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Social deviancy can be understood through biological and psychological factors. Discuss drawing on sociological approaches to deviancy
Social deviance is a phenomenon which comes under the domain of sociology. It refers to those acts, thoughts or beliefs which are against the social norms of any particular culture or value system. This phenomenon was not so much popular till twentieth century however it has gain a lot of importance in twenty-first century. Movements of lesbians, gays and feminism can be considered as an example of this social deviance. It will not be an overestimate to say that these movements and other movements like this are the product of this century. In past such deviances were not valued by the people of the society and it was considered as a deformity. However now a days it is not considered as bad as it was considered in the past. Freedom of…
Conrad, P., & Barker, K.K. (2010, November). The Social Construction of Illness Key Insights and Policy Implications. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(1), 567-579.
Bowles, H.R., & Gelfand, M. Status and the Evaluation of Workplace Deviance. Journal of the Association for Psychological Sciences, 21(1), 49-51.
Lombardo, R.M. (2010, May). The hegemonic narrative and the social construction of deviance: the case of the Black Hand. Trends in Organized Crime, 13(4), 263-282.
Hunter, J.A., Figueredo, A.J., & Malamuth, N.M. Developmental Pathways into Social and Sexual Deviance. Jouranl of Family Violence, 25(2), 141-148.
Bob was labeled as a criminal from a simple act of taking money from the bag of one of the teachers. This act of the school authorities and the parents calling him a criminal and eventually subjecting him to the legal system traumatized him and being among other criminals who might have engaged in bigger crimes than a simple act of delinquency made Bob to think of himself as a criminal. According to the labeling theory, if Bob could be taken away from the criminal system where is bundled together with harder criminals, and he be handled informally, it will make him think of himself as a lesser criminal or even a delinquent and reform. This kind of handling is the best for delinquents since according to the labeling theory, which is a social interaction theory, the personality and the character of an individual is shaped by…
Social labelling is not flawless, indeed like all the other social theories explaining crime and delinquency, it fails to capture some aspects of crime like the reason behind some crimes that are innate or are not learned from another person. For instance, this theory cannot help explain why a person could be a serial killer yet no one taught him to kill nor has he seen someone kill another. Another such crimes that seem innate is rape, the theory cannot explain why rapists may get into the trend even without being taught how to rape or even having before seen someone rape.
The white collar crimes are often considered to be lesser crimes that the street-level crimes. This is because the white collar crimes are considered victimless crimes that do not cause harm to individuals or damage to property. This is the labeling theory look at crime hence many consider the white collar thieves as some smart people. This has seen the law enforcement to invest less in curbing the white collar crimes, there are differences in laws governing such crimes and there are lesser technologies put in place to curb such crimes as compared to the street-level crimes. The 21st century criminals are not the hardcore type law breakers but very intelligent individuals who are well informed and highly educated, they use very sophisticated systems to execute several crimes in different parts of the world as more people are embracing the use of technology in their day-to-day life (Interpol, 2012).
There are several social habits that were there before considered deviant but today have been accepted as part of the social network and people practice without being reprimanded as was before. Some of these behaviors are sex before marriage was there before considered deviant but today a person can have sexual relation with several partners before they settle down with one woman for marriage. Living with a woman who was not your wife was considered deviant and unacceptable, but today there are such living arrangements and in many countries there are laws to protect such. In the earlier decades, it was considered deviant for a woman or a young lady to wear pants or trousers, it was frowned at as a sign of
Social psychology is a very broad field that takes in the many varieties of group dynamics, perceptions and interactions. Its origins date back to the late-19th Century, but it really became a major field during and after the Second orld ar, in order to explain phenomena like aggression, obedience, stereotypes, mass propaganda, conformity, and attribution of positive or negative characteristics to other groups. Among the most famous social psychological studies are the obedience experiments of Stanley Milgram and the groupthink research of Irving Janus (Feenstra Chapter 1). Authority figures are very important in influencing the behavior and attitudes of groups, as advertising pioneers like Edward Bernays and Nazi propagandists like Josef Goebbels realized early in the 20th Century. Human beings naturally categorize others into groups, and attribute values, attitudes and stereotypes to them, while they also tend to favor members of their own group (Feenstra Chapter 2). Social psychologists have…
Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. Penguin Books, 2006.
Cooper, S. "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30, 2006.
Ewen, Stuart. PR!: A Social History of Spin. NY: Basic Books, 1996.
Feenstra, Jennifer. Introduction to Social Psychology. Bridegeport Education, Inc., 2011.
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.
Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
Social System, Institutional Values and Human Needs_
Burton's Deviance, Terrorism, and War redefined the nature of the problem to be discussed and the means to discuss it. Burton's agenda is not about states and state centric dynamics. He constitutes a new definition of the problem and a new definition of the reality (1979). In fact, the subtitle of his book, solving unsolved social and political problems, attests to this. Burton's work is therefore committed to addressing the process as opposed to stasis or structures. The book is committed to solving social and political problems and not their containment, management, or control. It is committed to initiating change not coercion. It is concerned with recurrent patterns of human behavior at all levels of social complexity (Burton, 1979).
Burton (1979) assesses the way society classifies and defines deviance. Structure of freedom underpins a portion of Burtons work. Structure of freedom is recognized…
Burton, J. (1965). International Relations, a General Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Burton, J. (1979). Deviance, Terrorism and War: The Process of Solving Unsolved Social and Political Problems. New York: St. Martin's Press.
This is also true of defendants labeled as child molesters -- even if not convicted, the label or suspicion is so insidious, it is difficult for juries or even witnesses to apprehend the facts with an unbiased eye ("In the Supreme Court of the United States," 1990, IPT). There is also a psychological reason for labeling theory, suggested by this example of prejudice -- once a first impression is created, it is difficult to forget that first impression, as all subsequent actions are interpreted in relation to that first negative image or label.
O'Connor, T. (2005). "Labeling theory of crime." Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/301/301lect12.htm
In the Supreme Court of the United States." (1990). IPT. 2.7. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.ipt-forensics.com/journal/volume2/j2_2_7.htm
Resources: framing the issue." (2003). Youth in the Media: McKnight Foundation. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.mcknight.org/hotissues/framing_youth.aspx
O'Connor, T. (2005). "Labeling theory of crime." Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/301/301lect12.htm
In the Supreme Court of the United States." (1990). IPT. 2.7. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.ipt-forensics.com/journal/volume2/j2_2_7.htm
Resources: framing the issue." (2003). Youth in the Media: McKnight Foundation. Retrieved 15 Oct 2007. http://www.mcknight.org/hotissues/framing_youth.aspx
Deviance: Breaking Social Norms
For this exercise, I decided to be deviant at church. At our church, people tend to pick a pew and spread out in it. Usually there are a few families who will stand in the back because all the pews are taken. However, there is always still plenty of space in a pew for multiple families—but in America personal space is considered rather important, so it is rare to find a pew that is jam packed full of people unless they are all related or know one another well. Sharing space with a person in America is deemed something that is reserved for intimates rather than for strangers. However, in a country like India there is really no concept of personal space. People when pack themselves on trains to beyond capacity and to the point that one can be literally hanging out the door as the…
"The Manufacture of Deviance: The Case of the Soviet Purge, 1936-1938." American Sociological Review, 1972.
t's us vs. them! This familiar theme runs through a substantial amount of political rhetoric in the current electoral media discourse. However, writing during one of the most polarized periods of American politics, Walter D. Connor from the University of Michigan was able to show that such a construction of deviancy in a group deemed sociologically 'other' has been largely true of both the left and the right, throughout history and in many nations and political environments. Much as hippies and other social undesirables were tarred and feathered as deviant during the late 1960's and 1970's, in America, the American Sociological Review of 1972 article entitled "The Manufacture of Deviance: The Case of the Soviet Purge, 1936-1938" suggests that the repressive Soviet regime of Stalin similarly derived its sense of popular legitimacy from…
It's us vs. them! This familiar theme runs through a substantial amount of political rhetoric in the current electoral media discourse. However, writing during one of the most polarized periods of American politics, Walter D. Connor from the University of Michigan was able to show that such a construction of deviancy in a group deemed sociologically 'other' has been largely true of both the left and the right, throughout history and in many nations and political environments. Much as hippies and other social undesirables were tarred and feathered as deviant during the late 1960's and 1970's, in America, the American Sociological Review of 1972 article entitled "The Manufacture of Deviance: The Case of the Soviet Purge, 1936-1938" suggests that the repressive Soviet regime of Stalin similarly derived its sense of popular legitimacy from manufacturing or creating not only a communist sense of class or dialectical warfare, but of medical and racial and social deviance of good citizens of the republic vs. The bad citizens.
