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The author goes about this by building upon the existing literature on working-class social reproduction. He identifies three themes that encourage social class transfer among the generations; these include resistance and contestation; the peer group; and the structural location of the family (Kaufman, 2005, p. 251). Kaufman then applies these to the middle class in order to arrive at his findings.
Interestingly, the author finds that, while middle-class young people do engage in resistance and rejection, this occurs in a manner that promotes reproduction (Kaufman, p. 252). While the young often reject their parents' desires for their professional careers, they nonetheless proceed to choose careers that would ensure their remaining social position by also rejecting non-professional careers. For the author, this indicates a need to actively pursue a career within their social class, which indicates a more conscious choice than many researchers appear to account for.
Kaufman also finds that…
Dominguez, S. And Watkins, C. (2003). Creating Networks for Survival and Mobility: Social Capital Among African-American and Latin-American Low-Income Mothers. Social Problems, Vol. 50, No. 1.
Kaufman, P. (2005, Jun). Middle-Class Social Reproduction: The Activation and Negotiation of Structural Advantages. Sociological Forum, Vol. 20, No.2.
Marshall, C. And Rossman, G.B. Designing Qualitative Research, 4th Edition.
Horatio Alger's Ragged Dick: Or, Street Life in New York with the oot-blacks (1868)
Ragged Dick is the first of a series of books Horatio Alger wrote about young boys and for young boys (Trachtenberg, 1990). The protagonist is a boy of 14 named Dick Hunter. Since he was seven, he has had to fend for himself on the streets of New York City. He supports himself as a boot-black, polishing shoes for a dime a pair.
Various interpretations have been put on his books, referring to people who start out poor but work hard and end up wealthy and successful as "real Horatio Alger stories." However, in reading the book, the reader will realize that this interpretation isn't entirely correct, for Alger's young hero doesn't want wealth, fame or status. He simply wants to have a secure job and enough money to live on. Neither wealth nor status figure…
Leverenz, David. 1998. "Tomboys, Bad Boys, and Horatio Alger: When Fatherhood Became a Problem." American Literary History, Vol. 10.
Pitofsky, Alex. 1998. "Dreiser's 'The Financier' and the Horatio Alger myth." Twentieth Century Literature, Sept. 22.
Trachtenberg, Alan. "Introduction" in Ragged Dick or, Street Life in New York with the Boot-blacks. New York: Signet, 1990.
Social Upward Mobility
Explain how the economic system in the United States can be used both to allow upward social mobility and trap others in lower status levels.
America is known as the land of opportunity. This is because no matter where someone comes from, their racial group, nationality or economic class everyone has the chance to be successful. If they have a good idea and are willing to work at it, they will realize their long-term goals. Throughout the course of U.S. history, this has been the case. As innovators from across the world can start out with nothing and earn a fortune during the course of their lifetimes. (Cullen 2004) (Henslin 2013)
This is because the economic system enables upward mobility by encouraging the free flow of ideas through a culture of acceptance and understanding. At the same time, the movement of working capital and people from one…
Cullen, Jim. 2004. The American Dream. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
DeParle, Jason. 2012."Harder for Americans to Rise." Retrieved July 21, 2013 ( http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/05/us/harder-for-americans-to-rise-from-lower-rungs.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 )
Henslin, James. 2013. Essentials of Sociology. New York, NY: Pearson Education.
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.
Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
According to Freud, human societies require people to give up many of their most natural instincts and to replace their natural desires with the need to satisfy the "false standards of measurement" such as the "power, success and wealth [that they seek] for themselves and admire & #8230; in others, and that [as a result,] they underestimate what is of true value in life." Fred suggested that the need to live up to the standards and expectations set by society causes "too many pains, disappointments and impossible tasks" and that "to bear it we cannot dispense with palliative measures." By that, Freud meant that all of the psychological mechanisms, substitutions, and escapes that cause psychological problems and that often prevent human happiness. These ideas introduced by Freud about the psychological price paid by people living in society would later be part of the views of several other 20th century sociological…
Therefore, the person who chooses to suspend his interests to comply with those artificial externally-imposed social values for the benefit of others will ultimately always suffer disadvantage because others cannot be counted upon to do so consistently and in a meaningful way, at least not beyond the ability of the state to control and ensure.
To Freud, modern civilization provides various tangible benefits to the individual but only at a tremendous cost. While living in society and with the benefits of government protection against the uncontrolled expression of the selfish will of others is a benefit, the fact that our goals and values, and the component elements of our psychological personas are determined and shaped to such a great extent by external society generates much if not all of the psychological pain and trauma experienced by individuals.
Personal Response and Conclusion
There is substantial value as well as inherent weaknesses…
What are the purposes of determining to which social class a person or occupation belongs? How does class background, or current class position influence individual actions?
In creating a democratic form of government, Americans had long prided themselves for creating a radically new society divorced from the Old World social hierarchies. Yet social class stratification persisted in the United States since the birth of the nation. Social class has also intersected with gender and race throughout the history of the country. Class stratification serves several functions, not least of which is the ability of a ruling elite—including the owners of the means of production—to exploit the lower classes for labor. Moreover, the elite social classes possess social and cultural capital in addition to financial capital. Forms of social and cultural capital serve to facilitate the actions of the upper classes, while preventing those with lower status to access positions of…
Social Stratification and Social Mobility
Systems of social stratification
The systems refer to the manner that the society utilizes in ranking individuals in a hierarchy. Undeniably, the classifications suffice the reality that some groups of individuals possess greater wealth, power, and status compared to others. Differences in the groups of individuals describe the nature of social stratification. Social inequality occurs as a significant aspect of the society as it facilitates the smooth operation of the society. For example, high rewards lure and motivate highly talented individuals to perform involving tasks such as brain surgery. On the other, most individuals can perform blue-collar jobs such as cleaning toilets and mowing grass thereby limiting its level of returns.
The open class system allows social interactions between classes that rely on achievements, prevalent in industrialized nations. On the other hand, the closed class system confirms on the social status of individuals and ancestral…
Gane, Nicholas (2005). Max Weber as Social Theorist 'Class, Status, Party'. European Journal of Social Theory, 8(2):211-226
Resnikoff, Ned (2014, November 11). Global inequality is a rising concern for elites. Aljazeera America. Retrieved from http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/11/11/global-inequalityisarisingconcernforelites.html
Social, Cultural, And Political Influence in Healthcare Delivery
Social, cultural, and political inequalities are detrimental to the health and healthcare system of the U.S. This is because the U.S. is one of the most multicultural, overpopulated, diverse and undergoing rapid economic growth. The federal government has embarked on efforts geared at addressing unsustainable costs of health care in the U.S. With the leadership of the current president, Barrack Obama, initiatives of containing health care costs will evaluate and explore strategies to contain the growing costs of health care based on a system-wide while enhancing the value and quality of health care (Ubokudom, 2012). The apparent system of health care is rife with opportunities of minimizing waste, delivering coordinated, effective care, and improving well-being and health of all Americans. The government in collaboration with care providers must prioritize cost effective containment strategies with the greatest possibility for political success and non-partisan…
Albrecht, G.L., Fitzpatrick, R., & Scrimshaw, S. (2013). Handbook of social studies in health and medicine. London: Sage Publications.
Armstrong, E.G. (2011). The health care dilemma: A comparison of health care systems in three European countries and the U.S. Singapore: World Scientific.
Bale, J.R., Stoll, B.J., & Lucas, A.O. (2013). Improving birth outcomes: Meeting the challenge in the developing world. Washington, DC: National academies press.
