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What organizational form (e.g. non-profit, foundation, government, NGO, for-profit, partnership organization, hybrid) is the best for your organization and why?
We believe that forming our combined nursery home and children's home program as a nonprofit organization (NPO) is the preferable choice because this organizational form provides our project with a number of tangible and intangible benefits. As a nonprofit organization, our nursery/children's home would retain the ability to accept both private donations from individual citizens, as well as governmental funding in the form of grants and subsidies. Furthermore, because the stated goal and mission of our nursery/children's home project is to honor Turkey's culture of collectivism, seeking nonprofit status is the most appropriate course of action. Because the community at large would be able to contribute to our cause, in the form of monetary donations and volunteering their time, becoming a nonprofit organization is the best choice for…
Some people are mystified and confused by what it means to be a social entrepreneur or otherwise in a social business. However, it is just a matter of innovation and creating social change. However, rather than just simple innovation in a business context, there is actual social change through a business context. ather than just look at the utility of something, one can also look at the social and international implications. The light bulb created change in a lot of lives but social media and the internet (and its associated innovations) have probably created a lot more change out there for everyone to wield and use for themselves. There are also those that bend the proverbial bracket when it comes to the supposed limits in life. Some may think this is overblown, but visionaries like Elon Musk and Muhammad Yunus are just two examples of this in action.…
Ashoka.org,. (2015). What is a Social Entrepreneur? | Ashoka - Innovators for the Public. Retrieved 6 May 2015, from https://www.ashoka.org/social_entrepreneur
Sarker, Z. (2015). Social Business. Muhammadyunus.org. Retrieved 6 May 2015, from http://www.muhammadyunus.org/index.php/social-business/social-business
The people of Singapore see charity as totally altruistic and does not include notions of sustainability and corporatization to maximize full potentials. Therefore, more work is needed in educating the public and government in understanding the proper administration of a social enterprise (ibid.).
We need to consider theories on social entrepreneurship before we link our blueprint to them. One theory known as the triple bottom line (3Ps-People, Planet and Profit) which measures corporate social entrepreneurship of organizations such as charity foundations and apply corporate finance and economic calculations to measure the efficiency of social organizations. The modern perspective of social entrepreneurship is slightly altered in U.S.. There is also the model provided by the William and Melinda Gates Foundation operate where money no longer goes to governments and the ministries who determine how the charitable institutions will decide on how to spend the money. Unfortunately, many governments waste a lot…
Hian, L.. (2007). Our charity sector: Uniquely Singapore -- F1 or F9?. Available:
http://theonlinecitizen.com/2007/06/uniquely-singapore-f1-or-f9-our-charity-sector/ . Last
accessed 13 February 2012.
Leong, B.. (2006). Can Social Entrepreneurship take off in Singapore?. Available:
Western sanitation facilities, for example, are expected to be white, clean, and indoors. In the United States, for example, we expect every home to have its own faucet and running water. In Sudan, however, the expectations for design and infrastructure are different. By working directly in local communities and employing residents to help with every phase of planning and construction, the NWP is able to capture local design features. Many water projects in the Sudan are outdoors, since many residents are transient or housed in temporary homes. Water taps are more likely to be centrally located so that surrounding homes can share access. Women, notorious for being the primary water-gatherers in Africa, may in fact benefit from the social nature of shared access to water; gathering with ones neighbors in the daily ritual of fetching water may provide critical community cohesion. Thus, while design is not an explicit piece of…
Much likes business however, an opportunity must be identified, resources gathered, and utilized in the most efficient manner. Unlike traditional business, the major motive for social entrepreneurs is not that of profit, but instead that of "social value creation."
A social entrepreneur that has been instrumental in furthering the industry and its efforts is Dr. Abraham M. George. Dr. George is the founder of The George Foundation, whose sole purpose is to help illuminate poverty, while promoting health in India. In addition to promoting health, the TGF also helps to provide a cleaner environment, while strengthening democratic ties within India. Serving more than 16,000 people in 17 villages, TGF has allowed individuals within India to live a higher quality of life. TGF's poverty alleviation projects are designed to improve education and health care delivery, offer amenities such as proper housing and adequate water resources, and create employment and sufficient income…
1) Abraham George - Uncovering the Truth Behind Poverty . (n.d.). Retrieved 11-04, 2011, from blogspot.com: http://www.abrahamgeorge.blogspot.com/
2) The George Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved 11-05, 2011, from TGF WORLD: http://www.tgfworld.org/officials.html
he Robin Hood Foundation has the mission to be a more efficient charity. hey believe that the limited pool of charitable donations can work more efficiently, and thereby bring more benefit to the recipients. he main mechanism of change is professional assistance - Robin Hood brings more than money to the table, they corral the skills of corporate partners to donate professional assistance to projects that would without it be less effective. In doing this, Robin Hood seeks to fight poverty by pulling people out of it. heir corporate partners donate time and skills in order to provide the management assistance that many charitable projects lack. Robin Hood also acts as a fundraising arm, securing donations from corporate backers.
Robin Hood's books are balanced. he company takes in substantially more than it spends, and 92.4% of donations are used in its programs. Primarily a fund-raising and resource-marshalling organization, Robin Hood…
The SEC is likely to face a budget crunch. The present economic situation is likely to result in a decrease in donations. Already, they are expecting to contract their budget in 2009. Cost reductions are the only real solution that can be enacted in the short run. The key strength of the organization is the skill of its principles, which have been leveraged to deliver genuine solutions and secure a supply of volunteer Western labor. This organization is an example of social enterprise because it moves beyond mere aid and works to create entrepreneurship that will spur social and economic development within the community.
The Robin Hood Foundation has the mission to be a more efficient charity. They believe that the limited pool of charitable donations can work more efficiently, and thereby bring more benefit to the recipients. The main mechanism of change is professional assistance - Robin Hood brings more than money to the table, they corral the skills of corporate partners to donate professional assistance to projects that would without it be less effective. In doing this, Robin Hood seeks to fight poverty by pulling people out of it. Their corporate partners donate time and skills in order to provide the management assistance that many charitable projects lack. Robin Hood also acts as a fundraising arm, securing donations from corporate backers.
Robin Hood's books are balanced. The company takes in substantially more than it spends, and 92.4% of donations are used in its programs. Primarily a fund-raising and resource-marshalling organization, Robin Hood does not have income earning activity of its own. The major challenges going forward will be to maintain donation levels as corporate backers suffer the economic downturn. Robin Hood has a financial cushion to deal with some downturn in donations, but will likely also need to lean more heavily on securing management assistance in lieu of financial donations in order to maintain its effectiveness. Robin Hood still has a sound managerial approach as its main assets. This appeals to corporate backers and allows them to be more efficient than other organizations. It can leverage this to win more corporate backers, who will relate better to the Robin Hood approach than the approach of other similar fundraising organizations. Robin Hood is not a social enterprise. They are a fundraising and resource provider for social enterprises, but they themselves are not one. They are a facilitator of social enterprise.
Social entrepreneurship is becoming the gold standard in nonprofit management for several reasons. One, social entrepreneurship does not preclude profitability or sound strategic management. This attracts investors in ways that traditional nonprofits cannot do. Second, social entrepreneurship extricates itself from the entanglements with government, philanthropy, politically problematic or faith-based fundraising (Stecker, 2014). Third, social entrepreneurship has staying power, allowing the social enterprise to better weather economic downturns or penetrating new markets and regulatory environments (Stecker, 2014).
Because by definition, a social enterprise is managed using evidence-based and proven business principles, it is a more attractive investment. A social enterprise can freely “generate revenue to ensure financial viability,” in ways traditional nonprofits cannot do (Stevens, Moray & Brunel, 2014, p. 1051). The social mission is not secondary; it is still primary to the operations strategy. However, the social mission is promoted and sustained through effective strategic management and operations.
Osberg, S.R. & Martin, R.L. (2015). Two keys to sustainable social enterprise. HBR. May 2015. Retrieved online: https://hbr.org/2015/05/two-keys-to-sustainable-social-enterprise
Stecker, M. J. (2014). Revolutionizing the nonprofit sector through social entrepreneurship. Journal of Economic Issues, 48(2), 349–358.
Stevens, R., Moray, N. & Bruneel, J. (2014). The social and economic mission of social enterprises. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 39(5): 1051-1082.
A Description of the UN s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Economic Development
The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of case of an existing social enterprise, the UN’s Department of Economic and Social Affairs, as well as an examination concerning how entrepreneurial practices are introduced in response to social problems at this organization. A brief history of this organization is followed by descriptions of the social challenge it is tasked with addressing and the business model that it uses for this purpose. Finally, a discussion concerning the conflict between the organization’s social and economic purposes and the corresponding issues which were identified that remain to be resolved is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the UN’s Department of Economic and Social Affairs and its mission in the paper’s concluding section.
Review and Analysis
1. History of Social Enterprise
Originally founded in…
‘About us.’ (2020). UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. [online] available: https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/about.html .