As the class warfare, according to official Soviet rhetoric had ended, between the bourgeois and proletarian, Stalin was in something of an ideological quandary as to how to define what was wrong with Soviet society, even after communist 'reforms' had been instated. Personal deviance from what was considered the norm in a sociological fashion was one way this was created. By perpetually creating or manufacturing distractions, and then purging such deviant groups, Stalin kept his hold on power through paranoia.
The public's ire and distrust wielded against other social groups, such as Jewish individuals or members of ethnic minorities, rather than politicians. Thus Stalin was able to keep secure in power, even in a nation that was weathering terrible economic privations that would normally spur a population to revolt. The ideological manufacturing of blaming a group, whether international capitalists outside, or Jewish doctors infiltrating the inner sanctum of Stalin's power base ensured that the dictator was able to create a climate of fear on a personal, micro level within the Kremlin and on a macro level for the populace at large, as they had to be constantly on guard for spies and other deviants in their midst. O'Connor ultimately concludes that polarization rather than harmonization is key in a dictatorship, and also in some manifestations of democracy during economic and social difficulties.
Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents
Influences on Social Cognition in Children and Adolescents
Child development is influenced by many factors. Some of the most important factors that affect the development of a child include heredity, nutrition, parental affection, and culture. Cognition refers to a general processes regarding the principles of thinking in humans, whereas social cognition refers to the study of how people process and use social information, particularly how social information is encoded, stored, retrieved, and then applied by the person in social situations (Striano & eid, 2006). Social cognition and social cognitive development are often studied by cognitive psychologist and social psychologists. The parallel between cognitive development and the development of social cognition certainly cannot be ignored. Cognition in children develops within the social context, but also most likely conforms to certain developmental patterns (Piaget, 1954). The primary influences of the…
Baumrind, D. (1967). Child-care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior.
Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88.
Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11(1), 56-95.
Blakemore, S.J. (2011). Social-Cognitive Development during Adolescence. Child Psychology
Criminology researchers usually draw on multiple sociological theories for understanding crime and offenders. Certain elements of serial-killing research continue to be a subject of speculation and exploration, on account of the numerous preconceptions and myths surrounding the crime. The significance of establishing a theoretic basis to explain sociological factors proves crucial to distinguishing between fact and fiction (Hickey, 2013).
Social Structure Theory
This class of theories concentrates on the socioeconomic status of a person and suggests that the poor perpetrate more offenses owing to their struggle to achieve social or monetary success. They are, particularly owing to their subcultural, racial, or ethnic status, restricted in several ways from lawfully attaining the great “American Dream\". Thus, they resort to deviant techniques to succeed. Structural theories provide convincing justifications for numerous offenses, with the exception of serial killing. Normally, serial killers lack financial or social motivation, and aren’t members of any specific…
Travis Hirschi's Social Bonding Theory
The theorist, Hirschi, asserts that those who exhibit deviant behavior desire to do so and that criminal behavior is seen among people with weak social bonds. In his social bonding model, he delineated four elements which make up social bonds, namely, attachment to partner/spouse, engagement in conforming behaviors, holding conventional beliefs and values, and dedication to conventionality (Wolfzorn, Heckert & Heckert, 2006). The theorist indicates that with increased attachment of a person to fellow human beings, their belief in conformist social values will increase. Furthermore, with increased investment and involvement in conventional activity, their propensity to deviate will decrease (Chriss, 2007).
Four Elements of Social Bonding Theory
Social bonding has four elements, namely: attachment, involvement, belief, and commitment.
The first component -- attachment -- denotes individuals' ties to their spouses or partners, and other members of the family. This aspect encompasses the extent of…
The purpose of this qualitative study is to better understand the dynamic and intricate process of child development within inner city neighborhoods. This study will seek to shed light upon the various factors which impact child development in such places, and determine out of issues like crime, lack of strong educational institutions, and the abundance of single-parent households -- which causes the greatest amount of harm to child development. This research project endeavors to determine which obstacle causes the greatest impediment to the ability of children to thrive so that the variable or variables which create them most harm are adequately pinpointed.
It is with great hope and intention that this research project creates lasting and precise social change. esearch like this is indeed meant to make a difference in the world and ultimately change the life trajectories of children who are born into such disadvantaged neighborhoods. This…
Branum, A. (2008, October). Food Allergy Among U.S. Children: Trends in Prevalence and Hospitalizations. Retrieved from cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db10.htm
Currie, J. (2007, March). Poverty Among Inner-City Children . Retrieved from princeton.edu: http://www.princeton.edu/~jcurrie/publications/inman_june07.pdf
Fitzgerald, S. (2013, July). 'Crack baby' study ends with unexpected but clear result. Retrieved from philly.com: http://articles.philly.com/2013-07-22/news/40709969_1_hallam-hurt-so-called-crack-babies-funded-study
McCord, J. (1997). Violence and Childhood in the Inner City. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics
Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.
While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…
Abrams, D. & Hogg, M. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 317-334.
Bond, R., & Smith, P. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's
(1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1), 111-137.
Darley, J. & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4), 377-383.
influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. Firstly, the paper provides the historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas. Secondly, the paper provides a summary of their original theory. Thirdly, the paper provides a discussion of how the model has been critiqued and altered as new research has emerged. Lastly, the paper delves into the theory's current usage/popularity within criminology.
The historical context within which the theorist produced their ideas
There is huge contribution of influential theories related to deviance by Robert K. Merton. As a matter of fact, He is considered one of the most significant sociologists of modern times. Moreover, he has also made large number of contributions to the criminology field. Undoubtedly, Merton influenced various fields of science, humanities, law, political theories, economics and anthropology (Cole, 2004, p.37). Merton's introduced numerous concepts like anomie, deviant behavior, self-fulfilling prophecy, strain, middle range theory and…
American Sociological Review (2012). Retrieved January 29, 2014 from http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/histcomp/index-merton.html
Bernanke, Ben, S. (1995) 'The Macroeconomics of the Great Depression: A Comparative Approach', Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 27 February.
Bivens, T. (2004). Robert K. Merton Draft. Florida State University Publications
Calhoun, C. (2003). Remembering Robert K. Merton. Papers in Honor of Robert K. Merton. 175-220. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Role of Deviance in Societies
Deviance is behavior that is regarded as outside the bounds of a group or society (Deviance pp). Deviance is a behavior that some people in society find offensive and which excites, or would excite if discovered, and is usually met with disapproval, punishment, condemnation, or hostility (Deviance pp).
Deviance is not merely behavior, but involves a moral judgement (Deviance pp). Moreover, in essence, any act can be defined as deviant (Deviance pp). It is not possible to isolate certain acts and find them universally condemned by all societies as deviant acts, not even murder or incest, and even within a given society, behavior defined as deviant continually undergoes redefinition (Deviance pp). Furthermore, it is relative to time and place, thus, it is not possible to find a behavior that is absolutely condemned by all societies, because what is deviant in one society may not be…
Boyden, Matthew; Green, Amy. "Positive Deviance."
http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:U0HBSqQA6f8J:www.ex.ac.uk/Psychology/docs/courses/3227/boydengreenwk7.ppt+Role+of+Deviance+in+Societies& ; hl=en
Campbell, LeAnne. "As strong as the weakest link: urban high school dropout."
High School Journal. 12/1/2003.