Buseh, A.G. (2008). Empowering resilience: Improving health care delivery in war-impacted African countries: a case study of Liberia. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
My social unit is Canada, which is a sovereign nation. I'm not sure how to redefine it, unless Canada expanded its borders or something. Perhaps by expanding the definition from strict geographic borders to incorporate all Canadians, living anywhere in the world. Canada is one of the most globalized nations in the world. As an immigrant nation, it features cities with some of the highest percentages of foreign-born people. Furthermore, with a large and globalized economy, Canada scores highly on many globalized indexes, and would score higher if those indexes took into account having immigrants from all over the world.
The first article is Zhang & Smith (2012). This article outlines the effects of globalization on workplace performance in Canada. There are a few different dimensions to this paper. The authors make several findings. First, they find that productivity is higher at foreign-owned firms, and productivity is also…
Laroche, M. (2011). Globalization, culture and marketing strategy: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 64 (9) 931-933.
MacDonald, A. (2013). Consideration of identity in teachers' attitudes toward teaching controversial issues under conditions of globalization: A critical democratic perspective from Canada. Ontario Institute for Studies. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/35891/1/MacDonald_Angela_M_201306_PhD_Thesis.pdf
Slaymaker, O. & French, H. (2012). The changing Canadian cryosphere, globalization and global environmental change. Changing Cold Environments: A Canadian Perspective.
Zhang, H. & Smith, M. (2012). Globalization and workplace performance in Canada: Cross-sectional and dynamic analyses of productivity and wage outcomes. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility. Vol. 30 (3) 310-327.
The world of information technology is constantly being challenged to move into other segments of business functions. No longer can an IT manager simply control the company's internal data and information flow. One generalization that was identified is that information technology is becoming increasing intertwined with both marketing and advertising. Many consumers, especially the younger generations, consider information they acquire online by various means to serve as the foundation for purchasing decisions. Not only do such consumers scan the web to compare pricing information, but they also engage in product research through various means.
It is becoming increasingly difficult to reach these consumers with a marketing message. Many consumers effectively shun any traditional type of marketing messages. Such consumers can actually have contempt for such an approach as it seems to question their intelligence and as a result these messages can potentially have a counterproductive effect on brand image.…
1-800-Flowers. Facebook. November 26, 2011. http://www.facebook.com/1800flowers (accessed November 26, 2011).
Broman, D. Soderlindh, S. "How the Internet Facilitates the Activity within a Consumer Culture." Uppsala University. August 2, 2009. http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:226785/FULLTEXT01 (accessed November 26, 2011).
Lipsman, A. "Facebook and Twitter Access via Mobile Browser Grows by Triple-Digits in the Past Year." Com Score. March 3, 2010. http://www.comscore.com/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2010/3/Facebook_and_Twitter_Access_via_Mobile_Browser_Grows_by_Triple-Digits (accessed November 26, 2011).
Ryan, T., and S. Xenos. "Who uses Facebook? An investigation into the relationship between the Big Five, shyness, narcissism, loneliness, and Facebook usage." Computers in Human Behavior, 2009: 1658-1664.
Social Media in the Business Environment
In the past few years, there has been a tremendous and dramatic increase in the use of social networking sites and social media such as Facebook and Twitter. This is particularly because of the low-cost, user-oriented, and highly collaborative means of communication that continues to evolve through its own impetus. Consequently, social networking sites or social media are based on certain principles that the corporate or business environment can learn from. There is an assumption that the widespread adoption of social media in people's personal lives can be moved to the professional environment where they can be used to develop unprecedented knowledge bases in which people, industries, and the society can be empowered. However, many businesses still consider social media and social networking sites tools as frivolous to an extent that they have prohibited their use in the working environment. Actually, these companies still…
Coleman, A (2012), How Social Media can Benefit Small Businesses, The Guardian, viewed 6
Ernst & Young (2012), Protecting and Strengthening your Brand, Ernst & Young, viewed 6
57). This makes the idea that the minority communities that are using the community as a "springboard" for assimilation because there are less of the domestic non-Hispanic whites in the areas in which immigrants would typically assimilate.
There has even been the development of what is referred to as planned communities. Irvine California serves as a good example of such a development. Irvine was developed from ranch lands from a single developer that constructed "urban villages" in Orange County (Maher, 2004, p. 782). The particular site selected for this 1-997 study was in many ways a "typical" Irvine neighborhood. A planned community developed in the mid-1970s, Ridgewood comprised 246 single-family homes on a collection of cul-de-sacs connected by three public through streets: on average, residents were highly educated- 39% had graduate or professional degrees- and most of those who were employed worked in professional, managerial, technical, or sales positions (Maher,…
Maher, K. (2004). Borders and Social Distinction in the Global Suburb. American Quarterly, 781-806.
Zhou, M., Tseng, Y., & Kim, R. (2008). Rethinking Residential Assimilation: The Case of a Chinese Ethnoburb in the San Gabriel Valley, California. Amerasia Journal, 55-83.
I find this very surprising because I thought that social learning and incorporation of operant conditioning as part of the social learning theory plays a preeminent role in influencing criminality.
I think that the theories that explain best the findings of the articles are the sociological and theories. Psychological and biological theories are not suitable for support. I chose from the sociological theories the "Social Disorganization Theory" emanating from the Chicago School research of Shaw and McKay. According to this theory's general hypothesis "low economic status, ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility, and family disruption lead to community social disintegration, which in turn increases crime and delinquency rates" (Sampson, .J. & Groves, W.B., Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory, p. 774.) The Social Disorganization Study is the theory that by virtue of the article's title actually underlies the research of Triplett & Gainey. But in large parts it also mirrors the…
Monahan, J. (19 February 2010). The Causes of Violence. Derived 15 August 2011 from www.sodahead.com/united-states/the-causes-of.../blog-263921
Sampson, R.J. & Groves, W.B. (1989). Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social-Disorganization Theory. AJS Volume 94 Number 4 (January 1989): 774-802, derived 15 August 2011 from RJ Sampson… - American Journal of Sociology, 1989 -- JSTOR.
Already educated, she had the resources to -- and indeed did find - employment opportunities. Sociologically, she belonged in the lower middle classes. Both individuals had intelligence, courage and grits. But both also possessed existent privileges with which they could pull themselves up. Critics of the work-it-hard perspective omit these facts. Perhaps they do so because focusing on the ordeals of the working class would suck us in a web of responsibility.
The unfortunate fact is that individuals belonging to the working class castigate themselves unfairly for conditions that are beyond their control.
An example in Newman's book is illustrated by 'Jarvis' who, despite his experience, unable to find a job in a restaurant is still seeking employment. Yet 'Jarvis' still holds himself accountable for his lack of success "Some people are willing to try hard and therefore they can make it, regardless if the deck is stacked against them…
Newman, K.S. No Shame in my Game: The Working Poor in the Inner City. NY: Vintage, 2000
Personal Social Class
My Parent's Class Position
My parents grew up in poverty in Latin America. Their story is not an unfamiliar one in America. My parents were able to obtain a middle school education, which at that time in Latin America, was a good educational accomplishment. Like most children living in impoverished, lower class families, my parents both had to contribute to the household income. Opportunities for earning extra money were scarce, but my parents were creative and determined; they took what jobs they could find and set themselves up to establish work where there had previously been none. My mother would say that sometimes people just didn't know what work they needed someone else to do -- but if you do some work, and the people like it, they see that it is nice not to have to do the work for themselves. When my grandparents immigrated to…
In fact, the Toy is considered to be one of the most racist films of all time due to these issues (Sastry).
Blazing Saddles and the Toy approach comedy from distinct perspectives, and although they may have common elements, the differences in their approach to humor, comedy, and race allow the audience to understand why Blazing Saddles is successful in its commentary on society and why the Toy fails miserably at changing people's perspectives about society in a positive way. Brooks's approach to race and social status helps to redefine how blacks were viewed in cinema, and also helps to demonstrate that previous cinematic depictions have been skewed due the control exercised by Hollywood executives. On the other hand, Donner's approach to race and social status ends up being degrading, racist, and further reinforces negative stereotypes of race and social status. It is through these various depictions and approaches that…
Blazing Saddles. Directed by Mel Brooks. United States: Warner Bros., 1974. DVD.