‘At UN Summit, World Rulers Adopt Agenda for Global Socialism.’ (2015, October 19). The New American, vol. 31, no. 20, p. 8.
Krisberg, K (2015, November-December). ‘New 15-year goals support healthier lives for world\\'s population: Poverty targeted.’ The Nation\\'s Health, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 1-4.
Manandhar, M & Hawkes, S. (2018, September). ‘Gender, Health and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable development.’ Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 96, no. 9, pp. 644-651.
Newman, A. (2018, August 20). UN \\"environmental’ schemes advance world government. The New American, vol. 34, no 16, pp. 29-33.
Oda, Y. (2019, March). ‘Mainstreaming Gender Perspectives in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): A Study on Selected 2017 Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs).’ Journal of Asian Women\\'s Studies, vol. 25, p. 1.
‘Towards Sustainable Development for All.’ (2019). UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. [online] available: https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/wp-content/uploads/ 2019/05/UN_DESA_pamphlet_080519_review.pdf.
Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. New York: United Nations.
Competitor products and their equivalent prizes, this is so that after establishing our break-even analysis it can act as a guiding line to set the best price. (Tao 2008)
The survey should enable one establish the best marketing strategies and anticipate any future contingencies.
Entrepreneurship development services
This service will target individuals who wish to start business on their own or in a group it will mainly involve
Training on how to originate business ideas. It is said that if you feed a man you have only feed him a day, a long-term problem in a short-term way. If you show the man how to fish then you have feed him and his family for life and I add that if you show the man how to run a fish business you will have feed the society too. In his book ich Dad Poor Dad, Kiyosaki explains that the most…
Adaman F., Keyder C., Mudderrisoglu S., Yukseker D. (2009) Poverty and Social Exclusion in the Slum Areas of Large Cities in Turkey. European Commission on Employment, SocialAffairs and Equal Opportunities Development Goal. European Union, Luxenbourg, Europe.
Agbola T., Agunbiade E. (2009) Urbanization, Slum Development and Security of Tenure: The Challenges of Meeting Millennium Development Goal 7 in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria. Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Camur E. (2003) What are the Social, Physical and Economic Problems of Slums and their Expectations from the Urban City? Sage books.New York.
Dumashie a. (2004) Informal Housing in East Africa: Lessons Learned From Cross Country Borders (Part II). Journal, FIG Working Week, May 22-27, United Kingdom.
What is meant by the term 'social enterprise' and what do social enterprises contribute to society and the economies in which they operate?
The acceleration with which the world is changing day by day is continuous. A majority of organizations that have a motto of 'not-for-profit' are looking out for prospects with the help of which they can begin or widen their projects in order to get their missions fulfilled and offer the needy the earned profits. Thus, any organization or scheme that brings about the mentioned twofold objectives is considered a social enterprise. Social enterprises sell mission-related goods or services and by doing so they try to create a more impartial and fair environment through specific market-based strategies (Bornstein & Davis 2010).
In other words, a business is regarded as a social enterprise when the main objective is to cope up with the prevailing societal problems and…
Baptiste, T. (2009). Being a Leader and Making Decisions. 1st. ed. New York: Chelsea House.
Beerel, A. (2009). Leadership and Change Management. 1st. ed. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Bornstein, D. & Davis, S. (2010). Social Entrepreneurship: What Everyone Needs to Know. 1st. ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
Borzaga, C. & Defourny, J. (2001). The Emergence of Social Enterprise. 1st. ed. London: Routledge.
Social Media etailing Applications: Opportunities and Threats
How Has Social Media Developed and What are the Benefits and Downsides of Using Social Media for etailers Today?
This study examines social business in general, how it developed and the benefits of using social media in particular. Second, this study provides a discussion concerning the potential positive as well as the effects of social business in the retail sector which is followed by a description of optimal business strategies for social media applications, the pros/cons of using these tools in the industry, and some representative case studies concerning companies that succeeded and some that recently failed in their use of social media. Finally, the study provides a summary of the research and important findings is followed by a series of recommendations concerning how retailers should use social media technologies in their own businesses in the concluding chapter.
Social Media Business Applications
About Honda. (2013). Honda. Available: http://corporate.honda.com/america/philanthropy.aspx?id=philanthropy_overview . Last accessed 1 November 2013.
About Virgin. (2013). Virgin America. Available: http://www.virginamerica.com/about/airline-company.html.
Baumann, M. (2010, June). @Twitter Discloses Business Model #Promotedtweets RT.
Information Today, 27 (6) 1-5.
Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and he can feed himself for life. How could you put this principle into practice through the development of a social entrepreneurship venture?
Development of Social Entrepreneurialism
Corporate Social Responsibility
Social Entrepreneurship and Food
Social entrepreneurship was introduced in the 1970s to address the issue of social sustainably and the term "social entrepreneur." This analysis will begin by providing a brief history as well as a working definition for the concept of social entrepreneurialism. It will also discuss some of the related movements that have been working towards some of the same goals, albeit, from different directions to address various challenges in society and the environment. Furthermore, a more detailed overview of the exact challenges that are present in society that social entrepreneurialism can work to address will…
Abu-Saifan, S., 2012. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries. [Online]
Available at: http://timreview.ca/article/523
[Accessed 28 April 2016].
Ashoka, N.d.. Vision and Mission. [Online]
Trends in globalism, stakeholder knowledge and technology -- all part of the 21st century environment, have changed marketing from a more monolithic approach to the market to a model that has actually been in place for centuries yet has now found a way to move from the small business environment to the larger organizational model simply because its strengths are just what is needed to perform in a new environment. This concept, entrepreneurship, has its origins in the French verb entreprendre, meaning "to undertake" (Hultman, C., et al., 2011). In a sense, every organizational idea starts with a core idea and thus has some entrepreneurial tendencies. These ideas have a core relationship in that they require innovation and risk in order to come to fruition (economic gain). More than anything else, the idea of entrepreneurship is a mind-set, a mode of operating as opposed to a strict method; a…
Audretsch, D. (2007). The Entrepreneurial Society. New York: Oxford University Press.
Foreman-Peck, J., & Zhou, P. (2010, August). The Strength and Persistence of Entrepreneurial Cultures. Retrieved from Cardiff Business School: http://business.cardiff.ac.uk/research/academic-sections/economics/working-papers
Frazier, L., & Madjidi, F. (2011). ICT and Social Entrepreneurship. Research in Information Technology, 8(2), 3-10.
How to Start a Cigar Lounge. (2012). EHow.com. Retrieved from:
Schramm cites clothing as an example, but there are thousands of good examples. As companies had the ability to reach larger markets, they could invest more into their businesses. The result of those investments was a dramatic increase in the variety of goods available to the public, many of which contribute to better lives, if not longer. Advances in scale, Schramm notes, have resulted in the real cost of staple products being significantly lower today. He cites the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas: "In 1919, an American had to work 10 hours to afford a basket of 12 food items. By 1997, the work time required to purchase their food basket had fallen to two hours."
Schramm mentions at this point that there have been other contributions, in both science and in the development of public service to protect things like water supply, that have also contributed to increased health…
Schramm, C. (2010). All entrepreneurship is social. Stanford Social Innovation Review. Retrieved May 3, 2013 from http://www.ssireview.org/articles/entry/1571
A nation faithful to democracy is blessed and called to spread this "good news" throughout the nations "(Withrow,2007, p.15 ).
Coupled with this "gospel" was the support and verification of major scientific theories during this period. Social Darwinism was derived from Darwin's work on the evolution of the species. In essence, Darwin's theory of human evolution refers to the principle of the 'survival of the fittest," on which the ideal of human progress becomes possible. Therefore, taking this principle into account, Social Darwinism attempt to explain and justify the social and economic inequalities in society in terms of those who are the strongest and fittest in the society i.e. those who are the most prosperous and who accumulate the most. Therefore, the vision that this theory produced was one that favored and justified the strongest and most successful in society.
In order to understand the impact of Social Darwinism one…
Carnegie a. The Gospel of Wealth Reflection Questions. Excerpts of an essay written by Carnegie in 1889. Retrieved from http://learningtogive.org/resources/stories/gospelofwealth/
De Santis, V. The American Gilded Age Revisited. Australian Journal of Politics & History, 29
(2), pp. 354 -- 367. Available from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119538983/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
Withrow L. Success and the Prosperity Gospel: from Commodification to Transformation a Wesleyan Perspective. Journal of Religious Leadership, 6(2). Available from http://arl-jrl.org/Volumes/Withrow07.pdf.
Social Marketing Plan
Stop Crime, Be a Human first
Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).
According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…
SouthAfrica.info, (2011). South Africa's population. Available at http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/population.htm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
BBC (2003). Xenophobia in South Africa. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3153461.stm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
Beggs, John J., and Wayne J. Villemez. (2001). Regional Labor Markets. Sourcebook of Labor
Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by Ivar Berg and Arne L. Kalleberg. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. (503-29).