The experiment took place in a busy office building at around five o'clock in the evening. It started on the ground floor and involved walking into an elevator and not turning around. The total number of people who entered the elevator was six, two stopped on the third floor, which was the first stop and the other three stopped on the fifth, which was the last stop. The experiment ended on the fifth floor and took a little over three minutes.
The other five people upon entering the elevator realized that not everybody turned to face the entrance as usual. The group seemed baffled with the occurrence. Two people, a female and a male laughed asking jokingly if they were supposed to turn around. They appeared friendly and continued with interesting comment until they left the elevator. The other three smiled but seemed less concerned. However, the…
Alder, P., & Alder, P. (2012). Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context, and Interaction (7th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Beauvais, F. (1992). Characteristics of Indian Youth and Drug Use. American Indian and Alaska
Native Mental Health Research Journal .
Cullen, F.T., & Cullen, J.B. (1978). Toward A Paradigm of Labeling Theory. NCJRS, 53.
Sutherland was quite critical of why some crimes were defined as deviant, while society appears more tolerant of other transgressions. For example, individual theft is seen as causing great harm, while the harm caused by illegal pollution and the dissemination of hazardous waste are hardly recognized. In 2002, for example, the Carnival Company, a Florida-based cruise company which operates 40 ships, was convicted of falsifying its oil record books. The company under-reported the levels of oil in the bilge water it discharged. The higher levels of oil threatened ocean life. To avoid prosecution, Carnival agreed to pay $18 million in fines (Ferro 2003).
Though Carnival was guilty of wrongdoing, few members of the general public at the time would go so far as to define Carnival's actions as criminally deviant.
In summary, both functionalist and social labeling theories help to explain how corporate deviance are both defined and addressed in…
Ferro, Jeffrey. 2003. "White-Collar Crime." Crime: A Serious American Problem. Reproduced in Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale Group. http://0-galenet.galegroup.com.catalog.houstonlibrary.org:80/servlet/OVRC
Friedrichs, David O. 1996. Trusted Criminals: White Collar Crime in Contemporary Society. New York: Wadsworth.
Sutherland, Edwin H. 1983. White Collar Crime: The Uncut Version. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group
Durkheim Four Principles of Deviance
In looking at the four functions of deviance in the context of examples. Namely rock and roll music and marijuana smoking, etc. In the 1950s and 1960s compared to today.
The first function according to Durkheim is that deviance gives affirmation to validate the values and cultural norms that guide behavior in society (Macionis, 2006).
In America a guiding principle of society has always been morality. Since the country was founded on a primary belief in Godly ("In God we Trust") principles of right and wrong. Along with the freedoms that comes with allowing people of all religions to determine their own destinies. With this freedom comes the realization that there will be differences in opinion about behavior and the type of attitudes that accompany a moral premise. If there is a virtue of what is 'acceptable' or good in society there has to be…
Digital Dream Door. (2005). Rock n Roll Timeline. Retrieved July 27, 2011 from http://www. digitaldreamdoor. com/pages/best_timeline-r1. html
Henslin, J.M. (1996). Essentials of Sociology. Retrieved July 27, 2011 from Needham
Heights:MA. Publishers Allyn & Bacon,
Macionis, J.J. (2006). The Basics of Society. Prentice Hall. Pearson Education. Edition 5.
The changing nature of crime should make criminology, in terms of criminal laws, flexible and up-to-date. The law must have a regular review to ensure that the society is governed by proper and accurate directives to guarantee peace and equality among the people. Moreover, flexibility is important to ensure that right punishment is rendered to every crime. Another impact that criminology holds because of the changing nature of crime is the goal and objective of assessing their tools and technology that fight against crime.
Unlike some decades ago, guns and written laws are not the only tools these days that can prevent crimes and put the criminals in bars. Because of the diverse high technology that emerges, it is important that criminology has the right and advance instruments that can enhance their purpose of serving and ensuring peace to society.
Ethics - Deviance
"Eating your Friends is the Hardest: The Survivors of the F-227" by James M. Henslin discusses the ways in which reality is created by society and groups within it. The unique life-or-death situation of the Andes Mountain plane crash survivors shows how a group can be compelled to redefine deviant behavior to make it acceptable and even holy. By examining this group's situation, Henslin is able to define a number of lessons about social reality.
"Eating your Friends is the Hardest: The Survivors of the F-227" by James M. Henslin discusses the ways in which reality is created by examining a unique but disturbing situation. This situation, in which some humans survived a plane crash in the Andes Mountains, were stranded in the Mountains for more than 2 months and were literally starving to death with no food source except human corpses, gave Henslin a unique opportunity…
Furthermore, it is suggested that the roots of the problem lie deeper than the superficial debate about gun control. In sociological terms, this problem is to do with the lack of meaning and the breakdown of inherent normative structures. In this sense the debate about gun control should be seen against the underlying background of these sociological issues. Even if a compromise was be reached about whether or not to have gun control, there would still be underlying structural causative features that would need to be addressed and which are the source of this problem in the first place.
Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.
New York: Praeger Publishers.
Deviance and Social Control. etrieved November 21, 2004
Egger, Steven A., et al. 1990.Serial Murder: An Elusive Phenomenon. New York:
Praeger Publishers, 1990.
Lintelman, D. Gun Control. etrieved November 21, 2009…
Cukier, V. And Sidel W. 2005.The Global Gun Epidemic: From Saturday Night Specials.
New York: Praeger Publishers.
Deviance and Social Control. Retrieved November 21, 2004
Often children must withhold information from people who could help them as public awareness of their homelessness would likely end in separation from loved ones as for children a greater number of programs exist to help them independently than collectively with their parents. Homeless youth are also a significant social issue and their numbers are hard to even estimate, though there are clear indications that the numbers are growing. "Novac, Serge, Eberle, and Brown (2002) identified four important trends among homeless youth: 1) the incidence is increasing; 2) an increasing number are chronically homeless; 3) the age at which youth become homeless is decreasing, especially for females; and 4) more identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgendered." (Wingert, Higgitt & istock, 2005, p. 54) the issue, like with that of other homeless populations is developing systems that build transitions to more stable and permanent housing. (Wingert, Higgitt & istock, 2005,…
Calhoun, J. (2006). Proven Pathways to Violence Prevention. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 15(1), 19.
Canada, G. (2001). The Best Way We Know How. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 10(1), 54.
Conderman, G., Heimerl, a.M., & Ketterhagen, B.L. (2001). Longing for a Father. Reclaiming Children and Youth, 10(3), 140.
Craig, T.K.J. Hodson, S. (1998) Homeless youth in London: I. Childhood antecedents and psychiatric disorder. Psychological Medicine. 28:1379-1388.
Inequalities in Mental Health
Over the last several years, different theories have been utilized to explain the societal factors in the quality of mental health. The basic idea is to understand which variables will have the greatest impact on the person's ability to contribute to society. The social structure theory is taking a unique perspective in studying the problem. To fully understand its importance requires looking at the main ideas and why it was chosen. Together, these elements will illustrate how this influences mental health and the effects it is having on contemporary thinking. (Gabbidon, 2005) (Cole, 2013)
The social structure theory believes that the economic class will have a direct impact on the quality of care, treatment options and the effects on society itself. This is because poor neighborhoods face greater amounts of strain, frustrations, reduced opportunities and disorganization. These variables will influence how someone sees their surroundings and…
Cole, G. (2013). Survey of Criminal Justice. Mason, OH: Southwestern.
Gabbidon, S. (2005). Race, Crime and Justice. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Smith, D. (1988). "Social Structure and Criminal Victimization." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25 (1), 27-52.
Celibacy and Sexual Deviance by Priests
Many psychologists have suggested that clergy who take a vow of celibacy are more likely to engage in sexual deviance than clergy who are allowed to marry. Many others argue that this is completely untrue. This research paper aims to examine these points-of-view to either prove or disprove the relationship between celibacy and sexual deviances by priests.