Dirks, Tim. "Comedy Films." AMC Filmsite. Web. 13 April 2013.
Rice, Kathryn. "Race Consciousness and Class Invisibility in American Comedy." Dissident
Voice: A radical newsletter in the struggle for peace and social justice. 4 Sept 2010. Web. 12 April 2013.
economic and social changes after 1870 are so striking and so qualitatively different from the developments of the First Industrial Revolution that they deserve to be labeled, "The Second Industrial Revolution."
The Second Industrial Revolution
Rapid changes in societies that radically transform the way of life for significant segments of the population are termed revolutions. Such revolutions have occurred frequently in many parts of the world throughout history. However, only a few in the history of mankind have transformed societies in irreversible and profoundly significant ways. Two such significant events that have taken place in the course of human history are -- The Neolithic Revolution and The Industrial Revolution. In the Neolithic Revolution people changed their way of life and social systems based on hunting and gathering to more complex systems dependant on agriculture and the domestication of animals. This led to the development of communities who lived in permanent…
Electricity and Electric Power." The Second Industrial Revolution. Open Door Web Site. October 15, 2002. November 2, 2002. http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/050.html
Lewis, Pat. "Science and the 'Second' Industrial Revolution." Beginner's Guide to Research in the History of Science. Horus Publications Web Site. November 2, 2002. http://www.horuspublications.com/guide/sl103.html
Porter, Glenn. "Industrial Revolution." Article in Micosoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2002. CD-ROM Version.
Making the Modern World." The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870-1914. The Science Museum Web Site. November 2, 2002. http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/online/mmw/south5.asp
trade also has contributed to the economic exploitation of women, as the
textile industry for example, which is predominantly women has seen jobs
lost and wages cut. Women are often forced to be teachers or work in day-
care centres, but not on equal footing with men. Women are victims as are
ethnic minorities, and they are forced into hourly jobs with low salaries,
high unemployment, and little unionization or official organization.
Furthermore, women are dependent on household duties, and through
mechanical technological improvements in household work, women have been
able to work more. This means that women are in fact tied to the family,
and that the family dictates that women's economic needs are of secondary
concern. As the household labourer, traditional duties are a priority, and
this notion of women contributing to the workforce as secondary to
household duties has contributed to women being treated as secondary…
Secondly, this different approach also led the American society to experience a distinct social evolution. The fact that the ritish colonists were less reluctant to encourage social mobility offered the new settlers the change to become an important member of the society despite his eventual modest origin. Consequently, the highest level of the social scale was that of the colonial aristocrats, represented by wealthy planters and merchants, the middle class was represented by the land owning farmers, while the hired help made up the lower class. Indeed, there were racial frictions as well, which forced African-Americans to be considered the least important in the society. Nonetheless, despite this hierarchy, the geographical conditions enabled every man to go in search of wealth and thus improve his social conditions.
The Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires, although they offered a different social structure for their colonies, they left little mobility between classes. The…
Lewis, Laura. "Spanish ideology and the practice of inequality in the New World." Racism and anti-racism in world perspective. Ed. Benjamin Bowser. London: Sage Publications, 2002.
Loury, Glenn C., Tariq Modood, and Steven Michael Teles. Ethnicity, social mobility, and public policy:comparing the U.S. And UK. London: Cambridge UP, 2005, 22-25.
Social Policies in Community Agencies
Hall (2013) opines that social workers practicing from a community organizing or development perspective try to tackle systemic problems that lead to negative social issues. Social policy attempts to study how society promotes individual and family welfare. Also, the policies tend to be consistent with what the government of the day views to be the most optimal way to help those who are disadvantaged and can't help themselves. A number of these social policies are incorporated in the works of community agencies. They include availing supportive services to the vulnerable members of society and coming up with long-term policies handling care services so as to help this disadvantaged demographic.
Serving Seniors Agency
Social Problems, Social Policies, Target Population and Services Provided
From 1970, Serving Seniors, a program based in San Diego County, has been one of the leading service providers to seniors with…
The purpose of this qualitative study is to better understand the dynamic and intricate process of child development within inner city neighborhoods. This study will seek to shed light upon the various factors which impact child development in such places, and determine out of issues like crime, lack of strong educational institutions, and the abundance of single-parent households -- which causes the greatest amount of harm to child development. This research project endeavors to determine which obstacle causes the greatest impediment to the ability of children to thrive so that the variable or variables which create them most harm are adequately pinpointed.
It is with great hope and intention that this research project creates lasting and precise social change. esearch like this is indeed meant to make a difference in the world and ultimately change the life trajectories of children who are born into such disadvantaged neighborhoods. This…
Branum, A. (2008, October). Food Allergy Among U.S. Children: Trends in Prevalence and Hospitalizations. Retrieved from cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db10.htm
Currie, J. (2007, March). Poverty Among Inner-City Children . Retrieved from princeton.edu: http://www.princeton.edu/~jcurrie/publications/inman_june07.pdf
Fitzgerald, S. (2013, July). 'Crack baby' study ends with unexpected but clear result. Retrieved from philly.com: http://articles.philly.com/2013-07-22/news/40709969_1_hallam-hurt-so-called-crack-babies-funded-study
McCord, J. (1997). Violence and Childhood in the Inner City. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
(Green Left, 1999).The gap between the rich and the poor is also soaring because vast most of the wealth generated from Canada's recent economic growth goes to the richest Canadians instead of being channeled to the poor Canadians who are the majority of the Canadian population.
The shrinking Middle class
According to Macionis & Gerber (2002), approximately 40 to 50% of the Canadian population belongs to the middle class. Due to its size, it heavily influences the nature of Canadian culture. This class has a considerable level of racial as well as ethnic diversity. This class is never characterized by familiarity and exclusivity with which the upper class carries. Over half of the families in this category are referred to as the "upper-middle" class and is characterized by families having incomes ranging $50,000- $100,000. The salaries of the upper middle class are mainly earned from professional and upper managerial positions…
Baker, L (2009), "A boom in office towers in Calgary," New York Times, 2009-01-20
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/21/business/21calgary.html , retrieved 2011-02-17
Barber, J (2007).Toronto Divided: a Tale of Three Cities." John Barber, Globe and Mail,
December 20, 2007.
UK Children and Families
Homeless families are generally defined as adults with dependent children who are briefly accommodated by voluntary agency, local authority or housing association hostels in the United Kingdom (Vostanis 2002). They are taken in from a few days or several months, often four to six weeks and generally provided with bread and breakfast. Although this broad definition does not include children who have lost homes and live with friends and relatives, it is estimated that there are 140,000 such displaced families in the UK today. The average family consists of a single mother and at least two children. Trends show that these families become homeless again within a year from being housed by agencies. Domestic violence and harassment from the neighborhood are the most frequent cause behind their homelessness. The volume of homeless refugee families among them has dwindled in the late 90s, mostly confined in the…
1. Harrisona C. et al. (2001). Who is failing abused and neglected children? Archives of Disease in Childhood. http://www.fetalneonatal.com/cgi/content/full/85/4/300
2. Jackson, S (2001). Reducing risk and promoting resilience in vulnerable children. IUC Journal of Social Work, Journal Issue 4. Department of Social Relations and Services: Bemidji State University. http://www.bemidji.msu.edu/sw_journal/issue4/articles/jackson.html
3. Jowell, T et al. (1999). Lone parent families: routes to social inclusion. Gingerbread. http://www.gingerbread.org.uk/lprtsi.txt
4. Nixon, P. Family group conference connections: shared problems and joined-up solutions. International Institutes for Restorative Practices. http://iirp.org/library/vt/vt_nixon.html
Holly Sklar writes, "the gulf between the rich and the rest of America will continue to widen, weakening our economy and our democracy. The American Dream will be history instead of poverty."