Those who predict future behavior and demand for products and services correctly can profit tremendously from their planning; conversely, those who invest in technologies or applications based on assumptions or expectations that never materialize run the risk of losing their entire investment. In that respect, the computer realm is no different from the decisions and projections made in traditional types of businesses. It may just seem different by virtue of the accelerated rate of computer evolution and development and the fact that some of the specific new technologies and capabilities become so widely and rapidly adopted that they can change society practically overnight.
In all likelihood, computers today are similar to paper in the Middle Ages when producing paper was so labor intensive and expensive that very little was available and only to the wealthiest classes. Another analog might be dry cell battery technology around the turn of the 20th…
57). This makes the idea that the minority communities that are using the community as a "springboard" for assimilation because there are less of the domestic non-Hispanic whites in the areas in which immigrants would typically assimilate.
There has even been the development of what is referred to as planned communities. Irvine California serves as a good example of such a development. Irvine was developed from ranch lands from a single developer that constructed "urban villages" in Orange County (Maher, 2004, p. 782). The particular site selected for this 1-997 study was in many ways a "typical" Irvine neighborhood. A planned community developed in the mid-1970s, Ridgewood comprised 246 single-family homes on a collection of cul-de-sacs connected by three public through streets: on average, residents were highly educated- 39% had graduate or professional degrees- and most of those who were employed worked in professional, managerial, technical, or sales positions (Maher,…
Maher, K. (2004). Borders and Social Distinction in the Global Suburb. American Quarterly, 781-806.
Zhou, M., Tseng, Y., & Kim, R. (2008). Rethinking Residential Assimilation: The Case of a Chinese Ethnoburb in the San Gabriel Valley, California. Amerasia Journal, 55-83.
WikiNerdia allows the users to ask questions and all the nerd community members answer the questions. People normally trust the reviews and answers of the customers more than the brand. Giantnerd gets the benefit of their fan engagement and ultimately the brand trust increases. Customers can be your sale force and work for any company if the company can get the benefit by engaging the audience. A brand must think of multiple opportunities for the customers so that they can spread the word about the company. eal-time engagement opportunities and exclusive social communities are the tools which can turn existing customers to word-of-mouth advocates (Goldman, 2013).
Social Media will have a huge impact on business over the next decade, especially on the recruiting matters. Social media technology presents exciting opportunities for the recruitment industry. A research has highlighted that Twitter, LinkedIn and Facebook are the most used social media websites…
Goldman, J. (2013). Going Social: Excite Customers, Generate Buzz, and Energize Your Brand with the Power of Social Media. New York: AMACOM.
Hensel, K., & Deis, M.H. (2010). Using Social Media to Increase Advertising and Improve Marketing. Entrepreneurial Executive, 15, 87+. Retrieved May 16, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-2191652481/using-social-media-to-increase-advertising-and-improve
Libert, B. (2010). Social Nation: How to Harness the Power of Social Media to Attract Customers, Motivate Employees, and Grow Your Business. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
Mathieson, R. (2010). The on-Demand Brand: 10 Rules for Digital Marketing Success in an Anytime, Everywhere World. New York: AMACOM.
Lack of rewards for individuals, unintended rewards for loafing: Having some individuals who are collectively-minded paired with workers with a 'what's in it for me' attitude can result in the more generously spirited workers' good will being relied up, while others take credit.
A five best practices
1. Create a common work culture: Friends are often less likely to 'socially loaf' on work teams (Kunishima & elte 2004).
2. Using dispersed teams with a lack of social facilitation factors can be undercut by increasing levels of difficulty and responsibility "As tasks become more difficult and participants perceive they can make a unique contribution to the task, social loafing decreases" (Kunishima & elte 2004).
3. Task uniqueness -- by ensuring members of the work teams have specifically defined roles, there is less of a chance to feel as if others can pick up the slack (Kunishima & elte 2004).
Bansal, Pratima & Sonia Kandola. (2004, March/April) Corporate social responsibility: why good people behave badly in organizations. Business Journal Online. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/117189488.html
Big Brother eyes 'boost honesty' (2006, June 28). BBC News. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/5120662.stm
Coleman, Andrew. (2001). Social loafing. The Encyclopedia of Psychology. Retrieved February 10, 2009 at http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O87-socialloafing.html
Kunishima, Jill & Kasi Welte. (2004, March) Effects of punishment threats on social loafing
Entrepreneur-Why investor would give me capital to start a decorating den?
With the spiraling demand for housing, the demand for interior decoration market is also rising in tandem. Concern regarding making the home interiors beautiful and plush is high on the wish list of many home-buyers. Modern and aware customers who view popular channels on TV dedicated to interiors and subscribe to the magazines flooding the market are valuing the quality of interior decorating in an increasing manner than ever before. ising on this demand for interiors among the people is a great opportunity to take up the Franchise offer of Decorating Den. It is an investment in the future compared to other franchise offered in the market and a completely new way of life. (Opportunities in a New Economy - Message from the President)
Convincing the Venture Capitalist for guaranteed profitability:
By taking up the franchise, owners of Interiors…
"A Beautiful Business" Retrieved from http://www.decoratingden.com/Bbusiness.shtml Accessed on 17 February, 2005
"Interior Views: Sample Plan" Retrieved from http://www.paloalto.com/sampleplans/MPP6/enu/Live/InteriorViews-mpp_Live.pdf
Accessed on 17 February, 2005
"Is the Business for you" Retrieved from http://www.decoratingden.com/foryou.shtml Accessed on 17 February 2005
"To start off with the consumer's needs for a significant change is often the most direct way of defining new knowledge and new technology, and of organizing purposeful and systematic work on fundamental discovery" (Drucker, p. 506).
Innovation is what social gaming is all about. Platforms are changing and devices are not only becoming less expensive, but more and more powerful with larger amounts of memory, quicker processors, and yet the decision is easier in deciding what games people want, "If you know what your friends are playing, the Facebook distribution model scales a lot better" (Chang, p. 21). This type of product is the epitome of what Drucker called an "innovation design" -- yet both innovation and entrepreneurship continue to change. Strategically, Drucker's maxims apply, though: 1) Be the "fastest with the mostest," first to market never hurts; 2) Hit them "where they aint" -- take from the winners,…
Boyd, D. And Ellison, N. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Jounral of Computer Mediated Communications. 13 (1): Retrieved from: http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.html
Chang, V., Mendelson, H. (2010). Social Games. Stanford Graduate School of Business Case EC-39. Retrieved from: https://gsbapps.stanford.edu / cases/detail1.asp?Document_ID=3367
Drucker, P. (2001). Management. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Tancer, B. (October 24, 2007). MySpace or Facebook: Competing Addictions.
The article is an exciting approach to capitalist development in that it finds conditions under which sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation emerge spontaneously and can practically work. As the study points out, one of the classical things that capitalism does is to "creatively destroy." It is this ability to destroy what is old and does not work and build and impose what is new and does is the primary benefit of capitalism. What sustainable entrepreneurship has done is to apply this as a positive force in realizing the field's lofty goals where public government initiatives have failed to achieve them. The article conducts an extensive literature review to accomplish just this task (ibid. pp. 223-225).
However, until now, there has not been one universally recognized definition of what sustainable development is. Such research and definitions have implications for theory and practitioners in that it clarifies which firms are most likely…
Schaltegger, S. And Wagner, M.. (2011). Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Innovation:
Categories and Interactions. Business Strategy and the Environment. 5 (1), 222 -- 237.
Schaltegger, S. & Wagner, M. (2010). Sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation: categories and interactions. Business Strategy and the Environment 20: 222-237.
Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) create a usable framework for sustainable entrepreneurship, sustainable innovation, and sustainable business development in "Sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainability innovation: categories and interactions." he article first addresses the purpose for the research. Companies have been traditionally culprits in creating both environmental and social justice problems, necessitating regulations imposed externally. Driven solely by profit, a company will not be likely to pursue innovation or sustainability entrepreneurship unless it was profitable to do so. he authors point out that while this may be true with some organizations in some sectors, that otherwise the business environment is changing. A new framework based on current business trends is proposed by Schaltegger & Wagner (2010). his new framework is based on the fact that many companies -- and their managers --…
The Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) research is helpful in providing the promised framework for relating sustainable entrepreneurship with sustainability innovation. However, the strength of the research is in the matrix revealing the different types of sustainable entrepreneurship models. Start-ups and veteran enterprises alike can study such a matrix for cues and clues as to how to effectively launch a sustainability enterprise based on innovation. The research can be applied to progressive regulatory environments, seeking to balance the needs for greater corporate accountability with the need for economic progress. Although the Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) research seems convoluted and overly complicated at times, it does have some practical value in highlighting the points of convergence between business, social justice, and ecological ethics
It is possible that sustainable innovation refers more to the method by which stalwart companies like Deutsche Bahn embark on sustainable entrepreneurship: applying traditional business models to meeting new goals. The Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) research also shows that fresh entrepreneurs may not contend with as many obstacles as was once believed. The seemingly mutually exclusive goals of profitability and sustainability can go hand in hand. Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) might be better off injecting more than cold fact into their research, which seems oddly devoid of any ethical framework. The authors treat issues like social benefit as if it were as quantifiable as sales figures. Moreover, the current research is exploratory and theoretical in nature. An experimental research design might be helpful in future research in this specific area if it is to be of any use to policy makers.