In today's society, the Catholic Church is confronted with two important issues regarding sexuality. The first is the scandal of sexual abuse of children by priests, which is a highly publicized issue that it damaging the reputation of the Catholic Church in the United States. The second is the question of whether priest should take a vow of celibacy and remain unmarried.
In order to fully address this hypothesis, it is important to address these questions but not regard them as two aspects of one problem.
Berry, Jason. Lead Us Not Into Temptation: Catholic Priests and the Sexual Abuse of Children. Doubleday, 1992.
Burkett, Elinor, and Frank Bruni. A Gospel of Shame: Children, Sexual Abuse, and the Catholic Church. Viking, 1993.
Hudson, Dean. Ten Myths About Priestly Pedophilia. Crisis, July, 2001.
Isely, P. Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church: A Historical and Contemporary Review. Pastoral Psychology, 1997.
Crime and Deviance
Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.
Theories of Crime and Deviance
Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…
Cohen, P 2011, Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved
Community Crime Prevention Guide, n. d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: http://www.criminaljusticereform.gov.bc.ca/en/what_you_can_do/crime_prevention/
Crime Control: A Short Note, n.d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: http://ncthakur.itgo.com/chand3c.htm
police corruption. Furthermore, it will address the areas of organizational and occupational deviance.
Occupational and Organizational Deviance
The definition for occupational or workplace deviance given by Bennett and obinson is: voluntary employee behavior that goes against key company norms, and hence, threatens its well-being as well as that of fellow employees. The workplace represents a forum in which several different behaviors can be seen, with each of them having different consequences to organizational members and the overall organization. Such behaviors normally fall within organizational norms' constructs (Matthew, et.al, 2014). Company norms are defined as a collection of expected principles, behaviors, languages, and postulations, which enable its operations to progress at the proper pace. Any action is considered an occupational deviance if important organizational rules are violated by it. Some examples of occupational deviance include: absenteeism, alcohol/drug abuse, abusing sick leaves, sabotage, filing false accident claims, rule-breaking, stealing, not working to…
Egelko, B. (2014, December 5). SFGate: San Francisco Bay Area - News, Bay Area news, Sports, Business, Entertainment, Classifieds - SFGate. 2 San Francisco police officers convicted of corruption - SFGate. Retrieved January 18, 2016, from http://www.sfgate.com/crime/article/Two-San-Francisco-police-officers-convicted-in-5937963.php
(n.d.). Insurance Journal - Property Casualty Insurance News. Tulsa, Oklahoma, Settles Police Corruption Case for $425K. Retrieved January 18, 2016, from http://www.insurancejournal.com/news/southcentral/2014/01/31/319049
Matthew, O., Chigozie, U., & Kosiso, A. (2014). Workplace Deviance: A Predictive study of Occupational Stress and Emotional Intelligence among Secondary School teachers. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4(12). Retrieved, from http://hrmars.com/hrmars_papers/Workplace_Deviance_A_Predictive
Counterproductive and Productive Behaviors
Defining Counterproductive and Productive Work Behavior
Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is defined by an employee's actions causing harm to either a coworker or their employer (reviewed by Krischer, Penney, and Hunter, 2010). The forms of CWB can vary considerably, from arguing with or ignoring coworkers, damaging equipment to sabotage the work of others, and reducing the amount of time spent at work. esearchers have proposed a number of theories that attempt to explain the psychological roots of CWB and these include an employee reacting emotionally to a perceived negative workplace event or condition, or simply seeking a desired outcome (manipulation).
Krischer, Penney, and Hunter (2010) argue that organizational psychology research has focused almost exclusively on an employee's affective response to negative events, to the exclusion of internal or instrumental motivations. Instrumental motivations for engaging in CWB could arise from an employee's attempts to cope…
Bennett, Rebecca J. And Robinson, Sandra L. (2000). Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 349-360.
Fodchuk, Katherine M. (2007). Work environments that negate counterproductive behaviors and foster organizational citizenship: Research-based recommendations for managers. Psychologist-Manager Journal, 10, 27-46.
Koster, Ferry and Sanders, Karin. (2006). Organizational citizens or reciprocal relationships? An empirical comparison. Personnel Review, 35, 519-537.
Krischer, Mindy M., Penney, Lisa M., and Hunter, Emily M. (2010). Can counterproductive work behaviors be productive? CWB as emotion-focused coping. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15, 154-166.
Hirschi's Social Bond Theory
Hirschi's social bonding theory argues that those persons who strong and abiding attachments to conventional society are less likely to deviate than persons who have shallow or weak bonds (Smangs, 2010). These bonds come in four interrelated forms, the first of which is attachment. Attachment, refers to the level of psychological affection one has for pro-social others and institutions. Parents and schools are of critical importance in this regard. Youths who form close attachments to their parents1 and schools will, by extension, experience greater levels of social control. The second type of bond is referred to as commitment. Commitment stresses the importance of the social relationships that people value, which they would not want to risk jeopardizing by committing criminal or deviant acts. People are less likely to misbehave when they know that they have something to lose. For juveniles, this could mean not wanting to…
"Key idea: Hirschi's social bond/social control theory." (NDI). Sage Publications. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/36812_5.pdf
Smangs, M. (2010, December) Delinquency, social skills, and the structure of peer relations: Assessing criminological theories by social network theory. Social Forces, Vol. 89, Issue 2, 609-631. University of North Carolina Press. Retrieved February 11, 2013, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=a9dcb4b0-c42c-4f64-8b67-c1a089b82105%40sessionmgr110&hid=108
Merton also incorporated Durkheim's observations of the difference between intrinsic motivation for work and economic profit and purely superficial extrinsic motivation for the tangible trappings of success and/or social status. Since post-Industrial evolution social values tended to focus so much more on acquisition and less on contributing to society through work, individuals experiencing psychosocial strains from the lack of available opportunities for legitimate work often sought to acquire the same outward social status through deviant and criminal means (Schmalleger, 2008).
The documentary traced the evolution of organized neighborhood protection and political rights organizations in vast criminal enterprises after the discovery of the economic profit potential associated with selling illicit narcotics. In Los Angeles, a parasitic relationship developed wherein the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) extracted protection money from the gangs while simultaneously increasing their official budget to upgrade their facilities and equipment on the basis of the increasing firepower and…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, R. (2005). Psychology and Life/. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Henslin, J. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Macionis, J.J. (2003). Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
society as we know exerts its influence on the affairs and behavior of human beings. Social influences encompass the changes that occur in attitudes, beliefs, and behavior that often result from interpersonal interactions. Conformity and obedience are key concepts that aid in explaining social influences. Concisely, conformity refers to the influence that the masses or the majority have over an individual (Collins, 2009). On the other hand, obedience is influence exerted by the state or an authority over its subjects. This essay will endeavor to compare and contrast these two forms of social influences and draw conclusions that will candidly show the difference between conformity and obedience.
Conformity and obedience bear some semblance with each other in the fact that they can both persuade, or inspire an individual to change one's behavior, actions and thoughts, as regards a specific situation. Another semblance between conformity and obedience lies in their ability…
Bleske-rechek, A.L. (1999). Obedience, Conformity, and Social Roles: Active Learning in a Large Introductory Psychology Class. Teaching of Psychology, 28(4), 260-262.
Burger, J.M., Neil J. Smelser & Paul B. Baltes. (2001). The psychology of social influence. In N.J. Smelser & P.B. Baltes (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Social Behavioral Sciences (pp. 14320-14325). Cambridge University Press.
Collins, S.D. (2009). Persuasion. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Fiske, S.T. (2010). Social beings: Core Motives in Social Psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ:
In those cases, "deviance" from socially accepted values would be considered a positive response rather than "delinquency" in an objective sense.
Alternate ideas, such as differential association formulated by Sutherland (Pfohl
1994), in particular, demonstrate that even in contemporary American society, social values are extremely subjective and that specific populations - most notably, incarcerated prisoners - form their own societal norms and shared values that contradict those of larger society and that those mores are as powerful and likely to shape future behavior among adolescents exposed to them for long periods (Scmalleger 1997).