With the advent of more billions into the ranks of the Fortune 400, so it is; instead of witnessing the booming middle class that marked the Scientific and Industrial evolutions, America is undergoing a transformation that more clearly limns the demarcation between classes than ever before.
With economic segregation an ever more encroaching reality, the distinctions between race, age, and gender come increased under review as Americans are forced to examine the origins of social class, its solidification in early childhood, and its place in the national life.
In academic circles, social class describes the relationships between individual agents and groups as they struggle through social hierarchies. Weber famously defined the social stratification as a three-component theory frequently…
Adair, Vivian C. "Branded with Infamy: Inscriptions of Poverty and Class in the United States." Signs. Vol. 27, No. 2. (Winter, 2002.)
Collins, C. & Yeskel, F. "Economic Apartheid in America: A Primer on Economic Inequality & Insecurity." New York: The New Press, Oct. 31, 2005.
Conley, Dalton. Being Black and Living in the red: Race, Wealth, and Social Policy in America." Berkley: University of California Press, 1999.
Kotlowitz, Alex. There Are No Children Here. New York: Anchor Press, 1992.
Overcrowding in Megacities
Cities are increasingly getting larger, which results in the increased emergence of megacities worldwide. Megacities are increasingly emerging in developing nations due to mass urbanization. One of the major contributors to the rise of megacities worldwide is globalization and rapid technological advancements. By increasing connectivity, globalization has contributed to mass urbanization as people look for better environments for their socioeconomic growth and development. Globalization has transformed the nature of urbanization by making people’s movement to become global rather than intra-national rural-urban migration. According to Heyzer et al. (2016) the rise of megacities worldwide is an indicator that humankind is experiencing the highest ever growth in urbanization. While the rise of megacities is associated with some positive impacts relating to economic growth and development, these cities face some challenges due to overcrowding. This paper examines the social and environmental challenges facing megacities due to overcrowding.
Social Challenges Facing…
Social Media: ABM Industries
The relevance of a social media strategy cannot be overstated. This is more so the case given that in addition to ensuring that the company does not have its interests harmed or threatened due to wrongful use of social media, a social media policy advances the interests of a business entity via such activities as marketing and customer acquisition. A social media strategy permits the organization to make optimal use of social media platforms. It is, therefore, unfortunate that ABM Industries does not have in place a social media strategy.
Being one of America's largest facility management firms, ABM offers "state-of-the-art, dependable building maintenance services ." (ABM, 2016). The company was established in 1990 as a one man show. Morris osenberg, the founder, saw the need to professionalize window washing which was at the time being done by anyone with a rug, soap, and access to…
ABM. (2016). Our Company. Retrieved from http://www.abm.com/pages/our-company.aspx
Humphreys, A. (2015). Social Media: Enduring Principles. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010, January-February). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), pp. 59-68
Solis, Brian. (2011). Engage!: The Complete Guide for Brands and Businesses to Build, Cultivate, and Measure Success in the New Web. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons
Social Institution and Organized Crime
Viewing organized crime as a social institution can enable law enforcement agencies to better understand how organized crime operates and maintains its structure and standing in society. A social institution is simply a system in which behaviors and relationships governed by the mechanisms of the system's structure; it consists of a group of social positions, relationships and social roles, all of which combine to give the institution its character. While organized crime may seem like a group that operates below the surface of society or in the underground, the fact of the matter is that organized crime is very much a social institution, in which relationships are fostered, hierarchies are evident, behavioral norms are expected, and goals are projected. This paper will discuss organized crime as a social institution using empirical and speculative theories to better understand how the term social institution applies to organized…
Lyman, M., Potter, G. (2007). Organized Crime, 4th Ed. NY: Prentice Hall.
Organized Crime. (2016). Act for Libraries. Retrieved from http://www.actforlibraries.org/organized-crime/
Takagi, D., Ikeda, K., Kobayashi, T., Harihara, M., Kawachi, I. (2016). The impact of crime on social ties and civic participation. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 26(2): 164-178.
elationships and Social Lives
This is the hierarchical way in which large social groups based on their control over basic resources. A key characteristic of stratification systems is the extent to which the structure is flexible. Slavery, a form of stratification in which people are owned by others, is an extreme type. In a caste system, people's status is determined at birth based on their parents' position in society
The class system, which exists in the United States, is a type of stratification based on ownership of resources and on the type of work people do. Functionalist perspectives on the U.S. class structure view classes as broad groupings of people who share similar levels of privilege based on their roles in the occupational structure. According to the Davis-Moore thesis, positions that are most important within society, requiring the most talent and training, must highly rewarded. Many people define classes as…
1. Eichar, Douglas (1989). Occupation and Class Consciousness in America. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
2. Gilbert, Dennis (1998). The American Class Structure. New York: Wadsworth Publishing.
3. Thompson, William; Joseph Hickey (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson.
4. Levine, Rhonda (1998). Social Class and Stratification. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Yet the aspect of collaborative applications is more than just social networks, it also encompasses the development of entire networks within companies for specific long-range projects, including new product development (O'eilly, 2006). Wireless providers then are being forced to create more of a portal-based approach to their wireless applications and mobility solutions, as Nokia has continually attempted unsuccessfully to do over the last decade, and as others including Ericcson also are trying. Wireless providers are overdue for an industry shakeout where consolidation forces the structure of entirely new platforms of collaboration over time. There is also the need to underwrite these platforms through the sales of products and services. The Apple iTunes store is held up as the model of what wireless and mobility providers need to strive for in terms of their efforts to create more meaningful online experiences for their customers, yet the challenge is one of emulating…
Anastasi,, Ancillotti,, Conti,, & Passarella, . (2009). Design and Performance Evaluation of a Transport Protocol for Ad hoc Networks. The Computer Journal, 52(2), 186-209.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Sasha Dekleva, JP Shim, Upkar Varshney, & Geoffrey Knoerzer. (2007). Evolution and Emerging Issues in Mobile Wireless Networks. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 50(6), 38-43.
Fantacci, R., Vannuccini, G., & Vestri, G.. (2008). Performance analysis of a multiple access protocol for voice and data support in multiuser broadband wireless LANs. Wireless Networks, 14(1)
Upward Mobility Through Sports
Stanley Eitzen's article "Upward Mobility Through Sports" is an analysis of the ability of individuals to raise themselves upward through the social stratification that currently exists in America. Sports are often seen by those on the lower end of the social strata as a means of rising up and becoming economically successful. However, Eitzen points out that the chances of rising socially and economically through a career in professional sports is not likely. This article fits in with the readings from our textbook as they discuss the existence of social stratification and the effects on an individual of their position within that society.
Chapter 7 in our textbook opens with Murray Milner's theories on high school social structure as a means to begin a discussion on social stratification; or the inequalities among individuals and groups within society. This leads to a listing of the three characteristics…
Eitzen, Stanley. "Upward Mobility Through Sports? The myths and realities."
Z Magazine, March 1999. Web. 26 Oct. 2013.
Knowledge of avenues for community support as well as for physical aid such as shelter and food are vital to providing help, both immediate and long-term, to discriminated populations. I have confidence that between my studies and real-life experiences such as internships and work, that I can gain this knowledge and disperse it amongst clientele.
The fourth role a therapist ought to play is as a "consultant helping clients (and others in their life) find ways to work toward reducing discriminatory practices in the community" (Atkinson, et.al., 1993, pp. 264-270, cited in Cooper and Lesser, 2005, p. 67). This role dovetails with the second role above of being an advocate oneself.