Ultimately, the goals of the research were fulfilled and the authors make a good point about the changing marketplace. The authors present a helpful framework outlining the types of sustainable entrepreneurship. Businesses can draw from this research a mission statement for a proposed sustainability innovation program. Entrepreneurs can use this research to present business models that are grounded in both fiscal and environmental responsibility. Schaltegger & Wagner (2010) also show which conditions tend to give rise to sustainable entrepreneurship, and posit relationships with measurable market impacts. It helps to know that innovation can be presented as a definite solution to environmental and social problems. Finally, there is no one model for sustainable entrepreneurship; the diversity of the economy and of the environment requires a multifaceted and heterogeneous business enterprise.
Social Media Has Had on Society
Social Media has had a particularly influential power over society during recent years as more and more individuals start to guide themselves in accordance with principles put across by such devices. However, it is difficult to determine whether social media has had a positive influence or a negative influence on the social order, taking into account that many are unable to filter information they are bombarded with and end up having a distorted understanding of the world as a whole.
Internet has revolutionized the way information is being sent across the world and this means that it would be impossible for particular events happening in the past to happen in the contemporary society. By simply looking at how the radio and the television have brought significant change to particular environments, one is more likely to understand the degree to which internet can bring change…
Blossom, John, "Content Nation: Surviving and Thriving as Social Media Changes Our Work, Our Lives, and Our Future," (John Wiley & Sons, 14.09.2011)
Duhe, Sandra C., "New Media and Public Relations," (Peter Lang, 2007)
Nunns, Ales and Idle, Nadia, "Tweets from Tahrir: Egypt's Revolution as it Unfolded, in the Words of the People who Made it," (OR Books, 2011)
Social equity is a key issue of public administration and forms the basic theme of the 2013 "Social Equity Leadership Conference," in June. This white paper discusses the key goals of the conference based on the conference issue for social equity as global engagement and local responsibility. These are the issue facing social equity among domestic and global public leaders in public and private agencies in the education, immigration, transportation, environmental, policing and corrections sectors. A review of theories on public administration identifies that public leadership networking, collaboration, and cooperation with leaders and agencies is necessary. This is associated with public leadership practices like public policy development, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation, social equity, and public advocacy.
Globally Engaged, Locally esponsible: New Challenges for Social Equity
Emerging Issues in Social Equity and Leadership Covered in the Conference:
2. Policing and corrections
3. At risk communities, which…
Brian, A.E., & Adam, J.N. (2010). Building the reservoir to nowhere: The role of agencies in advocacy coalitions. Policy Studies Journal, 38(4), 653-678.
Buss, T.F. & Morse, R.S. (2008). Innovations in Public Leadership Development. Armonk, New York; M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
Candler, G., & Dumont, G. (2010). The price of citizenship: Civic responsibility as the missing dimension of public administration theory. Public Administration Quarterly, 34(2), 169-201.
Cichocki, D., Laberschek, M., & Rusanowska, M. (2011). Analysis of strategy of culture development in krakow 2010-2014 as an example of public policy implementation. Zarzadzanie Publiczne, 13(1), 103-115.
Using contemporary illustrative examples from academic literature and reputable business publications, discuss the concept of "Social Business" and the resultant opportunity and challenges that are currently being faced by the retail industry globally.
Concept of Social Business
Concept of Social Business with etailers
Social Media and etailing
Best Practices in Administering Social Media
There is a growing body of research that confirms that companies of all sizes and types can realize a wide array of benefits from the use of social media networks. While the types and applications of social media experience constant change, social media content such as blogs and microblogs have become some of the more popular social media tools that have emerged in recent years. Although there a number of benefits and advantages that can be achieved through the use of social media resources, there is a concomitant danger that inappropriate or misguided content can backfire…
'About MySpace,' 2013, MySpace. [online] available: https://myspace.com/ .
'About YouTube,' 2013, YouTube. [online] available: http://www.youtube.com/yt/about/ .
Anderson, DJ 2011, Winter, 'The Foray into Social Media: A Clinician, and Skeptic,
Sold,' Frontiers of Health Services Management, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 23-29.
Even poor De Beers seems flummoxed. (Twitchell, 2002, p. xv)
Some consider this trend, of luxury for the every day buyer a negative trend as non-luxury brands claim luxury status and luxury brands like Prada are pressured to provide their products for a lower scale market, yet the trend is essential to international and national creative industries development.
In fact one trend in international creative industries is a system nicknamed "grey marketing" where goods and services are sold outside the traditional contracts and supply systems but are not sold illegally, such as is the caser of black marketed items. In other words industries, such as the fashion industry are populated by organizations that are willing to make alternative contractual agreements with companies that might sell their "labels" for lesser prices, such as in the case of overstock or in some cases even exclusive sales of products that might require less…
Bennett, D. (2007). Creative Artists or Cultural Practitioners? Holistic Practice in Australia's Cultural Industries. Journal of Australian Studies, (90), 133+. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023042807 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011610188
Britain Urged to Power on to Lead in Creative Industries. (2005, December 2). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 35. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011610188 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024995608
Brown, C.M., Carbon, H.B., Brown, T., Donaldson, S.A., Holmes, T.E., Hughes, a., et al. (2007, December). Hotlist 07: These Bold Innovators-All under the Age of 40-Are Shaping Our World. Black Enterprise, 38, 120+. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024995608 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021427294
Chance, J. (2007, July). On Target: As the Latest Designer to Join the Big-Box Store Fold, Fashion Designer Patrick Robinson Is Serving Up Hot Looks for Summer at Real Cool Prices. Ebony, 62, 192+. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021427294 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=112841714
This focus on the positive benefits of consumer word of mouth behaviour is a natural tendency. I certainly like to think that positive comments have a greater impact on my decisions than negative comments. In fact, the respondents to the survey reported that the two factors that had the biggest impact on their airline choices were comparison-shopping on the Internet (38%) and personal recommendations from an acquaintance on Facebook or Twitter (42%). but, although personal recommendations have a clear impact on choices, the question is whether positive comments have a greater impact than negative comments. This distinction has not yet been made with regard to word of mouth marketing effects. The U.S. national election in 2004 was viewed by many as the most negative in recent memory (Johnson, 2011). Why would hard-nosed politicians with limited budgets invest so much in negative advertising if positive comments had greater impact on behaviour?…
Arnold, S.E., 2010. Twitter can lower marketing costs -- how to put the cost effective service to good use, Smart Business San Diego.
Brown, J., Broderick, a.J. And Lee, N., 2007. Word of mouth communication within online communities: conceptualizing the online social network, Journal of Interactive Marketing, 21(3), pp.2-20;
Curran, James M. 2011. Lennon, Ron. Participating in the Conversation: Exploring Usage of Social Media Networking Sites. Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, Vol. 15.
Doganis, Rigas. The Airline Business in the Twenty-First Century. Book by Routledge, 2010.
In preparation for this paper, I reviewed all class notes and lectures. I also referred to Schriver's (2011) Human Behavior and the Social Environment and also Payne's (2005) Modern Social Work Theory. I also reviewed several websites in preparation for a thorough community analysis, while also evaluating my own notes and photographs from assessing the community. My analysis of a specific community is based on several interrelated theories of social work and sociology including conflict theory, systems theory, and functionalism.
In light of what I have read, and based on my observations and interviews with locals, Downtown Indianapolis has undergone major restoration, gentrification, and revival since the 1990s. Issues like empowerment, advocacy, cultural diversity, and conflict theory all come to mind as I evaluate the community by applying theories of social work. I would like to focus in particular on the positive changes that have taken place,…
Arndt, R. (n.d.). Functionalist theory background. University of North Carolina: Pembroke. Retrieved online: http://libguides.uncp.edu/content.php?pid=315635&sid=2582715
Friedman, B.D. & Allen, K.N. (n.d.). Systems theory. Retrieved online: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/32947_Chapter1.pdf
Payne, M. (2005). Modern social work theory, 3rd Ed. London: Lyceum Books.
Schriver, J. (2011). Human behavior and the social environment, 5th Ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
drivers of using biofuel in the airlines industry are closely linked to the evolution of oil prices in the last decade, as well as to the risks associated with the use of petroleum fuel. First of all, the oil prices have continuously increased over the last decades and the evaluations that this would happen date back to after 2003.
As early as 2009, the predictions for the period 2009-2016 reflected oil was expected to increase by 50% (as a trend) from an average at that time of around $50 (Kitov, 2009). This was based on existing statistical facts and evaluations and past data, thus carrying a high level of abstract objectivity. These evaluations were translated in practice, with oil prices currently at $92. All this would translate into an increased cost for the airline carriers.