Similarly, modern criminologists (Pinizzotto, et al. 2007) detail the extent to which violent criminal street gangs fulfill the same role as families of origin in many
American communities. Furthermore, many Baby Boomers of the so-called hippie generation also would seem to contradict Hirschi's theory in that, especially when viewed retrospectively, behavior that was considered "deviant" or "delinquent"…
Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, R.G. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th Ed.
New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Kerik, B.B. (2002) the Lost Son: A Life in Pursuit of Justice. New York: Harper Collins Macionis, J.J. (2003) Sociology 9th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Pfohl, S. (1994). Images of Deviance and Social Control. New York: McGraw-Hill
John ommel Case Study
Why would John be considered a deviant? What social foundations of deviance appear to be evident in this case study?
Deviance is defined as the recognized violation of cultural norms. Social deviance is defined as any behavior that violates the social norms within a culture or greater community. This behavior can be criminal but does not necessarily need to violate a law to qualify. Criminal acts such as theft or assault are common types of social deviance, but so are incidental behaviors like lying, excessive drinking, or nose picking. The theory of social deviance is the foundation of the study of criminology and splinters into three classes of deviant behavior: conflict, structural functionalism, and symbolic interactionism.
2.Examine the three theoretical foundations of deviance (structural-functional, symbolic-interaction, and social-conflict). Determine which foundation applied to John's situation, and why. Give specific examples.
British sociologist A.. adcliffe-Brown developed the structural-functionalism…
Kessel, DH (n.d.). Sociological theoretical perspectives. Retrieved from http://www.angelfire.com/or/sociologyshop/soctheopers.html
In its current form in the U.S., prostitution is associated with high rates of criminality, but that is likely a function of its illegal status more than of anything inherent in prostitution. Prostitution is also associated with high risks of STDs, but a closer examination of the specific factors to which that is attributable strongly suggest that legalizing prostitution can effectively eliminate that negative element. Ultimately, prevailing negative attitudes about legalized prostitution are much more reflective of the persistence of irrational social stigmas and antiquated definitions of social deviance that originated in the Victorian Age, if not even much earlier.
Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting ealistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:…
Ainsworth, M.. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Setting Realistic Priorities for AIDS Control in Less Developed Countries the Lancet (Vol. 367: 55-60) Baleta, a. (1998). Concern voiced over "dry sex" practices in Africa; the Lancet (Vol. 352:1292)
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Little Brown & Co.
Kaul, R., Kimani, J., Nagelkerk, N.J. (1997).Risk Factors for Genital Ulcerations in Kenyan Sex Workers Sexually Transmissible Diseases [Vol. 4: 24(7):387-392].
Just as parole programs typically restrict contact between offenders, a Differential Association-oriented delinquency prevention program would endeavor to prohibit the formation of deviant groups and criminally-prone gangs.
The specific mechanisms for intervention would include sentencing juvenile offenders to mandatory suspension of social relationships deemed capable of precipitating delinquent or criminal conduct in lieu of harsher penalties. Another mechanism might be the strict enforcement of particular municipal codes, such as ordinances prohibiting the public assembly of groups of individuals or the promulgation of such legislation for that purpose where existing legislation is lacking in that regard.
Likewise, the strict enforcement of other commonly overlooked activities technically prohibited by ordinance, such as the timely vacating of parks promptly at closing time, loitering on private commercial property adjacent to convenience stores, and truancy statutes would all be incorporated into a Differential Association-oriented approach to delinquency prevention.
More generally, that concept of delinquency prevention…
Henslin, J. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach Boston: Allyn
Macionis, J. (2003). Sociology 9th Ed New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., Miller, C. (2007). "Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
In this view, the fact that underprivileged subcultures already promoted a different set of social values emphasizing "street smarts" and toughness instead of socially productive attributes and goals combined with the substitution of deviant role models for father figures is a significant source of criminal conduct, particularly in poor communities (Adler, Mueller & Laufer, 2008).
Other modern sociological perspectives began reconsidering crime and other forms of socially deviant behavior as primarily a function of individual psychology.
However, whereas earlier theories of individual responsibility focused on the role of rational choice, the modern approach viewed crime much more as a function of the cumulative psychological effects on the individual of the consequences of social labeling.
Furthermore, it has been suggested that much of the difference in crime rates in underprivileged communities also relates directly to the different types of characterizations and institutional responses to different types of crime in American society.…
John Adler, John Mueller, and John Laufer. Criminology (6th Edition). City, State:
McGraw-Hill, 2008. MLA
Adler J, Mueller J, and Laufer J. (2008). Criminology (6th Edition). City, State: McGraw-Hill. APA
One study examined 595 participants, who filled out questionnaires for the research and concluded that social bonding issues play a part in social deviance including the use of drugs and alcohol (Pawlak, 1993).
elating Theory to Social Issue
elating the two criminology theories to the current social issue of adolescent substance abuse, is relatively easy to do. In each of the theories, studies have been conducted to ascertain the amount, if any, of substance abuse that the theories support. Both of the theories have relatively clear markers for how they impact the possibility of adolescent substance abuse.
The research into the labeling theory, clearly indicates that adolescents often develop their self-image by the reaction of society to their existence. If a teenager believes he is labeled as a problem, or a throw-away child, he will most likely develop poor self-esteem, and one of the consequences of that low self-esteem,…
Harrison, Larry R (1997) Control theory, labeling theory, and the delivery of services for drug abuse to adolescents. Adolescence Marcos, a.C., & Johnson, R.E. (1988). Cultural patterns and causal processes in adolescent drug use: The case of Greeks vs. Americans. The International Journal of the Addictions, 23, 545-572.
Ray, M.C., & Downs, W.R. (1986). An empirical test of labeling theory using longitudinal data. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 23, 169-194.
Pawlak, Rebecca (1993) Effects of social bonds and childhood experiences on alcohol abuse and smoking. The Journal of Social Psychology
Every person has thought, at least once in their life, that it would be nice if there were no disease, no crime, no poverty, and/or for some other improvement in the Human condition. Since everyone has dreamed of a better world, it is fair to say that Humanity has a common dream. While no two humans are exactly the same, we are all of one race, the human race, and we all share the experience of life in an essentially identical carbon-based life-form structure. We all work for continuing survival while in this structure, and hope for a happy, safe, and good life for ourselves and for our loved ones. Therefore, everyone has a common desire for the best life attainable."
Extreme gaps exist between the rich and the poor around the globe and, in particular, in the United States. Reports of the corporate earnings of executives…
Given this, and without falling down the slippery slope of moral relativism, we must therefore recognize that one group's behaviors, and the meanings attached to those behaviors will always provoke a negative reaction among some other group.
Nevertheless, if we do not fall prey to moral relativism and therefore, do recognize that some behavior - at least according to our belief system - is wrong, we must treat cultural "deviants" as humanely and justly as possible. In an ideal society, we should also act pro-actively and engage in societal reform to reduce the extent of social deviance in the first instance.
Jon Will, "Utopian Philosophy." Utopia Now Studies. July 20, 2002. http://users.erols.com/jonwill/ .
Patty's introduction to prostitution certainly reinforces this notion: it became a part of her life as a result of her social situation and a perceived necessity. Still, more fervent moral positions against prostitution, in the Untied States, often come from Christianity. Obviously, it violates the general principles of Christianity to pay for sexual intercourse; however, it is also a violation of Christian principles to engage in premarital sex, extramarital sex, homosexual sex, or even masturbation. Notably, none of these actions are illegal in the United States -- or at least the antiquated laws pertaining to them are not enforced -- and of them, only homosexuality is ever regularly regarded as a form of social deviance; though this too is a matter of debate. Ultimately, viewing prostitution as a moral crime from the standpoint of Christianity fails miserably, because doing so would require accepting that law should be solely determined by…
Brown, Stephen E. et al. (1991). Criminology: Explaining Crime and its Context. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing.
Dash, Leon. (1996). Rosa Lee: a Mother and Her Family in Urban America. New York: Basic.