If one is successfully filling the role of advocate, then sharing information on how to participate in the local community, to contact one's officials, and to agitate for change is not a large step. Teaching clients how to successfully…
Atkinson, D.R., Thompson, C.E. And Grant, S.K. 1993. "A three-dimensional model for counseling racial/ethnic minorities," in The Counseling Psychologist, 21(2), 257-277.
Babakan, H. And Gopalkrishan, N. "Posttraumatic experiences of refugee women," in Rabin, C. ed., Understanding Gender and Culture in the Helping Process. Sydney, Thomson Wadsworth.
Banks, J. 2004. "Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform," in Banks,.J and Banks, C., eds. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Massachusetts, Wiley.
Banks, J. 2004. "Multicultural Education: Characteristics and Goals," in Banks, J and Banks, C., eds. Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives. Massachusetts, Wiley.
" In the rural areas, Afghan women "are still forced into marriages and denied a basic education" (Qazi, par. 2). It has been said that many school that cater to girls have been burned down and there were girls who "have even been poisoned to death for daring to go to school" (Qazi, par. 2). The struggle still continues up to this day. The Afghan women constitute half of the Afghan population and as such, they are important and should be made equal participants in the rebuilding of the Afghan society. The Afghan women should be empowered in order to do this. The Afghan women do not need to be saved. Instead, equal educational opportunity would help end the Afghan women's social struggle.
Abu-Lughod, Lila. "Do Muslim Women eally Need Saving? Anthropological eflections on Cultural elativism and Its Others." American Anthropologist September 2002: 783-790.
Burke, Barry. "Mary Wollstonecraft on…
Abu-Lughod, Lila. "Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving? Anthropological Reflections on Cultural Relativism and Its Others." American Anthropologist September 2002: 783-790.
Burke, Barry. "Mary Wollstonecraft on Education." (2004). The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. 21 April 2009 .
Dubriwny, Tasha. "First Ladies and Feminism: Laura Bush as Advocate for Women's and Children's Rights," Women's Studies in Communication 28.1 (2005), Questia, 20 Apr. 2009 .
Emadi, Hafizullah. Repression, Resistance, and Women in Afghanistan (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002) iii, Questia, 20 Apr. 2009.
Programs and Services
§ Briefly describe the major programs and services, and the population intended to be served.
Before choosing the programs it is pointed out that about three decades ago, the term 'organizational culture', came in vogue. It resulted in a study of the different styles of organizing. Today the organizational change can be achieved easily and the methods of conducting programs themselves can be a part of a project that involves multiple organizations. Non-profits also came into the scrutiny of these concepts. (Wright, 1994)
The theory now is to see that maximum benefits and opportunities are extended to the subjects by the organization in this case the disadvantaged groups, particularly women and children. The programs seem to be created and managed on the general principles that all organizations follow. There does not seem to be any specific study that was done to incorporate the persons who belong to…
Alternativestodv. (2013a) "Administrative Staff" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/aboutus/staff.html
Alternativestodv. (2013d) "History of the organization" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/aboutus/advhistory.html
Alternativestodv. (2013c) "Financial Information" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/aboutus/financials.html
Alternativestodv. (2013b) "ADV Federal 990 form" Retrieved 22 April, 2013 from http://www.alternativestodv.org/images/ADV_Federal_990_Form.pdf
A second change that has occurred and will continue to transform is that, regardless of the motivation, many employers have begun to experiment with flextime, telecommuting, and voluntary reduced-load work arrangements to give employees more discretion and personal flexibility in how they integrate work demands with other life roles such as family, community, and leisure. This increase in flexible work arrangements has further blurred the boundaries between work and home for many employees. Effectively switching and managing multiple work and non-work roles has never been more complex. Findings from individual, family, and organizational perspectives are mixed in terms of the success and social acceptance of alternative work arrangements (Kossek & Lambert, 2005, p. 6)
Though the criminal justice system is known for what they do and have been around for centuries, it is important to note that every organization has a plan, a vision, and successful mixed with failures. This…
Kossek, E.E. & Lambert, S.J. (Eds.). (2005). Work and Life Integration: Organizational, Cultural, and Individual Perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Miner, J.B. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Foundations, Theories, and Analyses. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sims, R.R. (1994). Ethics and Organizational Decision Making: A Call for Renewal. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Sims, R.R. (2002). Managing Organizational Behavior. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Mobile Computing and Social Networks
There are many mobile apps in the market that have been designed to cater for various tasks and processes. Mobile apps were initially designed for gaming but improvements have been made to ensure that they can be used for business purposes. Applications have been designed to improve efficiency of mobile devices. Users have been able to make use of mobile phones to replace devices such as desktop computers and cameras.
Effectiveness and efficiency mobile-based applications
Technological advancements in the field of communication have undergone numerous changes over the decade. Mobile phones conventionally used for basic communication can now be used to conduct more features. The software being used in the mobile devises have enabled the devises to be used for more application than communication. The mobile devices being sold in the market are considered smart phones due to the array of applications that they can…
B'Far, R. (2004). Mobile computing principles: Designing and developing mobile applications with UML and XML. New York: Cambridge University Press
Bohner, B. (2009). Disaster Recovery -- Extra Considerations for Extra Technologies. System Inews, (360), 13.
Hernack, B. (2006). Improving Bluetooth Security: What IT Managers and Mobile Device Users Can Do. Information Systems Security, 15(4), 39-42.
Sarno, T. (2010). Choosing the right mobile platform. Apc, 30(9), 100.
Inequalities in Mental Health
Over the last several years, different theories have been utilized to explain the societal factors in the quality of mental health. The basic idea is to understand which variables will have the greatest impact on the person's ability to contribute to society. The social structure theory is taking a unique perspective in studying the problem. To fully understand its importance requires looking at the main ideas and why it was chosen. Together, these elements will illustrate how this influences mental health and the effects it is having on contemporary thinking. (Gabbidon, 2005) (Cole, 2013)
The social structure theory believes that the economic class will have a direct impact on the quality of care, treatment options and the effects on society itself. This is because poor neighborhoods face greater amounts of strain, frustrations, reduced opportunities and disorganization. These variables will influence how someone sees their surroundings and…
Cole, G. (2013). Survey of Criminal Justice. Mason, OH: Southwestern.
Gabbidon, S. (2005). Race, Crime and Justice. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Smith, D. (1988). "Social Structure and Criminal Victimization." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25 (1), 27-52.
International Labour Mobility on Australia
Migration of international individuals across various countries is becoming very common these days, which is imposing many global issues, such as social, cultural and economical, in both the sending and receiving states. The main agenda of migration is to reunite the family, help labour market, develop the nation and strengthen economy. Of all the people moving to Australia, 68% consists of skilled people whereas 32% are migrated through family visa streams. The number of people who migrate and their trends change from time to time, from smaller migration programmes mostly consisting of families in 1993-94 to large scale programme with an increased number of skilled people in 2013-14 (Migration programme statistics, n.d.). This paper explains the latest developments in international labour movement in Australia.
Trends of Australia's International Labour Mobility
The skilled visa stream was introduced for the individuals who have specific skills, education and…
Australia's Migration Trends 2013-14 (2014). [Online]. Accessed April 21, 2016, available at: https://www.border.gov.au/ReportsandPublications/Documents/statistics/migration-trends13-14.pdf
Bastia, T., 2013. Migration and inequality, Vol. 100. Routledge.
Johnson, D. and Turner, C., 2010. International Business: Themes and issues in the modern global economy. Routledge.