Even more worrying when it comes to oil is that much of the price is…
1. Prajogo, DI & Ahmed, PK. 2006. Relationships between innovation stimulus, innovation capacity, and innovation performance. R&D Management, vol.36, no.5, pp.499 -- 515
2. Smith, Andy. 2011. Management practices and innovation capacity in enterprises. On the Internet at http://avetra.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/20.00.pdf. Last retrieved on August 6, 2012
3. Chemers M. 1997. An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers
4. Ulrich, Dave (1996). Human Resource Champions. The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press
lack Thinking Advertising Agency- usiness Plan
Vision, Mission, Aims
Company and Management Structure
lack Thinking is an advertising agency that is poised to penetrate the market of the city of irmingham, in the United Kingdom. irmingham is considered to be the most populous city in the United Kingdom after its capital, London. According to the 2011 census, irmingham is home to a total of 1,073,000 citizens (Council 2012). Due to its high population, there are a number of small yet successful businesses that have erupted over time in the heart of the city. They form a significant part of the city's economy. However, due to cost restraints, not all of them can afford to contract out their marketing campaigns to big firms to gain maximum utility from their advertisement and marketing expenditure budgets. This is where lack Thinking shall step in. lack Thinking…
Council, BC 2012, Birmingham Census 2011 Initial Findings, .
Council, BC 2012, The Birmingham Area Investment Prospectuses, .
Info, UT 2006, Regional Trade Statistics, .
Network, ESPO 2007, 'British urban pattern: population data', ESPON Project 1.4.3 Study on Urban Functions European Union, pp. 119-120.
Changing ocial and Political Education ystem
The social and political context of diversity as it applies to education seems to be in a point of confusion. The conservative movement in favor of the English only classroom in publicly funded schools has been fueled by the terrorist events that occurred in eptember of 2001. Those same events also fuel the cause of diversity in education in both a social and a historical sense. Though these two issues are not by any means the same they do reflect attention in very separate areas of educational trend setting. Even before the eptember 11th events occurred the backlash toward multicultural education had taken a strong hold on the political perspective.
Ron Unz, the ilicon Valley entrepreneur who in 1998 helped push forward California Proposition 227 mandating English-only instruction, for example, has broadened his horizon. Unz's new target: the broader "multicultural agenda." He is quoted,…
Crawford, James, "Obituary: The Bilingual Ed Act, 1968-2002," Rethinking Schools online, Vol. 16 No. 4 Summer 2002. http://www.rethinkingschools.org/Archives/16_04/Bill64.shtml
English for the Children http://www.onenation.org/index.cfm
Language Policy Web Site & Emporium, http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/
Pardini, Priscilla, "Down But Not Out," Rethinking Schools online, Vol. 15 No 1. Fall 2000. http://www.rethinkingschools.org.Archives/15_01/Namu151.shtml
CS in Saudi Arabian Banking
Social esponsibility: Attitudes, Actualities, and Possible Areas of Advancement in Saudi Arabian Banking
The global financial system has become increasingly smaller and more complex, with individual countries and their financial and banking infrastructures more intertwined and mutually dependent on each other. Because of this, understanding the role that banking systems and entities play in the social and political spheres is essential for policy makers and for individuals working in the banking sector. Of special importance are the social responsibilities that are borne by banks and the banking industry, which can vary greatly from country to country, based on a multitude of factors. The research described and proposed herein will yield a greater understanding of how these responsibilities are viewed by bankers in Saudi Arabia.
Scholarship on Saudi Arabia's banking industry has focused almost entirely on the financial implications for the country and the globe of…
Babbie, E. (2009). The practice of social research Mason, OH: Cengage.
Breakwell, G. (2006). Research methods in psychology Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Butters, A. (2009) "Saudi's small steps" Time 174(15), pp. 44-77
Campbell, J. (2007). "Why would corporations behave in socially responsible ways? An institutional theory of corporate social responsibility" Academy of Management Review 32(3), pp 946 -- 967
Social Media and Technology
Today, a growing number of the world's population subscribe to various social media networks such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, MySpace and others. Moreover, just as the overwhelming majority of enterprises jumped on the Internet bandwagon during the late 1990s and early 2000s, companies of all sizes and types are taking advantage of these social media networks as well to promote their businesses and interact directly with their customers. This study proposal provides a series of researchable questions and a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature regarding these trends. A description of participant selection procedures for the proposed study is followed by an identification of data collection methods, potential ethical problems and limitations of the research proposal. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the proposed study and its guiding research questions are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Bicak, P. (2013, June). Lovink, Geert. Networks without a cause: A critique of social media.
Communication Research Trends, 32(2), 32-39.
Edosomwan, S., Prakasan, S.K., Kouame, D., Watson, J., & Seymour, T. (2011). The history of social media and its impact on business. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 16(3), 79-83.
Elias, S. (2012, Summer). Implications of online social network sites on the personal and professional learning of educational leaders. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado State University.
The company selected is Dar Almanthour for Fragrance. The company was established in the year 2000 by the owner, Mr. Therar AlTararwa. The key products retailed by the company comprise of Bakhour, perfumes, scents, perfume oil and designed boxes for formal events. It started off with his friend at work wanting to sell his own made up fragrance and offered Mr. Therar AlTararwa to sell these fragrances to his family and when he did Mr. Al Tararwa saw an opportunity that selling these fragrances made money and so he wanted to get in the game he bought dozens of fragrances from his friend and made a guy sell them and he had his percentage of the sales. So then and there, Mr. Al Tararwa saw an opportunity and offered his friend money to sell him the mixture ingredients of the fragrance so he can open up a fragrance…
Social and Behavioral Intelligence: Professional Attire
Were the individuals professional?
In considering the images of the individuals in the business professional slides, several things become apparent. The first image is professional as the men are wearing suits and ties which is considered professional attire. For the women, the corresponding attire is wearing button down shirts with one wearing a vest over the shirt. In the second image it is clear that the man is professionally dressed as he is wearing a suit. The other five people are wearing button down shirts which are considered professional. However, it would also be important to know in what color these shirts are, as well as what they are paired with, to consider their attires professional. The third image reveals unprofessional business attire as sweaters are worn. In some settings, this may be acceptable but in a strictly business professional setting, they are not…
Business Attire. (n.d.). Retrieved January 11, 2016, from http://www.mccombs.utexas.edu/~/media/Files/MSB/Student-Orgs/Diversity Council/F12 Instructional_Guide_-_Business_Attire.pdf
A Quick Guide to Professional Dress for Men and Women. (n.d.). Retrieved January 11,
2016, from http://www.sph.emory.edu/careers/documents/ProfessionalDressforSuccess.pdf
Campbell, S. (2015, February 12). 7 Characteristics of Exceptional Business Professionals.
Entrepreneurship: Nurse-Owned Clinics and Beyond Mobile FNP (Family Nurse Practitioners)
There are over 125,000 NPs (nurse practitioners) in the U.S., as per estimates of the AANP (American Academy of NPs). Compared to physician assistants, NPs enjoy greater autonomy and responsibility, and have been increasingly assuming roles in administrative leadership, aside from their conventional patient-care duties at clinics and hospitals. However, owing to the thorough knowledge required to succeed within private practice settings, NPs often establish independent practices after many years of experience at healthcare centers such as hospitals, in the role of salaried NPs (Furlow, 2011).
According to the Chief Executive of the NNCC (National Nursing Centers Consortium), Tine Hansen-Turton, a substantial growth has been observed in nurse-run health clinics, before as well as subsequent to the implementation of the ACA (Affordable Care Act). She claims the number of nurse-run clinics across the nation has now grown to five-hundred; this…
Aiken, L.H. & Sage, W.M. (1992). Staffing national health care reform: a role for advanced practice nurses. Akron Law Review, 26. Retrieved from https://www.uakron.edu/dotAsset/3ed241d2-f4fa-4afe-aca6-deacf419abcb.pdf
Fraino, J.A. (2015). Mobile nurse practitioner: A pilot program to address service gaps experienced by homeless individuals. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 53. Retrieved from http://repository.usfca.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=health_stu
Furlow, B. (2011, May 30). Business advice for nurse practitioners considering private practice. Clinical Advisor. Retrieved from http://www.clinicaladvisor.com/your-career/business - advice-for-nurse-practitioners-considering-private-practice/article/203953/
Helseth, C. (2010, May 7). Advanced practice nurses fill health care gaps in rural areas. Rural Health Information Hub. Retrieved from https://www.ruralhealthinfo.org/rural- monitor/advanced-practice-nurses-fill-gaps/
Corporate Social Responsibility
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has recently reached an unprecedented level of salience with the emergence of global protests that seem to be driven in a large part by concerns over social issues such as equality as wells as environmental issues such as the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions. Although the protestors are occupying various parts of the world for a plethora of mixed motivations, it is reasonable to speculate that much of these individual motivations are embodied in the concept of CSR. The concept of CSR covers a lot of ground but there are two core principles that account for most of the commentary.
