender groups, ethnic and racial backgrounds. In general, the study results are concentrating on understanding specific factors impacting the population sample. It is based upon the challenges impacting everyone and the way they are adjusting with them. (Dorrepaal, 2012) (Goodard, 2004) (Litwin, 1995)

The design of the study was clearly articulated. A randomized controlled sample was used. This achieved through concentrating on a number of factors in each module. The most notable are demonstrated in the below diagram:

Safe sleep

Disassociation

The correct recognition of emotions Skills

Crisis management

Anger management Assertiveness Distrust Guilt

This is strong design for the research. It improves internal validity by illustrating how these factors are related to one another. The potential…… [Read More]

References

Dorrepaal, E. (2012). Stabilizing Group Treatment. Psychotherapy, 81, pp. 217 -- 225.

Goddard, W. (2004). Research Methodology. Lansdowne: Juta.

Litwin, M. (1995). How to Measure Survey Reliability and Validity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
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Effecting Change the Use of

Words: 4091 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19489453

According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).

A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…… [Read More]

References

Bar-on, R. (2002). Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems

Erikson, E (1956) "The problem of ego identity" (pdf) Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: 56 -- 121

Kotter, J & Cohen, D (2002) the Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations Harvard Business Review Press

Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511
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Gender Neutral

Words: 1522 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1050718

Gender

The challenges families face include lack of social support, lack of guidance, lack of information, prejudice, and hostility. Gender roles and norms are entrenched in the society, making it difficult for children and their parents to resist or subvert conformity. The media and all social institutions perpetuate gender roles and norms. Yet when parents are willing to encourage gender fluidity or gender nonconformity, children and their parents are liberated from constraints to their creativity and self-expression. Specific challenges to resisting conformity include locating gender-neutral toys and games for young children, and finding strong social support networks for the child and the parents. Gender neutrality scares people for many reasons, not least of which is its perceived kinship with homosexuality, but also its being symbolic of social deviance. A person who does not fit into the neatly arranged categories of male and female may be viewed as an outright threat…… [Read More]

References

Duron, L. (2013) Raising My Rainbow. New York: Random House.

Kuhn, S. (2014). Breaking free of gender stereotypes. She Knows. Retrieved online: http://www.sheknows.com/parenting/articles/1033051/raising-a-gender-neutral-child

Lucas-Stannard, P. (2012). Gender Neutral Parenting.

Martin, K.A. (2005). William wants a doll. Gender and Society 19(4), 456-479.
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Niger River Delta Tribe Anthropology of Gender

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81865084

Girls is an ethnographic documentary detailing a female rite of passage in a small island community in the Niger River delta in Africa. The film's purpose is primarily to illustrate the conflicts that emerge as cultures find themselves perched between two worlds: the world of old customs and traditions, and the world of globalized culture and its customs, values, and norms. However, Monday's Girls is also about gender issues, and how gender issues are at the forefront of every culture's ability to remain relevant. The film touches upon many related issues such as cultural relativism, and the filmmakers show that it is difficult to make a clear judgment for or against preserving traditions like those of the Waikiriki.

Rather than suggest a clear moral stance about the female rite of passage, the filmmakers illustrate the complexities and ambiguities involved in studying culture. Even within its own people, there are sometimes…… [Read More]

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Human Resources -- Sexual Discrimination

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81415211

Individuals who are sexually harassed at work experience stress. It is now more common knowledge that stress manifests itself physically in our bodies. Thus, persons who are sexually harassed may have aches, pains, headaches, muscle tensions, digestive problems, and actually, a very large array of physical symptoms that stem from additional stress experienced at work. The relationships of those who are sexually harassed suffer as well. People who are sexually harassed suffer from diminished self-esteem and perhaps also depression. These people withdraw and avoid social gatherings, withdraw from their friends and families, and participate less in group activities, including work meetings. The lack of physical and social contact can cause further psychological and emotional damage to a person who is already suffering. (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Workplace Violence and Harassment: a European Picture, Chapter 5)

The organisation where the harassment took place will suffer as well.…… [Read More]

References:

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Workplace Violence and Harassment: a European Picture. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2010.

European Commission, Directorate General for Employment, Industry Relations, and Social Affairs. Sexual harassment in the workplace in the European Union. Publications of Employment and Social Affairs, The Netherlands, 1998.

Loutfi, Martha Fetherolf Ed. Women, Gender, and Work. International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001.
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Adolescent's Perception on Himself Herself or

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80717043

Self-esteem must be combined with other components of emotional distress, such as the factors which affect perceptions of the self and of other peers. Factors should include competence, confidence, and acceptance, among others.

Behaviors that are considered to be negative by society may not be the factors that most strongly affect self-perceptions and self-esteem, however. As noted by Mosley (1995), factors which are interpreted and internalized as negative will have a significant impact on self-esteem, even if they are not socially irresponsible. Mosley's example is that adolescent receipt of welfare is associated with lower levels of perceived self-worth. Mosley notes the importance of self-esteem on the mental health and ability of children and adolescents, as noted in previous research (Wilson & Portes, 1975 as cited in Mosley, 1995). Rosenberg and Pearlin (1978) found little relationship between social class and self-esteem, while other researchers have found conclusive links between income/class and…… [Read More]

The traditional two-dimensional views of self-esteem must be abandoned for it to be an effectual method of measure. High self-esteem does not necessarily create a healthy adolescent. Campbell and Foddis (2003) notes the high levels of self-esteem in murderers, rapists, and other social deviants. In these cases, the perpetrator may be affected by perception of others as inferior, therefore justifying his or her actions, or may be affected by the perception of self, regardless of self-esteem. How high one's perception of self is may be an accurate way to determine the likelihood of social deviance. Of course, there are many other factors to be considered as well.

Most research does not take all, or even many, of the factors necessary for developing an understanding of the adolescent situation. Taking a global approach to self-esteem that would include perceptions of the self and perceptions of others, as well as self-esteem levels, may reveal some understanding of adolescent reactions and behavior. The proposed research being approached presently would take global factors into consideration rather than merely focusing on one or two individual factors which would not reveal a complete picture.

The perception of