Migration programme statistics. (n.d.). [Online]. Accessed April 21, 2016, available at https://www.border.gov.au/about/reports-publications/research-statistics/statistics/live-in-australia/migration-programme
Still, his union with a woman also of common birth leaves us to reflect that in all likelihood, Spenser himself would enter the court after an upbringing of modestly. This denotes the distinction of Spenser as a critique of reigning structures of authority in his time and place. This also helps to introduce our discussion to the historical context into which he deposited his first important work of poetry.
The choice of language in the poem is a curious one, at least insofar as it can be regarded as somewhat misleading of the work's time of origin. Its composition in 1579 and the poet's declared affection for and indebtedness to the works of Geoffrey Chaucer are facts submerged beneath the linguistic affectations which Spenser felt were necessary to carry the pastoral form. (Bear, 1) Indeed, the prologue which is composed by an otherwise anonymous writer signing as E.K., provides…
Bear, R.S. (2006). Introduction to Edmund Spenser's the Shephearde's Calendar. The University of Oregon.
Hales, J.W. (2004). The Project Gutenberg EBook of a Biography of Edmund Spenser. Project Gutenberg.
Hamilton, a.C. (1990). The Spenser Encyclopedia. University of Toronto Press.
NNDB. (2008). Edmund Spenser. Soylent Communications. Online at http://www.nndb.com/people/405/000085150/
International Social Welfare Organizations
Over the last several decades, the role of the social worker has been continually evolving. Part of the reason for this, is because a wide variety of problems have emerged that are highlighting the challenges facing many societies around the globe. This significant, because it means the responsibilities for social workers are adapting (based upon these shifts). To fully understand these transformations requires reviewing and critiquing four different articles on the subjects. Once this occurs, it will provide the greatest insights as to how the roles and responsibilities of social workers are continually changing.
International Social Welfare Organizations
The article titled International Social Welfare Organizations is discussing the role of NGO's in addressing a variety of social issues. Currently, there are about 50 thousand NGOs that are operating around the world (which is increasing). The reason why, is because there has been a shift in political…
International Social Welfare Organizations. (n.d.).
Campfens, H. (1996). Partnerships in International Social Development. International Social Work, 39, 201 -- 223.
Karabanow, J. (2003). International Social Welfare Organizations. International Social Work, 46 (3), 369 -- 386.
Peters, J. (2001). NGOs in the Service of Imperialism (128 -- 139). Globalization Unmasked. Halifax: Fernanan.
Ethical esponsibility of Corporate America
Many organizations strive to increase their profit margins by doing everything possible (including unethical practices) to increase their revenues. Nevertheless, the past three decades have seen some organizations embracing CS (Corporate Social responsibility). This idea has become significantly important to almost every organization that seeks to increase revenues. Corporate social responsibility is also referred to as community responsibility, stewardship, corporate sustainability, corporate responsibility, accountability and corporate ethics among others. In essence, CS enable organizations to bring in people and the environment into their decisions, strategies and plans (Anyango Ooko, 2014).
In this paper, the use of the term corporate social responsibility will mean a set of actions by enterprises that are geared towards meeting the legal, ethical, economic, and discretional responsibilities that the stakeholders expect them to fulfill. They should undertake the economic obligations of producing profits, and meeting the consumption requirements of the people;…
AnyangoOoko, G. (2014). The environmental factors that influence implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in an organization. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(12): 95-102.
Castka, P., Bamber, C., Sharp, J. (2005). Implementing Effective Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Governance: A Framework. UK: British Standards Institution.
Daft, R. L., & Marcic, D. (2006). Understanding management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western.
Pearce, J., Doh, J. (2005). The high impact of collaborative social initiatives. MIT Sloan Management Review, 46(3): 30-38.
Age Stratification and Methods of Social Networking
Old Age and Interpersonal Relationships
As the baby boomer generation ages, America becomes increasingly a senior nation. This has caused an increasing degree of scrutiny to be directed at the process of aging, and the effects which it has upon the social fabric of the nation. Only a few decades ago, as Grant McCracken puts it, old people were "expected to remove themselves from the public stage, to relinquish positions of influence and usefulness, to retire their claims to a place at the center of things." (2004) hether they were locked away in nursing homes or the back bedrooms of their own children's homes or quaint little apartments and retirement facilities, the elderly were generally like ideal children seen and not heard or noticed. However, increasingly middle aged and senior individuals are beginning to appear as vibrant actors in society and culture, boosted…
Mahoney, S. (2003) "Seeking Love" AARP Magazine (online). Accessed at http://www.aarpmagazine.org/lifestyle/Articles/a2003-09-23-seekinglove.html,25 Jun 2004.
McCracken, G. (2004) "Plenitude" Accessed at http://www.cultureby.com/books/plenit/html/Plenitude2p4.htm,25 Jun 2004.
Navon, A. & Sieger, M. (2000) "Pal Power: If friends are the gifts we give ourselves, it's good to be greedy. Hold on to the ones you've got -- and grab some more."
Time, Nov 13, 2000.
However, one can still see remnants of Morgan's ideals as globalization takes hold in developing nations. Although differences are tolerated, the "westernization" of the rest of the world is still a growing reality. One need look no further than modern business attire to see that western ideals are quickly replacing traditional modes of dress and modes of doing business. Morgan's work makes the modern anthropologist aware that "globalization" may be a soft sell for "westernization."
Fried, Morton H. 1960. On the Evolution of Social Stratification and the State. In Anthropological Theory: An Introductory Theory. Fourth Edition. R. McGee and Richard Warms. McGraw Hill.
Fried explored the development of social stratification, as opposed to a non-ranked society. His primary purpose was to explore the reasons for changes in society that lead to changes in social structure. He compared simple forms of social organization to more complex ones. Fried explored…
Bowling Alone Putnam; School Ties, Space, and esilience by Carpenter; and Globalization of Disaster: Trends, Problems and Dilemmas by Alexander. I chose these articles because each in its own way deals with the problem of community and change. Bowling Alone focuses on the impact of women in the workplace, family mobility and changing demographics on declining civic society. School Ties examines the effect that social networks and built environments have on one another. Globalization of Disaster looks at an entire global community that has been changed by rapid technological advancements in communications, travel, and commerce. The idea of resilience offered by School Ties is helpful in addressing the problematic issues identified both by "Bowling Alone" and Globalization of Disaster and in this reflection paper I will show how the concept can be applied.
Bowling Alone was a very interesting read because it identifies the disintegration of the stable, social family…
Alexander, D. (2006). Globalization of Disaster: Trends, Problem and Dilemmas.
Journal of International Affairs, 59(2): 1-22.
Carpenter, A. (2013). Social Ties, Space, and Resilience. Community and Economic
Development Discussion Paper, 2(13): 1-21.
Economic, Political, and Social History
African American culture arose out of the turmoil and despair of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. From West African port towns to plantations, African American culture is unique in that it was forged under the pressure of bondage. People with different cultures and languages formed new identities relative to their subordinate social, economic, and political status—their culture therefore being in part defined by the experience of oppression and the determination to overcome it. Bereft of social, political, or economic independence for centuries, African American culture nevertheless emerged as organically as any other, but flourished especially after emancipation.
Yet the economic history of African American culture cannot be divorced from the human capital model of slavery. The Emancipation Proclamation laid the first foundation stones for African American economic, political, and social empowerment but Reconstruction failed to fulfill the objective of genuine liberation (DuBois, 1994). African Americans in…
(Added value from associate degree 2003)
Indeed, in addition to gaining access to jobs in corporate America, college graduates also have other advantages over non-graduates. The most obvious advantage is upward mobility. College graduates have a higher lifetime earnings than non-graduates. As a result graduates also have a better quality of life than non-graduates do.