Pagliaro, Ann Marie and Louis A. Pagliaro. (2000). Substance Use among Women. Lillington: Brunner/Mazel.
Schlaadt, Richard G. (1992). Wellness: Drugs, Society, & Behavior. Guilford: Dushkin.
Domestic Violence at the Root
This presents as the most important issue for family dissolution or divorce among low-income families (Haskins et al. 2005). Research conducted by Kathrun Edin and her team found that many poor mothers are willing to bear children even for men they consider unsuitable for marriage. Often, it is because these women believe they are in love with these men and that having children may improve these men's attitude in the long-term. ut these women are aware that their boyfriends or cohabiters have problems with forging long-term relationships. Quarrels often grow out of chronic infidelity, physical abuse, alcoholism and drug addiction, criminal activity and imprisonment. Research showed that these men harbor similar doubts about their women (Haskins et al.).
Some of the problems in these situations and relationships may be managed by quality marriage education when combined with employment, mental health and other support services…
Bergmann, Barbara R. The Economic Consequences of the Decline of Marriage.
Working Paper 0818, Department of Economics: Johannes Kepler University of Linz, 2008. Retrieved on December 11, 2009 from http://www.econ.jku.at/papers/2008/wp0818.pdf
Haskins, Ron et al. The Decline of Marriage: What to Do. Princeton-Brookings:
Princeton University, 2005. Retrieved on December 11, 2009 from Http://www.heartland.org/custom/semod_policybot/pdf/19317.pdf
Conversely, many individuals with comparatively fewer social benefits and apparent opportunities manage to overcome their disadvantages and achieve economic, educational, and vocational success and satisfaction.
However, criminal law is neither particularly well designed nor equipped to address the disparate influences on individuals with respect to the specific factors related to criminal conduct and the relative social advantages and disadvantages available to individuals. By definition, criminal law primarily serves three principal functions
(already described); except for the deterrence component, it is not specifically intended to address the causal factors underlying criminal conduct (Schmalleger, 2001). Admittedly, therefore, criminal law essentially ignores the root causes of the conduct it is intended to redress, notwithstanding the valuable role it plays with regard to doing so, after the fact.
The responsibility of addressing the myriad social factors and societal inequities that contribute to the actual causes underlying criminal conduct do not fall within the purview…
Friedman, L.M. (2005) a History of American Law. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston:
Adolescents with poor problem-solving skills are at greater risk of suicide, according to an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (Grover, et al., 2009). The authors concentrate on the problem of "chronic stress" in adolescents, saying it involves "deprivation or disadvantage" that is ongoing and those dynamics create a "continuous stream of threats and challenges" for the adolescent. The therapy in this research? Counselors, therapists, parents and teachers all need to help adolescents learn "well-developed problem-solving abilities" in order to "buffer the negative impact of both episodic and chronic stress…" (Grover, p. 1286).
Earlier in this paper it was asserted that up to 20% of adolescents in the U.S. will encounter some form of depression due to stress. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggests that the best treatment for severely depressed youths is a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication; that formula works better than either…
Bradley, Kristen. (2002). Survey Shows High Levels of Teen Stress. International Child and Youth Care Network. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.cyc-net.org/today2002/today021016.html .
Byrne, D.G., and Mazanov, J. (1999). Sources of Adolescent Stress, Smoking and the Use of other Drugs. Stress and Health, 15(4), 215-227.
Cherry, Kendra. (2009). What Is Emotional Intelligence? About.com. Psychology. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com .
Ciarrochi, Joseph, Deane, Frank P., and Anderson, Stephen. (2001). Emotional Intelligence
In that regard, Agnew's version of strain theory no longer explains the marked difference in male and female homicide rates, simply because it downplays the importance of the types of strains described by Merton. Whereas Merton's strains were associated more with the types of failures more likely to be experienced by males, Agnew's strains included many types of strains that, at least arguably, could be said to plague females even more than males.
Merton conceived of the source of strain as predominantly a function of identity roles and social success as defined in the cultural environment; Agnew added the many other sources of potential strain that relate to expectations of the individual rather than necessarily of society (Macionis 2003). More specifically, Agnew (1992) suggested that individuals vary substantially from one another and form many elements of their ideal "role model" more autonomously: whereas some individuals (of either gender) may value…
Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory. Criminology, Vol. 30, No.1, pp. 47-87.
Broidy, L. (2001). Test of General Strain Theory; Criminology, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 9-35
Dugan, L., Nagin, D., Rosenfeld, R. (1999). Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The Effects of Changing Domesticity, Women's Status, and Domestic Violence Resources; Homicide Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 187-214. Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 17th Edition.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
social structures exert a definite pressure upon certain persons in the society to engage in nonconformist rather than conformist conduct," (Merton, 1938, p. 672). With his own italics emphasizing the stress and strain that social structures can produce in the individual, obert Merton outlines the basis of strain and stress theories. Stress is a natural part of life; it is how people cope with stress or react to it that matters most. Individual differences in background, situational variables, and also personality and psychological traits can also impact how people deal with stress and respond to stressors. However, some people will naturally encounter more stressors and more strain than others. Merton and other sociologists who recognized the value of strain theory showed how poverty and other structural variables cause stress and strain, and can often be the cause for behavioral problems including criminality. Yet once a person has been labeled a…
Agnew, R. & Scheuerman, H. (2015). Strain theories. Retrieved online: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0005.xml
"Labeing Theory," (n.d.). Retrieved online: https://www.d.umn.edu/~bmork/2306/Theories/BAMlabeling.htm
McLeod, S. (2010). Stressful life events. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/SRRS.html
Merton, R.K. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review 3(5): 672-682.
Sociological and Therapeutic Implications of the Brain Disease
Inspiration for professionals who authored the account on chronic brain illnesses came from findings on drugs' impacts on the human brain. The assurance that strong anti-addiction medicines can be found appeared great. The budding scientific branch, addiction biology, implies that addiction --a condition which starts off with the clear, intentional decision to have a go at drugs, spiraling quickly down to an irrepressible, involuntary state --would now be considered seriously, and forever, as an ailment. Using this knowledge, authors hoped to sensitize lawmakers as well as the society to drug-addicts' needs, including improved coverage of private insurance and public treatment access. The agenda also included moderating of puritanical outlooks and smoothing of penal law enforcement. The neuro-centric approach supports unjustified optimism with regard to pharmaceutical treatments, overrating the requirement of professional aid. Conditions characteristically remitted in young adulthood are branded as "chronic."…
Clark, M. (2011).Conceptualizing addiction: How useful is the construct. International Journal of Humanities & Social Science, 1(13), 55-64.
Deviance and Addiction. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://alcoholrehab.com/addiction-articles/deviance-and-addiction/
GOODE, E. (2011, March 19). THE SOCIOLOGY OF DRUG USE. Retrieved November 17, 2015, from https://edge.sagepub.com/system/files/Ballantine5e_6.2SK_0.pdf
May, C. (2001).Pathology, Identity and the Social Construction of Alcohol Dependence Sociology 35, 385-40.
Bolohead is discussed in the story is Bolohead ow where Keeaumoku ended at Kapiolani, which was right in front of one of the area's shopping centers, Ala Moana. Bolohead owers were detailed later on in the book around page 60. The narrator mentions old-school Bolohead owers and that the majority of them spoke with this kind of heavy, pidgin accent. They grew up before television became the nation's pastime. They essentially were old, growing up in the "Stone Age" before the invention of SUVs with DVD and TVs in the backseats. Eddie would have been considered the quintessential Bolohead and it showed with the author's choice of dialog for the character. Instead, confusing words like "how," Eddie said "ho" and "rememba" instead of "remember." "
Boloheads are also another name for bald heads and also described old, nearsighted men. Boloheads deviated from normalcy within the book by speaking pidgin and…
Armstrong, M., & Inouye, J. (2013). Depression and Chronic Illness: Asian/Pacific Islander Adults in Hawaii. Issues In Mental Health Nursing, 34(3), 169. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/01612840.2012.738356
McKinney, C. (2005). Bolohead row. Honolulu, Hawaii: Mutual Pub.