The first concept embodied within the notion of CSR is in respect to the manner that people are treated. Under classical models this would only include investors, customers, and internal employees. However the CSR approach includes all stakeholders locally, regionally, or even…
Drucker, P. "What is Business Ethics?" The Public Interest (1981): 18-36.
Friedman, M. "The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits." The New York Times Magazine 13 September 1970.
Hui, L. "Combining faith and CSR: a paradigm of corporate sustainability." International Journal of Social Economics (2008): 449-465. Web.
Peloza, J. And L. Papania. "The Missing Link between Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance: Stakeholder Salience and Identification." Corporate Reputation Review (2008): 169-181. Web.
Popularity of Social Media Marketing Among Businesses
Viral Marketing (social media)
Social Media Marketing
Social media are a shift in the way people read, share and discover information and related contents. This is taking place through the internet in the form of social networks (example Myspace, Facebook), blogs, music and video portals (example YouTube), micro blogging (example Pluk, Twitter) and news aggregators. The possibility brought through Web 2.0 is an evolutionary convergence allowing two way communication platform that harnesses collective intelligence. Social media marketing caries potential similar to a double-edged-sword (Trusov, Bucklin, & Pauwels, 2009).
easons for Exceedingly Popularity of Social Media Marketing Among Businesses
Outwardly, communication activities by businesses of all sizes have changed owing to growth of social media globally (Martin, 2009). Unlike the traditional channels of communication, social media provides a platform for existing and potential consumers to share opinions virtually. This transfers power to build or…
Dailey, P.R. (2009). Social Media: Finding Its Way into Your Business Strategy and Culture. Burlington, MA;: Linkage.
Donna, L., Hoffman, & Fodor. M. (2010). "Can You Measure the ROI of Your Social Media Marketing?",. MIT Sloan Management Review, 52(1), 41-49.
Joel, M. (2009). Six Pixels of separation. New York: Grand Central Publishing
Martin, T. (2009). Social Media is Meant for conversion, not "Marketing" Advertising Age, 80(6), 11-12.
Cooperatives in social and economic development in Africa
Social Economic Development
The ole of the Cooperatives in social and economic development in Africa: the case of Botswana
The ole of the Cooperatives in social and economic development in Africa: the case of Botswana
There are a number of political and socioeconomic advantages in relation to the co-operative movements in Botswana. The cooperation has been believed to be important for the people of Botswana. The cooperation as thought about by the governments can be used in order to empower the people of Botswana by providing them a variety of business opportunities and entrepreneur skills. The establishment of cooperatives was started by the African government immediately after independence. These cooperatives were established in order to make sure that the interests of the African government. These interests are highlighted in Cooperative Societies Law in accordance to which organization and promoting cooperatives is an…
Allen, T. (2000). The Right to Property in Commonwealth Constitutions Volume 11 of Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative Law. Cambridge University Press.
Denbow, R.J., and Thebe, C.P. (2006). Culture And Customs of Botswana, Culture and Customs of Africa. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Firestone, M., and Karlin, A. (2010). Botswana & Namibia, Lonely Planet Botswana and Namibia, Multi-Country Guide Series, Lonely Planet. Edition 2. Lonely Planet.
Gujadhur, T. (2000). Organisations and Their Approaches in Community-Based Natural Resources Management in Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe, Issue 1 of CBNRM Support Program occasional paper. IUCN.
Apple's Current Position On Its Ethical And Social esponsibilities
Corporations are increasingly seeking a vision in maintaining social responsibility alongside a vision in business. There are also demands for greater accountability and transparency in corporate actions of organized consumers, state representatives and grass movements (Garsten, 2003). Many corporations aim to engage in corporate citizenship and to be socially responsible by adhering to social accountability standards and voluntary codes of conduct. This essay endeavors to examine Apple's current position on the social and ethical responsibilities and to determine whether it has met the responsibilities. The study also determines the impact caused by the violation of ethics and social responsibilities among Apple's suppliers.
Current Position on the Company's Ethical and Social esponsibilities
Corporate Social esponsibility comprises of actions that are not required by the law, but extend beyond the transactional interest of companies and further social good. CS is often used to…
Creel, T. (2010). Environmental Reporting Practices of the Largest U.S. Companies. Management Accounting Quarterly 12(10): 13-20
Garsten, C. (2003). The cosmopolitan organization -- an essay on corporate accountability. Global Networks 3(3):355 -- 370
Kenney, M. (2011). How venture capital became a component of the U.S. National System of Innovation. Industrial and Corporate Change, 20(6): 1677 -- 1723
Northrop, E. (2013). The Accuracy, Market Ethic, and Individual Morality Surrounding the Profit Maximization Assumption. American Economist, Vol. 58, No. 2: 111-124
Defining What Entrepreneurship Is
Entrepreneurship is the ability of an individual or team to plan and produce differentiated, valuable products and services that customers are willing to buy. The study of entrepreneurism concentrates on the highly collaborative nature of starting a new firm, where founders will often create extended, virtual teams of experts to help them take a concept into initial prototype and then production. Studies of entrepreneurs show them to have an above-average level of risk tolerance while at the same time being able to manage diverse tasks necessary to make a new venture successful (Liu, 2006).
Analysis of Entrepreneurship
The most effective entrepreneurs are able to see market opportunities from an entirely different vantage point, seeing the potential for growth and differentiated products and services while other business leaders see only price competition (Mitra, 2003). This is especially the case with Steve Jobs and other leading…
Liu, Z. (2006). Competitive advantage: An analytical framework based on entrepreneurship. Frontiers of Economics in China, 1(2), 182-195.
Mitra, J. (2003). The entrepreneurship dynamic: Origins of entrepreneurship and the evolution of industries. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 10(2), 210.
Entrepreneurs Should Know bout Federal Taxes for Corporations
ll corporations are subject to the corporate income tax on their net income. Taxable income is the gross income of the corporation, less the deductions allowed. Major sources of corporate income include: gross profits from sales; dividends received; interest; rents; royalties; and gains and losses. Still, there can be other factors that must also be considered in determining the corporation's income. There include: receipts that are actually contributions to capital; property distributions received by the corporation; rentals paid to shareholders of a leasing corporation; and income from a sinking fund.
Each business's tax liability is based on a graduated tax rate scale. Depending on individual factors, a corporation may also be subject to penalty taxes in addition to their regular income tax. The form of business that is operated determines what taxes must be paid. The four general kinds of business taxes…
Adam Smith believed that there should be limitations on what corporations should and shouldn't be allowed to get away with. He pinpointed a solution to the complex nature of taxes -- a simple and fair system that minimizes compliance and administrative costs. The U.S. tax code has one of the most complex tax codes in the world, which has become a burden on its economy. Smith's ideas should be used by the U.S. To design a tax code that would ease the collection burden and force interest groups to look for money elsewhere.
Appendix A Corporate Income Tax Rates -- 2002
Taxable income over Not over Tax rate
Timmons (1994) in his study presents a three-dimensional model of practical application of a good idea:
Comprehensive evaluation of the opportunity;
Comprehensive evaluation of one's own expertise and inclination; and Comprehensive evaluation of the resources gathering process to maintain the launch of business venture.
Long and McMullan (1984) propose that application of a good idea depends on two processes; namely, elaboration and evaluation. Singh (1998) found that those entrepreneurs who spend more time studying the pros and cons of an idea before embarking on its application tend to set up fewer businesses than those who spend less time in the elaboration and evaluation phase. However, Singh (1998) points out that higher majority of successful entrepreneurs are those who spend more time in elaboration and evaluation.
1.4 Traits of entrepreneurs
Wright et al. (1997a) studied motivational drivers of entrepreneurs and found that entrepreneurs are primarily driven by either one or both…
Adler, P. & Kwon, S. (2000). Social capital: The good, the bad and the ugly. In E. Lesser (Ed.), Knowledge and social capital: Foundations and applications (pp. 80-115). Boston: Butterworth-Heineman.
Aldrich, H. & Zimmer, C. (1986). Entrepreneurship through social networks. In D. Sexton and R. Smilor (Eds), the art and science of entrepreneurship (pp. 3-23). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
Aldrich, H., Rosen, B., and Woodward, W. (1987) "The impact of social networks on business foundings and profit: a longitudinal study," in Churchill, N.C., Hornaday, J.A., Kirchoff, B.A. et al. (eds) Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Welles-ley, MA: Babson College.
Amabile, T.M. (1988) "A model of creativity and innovation in organizations," in Staw, B. And Cummings, L.L. (eds) Research in Organizational Behavior, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Microfinance and Rural Entrepreneurship
The objective of this study is to conduct an analysis of the field of entrepreneurial finance and to describe important issues or current dilemmas in the field. Toward this end, this study will conduct an extensive review of literature in this area of inquiry.