Post Secondary education is also important later in life. An article found in the journal Social Work esearch, explains that the attainment of a college degree it especially significant with women during pre-retirement (Pandey and Zhan 2002). The article asserts that having a college degree can help in solidifying a woman's well being after retirement (Pandey and Zhan 2002). The author explains that this is significant because retired women are twice as likely as retired men to live in poverty (Pandey and Zhan 2002).
The article contends that, "Economic well-being after retirement is determined largely…
Added Value from Associate Degree. (2003). Monthly Labor Review, 126(4), 2.
Boesel, D. (2001). The College Movement and Its Critics. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(7), 537.
S. And that, as much as anything else, has allowed the U.S. To fall behind other nations in upward mobility of the population.
Foroohar also suggests that some European nations (such as Germany) responded better to the recent economic crisis than the U.S., such as by artificially preventing unemployment rates from rising by subsidizing companies to retain them through hard times. As a result, consumer spending did not drop of the way it has in the U.S., resulting in a cycle of decreasing demand and increasing unemployment predicted by traditional macroeconomic principles. Finally, Foroohar points to the more equitable and les complicated tax codes in European nations that omit corporate tax loopholes and reduce the pressures that have resulted in the loss of upward socioeconomic mobility in the U.S.
ana Foroohar's article highlights the manner in which recent trends in American society have demonstrated classic macroeconomic principles in…
Foroohar, R. "What Ever Happened to Upward Mobility?" Time, Vol. 178, No. 19 (2011):
There are several examples of Japan struggling with the social impacts of globalization. ecent scholarly and media coverage has highlighted some of these impacts, and they all seem to be fairly negative. One of the major issues is that Japan had a closed culture, so it developed in a manner that allowed Japanese society to address all of its different issues. Globalization changed Japanese society, and this has led to a number of these issues going unaddressed.
Webster (2001) discusses how Japanese business culture has been impacted by the changes brought about by globalization. It is known that Japanese companies where among the early adopters in the mid-20th century of the multinational or international business model. As a result of this, they have gained significant experience, but that does not mean that there are not problems. Webster notes that many Japanese managers working overseas struggled with culture shock and…
Krever, N. (2013). Chance of China/Japan conflict growing, warns former Senate Department official. CNN. Retrieved March 19, 2014 from http://amanpour.blogs.cnn.com/2013/12/03/consequences-of-potential-japan-and-china-conflict-impossible-to-underestimate/
Sato, Y. & Arita, S. (2004). Impact of globalization on social mobility in Japan and Korea: Focusing on middle classes in fluid societies. International Journal of Japanese Sociology. Vol. 2004, 13, 36-52.
Webster, F. (2001). Globalization does not work on Japan. Japan Times. Retrieved March 19, 2014 from http://www.japantimes.co.jp/culture/2001/03/20/books/globalization-does-its-work-on-japan/#.UyqIJIWyo7c
This has also been suggested by the survey of Forbes (2012). When some people are overpaid and the majority is underpaid, it leads to economic and social disparity in the society. Social disparity results in an increase in the crime rate as people are frustrated by lack of opportunities and consider crime as the only means which can provide them with their basic necessities. Economic disparity deprives people to meet their basic needs as the prices increase when economy grows. But this growth is limited to the elites in the society and there is no regard for the middle and lower class communities. Both the factors are unhealthy for the prosperity of a society as a whole.
acism is another issue portrayed in the movie. Although there have been stringent regulations regarding racist remarks but research has shown that almost 51% Americans engage in abusive comments towards the black community…
Brazile, D. (2012). Brazile: Racism's tenacious hold on U.S. [Online] Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/11/01/opinion/brazile-race-sununu
Economist. (2010). Social Mobility and Inequality. [Online] Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://www.economist.com/node/15908469
Forbes. (2012). How Income Inequality is Damaging the U.S. [online] Retrieved March 19, 2013 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/frederickallen/2012/10/02/how-income-inequality-is-damaging-the-u-s/
Kramer, R.M., & Pittinsky, T.L. (2012). Restoring trust in organizations and leaders: Enduring challenges and emerging answers. New York: Oxford University Press.
If a person wishes to become a lawyer, rather than a farmer like his father, or if a person wants to move far away from his hometown and to start anew in a new city -- these dreams are only possible in societies with high degrees of social mobility. Social mobility allows for individual choice and creative thinking.
Free trade occurs when a government does not attempt to influence through quotas or duties what its citizens can buy from another country or what they can produce and sell to another country. Present and describe a current example.
An excellent example of unfettered free trade may be found in the current example of the European Community, where goods and services may pass unrestricted through borders. Free trade has been greatly beneficial to consumers and producers within the EU. The EU has become one of the most powerful economic entities in the…
In this regard, Frye notes that, "The social changes appeared most profoundly to the majority of citizens not in the statistics of gross national product or the growth of technological inventions but in the dramatic occupational changes that faced fathers and sons and mothers and daughters" (1999, p. 4).
The innovations in technology that followed the Industrial evolution also served to shift the emphasis on education for agricultural jobs to more skilled positions as demand for these workers increased (Frye, 1999). In other words, as American society changed, so too did the requirements for American education and the process can be seen to be mutually reinforcing and iterative by Frye's observations concerning the effects of these trends on U.S. society during this period in American history. In this regard, Frye notes that, "With the change in types and numbers of occupations and their focus in towns and cities, other elements…
Coffey, a. (2001). Education and social change. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Frye, J.H. (1999). The vision of the public junior college, 1900-1940: Professional goals and popular aspirations. New York: Greenwood Press.
Kaminsky, J.S. (1999). A new history of educational philosophy. Westport, CT: Greenwood
Income is less of an issue than profession in determining class status in my community. A professor who earns half or even a fourth of what a doctor makes would still be considered in a higher class than a plumber earning a similar income. Business executives, lawyers, doctors, and any other professional designation signals social status in my community. At the same time, students in my community who aspire to be professional athletes, artists or musicians also have a high social status. Athletes are artists are lauded in popular culture and individuals who pursue paths like those are considered to be non-conformists. Being non-conformist is a source of social clout: a way of telling other young people that we are free thinkers and therefore capable of changing the world.
I am happy with my status within my community. As a member of a dominant social group, I am aware of…
As a final chapter, this is a good culmination of the supporting points the author uses throughout her work.
In every book chapter, the author provides compelling evidence for the various ways in which medicine is used to accomplish not only physical health goals, but also economic and social ones. Each individual uses the medical direction he or she deems to be most appropriate to his or her specific social and economic concerns. At the start of the book, for example, the Western doctor and his medicine were used to get closer to the Methodist church leader and potential membership in this church. Although I do feel the book makes its point well, I do not believe that medical systems really merits their status as primary vehicle towards secondary goals. Instead, there is an entire networks of primary and secondary resources to accomplish both. I feel the book could have…
Crandon-Malamud, L. (1991). From the Fat of Our Souls: Social change, Political Process, and Medical Pluralism in Bolivia. The Regents of the University of California.
policies that UK government could implement or change current policies to aid social mobility.
Starting during the era of the late Margaret Thatcher's rule and proceeding into present day, the United Kingdom has struggled with the startling realities of socioeconomic inequality. In particular, far too many Britons have struggled with the incapacity to remove themselves from suffocating economic circumstances. This is all too common a reality in former industrial hubs now blighted by empty factories and unemployment. However, one policy that could significantly improve social mobility for Britons is emerging from the office of the Deputy Prime Minister.
The source provided by the Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg (2012) refers to a program called "Opening Doors, Breaking Barriers." This strategy recognizes that so many factors impacting an individual during childhood, early adulthood and family planning can have an impact on social status in perpetuity. This is why the initiative in…
Clegg, N. (2012). Opening Doors, Breaking Barriers: A Strategy for Social Mobility. Deputy Prime Minister.
Countries Quest. (2012). People and Society, Social Structure. Countriesquest.com.