Mitchell, R. (2015). Robert Herrick, Victorian Poet: Christina Rossetti, George Meredith, and the Victorian Recovery of Hesperides. Modern Philology,113(1), 88-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/681024
Thio, A., Calhoun, T., & Conyers, A. (2013). Deviance today. Boston: Pearson.
As with the general cultural perspective permeating academics and the life sciences in the early 20th century, theories on female criminality are pointedly sexist in nature and descend from an aggressively patriarchal view point. As we find in biologically driven models proposed by figures such as Lombroso, there is a proclivity to view female criminals through a completely different lens specifically informed by abnormalities or variations in femininity. According to Hamilton (1999), Lombroso "described criminal women as biologically dysfunctional. He believed that female deviants lacked maternal instincts, exhibited atavistic characteristics, and bore more masculine physical features, such as an excess of body hair." (Hamilton, p. 1) Taking this notion yet a step further, Freud argues that women prone to crime are abnormal not just in their deviation from femininity but in their penis envy. The view that female mental disorder descends from the desire to be male is,…
Hamilton, M. (1999). Theorist: Freda Adler. FSU.edu.
Harris, M.K. (1998). Women's Imprisonment in the United States. Corrections Today.
Hedeen, M. (2012). Bail Hearing for Woman Accused of Threatening Obama Adjoured. YNN.
moral panic, especially with regard to those who are transgender in the society.
The Moral Panic of Transgender
The Grassroots Model describes moral panic as that which arises from a society's spontaneous reaction to what the society perceived to be morally deviant behavior. The deviance is perceived to be a danger to the society's moral fiber and this creates a lot of stress, which can lead to anger. This stress may not have an avenue to be expressed directly (Social Context Moral Entrepreneurs, n.d.). When the displacement of these anxieties happens, there may be direction of the same to the social deviants as they are regarded as the cause of all this. Kai Erickson, in her book 'the Wayward Puritans', demonstrates this when she relates how the people of Massachusetts Bay Colony went back to witch-hunting as a way to direct the anxiety that arose from social deviance.
Abowd-Chicago, M. (2013, November 5). Futurity: Research News from Top Universities. How transgender policy sets off 'gender panic' - Futurity. Retrieved December 4, 2015, from http://www.futurity.org/transgender-news-can-spark-gender-panic/
Social Context Moral Entrepreneurs Document (n. d.)
U.S. PDF Document (n. d.).
Wake Up; Take a Shower; Take Breakfast With Other Family Members
Arrive at the bank; pick a waiting ticket; interaction with service staff; a member of staff in the next counter is having a difficult time with a customer
9:00 am: Arrive at my girlfriend's house; help her with laundry and other household chores; watch a movie together
12:30 pm: Having lunch with my girlfriend in a restaurant; in an adjacent table three women are talking about their dating experiences with men in different cultures
2:00 pm: At the parking lot a beggar stops me; he tells me he has no home or family
7:00 pm: Watching evening news -- robbery at a local store and unnecessary shooting of an innocent Black man by a White police officer
Sociology demonstrates that people's daily lives are shaped and constrained by the society (Dillon, 2010). By interacting with and/or watching other…
Dillon, M. (2010). Introduction to sociological theory: theorists, concepts, and their applicability to the twenty-first century. UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Hurst, C., Gibbon, H., & Nurse, A. (2016). Social inequality: forms, causes and consequences. 9th ed. New York: Routledge.
Williams, C. (2003). Sky demands: the demands of emotional labour in the airline industry. Gender, Work & Organisation, 10(5), 513-550.
And it is those negative consequences that could, in the long-term, create alterations in those original basic values. Finally, there is Merton's self-defeating prophecy. Worry about being afraid of some consequence motivates people to take action before the problem exists. The non-occurrence of that problem they acted against, is not anticipated as a possibility.
It is interesting to note here that it is not improbable that the reader of this can place himself or herself in several of these situations and, therefore, see the accuracy, and the depth and complexity of Merton's postulations and conclusions.
Manifest and latent functions were first defined by Merton for the science of sociology. He was attempting to focus on the conceptual practices employed in a functional analysis. Functional analysis is the study of the individual elements of a functioning societal structure such as its customs, traditions and institutions. As Herbert Spencer, a 19th century…
Berger, P.L. Excerptom Invitation to Sociology. New York: Doubleday, 1963.
Calhoun, C. "Robert K. Merton Remembered." March 2003. asanet.org. 27 January 2010 .
Crothers, Charles. Robert K. Merton. Oxford, UK: Taylor & Francis, 1987.
Hollander, J. "Renowned Columbia Sociologist and Nationsl Medal of Science Winner Robert K. Merton Dies at 92." 25 February 2003. Columbia University News. 27 January 2010 .
Mental illness appears in various forms. It is characterized by some serious disruptions in someone's thoughts or even demonstrated in their actions. The person presenting these symptoms is often unable to deal with the day-to-day activities and patterns of a normal life. Mental illness can take over 200 forms each having an effect on the patient's disposition, character, traits, and even the way they interact with others. Some of the common forms of mental illness are 'schizophrenia', 'depression,' 'bipolar disorders' and 'dementia'. Taylor and Brown (1988) state that mental illness can be presented in a psychological, emotional way and even in physical symptoms. A person under severe stress due to dealing with an incident or series of stressors' build-up over time is prone to mental illness. A person may also present symptoms of mental illness through a biochemical imbalance, a negative reaction to his environment, and the pressures accrued thereby,…
Bartlett, A., & McGauley, G. (2010). Forensic mental health: Concepts, systems, and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Clinic, M. (2015, October 13). Mental illness. Retrieved December 7, 2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/mental-illness/basics/definition/CON-20033813
Corrigan, P. W., Morris, S., Larson, J., Rafacz, J., Wassel, A., Michaels, P., ... Rusch, N. (2010). SELF-STIGMA AND COMING OUT ABOUT ONE'S MENTAL ILLNESS. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(3), 259-275. http://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20363
Dowrick. C., Dunn. G., Ayuso-Mateos.J et al. (2000). Problem-solving treatment and group psycho-education for depression: multicenter randomized controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 321, 1450-4
According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).
A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…
Bar-on, R. (2002). Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems
Erikson, E (1956) "The problem of ego identity" (pdf) Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: 56 -- 121
Kotter, J & Cohen, D (2002) the Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations Harvard Business Review Press
Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511
The challenges families face include lack of social support, lack of guidance, lack of information, prejudice, and hostility. Gender roles and norms are entrenched in the society, making it difficult for children and their parents to resist or subvert conformity. The media and all social institutions perpetuate gender roles and norms. Yet when parents are willing to encourage gender fluidity or gender nonconformity, children and their parents are liberated from constraints to their creativity and self-expression. Specific challenges to resisting conformity include locating gender-neutral toys and games for young children, and finding strong social support networks for the child and the parents. Gender neutrality scares people for many reasons, not least of which is its perceived kinship with homosexuality, but also its being symbolic of social deviance. A person who does not fit into the neatly arranged categories of male and female may be viewed as an outright threat…
Duron, L. (2013) Raising My Rainbow. New York: Random House.
Kuhn, S. (2014). Breaking free of gender stereotypes. She Knows. Retrieved online: http://www.sheknows.com/parenting/articles/1033051/raising-a-gender-neutral-child
Lucas-Stannard, P. (2012). Gender Neutral Parenting.
Martin, K.A. (2005). William wants a doll. Gender and Society 19(4), 456-479.
Individuals who are sexually harassed at work experience stress. It is now more common knowledge that stress manifests itself physically in our bodies. Thus, persons who are sexually harassed may have aches, pains, headaches, muscle tensions, digestive problems, and actually, a very large array of physical symptoms that stem from additional stress experienced at work. The relationships of those who are sexually harassed suffer as well. People who are sexually harassed suffer from diminished self-esteem and perhaps also depression. These people withdraw and avoid social gatherings, withdraw from their friends and families, and participate less in group activities, including work meetings. The lack of physical and social contact can cause further psychological and emotional damage to a person who is already suffering. (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Workplace Violence and Harassment: a European Picture, Chapter 5)
The organisation where the harassment took place will suffer as well.…
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Workplace Violence and Harassment: a European Picture. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2010.