The difference between rural and urban entrepreneurship is reported in the work of Ahirrao and Chaugule (2010) to be "only a matter of degree rather than the content." (p.1) Ahirrao and Chaugule state that "It is essential to have a balanced regional development of the country and to avoid the concentration of industry in one place. Rural areas must try for better utilization of human resources to improve the rural economy." (2010, p.1) The industrial unit in rural areas or rural industries include such as "handlooms, handicrafts, sericulture, agro-based units, service industries, rural workshops, metal-based industries, dairy and related activities" as well…
Ahirrao, J. And Chaugule, S. (2010) Entrepreneurship Development & Rural Industrialization. Commerce Nov. 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.ssmrae.com/admin/images/1524778c17f085e7ec7252d53da84c32.pdf
Kiiru, JM (nd) Microfinance, Entrepreneurship and Rural Development: Empirical Evidence from Makueni District, Kenya. Bonn University, Bonn Germany. Retrieved from: http://www.csae.ox.ac.uk/conferences/2007-EDiA-LaWBiDC/papers/138-Kiiru.pdf
Mahieux, T; Zafar, O; and Kherallah, M (2011) Financing Smallholder Farmers and Rural Entrepreneurs in the Near East and North Africa. Conference on New Directions for Smallholder Agriculture 24-25 Jan 2011. Rome, IFAD HQ. Retrieved from: http://www.ifad.org/events/agriculture/doc/papers/kherallah.pdf
Phan, PH (2010) Entrepreneurship and Microfinance A Review and Research Agenda. Retrieved from: https://jscholarship.library.jhu.edu/bitstream/handle/1774.2/33619/microfinance%20PHAN.pdf
Saudi women entrepreneurship
Saudi women of the 21st century have progressed in marked ways compared to women of a decade ago. Nonetheless, female entrepreneurs are saddled with quite a few difficulties that prevent them from progressing and impede their social and personal life as well as making their vocational progress extremely challenging. The research will investigate Saudi women entrepreneurs social role in developing Saudi economy and challenges facing them.
Women are faced with tremendous difficulties. Barriers include lack of market studies, lack of governmental support, lack of coordination among government departments, lack of support from the community, society restrictions and oligopolistic attitude of the investors (Asad Sadi, & Al-Ghazali, 2010). To overcome all of this and proceed with one's dreams, one must be remarkably stubborn and the women must be extremely resilient to overcome these difficulties. That they are motived by self-actualization is one matter. But entrepreneurs in this position…
Asad Sadi, M. & Al-Ghazali, BM (2010). Doing business with impudence: A focus on women
entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia, African Journal of Business Management 4(1), 001-011,
Cohoon, J. et al. (2010) Are Successful Women Entrepreneurs Different From Men? Kaufman
On the other hand, a new business plan should not be so unrealistic as to fail to take note of existing market conditions and real economic pressures. The balance of personalities of team members, between the more practical and introverted, to the more feeling and extroverted individuals gave our team an excellent personality blend of boldness and caution. There was methodological weight behind the market research we conducted, yet there was also innovative thinking in terms of how the product was structured.
Another great strength of our team was the balance of people who enjoyed beginning new projects, and people who enjoyed bringing tasks to completion. One problem with creative idea-generating techniques such as laddering and SWOT is that so many ideas and potential innovations and obstacles can be generated that idea sessions spiral out of control and there is no grounding in reality and no sense of refining the…
Allen, K.R. (2010). New venture creation (International Edition). 5th ed. South-Western
Bolton, B. & J. Thompson. (2004). Entrepreneurs: Talent, temperament, technique. 2nd ed.
invention changed lives entrepreneurs . People vision determination helped shape world. My Canadian envention snowmobile. I present information interesting creative rest class. Things answer: hen invention snowbile created? ho invented ? here invented? hat impact invention society? How long invention ' '? Have improvements made invention? hat future invention? The emphasis presention entrepreneur enhanced consumer satifaction entrepreneur agent change.
Joseph-Armand Bombardier's snowmobile
As technology came to influence virtually every domain at the start of the twentieth century, people came across the difficulty of traveling through the countryside during winter. In spite of the fact that a series of devices were invented at the start of the century, none of them seemed capable of completing this task. As a result, people designed an all-terrain vehicle meant to transport individuals and freight over lands where other vehicles remained stuck. Some people felt that it was essential for them to get actively engaged…
Capps, Randall and Clermont, Paul Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Quebec: How the Province Became a World-Class Player (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004)
Dana, Leo-Paul "Entrepreneurship in a Remote Sub-Arctic Community," Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 20.1 (1995)
Golomb, Claire ed., The Development of Artistically Gifted Children: Selected Case Studies (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995)
Mergen, Bernard "Leisure Vehicles, Pleasure Boats, and Aircraft," Handbook of American Popular Culture, ed. M. Thomas Inge, 2nd ed., vol. 2 (New York: Greenwood Press, 1989)
esearch leading entrepreneurs determine entrepreneurial approaches -- categories: (1) profit oriented, (2) social responsibility oriented 1.Analyze describe founding leader(s), leadership style, major business principles a profit-oriented entrepreneurial approach primary goal provide a product service consumers make a profit.
Two leading entrepreneurs: Socially-oriented and profit-minded
Socially-oriented leadership: Larry Page
Although its motto is 'don't be evil,' Google is a for-profit company. However, it manages to leverage its idealism in a fashion that is well-suited to the image and success of its product. It is an Internet company that is dependent above all upon the dissemination of knowledge. Google co-founder Larry Page places a strong emphasis on innovation at his company. Google's engineers are allowed to spend part of their time on personal projects, as a way of encouraging the company's top talent to generate the ideas of the future. Google trusts in the intelligence of its employees, and encourages them…
Allen, Frederick. (2011). Steve Jobs broke every leadership rule: Don't try that yourself. Forbes.
Elmer, Vickie. (2011). What would Larry Page do? Fortune. Retrieved:
Employees as Benefactors of Corporate Philanthropy
Corporate Social esponsibility
The Case for Employees as Benefactors of Corporate Philanthropy
The Case for Employees as Benefactors of Corporate Philanthropy
A United Auto Workers unionization vote recently made the news, in part because the vote was taking place in the Southeastern United States where conservative state legislators have historically treated organized labor with hostility, but what seemed to be most newsworthy about this event was that the corporation, Volkswagen, decided to take a neutral position (Paresh, 2014). The vote took place last week and workers at the Chattanooga, Tennessee plant decided to reject union membership by a narrow margin. The national news media also took note when several conservative Tennessee politicians remained true to their anti-union ideology by threatening to end subsidies for Volkswagen and to push production of a new vehicle to Mexico. Experts in labor law believed these threats were coercive…
"2012 Corporate Responsibility Report." (2013). Retrieved 22 Feb. 2014 from https://corporate.target.com/_media/TargetCorp/csr/pdf/2012-corporate-responsibility-report.pdf .
Barnett, M.L. (2007). Stakeholder influence capacity and the variability of financial returns to corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 794-816.
Dennis, W.J. Jr. (2000). Wages, health insurance and pension plans: The relationship between employee compensation and small business owner income. Small Business Economics, 15(4), 247-63.
Fassin, Y., Van Rossem, A., & Buelens, M. (2010). Small-business owner-managers' perceptions of business ethics and CSR-related concepts. Journal of Business Ethics, 98, 425-53.
Another key factor that contributed to the rise of the business to its status of success is that of the quality of service offered. ight from the menu across to the attendants, there is quality in everything that Five Guys offers. The menu is simple and straight forward, despite the pressure from the customers and interested parties to increase the services it offers, they have kept their menu simple and easy. This makes it easy for the customers to just order by the number of what they want from the menu. The quality of service is very much complementary to that of the quality of food. However, without effective employees, the business would not have been so successful (Thornberry, 2006). The service delivery speed is very fast and thus customers do not feel inconvenienced having to wait to be served. They are always attended to on time. This wins the…
Greenberg, D., McKone-Sweet, K., & Wilson, H.J. (2011). The New Entrepreneurial Leader:
Developing Leaders Who Shape Social and Economic Opportunity. San Francisco:
Kates, S. (2011). Free market economics. Cheltenham: Elgar.
ights vs. Social esponsibility
The very nature of business implies that the individual has the right to run a business in order to generate as profit. This aspect is aligned with the democratic ideal of personal and individual freedom. The emphasis in business is therefore on individual motivation and the freedom to achieve success in that particular field of business.
However, modern business ethics also require a degree of social responsibility on the part of the individual. This means that the individual in the pursuit of his rights should not infringe or transgress the rights of the society or the community in which he or she functions and runs a business.
Individual rights refer to the liberties of each individual to pursue life and goals without interference from other individuals or the government. Examples of individual rights include the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness…
Barnea A. And Amir R. ( 2005). Corporate Social Responsibility as a Conflict
between Shareholders. Retrieved from http://apps.olin.wustl.edu/jfi/pdf/csr.conflict.pdf
Bennet J. ( 2000). Multinational Corporations, Social Responsibility and Conflict.