Constructive attitudes towards work, leisure, time and change, set apart organizational models of attainment and enthusiasm, individualism as well as realization of self, and being humanistic as well as helpful that result in constructive culture that urges communications with individuals and strategies to assignments which will allow the employees to fulfill satisfaction needs of a higher plane and would bring about changes. (Aarons; Sawitzky, 2006)
As opposed to this, defensive attitudes to work, leisure and time are typified by looking for support and unanimity, being traditional and compliant, and being reliable and submissive that result in defensive culture. Defensive cultures support or completely need communication with individuals in manners that will not endanger individual safety and will not lead to changes. (Aarons; Sawitzky, 2006) Further, family, social mobility and religion are especially more vibrant that show conventional model of ancestry following and notions of family structure, as also modifications ushered…
Aarons, Gregory a; Sawitzky, Angelina C. (February, 2006) "Organizational Culture and Climate and Mental Health Provider Attitudes toward Evidence-Based Practice" Psychological Services. Vol. 3, no. 1, pp: 61-72.
Al-Nakeeb, Basil. (18 August, 2003) "Political Stability and Iraq's Privatization Strategy"
Middle East Economic Survey. Vol. XLVI, no. 33, pp: 17-20
Culture and Non-Verbal Communication" (n.d.) Retrieved 4 February, 2007 at http://www.cba.uni.edu/buscomm/nonverbal/Culture.htm
Living in the Industrial (21st Century) Society
One of the most revolutionary events and changes that happened in all of the world's societies is the emergence of the Industrial Revolution during the turn of the 21st century. During this period, human civilization moved from a communal form of living to a highly-industrialized society, wherein commodities and the needs of people became readily available in quantity because of the invention of machineries and the process of mass production. With the growth and development that the Industrial Revolution has brought to the world societies, many people have lived in what now we call as the 'capitalist societies,' and the backbone of most people's living and income comes from the rule of economics and providing people with the means to acquire their wants and needs. This, perhaps, is the most important characteristic that the Industrial or Capitalist society brought to human civilization, that…
Higuchi Ichiyo's novella Takekurabe, alternately translated as Growing Up or Child's Play, follows the lives of three children growing up near the "licensed quarter" of Yoshiwara, meaning the area of Tokyo where prostitution was legalized and regulated (Ichiyo 70). The story charts the gradual transition from childhood into adulthood during a period of rapid change in Japanese history and culture. The Meiji period represented the first emergence of a truly unified Japan out of the feudal states of the past, and the young lives of Midori, Nobu, Shota, and Chokichi feature a vitality and excitement that reflects this hope for the promise of change and growth. However, as they get older, they gradually realize that ossified social structures of Japanese classes and professions remain even as the country changes on a larger scale, such that they end up following in the footsteps of their families rather than charting their own…
Ichiyo, Higuchi. "Growing Up." Ed. Donald Keene, Modern Japanese Literature. New York:
Grove Press, 1956.
These newspapers continuously wrote that there is no essential conflict between labor class (referring to wage earners) and the capitalists and that each should not suspect the other in the development of America.
outhern slave society: An essential conflict with free labor social order
There were many distinctions in the Northern and outhern economic and social outlook of America. There were conflicting ideologies being pursued in these regions and the economic progress of Northern region was associated to the free enterprising class known as the middle class. The class thrived in the Northern region by investing in their own businesses, small and large. On the contrary, outhern society was based on slavery system. The Northerners demanded that the slavery of fugitives' slaves shall be abolished and free soil in the west was to be enforced. The essential elements that divided the Northerners and outherners were the matter of slavery. The…
Such deep was the issue of slavery that it broke down the part of Whigs during 1850s and led Republicans to replace them as a symbol of hope, prosperity, and economic progress. The main reason of elimination of Whigs from national scene was their persistence to support the slave system in south whereas its own leaders were not willing to support such oppressive practice while rest of Americas strived for economic progress. Such diverse and conflicting was the issue of slavery and the difference in Southern and Northern concepts of economic progress that 'The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854' nearly destroyed two political parties, Whigs were totally eliminated from political scene and Democrats saw their party divided on sensational lines. W.C. Pennington quoted that the slavery impacted each and every aspect of economic and thus the social life of African-Americans. He said "the being of slavery, its, and its body, lives and moves in the chattel principle, the property principle, and the bill of sale principle" (Henretta, Edwards & Self, 358). The domestic slave trade was considered to be absolutely what Republicans essentially wanted to abolish in figurative sense as well. The Republicans held the view that "Free labor meant independence from wage earning with fixed salaries, if northern person is wage earning and dependent for whole life, he is no different from southern slave" (Foner, 15). Thus, the Republican viewed dependence of a northern on the wages for whole of his life as being equal to the status of a southern slave. This figurative explanation indicates that the southern way of life and economic conduct was fundamentally conflicting with that of Republican's notion of free labor and enterprise, let alone being inconsistent with Republican ideology.
The Republican concept of free labor, as described by Zachariah Chandler, meant "that a young man goes out for service, for labor by wages and earns enough money to start his own farm and becomes employer of labor." Thus, it was contradictory to the oppressive and conservative notions of labor held by the southern slave owners. The progress of American society, according the Republican perspective, lay in the enterprising and middle class men who strived for better economic prospects. The practices of slavery and such oppressive social and economic systems were opposed to the very concept of economic justice that was held by Northerners.
Resurrection of the American Dream
The American Dream is a concept that has been a part of American culture for many decades. The American Dream is a deeply held conviction that an individual can reach his or her fullest potential if they apply themselves appropriately. This concept is built on the idea that there are no limiting conditions that can keep someone from fulfilling their potential such as age, race, sex, disabilities, or other factors that are beyond an individual's control. The idea is centered on the concept that there exists the opportunity for social mobility that can be achieved through the application of one's efforts.
Through hard work and determination an American has the potential to improve their circumstances at all times. However, the vitality of the American Dream has been compromised in recent decades with many macroeconomic developments that have negatively impacted the economic opportunities for Americans. Furthermore,…
Adams, J. The Epic of America. Simon Publications, 1933. EBook.
Asensio, A. And D. Lang. "The Financial Crisis, Its Economic Consequences, and How to Get Out of It." International Journal of Political Economy (2010): 58-69. Web.
Focardi, S. And F. Fabozzi. "The Resonable Effectiveness of Mathmatics in Economics." American Economist (2010): 19-30.
Lal, D. "The Great Crash of 2008: Cause and Consequences." Cato Journal (2012): 265-277. Web.
Paul Haggis's 2005 drama Crash is a vehicle for exploring social tensions in the United States. Although a huge portion of the film is devoted to race relations, prejudices, and stereotypes, an important meta-narrative also permeates Crash. That is, the film subverts the traditional Hollywood norm to "present working people not only as unlettered and uncouth but also as less desirable and less moral than other people," as Parenti puts it (1). Instead of depicting the members of the middle, upper-middle, and upper classes as being morally, intellectually, and socially superior to those of lower classes, Haggis presents a world in which all people are equally as culpable of creating a dystopian society in America. Each of the characters in Crash is besieged by stereotypes and prejudices that prevent a genuine encounter with others in the multicultural landscape of Los Angeles. Moreover, race is a tag for underclass, and…
Haggis, Paul. Crash. Feature Film, 2004.
Holmes, David G. "Paul Haggis's Crash The Civil Rights Movement According to Crash: Complicating the Pedagogy of Integration." College English. Vol. 69, No. 4, p. 314-320.
Middleton, Joyce Irene. "Talking About Race and Whiteness in Crash." College English. Vol. 69, No. 4, p. 321-334.
Parenti, Michael. "Class and Virtue." 1994. Excerpt: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~DRBR/parenti.html