European Commission, Directorate General for Employment, Industry Relations, and Social Affairs. Sexual harassment in the workplace in the European Union. Publications of Employment and Social Affairs, The Netherlands, 1998.
Loutfi, Martha Fetherolf Ed. Women, Gender, and Work. International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland, 2001.
ole and Evolution of the American Prison System
Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime
The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…
Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921
Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727
Dina R. Rose & Todd R. Clear (2006). Incarceration, Social, Capital, & Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory. Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 441-480.
Escresa - Guillermo, Laarni (2011) Reexamining the Role of Incarceration and Stigma in Criminal Law. Law and economics, criminal law, stigma, social norms, behavioral economics.
Girls is an ethnographic documentary detailing a female rite of passage in a small island community in the Niger River delta in Africa. The film's purpose is primarily to illustrate the conflicts that emerge as cultures find themselves perched between two worlds: the world of old customs and traditions, and the world of globalized culture and its customs, values, and norms. However, Monday's Girls is also about gender issues, and how gender issues are at the forefront of every culture's ability to remain relevant. The film touches upon many related issues such as cultural relativism, and the filmmakers show that it is difficult to make a clear judgment for or against preserving traditions like those of the Waikiriki.
Rather than suggest a clear moral stance about the female rite of passage, the filmmakers illustrate the complexities and ambiguities involved in studying culture. Even within its own people, there are sometimes…
Self-esteem must be combined with other components of emotional distress, such as the factors which affect perceptions of the self and of other peers. Factors should include competence, confidence, and acceptance, among others.
Behaviors that are considered to be negative by society may not be the factors that most strongly affect self-perceptions and self-esteem, however. As noted by Mosley (1995), factors which are interpreted and internalized as negative will have a significant impact on self-esteem, even if they are not socially irresponsible. Mosley's example is that adolescent receipt of welfare is associated with lower levels of perceived self-worth. Mosley notes the importance of self-esteem on the mental health and ability of children and adolescents, as noted in previous research (Wilson & Portes, 1975 as cited in Mosley, 1995). Rosenberg and Pearlin (1978) found little relationship between social class and self-esteem, while other researchers have found conclusive links between income/class and…
The traditional two-dimensional views of self-esteem must be abandoned for it to be an effectual method of measure. High self-esteem does not necessarily create a healthy adolescent. Campbell and Foddis (2003) notes the high levels of self-esteem in murderers, rapists, and other social deviants. In these cases, the perpetrator may be affected by perception of others as inferior, therefore justifying his or her actions, or may be affected by the perception of self, regardless of self-esteem. How high one's perception of self is may be an accurate way to determine the likelihood of social deviance. Of course, there are many other factors to be considered as well.
Most research does not take all, or even many, of the factors necessary for developing an understanding of the adolescent situation. Taking a global approach to self-esteem that would include perceptions of the self and perceptions of others, as well as self-esteem levels, may reveal some understanding of adolescent reactions and behavior. The proposed research being approached presently would take global factors into consideration rather than merely focusing on one or two individual factors which would not reveal a complete picture.
The perception of
One of the primary functions of ghosts in James' and harton's short stories is as human conscience: to bring the unconscious into conscious awareness and to evoke guilt, shame, or fear. For the governess in "The Turn of the Screw," the ghosts symbolize sexual awakening and social deviance. From the time she arrives at Bly, the governess learns of Miles' misbehavior at school, mischievous behavior that Mrs. Grose attributes to normal adolescence. However, the narrator views the ghosts with increasing suspicion, believing them to herald the social and sexual corruption of Miles' youth. Similarly, Miss Jessel is depicted as having been promiscuous and the governess views her apparition partly as a symbol of unconscious sexual desires. Spencer Brydon's ghost serves a more direct psychological purpose in James' "The Jolly Corner," as the protagonist's own conscience symbolizing the life he never lived and the choices he never took. In both cases,…
James, Henry. "The Turn of the Screw." Ghost Stories of Henry James.
James, Henry. "The Jolly Corner." Ghost Stories of Henry James.
Wharton, Edith. "The Lady Maid's Bell." Ghost Stories of Edith Wharton.
Wharton, Edith. "Afterward." Ghost Stories of Edith Wharton.
Against School by John Taylor Gatto
The article is written by a former teacher who retired and hence recounts his experiences and tribulations in the teaching profession. He also airs his observations of the system and the shortcomings that he feels are in the system. He also suggests various ways through which the education system in America can be adjusted to fit the needs of the nation and of the children involved in the system.
Having taught for thirty years, Taylor indicates that there is nothing more commonly shared among children than boredom. It is an event that cuts across the children and the teachers with each side having the other side to blame. The most outstanding reason however is the education system that confines the teachers and the children to a routine for twelve years in compulsory program. The boredom comes from a predictable schedule and content by both…
Christina C. & George D. (2008). Literacy Changes Lives: The Role of Literacy in Offending Behavior -- A discussion piece. National Literacy Trust. Retrieved October 13, 2012 from http://www.literacytrust.org.uk/assets/0000/0422/Literacy_changes_lives__prisons.pdf
Fitzgerald C., (2012). Adult and Family literacy in the U.S.; limitations to our Nation's success. Retrieved October 13, 2012 from http://www.scilearn.com/blog/low-literacy-united-states.php
Literacy and Policing in Canada, (2012). The link Between Low Literacy and Crime. Retrieved October 13, 2012 from http://policeabc.ca/files/factsheets_englishPDFs/Ch02FactSheet02.pdf
Taylor J., (2003). Against School: How public education cripples our kids, and why. Retrieved October 13, 2012 fromhttp://www.wesjones.com/gatto1.htm
Social Ordinance: A Means to Foster a Spirit of Community
There are usually a set of social features that are provided to man so as to regulate their behavior according to the norms and values that have been set. Some people in a community might fail to conform to these norms. The failure to conform to these norms that have been set within the community is termed as deviant behavior. In short, the violation of law that is in existence within the society is known as deviant behavior. Deviant behavior in a community includes criminal behavior, drug abuse, and gang membership and so on.
Description of changed deviant behavior
These deviant behaviors are not permanent as people who exhibit these behaviors change their ways at some point in their life. People end up changing their deviant behavior and become completely different people in the society. These people get tired of…
Kai T. Erikson (nd). On the Socialogy of Deviance. Retrieved August 28, 2012 from http://fasnafan.tripod.com/sociologyofdeviance.pdf
The Connexions Project, (2014). Deviance, Crime and Social Control. Retrieved August 28, 2012 from http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/SOC101_Introduction-to-Sociology_Chapter-7.pdf
Social Control Theory of Juvenile Delinquency
Travis Hirschi's Social Control theory of deviance assumes that deviant behavior is largely a function of the connectedness of the individual to his or her society; more specifically, Hirschi's assumptions are that juvenile delinquency, and criminal deviance more generally, are inversely related to the following elements of connectedness between the individual and the community: involvement, commitment, attachment, and belief (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002).
Structure of Theory
Hirschi used the concept of involvement to describe the manner and extent to which the individuals takes part in the so-called "conventional" activities, such as extracurricular school functions and other organized opportunities for socially productive youth recreation available in the community (Macionis, 2008). Hirschi used the concept of commitment, to describe the basic "acceptance" in the most general senses, of fundamental social and behavioral norms, values, and expectations in the individual's community…
Akers, R.L., and Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction,
Evaluation, and Application. California: Roxbury Publishing Company.
Button, D.M. "Social Disadvantage and Family Violence: Neighborhood Effects on Attitudes about Intimate Partner Violence and Corporal Punishment." American
Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 33 (2008):130 -- 147.