Journal of International Affairs, 55 (2). Retrieved from http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/57510/bennett_article.pdf
Corporate Social esponsibility
The purpose of this case study is close synopsis of the Enron case and its impact on consumers and corporate business practices alike. Prior to its collapse Enron had been named one of America's top 10 admired corporations, and its boards "was acclaimed one of the U.S.' best five" (eed, 2004). Throughout the 1990s the company experienced tremendous growth and profits exceeding $180 billion, employing more than 30,000 people worldwide (eed, 2004).
Enron collapsed however and went bankrupt, a process that "outraged and impacted stakeholders tremendously and resulted in numerous congressional investigations" (eed, 2004). The "implosion" of the company "wreaked havoc on accounting like no other case in American history; the collapse of the system called into question the adequacy of U.S. disclosure practices and the integrity of independent audit processes" (Thomas, 2002).
Overview of the Case
In October of 2001 Enron executives announced they were taking…
Berlau, John; Spun, Brandon. (2002). "Is Big business ethically bankrupt? Boom in business ethics courses is likely in the wake of the Enron scandal, but critics say these classes need to focus on moral rather than political corrected ness." Insight on the News, Vol. 18, Issue 10, p. 16
Farrell, G. (2002). "Impact to reverberate from Wall Street to D.C." USA Today. October 10, 2004, http://www.usatoday.com/money/energy/enron/2002-06-17-andersen.htm
Hoops, J. (2004). "Enron revisited: where are we today?" The Trusted Professional,
October 11, 2004,
Wal-Mart Social esponsibility Analysis: An Employee Perspective
To begin the study "the purpose statement is "a statement that provides the major objective or intent, or "road map" to the study" (Creswell, 2009a, 104).Therefore, the purpose of this narrative is to discuss what employees at various Wal-Mart facilities around the Kansas City area have experienced regarding the social responsibility initiatives undertaken by the company. The method for this particular paper is a qualitative design. Because the desired conclusions were to be drawn from the specific experiences of individuals employed at Wal-Mart stores and Distribution Centers around the area, it was determined that the best method of gathering that information was via interviews with employees rather than the gathering of quantitative data which would not reveal individual interpretations of the policies put in place. The specific questions asked to the participants ranged from their impressions of environmental policies to treatment of employees…
Baker, M. (2003). Wal-Mart: From folk hero to corporate monster. Business Respect, 52, 13-15.
Chamberlin, Kaufman, & Jones. (2003). Coverage under FLSA. Retrieved from http://www.flsa.com/coverage.html
Chatterji, A., & Listokin, S. (2007). Corporate social responsibility: Progressives need to end their fixation with corporate social responsibility -- and focus on reform that actually works. Democracy Journal. 52-63.
Creswell, J.W. (2009a). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches, (2nd ed. ). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Tourism in Thailand
Economic, Social, Cultural and Environmental Impacts of Tourism in Thailand
Urban and rural tourism in Thailand accounts for around 7% of the total GDP. There are various factors, social, economic, environmental and cultural factors which affect the tourism industry in Thailand. Also, the rural tourism in Thailand needs more work. This report has some strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Thailand's tourism industry. In the end, recommendations are given on how to improve the tourism industry in Thailand.
Tourism in Thailand
Impact of Environmental, Economical, Social and Cultural Factors on Tourism in Thailand
Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries, and this industry has been identified as a means of generating national income (Pender, & Sharpley, 2005). Thailand, a beautiful country at the heart…
Chon, K, Singh, A, & Mikula, J. (1993). Thailand's tourism and hotel industry. The Cornell hotel and restaurant administration quarterly, 34(3), 43-49.
Elliot, J. (1983). Politics, power, and tourism in Thailand. Annals of tourism research, 10(3), 377-393.
Forsyth, T, (2002). What happened on the "the beach"? social movements and governance of tourism in Thailand. International journal of sustainable development, 5(3), 326-337.
Gold, J, & Revill, G. (2004). Representing the Environment. Routledge, London
Political, Social and Economic Plan
Our country has the potential of becoming one of the most important nations of the world since it has all the resources that few others have been blessed with. We have countless mineral reserves, a rich soil and a supportive climate that makes it ideal for agriculture.
Most of all, we have a young and talented population that is a priceless resource. In order to transform this undoubted potential into a concrete reality, however, we need to adopt the right policies. We are passing through a critical phase of not just our own history but also the history of the entire mankind in which we have the choice of either seizing the moment or missing the opportunity. The 'opportunity' is offered by the unprecedented technological developments in communication technologies and the lowering of trade barriers around the world.
Our failure in the past has been…
Khan, Imran. (1999) "The Case for a Reform Government." Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf Web site. Retrieved on January 14, 2003 at http://www.insaf.org.pk/articles/the_case_reform_govt.htm
Samuelson, Robert J. (2002). "Deflation: The Global Economy's Downside." Washington Post, September 4, 2002. Retrieved on January 14, 2003 at http://www.globalpolicy.org/globaliz/econ/2002/0904deflation.htm
women's entrepreneurs: Evidence from an East African Economy (Ethiopia)
It is an established fact that the Micro and Small Enterprise (MSE) sectors can help large parts of the populace in underdeveloped economies like Ethiopia as the means for livelihood. African women are beleaguered with societal and cultural challenges and overall entrepreneurial attributes, and that is reflected in the lack of their entrepreneurship development. This study hence takes up the issues ascribed to entrepreneurship orientation in African women and the factors affecting their business orientation. Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) levels of the African women were found to lie in the lower and mid levels assessed against businesswomen elsewhere. The EO of women is found to be positively related to multiple and often diversified business interests and ownerships amongst different socio-economic strata (Gelan & Wedajo 2013). This study is comprised of 203 entrepreneurs involved in 5 categories employing random, stratified sampling method. The…
Cools, E. And Van den Broeck. H, 2007. Development and Validation of the Cognitive style indicator. The Journal of Psychology 3(14): 10-15
OECD, 2002. The Keys for Successful Women Entrepreneurs. The OECD Bologna Process, December 2002.
Wube M.C, 2010. Factors affecting the performance of women entrepreneurs in micro and small enterprises (the case of Dessie town)
Altinay. L., 2006. Determinants of Ethnic minority entrepreneurial growth in the catering sector. The service Industries Journal. 26(2): 203-222
Social E-Commerce on the Innovative and Entrepreneurial Capabilities in the GCC
The advancement of social media has changed how individuals and companies conduct their business. The increase in use of smartphones has made it possible for more users to advertise their products on social media and provide links to their sales pages. Statistics indicate that by 2015, goods and services sold through online social networks globally attained the $30 billion mark. The research aims at evaluating the effects of social e-commerce on the innovative and entrepreneurial capabilities in the GCC. This research study indicates that social e-commerce has had a positive impact on the level of innovation and entrepreneurship in Gulf nations. It is recommended that through social e-commerce, entrepreneurs ought to lay more emphasis on engagement, which is generating relationships, communication and connections with an audience. What is more, embracing comments and conceptions from users, far and wide, is…
References Comment by babyliza: Not in alphabetical order
Al-Alawi, A. I., & Al-Ali, F. M. (2015). Factors Affecting eCommerce Adoption in SMEs in the GCC: An Empirical study of Kuwait. Research Journal of Information Technology, 7(1), 1-21. doi: 10.3923/rjit.2015.1.21
Crowther, D. & Lancaster, G. (2008) Research Methods: A Concise Introduction to Research in Management and Business Consultancy. Butterworth Heinemann
Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly 13(3), 319-340.
Hashim, N. A., Nor, S. M., & Janor, H. (2016). Riding the waves of social commerce: An empirical study of Malaysian entrepreneurs. Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 12(2): 83-94.
The business plan is therefore dependent upon these abilities and constraints. The abilities and constraints that the environment provides are furthermore tempered by the inherent abilities of the business person him- or herself. The third dimension of pragmatism is the constraints and abilities provided by the surrounding society. Hence, entrepreneurship is dependent upon the external physical and social environment, as well as internal factors such as inherent abilities and resources.
When applying this to entrepreneurship policy, the three factors need to be integrated to provide the best possible opportunities for entrepreneurs. According to the OECD (2011), one of the first important focal points should be the local community, where an entrepreneurship development strategy should be implemented. To ensure that all pragmatic factors are integrated, key partners should mutually agree on a clear strategy for entrepreneurship aims. These should focus specifically upon the needs and capabilities of the community of focus.…
Kraaijenbrink, J. (2008, May 22-23). The Nature of the Entrepreneurial Process: Causation, Effectuation, and Pragmatism. Dutch Institute for Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurship (NIKOS). Retrieved from: http://doc.utwente.nl/73744/1/Kraaijenbrink.pdf
OECD (2011). Entrepreneurship Policy Delivery. Retreived from: http://www.oecd.org/document/21/0,3746,en_21571361_38013663_38040823_1_1_1_1,00.html